WorldWideScience

Sample records for model plant description

  1. CRAC2 model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  2. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANNOTATION SCHEME FOR STANDARDIZED DESCRIPTION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN THE FIELD OF PLANT PROTECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T; Büttner, C; Käsbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models on properties and behavior of harmful organisms in the food chain are an increas- ingly relevant approach of the agriculture and food industry. As a consequence, there are many efforts to develop biological models in science, economics and risk assessment nowadays. However, there is a lack of international harmonized standards on model annotation and model formats, which would be neces- sary to set up efficient tools supporting broad model application and information exchange. There are some established standards in the field of systems biology, but there is currently no corresponding provi- sion in the area of plant protection. This work therefore aimed at the development of an annotation scheme using domain-specific metadata. The proposed scheme has been validated in a prototype implementation of a web-database model repository. This prototypic community resource currently contains models on aflatoxin secreting fungal Aspergillus flavus in maize, as these models have a high relevance to food safety and economic impact. Specifically, models describing biological processes of the fungus (growth, Aflatoxin secreting), as well as dose-response- and carry over models were included. Furthermore, phenological models for maize were integrated as well. The developed annotation scheme is based on the well-established data exchange format SBML, which is broadly applied in the field of systems biology. The identified example models were annotated according to the developed scheme and entered into a Web-table (Google Sheets), which was transferred to a web based demonstrator available at https://sites.google.com/site/test782726372685/. By implementation of a software demonstrator it became clear that the proposed annotation scheme can be applied to models on plant pathogens and that broad adoption within the domain could promote communication and application of mathematical models.

  4. 27 CFR 19.168 - Description of plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description of plant. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.168 Description of plant. (a) The application for registration shall include a description of...

  5. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  6. 850/sup 0/C VHTR plant technical description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an 842-MW(t) process heat very high temperature reactor (VHTR) plant having a core outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C (1562/sup 0/F). The reactor is a variation of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant concept. The report includes a description of the nuclear heat source (NHS) and of the balance of reactor plant (BORP) requirements. The design of the associated chemical process plant is not covered in this report. The reactor design is similar to a previously reported VHTR design having a 950/sup 0/C (1742/sup 0/F) core outlet temperature.

  7. An empirical model of net photosynthesis for the desert plant Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin : I. Description and test of the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E -D; Lange, O L; Evenari, M; Kappen, L; Buschbom, U

    1976-12-01

    An empirical model for describing daily courses of net photosynthesis in Hammada scoparia is being developed. The model is based on the functional relationships, by which various environmental factors affect the photosynthetic activity and which can be measured by experiment in the field. In a sequence of steady-states daily courses of net photosynthesis are predicted during a growing season considering the variability of the physiological states and the capacity for regulative adaptations. The rate of net photosynthesis at a certain date is calculated from the maximal rate of CO2 uptake being expected at that season and from the effects of light, temperature, and air humidity which are scaled from 0 to 1. All factors are connected multiplicatively. The light function accounts for the seasonal changes in the light curve, the temperature function is based on the seasonal shift of the temperature optimum, and the humidity function considers the increasing sensitivity of the stomatal humidity response at increasing water stress. The model is built to be a submodel of a general ecosystem model, where various other submodels (i.e. water stress model, phenology model) are supplied. The present model is tested by predicting daily courses at extreme climatic conditions during the year and by comparing the predicted values of gas exchange with values being measured in an independent experimental procedure. The result shows that the model is able to simulate the natural behaviour of Hammada scoparia during the growing and dry season of a desert habitat. The problems of incorporating the influence of water stress, the interaction of the various factors, and the phenological aspect of the photosynthetic activity is being discussed.

  8. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  9. Plant development models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuine, I.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Kramer, K.; Hänninen, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a brief overview of plant phenology modeling, focusing on mechanistic phenological models. After a brief history of plant phenology modeling, we present the different models which have been described in the literature so far and highlight the main differences between them,

  10. Towards reproducible descriptions of neuronal network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilen Nordlie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in science depends on the effective exchange of ideas among scientists. New ideas can be assessed and criticized in a meaningful manner only if they are formulated precisely. This applies to simulation studies as well as to experiments and theories. But after more than 50 years of neuronal network simulations, we still lack a clear and common understanding of the role of computational models in neuroscience as well as established practices for describing network models in publications. This hinders the critical evaluation of network models as well as their re-use. We analyze here 14 research papers proposing neuronal network models of different complexity and find widely varying approaches to model descriptions, with regard to both the means of description and the ordering and placement of material. We further observe great variation in the graphical representation of networks and the notation used in equations. Based on our observations, we propose a good model description practice, composed of guidelines for the organization of publications, a checklist for model descriptions, templates for tables presenting model structure, and guidelines for diagrams of networks. The main purpose of this good practice is to trigger a debate about the communication of neuronal network models in a manner comprehensible to humans, as opposed to machine-readable model description languages. We believe that the good model description practice proposed here, together with a number of other recent initiatives on data-, model-, and software-sharing, may lead to a deeper and more fruitful exchange of ideas among computational neuroscientists in years to come. We further hope that work on standardized ways of describing--and thinking about--complex neuronal networks will lead the scientific community to a clearer understanding of high-level concepts in network dynamics, and will thus lead to deeper insights into the function of the brain.

  11. Multiplicity description by gluon model

    CERN Document Server

    Kokoulina, E S

    2015-01-01

    Study of high multiplicity events in proton-proton interactions is carried out at the U-70 accelerator (IHEP, Protvino). These events are extremely rare. Usually, Monte Carlo codes underestimate topological cross sections in this region. The gluon dominance model (GDM) was offered to describe them. It is based on QCD and a phenomenological scheme of a hadronization stage. This model indicates a recombination mechanism of hadronization and a gluon fission. Future program of the SVD Collaboration is aimed at studying a long-standing puzzle of excess soft photon yield and its connection with high multiplicity at the U-70 and Nuclotron facility at JINR, Dubna.

  12. Dynamic description logic model for data integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoshun HAO; Shilong MA; Yuefei SUI; Jianghua LV

    2008-01-01

    Data integration is the issue of retrieving and combining data residing at distributed and heterogeneous sources,and of providing users with transparent access without being aware of the details of the sources.Data integration is a very important issue because it deals with data infrastructure issues of coordinated computing systems.Despite its importance,the following key challenges make data integration one of the longest standing problems around:1) how to solve the system heterogeneity;2) how to build a global model;3) how to process queries automatically and correctly;and 4) how to solve semantic heterogeneity. This paper presents an extended dynamic description logic language to describe systems with dynamic actions.By this language,a-universal and unified model for relational database systems and a model for data integration are presented.This paper presents a universal and unified description logic model for relational databases.The model is universal because any relational database system can be automatically transformed to the model;it is unified because it integrates three essential components of relational databases together:description logic knowledge bases modeling the relational data,atomic modalities modeling the atomic relational operations,and combined modalities modeling the combined relational operations-queries. Furthermore,a description logic model for data integration is proposed which contains four layers of ontologies.Based on the model,a solution for each key challenge is proposed:a universal model eliminates system heterogeneity;a novel global model including three ontologies is proposed with some important benefits;a query process mechanism is provided by which user queries can be decomposed to queries over the sources;and for solving the semantic heterogeneity,this paper provides a framework under which semantic relations can be expressed and inferred. In summary,this paper presents a dynamic knowledge base framework by an extended

  13. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  14. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  15. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  16. Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Sten [WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden); Selroos, Jan-Olof [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive

  17. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  18. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  19. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science

  20. Modelling Imprecise Arguments in Description Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIA, I. A.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Real arguments are a mixture of fuzzy linguistic variables and ontological knowledge. This paper focuses on modelling imprecise arguments in order to obtain a better interleaving of human and software agents argumentation, which might be proved useful for extending the number of real life argumentative-based applications. We propose Fuzzy Description Logic as the adequate technical instrumentation for filling the gap between human arguments and software agents arguments. A proof of concept scenario has been tested with the fuzzyDL reasoner.

  1. Model Description of TASS/SMR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. D.; Yang, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. W.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, H. Y.; Lee, G. H.; Bae, K. H.; Chung, Y. J

    2005-12-15

    TASS/SMR(Transient And Setpoint Simulation/System-integrated Modular Reactor) code has been developed for the safety analysis of the SMART-P reactor. TASS/SMR code can be applied for the analysis of design base accidents including small break loss of coolant accident of the SMART research reactor. TASS/SMR code models the primary and secondary system using a node and flow path. A node represents the control volume which defines the fluid mass and energy. Flow path connects the nodes to define the momentum of the fluid. The mass and energy conservation equations are applied to the node and the momentum conservation equation applied to the flow path. In TASS/SMR, the governing equations are applied for both the primary and the secondary coolant system and are solved simultaneously. The governing equations of TASS/SMR are based on the drift-flux model so that the accidents or transients accompanying with two-phase flow can be analyzed. Also, the SMART-P reactor specific thermal-hydraulic models are incorporated, such as non-condensable gas model, helical steam generator heat transfer model, and passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) heat transfer model. This technical report describes the governing equations, solution method, thermal hydraulics, reactor core, control system models used in TASS/SMR code. Also, the description for the steady state simulation, the minimum CHFR and hottest fuel temperature calculation methods are described in this report.

  2. Models of plant populations and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, M.

    1990-01-01

    This document is the overview of the plant section in the book, {und Individual-Based Models and Approaches in Ecology}. A brief description of each of the chapters is provided, as well as a comparison of the models presented in each chapter. Four of the six chapters deal with single species interactions, one dealt with a two species system (plants and pollinators) and one deals with multispecies interactions. Both i-state distribution models and i-state configuration models are discussed. (MHB)

  3. Constituent quark model description of charmonium phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, J; Fernandez, F; Hernandez, E

    2013-01-01

    We review how quark models are able to describe the phenomenology of the charm meson sector. The spectroscopy and decays of charmonium and open charm mesons are described in a particular quark model and compared with the data and the results of other existing models in the literature. A quite reasonable global description of the heavy meson spectra is reached. A new assignment of the $\\psi(4415)$ resonance as a 3D state leaving aside the 4S state to the X(4360) is tested through the analysis of the resonance structure in $e^{+}e^{-}$ exclusive reactions around the $\\psi(4415)$ energy region. We make tentative assignments of some of the $XYZ$ mesons. To elucidate the structure of the $1^{+}$ $c\\bar{s}$ states, i.e. $D_{s1}(2460)$ and $D_{s1}(2536)$, we study the strong decay properties of the $D_{s1}(2536)$ meson. We also perform a calculation of the branching fractions for the semileptonic decays of $B$ and $B_{s}$ mesons into final states containing orbitally excited charmed and charmed-strange mesons, which...

  4. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.

  5. San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model: Detailed model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-03-01

    The San Joaquin - Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was originally developed for the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program to evaluate possible scenarios for long-term management of drainage and drainage - related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. A unique aspect of this model is its coupling of a surface water delivery and reservoir operations model with a regional groundwater model. The model also performs salinity balances along the tributaries and along the main stem of the San Joaquin River to allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. This document is a detailed description of the various subroutines, variables and parameters used in the model.

  6. Hydrogen energy demonstration plant in Patagonia: Description and safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Jose Luis [CNEA (Argentine Atomic Energy Commission), AAH, IRAM, Comahue University, CC 805, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen safety issues and especially hydrogen hazard's address are key points to remove any safety-related barrier in the implementation process of hydrogen energy systems. Demonstrative systems based on hydrogen technologies represent a clear contribution to the task of showing the feasibility of the new technologies and their beneficial capabilities among the public. In this paper, the safety features of the first hydrogen energy demonstrative plant conceived in Latin America are analyzed. The facilities, located in the village of Pico Truncado, Patagonia, Argentina, serve to gain day-to-day experience in the production, storage, distribution, conversion and use of hydrogen in several applications. The plant uses electrolysis to generate pure hydrogen from renewable primary sources, taking advantage of the installed wind power capacity that is continually growing in the region. The installations were designed to accomplish with two primary objectives: total safety assurance and minimization of human errors. Some details of the plant, including a general layout, are presented here, in addition with design criteria, hydrogen hazards, structural precautions, gas monitoring system, existing regulations and safety requirements. (author)

  7. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  8. Diffusive description of lattice gas models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Jensen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    in time. We have numerically investigated the power spectrum of the density fluctuations, the lifetime distribution, and the spatial correlation function. We discuss the appropriate Langevin-like diffusion equation which can reproduce our numerical findings. Our conclusion is that the deterministic...... lattice gases are described by a diffusion equation without any bulk noise. The open lattice gas exhibits a crossover behavior as the probability for introducing particles at the edge of the system becomes small. The power spectrum changes from a 1/f to a 1/f2 spectrum. The diffusive description, proven...

  9. Generic-Model-Based Description Scheme for MPEG-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Juan; Tan Hut; Chen Xin-meng

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new description scheme for MPEG7-: Generic-model-based Description Scheme to describe contents of audio, video, text and other sorts of multimedia.It uses a generic model as the description frame, which provides a simple but useful object-based structure. The main components of the description scheme are generic model, objects and object fcatures. The proposed description scheme is illustrated and exemplified by Extensible Markup Language.It aims at clarity and flexibility to support MPEG-7 applications such as query and edit. We demonstrate its feasibility and efficiency by presenting applications: Digital Broadcasting and Edit System (DEBS) and Non-linear Edit System (NLES) that already used the generic structure or will greatly benefit from it.

  10. Application of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model to Ecological Site Descriptions and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...

  11. Adding Curvature to Minimum Description Length Shape Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling seeks a compact description of a set of shapes in terms of the coordinates of marks on the shapes. It has been shown that the mark positions resulting from this optimisation to a large extent solve the so-called point correspondence...

  12. Modeling plants with sensor data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei; XIANG Bo; ZHA HongBin; LIU Jia; ZHANG XiaoPeng

    2009-01-01

    Sensor data,typically images and laser data,are essential to modeling real plants.However,due to the complex geometry of the plants,the measurement data are generally limited,thereby bringing great difficulties in classifying and constructing plant organs,comprising leaves and branches.The paper presents an approach to modeling plants with the sensor data by detecting reliable sharp features,i.e.the leaf apexes of the plants with leaves and the branch tips of the plants without leaves,on volumes recovered from the raw data.The extracted features provide good estimations of correct positions of the organs.Thereafter,the leaves are reconstructed separately by simply fitting and optimizing a generic leaf model.One advantage of the method is that it involves limited manual intervention.For plants without leaves,we develop an efficient strategy for decomposition-based skeletonization by using the tip features to reconstruct the 3D models from noisy laser data.Experiments show that the sharp feature detection algorithm is effective,and the proposed plant modeling approach is competent in constructing realistic models with sensor data.

  13. Technical Description Lillgrund Wind Power Plant. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppsson, Joakim; Larsen, Poul Erik; Larsson, Aake (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Lillgrund offshore wind power plant comprises 48 wind turbines, each rated at 2.3 MW, bringing the total wind farm capacity to 110 MW. The Lillgrund offshore wind power plant is located in a shallow area of Oeresund, 7 km off the coast of Sweden and 7 km south from the Oeresund Bridge connecting Sweden and Denmark. An average wind speed of around 8,5 m/s at hub height, combined with a relatively low water depth of 4 to 8 meters makes it economically feasible to build here. Vattenfall Vindkraft AB is the owner and operator of Lillgrund offshore wind power plant. Lillgrund is a Swedish pilot project supported by the Swedish Energy Agency. The bidding process was completed during 2005 and the offshore power plant was constructed in the period 2006 to 2007. The wind farm was constructed on time and has now been successfully operational since December 2007. There is, however, always potential for improvement and the aim of this report has been to determine and highlight these areas. It is worth noting out that only the electrical system and the foundations are tailor made at offshore wind power plants. The wind turbines are more or less standard products with none or very limited possibilities for project specific design changes. Geotechnical investigations are expensive and it can be difficult to balance the risks as well as the benefits of this expense in the early phases of a large infrastructure project. As a whole, the geotechnical surveys at Lillgrund proved to be useful. They identified potential issues, such as the fact that extra excavation was required for two of the foundations. It also revealed the location of a small number of boulders that would have to be removed. Vattenfall requested a complete study of the electrical system for Lillgrund to be delivered with the bids. That request was not met. Instead Siemens Wind Power began a complete electrical system study after being awarded the Contract. The electrical system study was completed during the

  14. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  15. Plant innate immunity multicomponent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eAndolfo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of plant–pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defence mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defence response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defence system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant’s ability to distinguish the feeding behaviour of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defence against the different behaviours of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area.

  16. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu

    2003-03-13

    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  17. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. ...... claim that both sections, Sects. 2–3, contribute to a methodology of software engineering.......We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. We...

  18. Transitional Description of Diatomic Molecules in U(4) Vibron Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; PAN Feng

    2004-01-01

    U(3)-O(4) transitional description of diatomic molecules in the U(4) vibron model is studied by using the algebraic Bethe ansatz, in which the O(4) limit is a special case of the theory. Vibrational band-heads of some typical diatornic molecules are fitted by both transitional theory and the O(4) limit within the same framework. The results show that there are evident deviations from the O(4) limit in description of vibrational spectra of some diatomic molecules.

  19. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  20. Modeling golden section in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  1. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...

  2. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...... systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding based...

  3. The study of prescriptive and descriptive models of decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Divekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of decision making can be loosely divided into two parts: the study of prescriptive models and the study of descriptive models. Prescriptive decision scientists are concerned with prescribing methods for making optimal decisions. Descriptive decision researchers are concerned with the bounded way in which the decisions are actually made. The statistics courses treat risk from a prescriptive, by suggesting rational methods. This paper brings out the work done by many researchers by examining the psychological factors that explain how managers deviate from rationality in responding to uncertainty.

  4. Modeling of solar polygeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Roberto; Escobar, Rodrigo; Cardemil, José

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a exergoeconomic analysis of the joint production of electricity, fresh water, cooling and process heat for a simulated concentrated solar power (CSP) based on parabolic trough collector (PTC) with thermal energy storage (TES) and backup energy system (BS), a multi-effect distillation (MED) module, a refrigeration absorption module, and process heat module is carried out. Polygeneration plant is simulated in northern Chile in Crucero with a yearly total DNI of 3,389 kWh/m2/year. The methodology includes designing and modeling a polygeneration plant and applying exergoeconomic evaluations and calculating levelized cost. Solar polygeneration plant is simulated hourly, in a typical meteorological year, for different solar multiple and hour of storage. This study reveals that the total exergy cost rate of products (sum of exergy cost rate of electricity, water, cooling and heat process) is an alternative method to optimize a solar polygeneration plant.

  5. Web Service Description and Discovery Based on Semantic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuemei; XU Lizhen; DONG Yisheng; WANG Yongli

    2006-01-01

    A novel semantic model of Web service description and discovery was proposed through an extension for profile model of Web ontology language for services (OWL-S) in this paper.Similarity matching of Web services was implemented through computing weighted summation of semantic similarity value based on specific domain ontology and dynamical satisfy extent evaluation for quality of service (QoS).Experiments show that the provided semantic matching model is efficient.

  6. How important are the descriptions of vegetation in distributed hydrologic models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Zink, Matthias; Rakovec, Oldrich; Samaniego, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The land surface transforms incoming, absorbed radiation into other energy forms and radiation with longer wavelengths. The land surface emits long-wave radiation, stores energy in the soil, the biomass and the air in the boundary layer, and exchanges sensible and latent heat with the atmosphere. The latter, latent heat consists of evaporation from the soil and canopy and transpiration by plants. Plants enhance in this picture the absorption of incoming radiation and decrease the resistance for evaporation of deeper soil water. Transpiration by plants is therefore either energy-limited by low incoming radiation or water-limited by small soil moisture. In the extreme cases, all available energy will be used for evapotranspiration in cold regions and all available water will be used for evapotranspiration in arid regions. Very simple formulations of latent heat, which include plant processes only very indirectly, work well in hydrologic models for these limiting cases. These simple formulations seem to work also surprisingly well in temperate regions. Hydrologic models have, however, considerable problems in semi-arid regions where the vegetation influence on latent heat should be largest. But the models have to deal with much more problems in these regions. For example data scarcity in the Mediterranean leads to very large model uncertainty due to the forcing data. Water supply is also often very regulated in semi-arid regions. Variability in river discharge can hence be largely driven by the anthropogenic influence rather than natural meteorological variations in these regions. Here we will show for Europe the areas and times when the descriptions of plant processes are important for hydrologic models. We will compare differences in model uncertainties that come from 1. different formulations of evapotranspiration, 2. different descriptions of soil-plant interactions, and 3. uncertainty in the model's input data. It can be seen that model uncertainty stemming from

  7. Modelling soil-plant-atmosphere interactions by coupling the regional weather model WRF to mechanistic plant models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Priesack, E.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change causes altering distributions of meteorological factors influencing plant growth and its interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Recent studies show, that uncertainties in regional and global climate simulations are also caused by lacking descriptions of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Therefore, we couple a mechanistic soil-plant model to a regional climate and forecast model. The detailed simulation of the water and energy exchanges, especially the transpiration of grassland and forests stands, are the key features of the modelling framework. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) (Skamarock 2008) is an open source mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. The WRF model was modified in a way, to either choose its native, static land surface model NOAH or the mechanistic eco-system model Expert-N 5.0 individually for every single grid point within the simulation domain. The Expert-N 5.0 modelling framework provides a highly modular structure, enabling the development and use of a large variety of different plant and soil models, including heat transfer, nitrogen uptake/turnover/transport as well as water uptake/transport and crop management. To represent the key landuse types grassland and forest, we selected two mechanistic plant models: The Hurley Pasture model (Thornley 1998) and a modified TREEDYN3 forest simulation model (Bossel 1996). The models simulate plant growth, water, nitrogen and carbon flows for grassland and forest stands. A mosaic approach enables Expert-N to use high resolution land use data e.g. CORINE Land Cover data (CLC, 2006) for the simulation, making it possible to simulate different land use distributions within a single grid cell. The coupling results are analyzed for plausibility and compared with the results of the default land surface model NOAH (Fei Chen and Jimy Dudhia 2010). We show differences between the mechanistic and the static model coupling, with focus on the feedback effects

  8. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  9. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, molecular genetic studies and the completion of the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome have increased knowledge of hormonal regulation in plants. These signal transduction pathways act in concert through gene regulatory and signalling networks whose main components have begun to be elucidated. Our understanding of the resulting cellular processes is hindered by the complex, and sometimes counter-intuitive, dynamics of the networks, which may be interconnected through feedback controls and cross-regulation. Mathematical modelling provides a valuable tool to investigate such dynamics and to perform in silico experiments that may not be easily carried out in a laboratory. In this article, we firstly review general methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more comprehensive modelling studies of hormonal transport and signalling in a multi-scale setting. © EDP Sciences, 2013.

  10. Modeling and dynamic behaviour of hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Kishor, Nand

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to mathematical modeling of different configurations of hydropower plants over four sections - modeling and simulation approaches; control of hydropower plants; operation and scheduling of hydropower plants, including pumped storage; and special features of small hydropower plants.

  11. Modelling meristem development in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Heisler, Marcus G.; Jönsson, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Meristems continually supply new cells for post-embryonic plant development and coordinate the initiation of new organs, such as leaves and flowers. Meristem function is regulated by a large and interconnected dynamic system that includes transcription networks, intercellular protein signalling, polarized transport of hormones and a constantly changing cellular topology. Mathematical modelling, in which the dynamics of a system are simulated using explicitly defined interactions, can serve as...

  12. Hydrodynamic description of spin Calogero-Sutherland model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanov, Alexander; Kulkarni, Manas; Franchini, Fabio

    2009-03-01

    We study a non-linear collective field theory for an integrable spin-Calogero-Sutherland model. The hydrodynamic description of this SU(2) model in terms of charge density, charge velocity and spin currents is used to study non-perturbative solutions (solitons) and examine their correspondence with known quantum numbers of elementary excitations [1]. A conventional linear bosonization or harmonic approximation is not sufficient to describe, for example, the physics of spin-charge (non)separation. Therefore, we need this new collective bosonic field description that captures the effects of the band curvature. In the strong coupling limit [2] this model reduces to integrable SU(2) Haldane-Shastry model. We study a non-linear coupling of left and right spin currents which form a Kac-Moody algebra. Our quantum hydrodynamic description for the spin case is an extension for the one found in the spinless version in [3].[3pt] [1] Y. Kato,T. Yamamoto, and M. Arikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1954-1961 (1997).[0pt] [2] A. Polychronakos, Phys Rev Lett. 70,2329-2331(1993).[0pt] [3] A.G.Abanov and P.B. Wiegmann, Phys Rev Lett 95, 076402(2005)

  13. Field Guide to Plant Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caren; Bowman, John L; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-10-06

    For the past several decades, advances in plant development, physiology, cell biology, and genetics have relied heavily on the model (or reference) plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis resembles other plants, including crop plants, in many but by no means all respects. Study of Arabidopsis alone provides little information on the evolutionary history of plants, evolutionary differences between species, plants that survive in different environments, or plants that access nutrients and photosynthesize differently. Empowered by the availability of large-scale sequencing and new technologies for investigating gene function, many new plant models are being proposed and studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, Markus Heinrich

    2013-10-25

    comprehensive requirements for the superposition of event sequences and failure combinations. For this reason, the synthesis of a description language, under consideration of the aforementioned challenges, is necessary; supplemented by a method utilising the description language for efficient engineering and I and C design analysis. Due to the abstraction of AutomationML as a meta-metamodel, it is utilised as the basis for the description language synthesis, however AutomationML also does not fulfil all target criteria. On one hand, the description language synthesis is based on the syntax of AutomationML, and on the other hand, the semantics are determined by the context of computer-based I and C in nuclear power plants and structured utilising the general product, function, and location structures of standard IEC 81346. When modelling I and C failure combinations in addition to event sequences, the description language is completed by an event structure, for which CDL is utilised for the conceptualisation and the formalisation is accomplished with PSL. The PSL formalisation allows for implementing the description language in a knowledge-based system, so that automated engineering is enabled. The I and C modelling, as part of the method, is embedded in the IEC 61513 I and C safety life-cycle and is realised in two steps. Consequently, the I and C design can be analysed at both plant and system level. For the I and C design analysis the concepts of the D3-analysis, FTA, ETA, and FMEA are combined. The thesis is concluded with an example applying the description language and method to the modernisation of a reactor protection system; this illustrates the validation of the overall concept developed in this thesis.

  15. BTZ black hole entropy: a spin foam model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Islas, J Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, A Postal 20-726, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: jmgislas@leibniz.iimas.unam.mx

    2008-12-21

    We present a microscopical explanation of the entropy of the BTZ black hole using discrete spin foam models of quantum gravity. The entropy of a black hole is given in geometrical terms which led us to think that its statistical description must be given in terms of a quantum geometry. In this paper we present it in terms of spin foam geometrical observables at the horizon of the black hole.

  16. Description of deformed nuclei in the sdg boson model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, S C

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of deformed nuclei in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model utilizing both numerical diagonalization and analytical 1/N expansion techniques. The focus is on description of high-spin states which have recently become computationally accessible through the use of computer algebra in the 1/N expansion formalism. A systematic study is made of high-spin states in rare-earth and actinide nuclei.

  17. Plant communities along the Eerste River, Western Cape, South Africa: Community descriptions and implications for restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton S. Meek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian plant communities fulfil many functions, including the provision of corridors linking protected areas and other zones of high conservation value. These habitats across much of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region, especially in the lowlands, have been heavily impacted and degraded by human activities. There is increasing interest in the restoration of degraded riparian zones and the ecosystem services they provide to enhance the conservation value of landscapes. Previous studies of riparian vegetation in the Cape Floristic Region focused on pristine headwater systems, and little is known about human-impacted communities that make up most of the riparian vegetation in downstream areas. More information is needed on the composition of these plant communities to establish a baseline for management intervention. The riparian zone of the Eerste River in South Africa’s Western Cape province provides a good opportunity to study the features of riparian vegetation along the entire gradient, from pristine vegetation in a protected area through different levels of human-mediated degradation. Riparian vegetation was surveyed in 150 plots along the entire length of the Eerste River (ca. 40 km. Data were analysed using the vegetation classification and analysis software package JUICE. Final groupings were plotted onto a two-dimensional detrended correspondence analysis plane to check the position of the communities in the reduced multidimensional space. Ten distinct plant communities were identified, including several novel communities dominated by alien plant species. Descriptions of each plant community are presented. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species are listed and the major structural and ecological characteristics of each community are described. Conservation implications: Major changes to hydrological and soil properties, nutrient dynamics and disturbance regimes and plant species composition along sections of the riparian zone

  18. Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

  19. Coherent description of transport across the water interface: From nanodroplets to climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Trinh, Thuat T.; Lervik, Anders; Badam, Vijay Kumar; Kjelstrup, Signe; Bedeaux, Dick

    2016-03-01

    Transport of mass and energy across the vapor-liquid interface of water is of central importance in a variety of contexts such as climate models, weather forecasts, and power plants. We provide a complete description of the transport properties of the vapor-liquid interface of water with the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Transport across the planar interface is then described by 3 interface transfer coefficients where 9 more coefficients extend the description to curved interfaces. We obtain all coefficients in the range 260-560 K by taking advantage of water evaporation experiments at low temperatures, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics with the TIP4P/2005 rigid-water-molecule model at high temperatures, and square gradient theory to represent the whole range. Square gradient theory is used to link the region where experiments are possible (low vapor pressures) to the region where nonequilibrium molecular dynamics can be done (high vapor pressures). This enables a description of transport across the planar water interface, interfaces of bubbles, and droplets, as well as interfaces of water structures with complex geometries. The results are likely to improve the description of evaporation and condensation of water at widely different scales; they open a route to improve the understanding of nanodroplets on a small scale and the precision of climate models on a large scale.

  20. Nonlocal quark model description of a composite Higgs particle

    CERN Document Server

    Kachanovich, Aliaksei

    2016-01-01

    We propose a description of the Higgs boson as top-antitop quark bound state within a nonlocal relativistic quark model of Nambu - Jona-Lasinio type. In contrast to model with local four-fermion interaction, the mass of the scalar bound state can be lighter than the sum of its constituents. This is achieved by adjusting the interaction range and the value of the coupling constant to experimental data, for both the top quark mass and the scalar Higgs boson mass, which can simultaneously be described.

  1. ISDTM:An Intrusion Signatures Description Temporal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OuYangMing-guang; ZhouYang-bo

    2003-01-01

    ISDTM, based on an augmented Allen's interval temporal logic (ITL) and first-order predicate calculus, is a formal temporal model for representing intrusion signatures.It is augmented with some real time extensions which enhance the expressivity. Intrusion scenarios usually are the set of events and system states, wherethe temporal sequence is their basic relation. Intrusion signatures description, therefore, is to represent such temporal relations in a sense. While representing these signatures, ISDTM decomposes the intrusion process into the sequence of events according to their relevant intervals, and then specifies network states in these Intervals. The uncertain intrusion signatures as well as basic temporal modes of events, which consist of the parallel mode,the sequential mode and the hybrid mode, can be succinctly and naturally represented in ISDTM. Mode chart is the visualization of intrusion signatures in ISDTM, which makes the formulas more readable. The intrusion signatures descriptions in ISDTM have advantages of compact construct, concise syntax, scalability and easy implementation.

  2. Predicate Argument Structure Analysis for Use Case Description Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nakamura, Taiga; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In a large software system development project, many documents are prepared and updated frequently. In such a situation, support is needed for looking through these documents easily to identify inconsistencies and to maintain traceability. In this research, we focus on the requirements documents such as use cases and consider how to create models from the use case descriptions in unformatted text. In the model construction, we propose a few semantic constraints based on the features of the use cases and use them for a predicate argument structure analysis to assign semantic labels to actors and actions. With this approach, we show that we can assign semantic labels without enhancing any existing general lexical resources such as case frame dictionaries and design a less language-dependent model construction architecture. By using the constructed model, we consider a system for quality analysis of the use cases and automated test case generation to keep the traceability between document sets. We evaluated the reuse of the existing use cases and generated test case steps automatically with the proposed prototype system from real-world use cases in the development of a system using a packaged application. Based on the evaluation, we show how to construct models with high precision from English and Japanese use case data. Also, we could generate good test cases for about 90% of the real use cases through the manual improvement of the descriptions based on the feedback from the quality analysis system.

  3. Approaching the other: Investigation of a descriptive belief revision model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Stelios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When an individual—a hearer—is confronted with an opinion expressed by another individual—a speaker—differing from her only in terms of a degree of belief, how will she react? In trying to answer that question this paper reintroduces and investigates a descriptive belief revision model designed to measure approaches. Parameters of the model are the hearer’s credibility account of the speaker, the initial difference between the hearer’s and speaker’s degrees of belief, and the hearer’s resistance to change. Within an interdisciplinary framework, two empirical studies were conducted. A comparison was carried out between empirically recorded revisions and revisions according to the model. Results showed that the theoretical model is highly confirmed. An interesting finding is the measurement of an “unexplainable behaviour” that is not classified either as repulsion or as approach. At a second level of analysis, the model is compared to the Bayesian framework of inference. Structural differences and evidence for optimal descriptive adequacy of the former were highlighted.

  4. Plant memory: a tentative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellier, M; Lüttge, U

    2013-01-01

    All memory functions have molecular bases, namely in signal reception and transduction, and in storage and recall of information. Thus, at all levels of organisation living organisms have some kind of memory. In plants one may distinguish two types. There are linear pathways from reception of signals and propagation of effectors to a type of memory that may be described by terms such as learning, habituation or priming. There is a storage and recall memory based on a complex network of elements with a high degree of integration and feedback. The most important elements envisaged are calcium waves, epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones, and regulation of timing via a biological clock. Experiments are described that document the occurrence of the two sorts of memory and which show how they can be distinguished. A schematic model of plant memory is derived as emergent from integration of the various modules. Possessing the two forms of memory supports the fitness of plants in response to environmental stimuli and stress.

  5. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  6. Confidence assessment. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Forsmark). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. The confidence in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface-based site investigations, have been assessed by exploring: Confidence in the site characterisation data base; Key remaining issues and their handling; Handling of alternative models; Consistency between disciplines; and, Main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. It is generally found that the key aspects of importance for safety assessment and repository engineering of the Forsmark site descriptive model are associated with a high degree of confidence. Because of the robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in Forsmark site descriptive model is judged to be high. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models. Most, but not all, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for long-term safety. Poor precision in the measured data are judged to have limited impact on uncertainties on the site descriptive model, with the exceptions of inaccuracy in determining the position of some boreholes at depth in 3-D space, as well as the poor precision of the orientation of BIPS images in some boreholes, and the poor precision of stress data determined by overcoring at the locations where the pre

  7. CDMBE: A Case Description Model Based on Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining the advantages of argument map and Bayesian network, a case description model based on evidence (CDMBE, which is suitable to continental law system, is proposed to describe the criminal cases. The logic of the model adopts the credibility logical reason and gets evidence-based reasoning quantitatively based on evidences. In order to consist with practical inference rules, five types of relationship and a set of rules are defined to calculate the credibility of assumptions based on the credibility and supportability of the related evidences. Experiments show that the model can get users’ ideas into a figure and the results calculated from CDMBE are in line with those from Bayesian model.

  8. Indeterminate direction relation model based on fuzzy description framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The indetermination of direction relation is a hot topic for fuzzy GIS researchers. The existing models only study the effects of indetermination of spatial objects,but ignore the uncertainty of direction reference framework. In this paper,first a for-malized representation model of indeterminate spatial objects is designed based on quadruple (x,y,A,μ),then a fuzzy direction reference framework is constructed by revising the cone method,in which the partitions of direction tiles are smooth and continuous,and two neighboring sections are overlapped in the transitional zones with fuzzy method. Grounded on these,a fuzzy description model for indeterminate direction relation is proposed in which the uncertainty of all three parts (source object,reference object and reference frame) is taken into account simultaneously. In the end,case studies are implemented to test the rationality and validity of the model.

  9. New Description Model of Sputtering on Material Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓柏权; 严建成; 黄锦华; 彭利林

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the erosion rates of some plasma facing component materials, the sputtering yields of Mo, W and deuterium-saturated Li bombarded by fusion charged particles are calculated by application of new sputtering physics description methods based on the bipartition model of ion transport theory. The comparisons with Monte Carlo calculation and experimental results are made. These data might be useful to estimate the lifetime of plasma facing components and to analyse the impurity level in core plasma of fusion reactors.

  10. Mathematical models for plant-herbivore interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhilan; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical Models of Plant-Herbivore Interactions addresses mathematical models in the study of practical questions in ecology, particularly factors that affect herbivory, including plant defense, herbivore natural enemies, and adaptive herbivory, as well as the effects of these on plant community dynamics. The result of extensive research on the use of mathematical modeling to investigate the effects of plant defenses on plant-herbivore dynamics, this book describes a toxin-determined functional response model (TDFRM) that helps explains field observations of these interactions. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in mathematical biology and ecology.

  11. A Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model for Developing Ecological Site Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, M. A.; Hernandez, M.; Armendariz, G.; Barker, S.; Williams, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting soil erosion is common practice in natural resource management for assessing the effects of management practices and control techniques of soil productivity, sediment delivery and off site water quality. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) was designed for this purpose. RHEM is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of as single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes under normal and fire-impacted rangeland conditions. Moreover, it adopts a new splash erosion and thin sheet -flow transport equation developed from rangeland data, and it links the model hydrologic and erosion parameters with rangeland plant community by providing a new system of parameter estimation equations based on 204 plots at 49 rangeland sites distributed across 15 western U.S. states. Testing was done using long-term runoff and erosion data from small semi-aridland catchments. One of our goals with this project is to develop a framework for incorporating key ecohydrologic information/relationships in Ecological Site Descriptions and thereby enhanced utility of Ecological Site Descriptions s for guiding management. These key ecohydrologic relationships govern the ecologic resilience of the various states and community phases on many rangeland ecological sites and are strongly affected by management practices, land use, and disturbances. However, ecohydrologic data and relationships are often missing in Ecological Site Descriptions and resilience-based state-and-transition models. In this study we applied the RHEM model to data from multiple points in several ecological sites in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah to assess the utility of the model for informing these Ecological Site Descriptions.

  12. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  13. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wind adaptive modeling of transmission lines using minimum description length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Yoonseok; Sohn, Gunho

    2017-03-01

    The transmission lines are moving objects, which positions are dynamically affected by wind-induced conductor motion while they are acquired by airborne laser scanners. This wind effect results in a noisy distribution of laser points, which often hinders accurate representation of transmission lines and thus, leads to various types of modeling errors. This paper presents a new method for complete 3D transmission line model reconstruction in the framework of inner and across span analysis. The highlighted fact is that the proposed method is capable of indirectly estimating noise scales, which corrupts the quality of laser observations affected by different wind speeds through a linear regression analysis. In the inner span analysis, individual transmission line models of each span are evaluated based on the Minimum Description Length theory and erroneous transmission line segments are subsequently replaced by precise transmission line models with wind-adaptive noise scale estimated. In the subsequent step of across span analysis, detecting the precise start and end positions of the transmission line models, known as the Point of Attachment, is the key issue for correcting partial modeling errors, as well as refining transmission line models. Finally, the geometric and topological completion of transmission line models are achieved over the entire network. A performance evaluation was conducted over 138.5 km long corridor data. In a modest wind condition, the results demonstrates that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of non-wind-adaptive initial models on an average of 48% success rate to produce complete transmission line models in the range between 85% and 99.5% with the positional accuracy of 9.55 cm transmission line models and 28 cm Point of Attachment in the root-mean-square error.

  15. A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkens, H.; Hardy, N.; Beckmann, M.; Draper, J.; Smith, A.R.; Taylor, J.; Fiehn, O.; Goodacre, R.; Bino, R.J.; Hall, R.D.; Kopka, J.; Lane, G.A.; Lange, B.M.; Liu, J.R.; Mendes, P.; Nikolau, B.J.; Oliver, S.G.; Paton, I.R.; Roessner-Tunali, U.; Saito, K.; Smedsgaard, J.; Sumner, L.W.; Wang, T.; Walsh, S.; Wurtele, E.S.; Kell, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the metabolite complement of biological samples, known as metabolomics, is creating large amounts of data, and support for handling these data sets is required to facilitate meaningful analyses that will answer biological questions. We present a data model for plant metabolomics known a

  16. A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, H.; Hardy, N.; Beckmann, M-;

    2004-01-01

    The study of the metabolite complement of biological samples, known as metabolomics, is creating large amounts of data, and support for handling these data sets is required to facilitate meaningful analyses that will answer biological questions. We present a data model for plant metabolomics know...

  17. A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkens, H.; Hardy, N.; Beckmann, M.; Draper, J.; Smith, A.R.; Taylor, J.; Fiehn, O.; Goodacre, R.; Bino, R.J.; Hall, R.D.; Kopka, J.; Lane, G.A.; Lange, B.M.; Liu, J.R.; Mendes, P.; Nikolau, B.J.; Oliver, S.G.; Paton, I.R.; Roessner-Tunali, U.; Saito, K.; Smedsgaard, J.; Sumner, L.W.; Wang, T.; Walsh, S.; Wurtele, E.S.; Kell, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the metabolite complement of biological samples, known as metabolomics, is creating large amounts of data, and support for handling these data sets is required to facilitate meaningful analyses that will answer biological questions. We present a data model for plant metabolomics known a

  18. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  19. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  20. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  1. Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Y.H.; Smith, R.W.; Jones, H.J.; Seaton, D.D.; Grima, R.; Halliday, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment by triggering a suite of regulatory networks that control and synchronize molecular signaling in different tissues, organs, and the whole plant. Molecular studies through genetic and environmental perturbations, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis

  2. Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Y.H.; Smith, R.W.; Jones, H.J.; Seaton, D.D.; Grima, R.; Halliday, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment by triggering a suite of regulatory networks that control and synchronize molecular signaling in different tissues, organs, and the whole plant. Molecular studies through genetic and environmental perturbations, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis

  3. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  4. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  5. Description of Strongly Interacting Matter in A Hybrid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, P K

    2014-01-01

    Search for a proper and realistic equation of state (EOS) for strongly interacting matter used in the study of the QCD phase diagram still appears as a challenging problem. Recently, we constructed a hybrid model description for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) as well as hadron gas (HG) phases where we used an excluded volume model for HG and a thermodynamically consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase. The hybrid model suitably describes the recent lattice results of various thermodynamical as well as transport properties of the QCD matter at zero baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_{B}$). In this paper, we extend our investigations further in obtaining the properties of QCD matter at finite value of $\\mu_{B}$ and compare our results with the most recent results of lattice QCD calculation. Finally we demonstrate the existence of two different limiting energy regimes and propose that the connection point of these two limiting regimes would foretell the existence of critical point (CP) of the deconfining phas...

  6. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  7. A Review for Model Plant Mismatch Measures in Process Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 谢磊; 宋执环

    2012-01-01

    Model is usually necessary for the design of a control loop. Due to simplification and unknown dynamics, model plant mismatch is inevitable in the control loop. In process monitoring, detection of mismatch and evaluation of its influences are demanded. In this paper several mismatch measures are presented based on different model descriptions. They are categorized into different groups from different perspectives and their potential in detection and diagnosis is evaluated. Two case studies on mixing process and distillation process demonstrate the efficacy of the framework of mismatch monitoring.

  8. General Description of Fission Observables: GEF Model Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, K.-H. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2 P3, Chemin du Solarium, B.P. 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Jurado, B., E-mail: jurado@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2 P3, Chemin du Solarium, B.P. 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Amouroux, C. [CEA, DSM-Saclay (France); Schmitt, C., E-mail: schmitt@ganil.fr [GANIL, Bd. Henri Becquerel, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    The GEF (“GEneral description of Fission observables”) model code is documented. It describes the observables for spontaneous fission, neutron-induced fission and, more generally, for fission of a compound nucleus from any other entrance channel, with given excitation energy and angular momentum. The GEF model is applicable for a wide range of isotopes from Z = 80 to Z = 112 and beyond, up to excitation energies of about 100 MeV. The results of the GEF model are compared with fission barriers, fission probabilities, fission-fragment mass- and nuclide distributions, isomeric ratios, total kinetic energies, and prompt-neutron and prompt-gamma yields and energy spectra from neutron-induced and spontaneous fission. Derived properties of delayed neutrons and decay heat are also considered. The GEF model is based on a general approach to nuclear fission that explains a great part of the complex appearance of fission observables on the basis of fundamental laws of physics and general properties of microscopic systems and mathematical objects. The topographic theorem is used to estimate the fission-barrier heights from theoretical macroscopic saddle-point and ground-state masses and experimental ground-state masses. Motivated by the theoretically predicted early localisation of nucleonic wave functions in a necked-in shape, the properties of the relevant fragment shells are extracted. These are used to determine the depths and the widths of the fission valleys corresponding to the different fission channels and to describe the fission-fragment distributions and deformations at scission by a statistical approach. A modified composite nuclear-level-density formula is proposed. It respects some features in the superfluid regime that are in accordance with new experimental findings and with theoretical expectations. These are a constant-temperature behaviour that is consistent with a considerably increased heat capacity and an increased pairing condensation energy that is

  9. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Molinero, Jorge (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)); Waber, Nick (Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland))

    2008-12-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  10. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  11. DIMO, a plant dispersal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Jochem, R.; Greft, van der J.G.M.; Franke, J.; Malinowska, A.H.; Geertsema, W.; Prins, A.H.; Ozinga, W.A.; Hoek, van der D.C.J.; Grashof-Bokdam, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to human activities many natural habitats have become isolated. As a result the dispersal of many plant species is hampered. Isolated populations may become extinct and have a lower probability to become reestablished in a natural way. Moreover, plant species may be forced to migrate to new area

  12. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  13. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    , kinematics of brittle deformation in drill cores and outcrops, as well as studies with particular focus on minor deformation zones (MDZ) in both drill cores and in the field. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. High resolution airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) leading to a new digital elevation model (DEM) together with high-resolution ground magnetic and resistivity data providing the basis for further lineament interpretations. Further seismic refraction surveys and reprocessing and re-evaluation of seismic reflection data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format for rock domains, deformation zones and fracture domains, including detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, sizes, volumetric intensities, spatial correlations and models, and other parameters (lithology and scaling corrections, termination matrices) that are necessary for building stochastic models. The regional scale ductile deformation zones strike NNE-SSW and NE-SW, are subvertical and are characterised by sinistral strike-slip displacements, while E-W oriented zones, though more strongly overprinted by brittle deformation, display moderate to steep dips to the south or north. The kinematics of the latter are not resolved at Laxemar, but E-W ductile shear zones in the Simpevarp subarea show complex kinematics, including both reverse and normal dip-slip as well as sinistral and dextral strike-slip displacements. It should be noted that the regional and local major deformation zones, although the majority have a ductile precursor, are mainly brittle in character. The focussed volume is transected by a series of smaller deformation zones with a variety of orientations and with dips varying from sub-vertical to sub

  14. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  15. The shell model. Towards a unified description of nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, Alfredo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma Cantoblanco, 28049 - Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    In this series of lectures we present the foundations of the spherical shell model that we treat as an approximation to the exact solution of the full secular problem. We introduce the notions of valence space, effective interaction and effective operator. We analyse the structure of the realistic effective interactions, identifying their monopole part with the spherical mean field. The multipole Hamiltonian is shown to have a universal (simple) form that includes pairing (isovector and isoscalar), quadrupole, octupole, deca-pole, and ({sigma}{center_dot}{tau})({sigma}{center_dot}{tau}). We describe the methods of resolution of the secular problem, in particular the Lanczos method. The model is applied to the description of nuclear deformation and its relationship with the deformed mean field theories is studied. We propose a new symmetry, `quasi`-SU3, to understand deformation in the spherical basis. Finally, we discuss the domain of nuclei very far from the valley of {beta} stability, addressing the vanishing of some magic closures that can be explained in terms of intruder states. (author) 53 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  17. Model-to-model transformations of architecture descriptions of an integration platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Górski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Model transformations play a key role in any software development project based on Mod-el-Driven Engineering (MDE principles. However, little attention has been paid to the ap-plication of MDE principles to automate the design of integration solutions. The aim of the paper is to present transformations of a model-to-model type, used to automate the process of integration platform's architecture description. The transformations have been designed to enable the generation of model elements, according to the '1+5' architectural views model adjusted to the integration solutions description. Design and implementation of transformations were performed in the IBM Rational Software Architect (RSA environ-ment. Authorial UML profiles: UML Profile for Integration Platform and UML Profile for Integration Flows have been used. The paper covers transformations between models in the following architectural views: Integrated Processes; Use Cases; Logical and Integrated Services. The transformations occur at the levels of business processes, requirements speci-fication and system design. Using the transformations, it is possible to generate models, diagrams, model elements and relationships between them. The complete environment has been obtained to automate architectural description of an integration solution. Transfor-mations ensure completeness of the architectural description and consistency of elements between models.

  18. CSOIL 2000 an exposure model for human risk assessment of soil contamination. A model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand E; Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    This RIVM description of the CSOIL 2000 model deals, for the first time, with all aspects of the model. CSOIL 2000 can be used to derive intervention values. Intervention values are calculated for contaminated soil and represent a measure for determining when contaminated soil needs to be

  19. CSOIL 2000 an exposure model for human risk assessment of soil contamination. A model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand E; Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    This RIVM description of the CSOIL 2000 model deals, for the first time, with all aspects of the model. CSOIL 2000 can be used to derive intervention values. Intervention values are calculated for contaminated soil and represent a measure for determining when contaminated soil needs to be remediated

  20. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  1. The electricity portfolio simulation model (EPSim) technical description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2005-09-01

    Stakeholders often have competing interests when selecting or planning new power plants. The purpose of developing this preliminary Electricity Portfolio Simulation Model (EPSim) is to provide a first cut, dynamic methodology and approach to this problem, that can subsequently be refined and validated, that may help energy planners, policy makers, and energy students better understand the tradeoffs associated with competing electricity portfolios. EPSim allows the user to explore competing electricity portfolios annually from 2002 to 2025 in terms of five different criteria: cost, environmental impacts, energy dependence, health and safety, and sustainability. Four additional criteria (infrastructure vulnerability, service limitations, policy needs and science and technology needs) may be added in future versions of the model. Using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach, users or groups of users apply weights to each of the criteria. The default energy assumptions of the model mimic Department of Energy's (DOE) electricity portfolio to 2025 (EIA, 2005). At any time, the user can compare alternative portfolios to this reference case portfolio.

  2. Descriptive models for single-jet sluicing of sludge waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, F.F.; Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.

    1997-12-01

    Mobilization of sludge waste stored in underground storage tanks can be achieved safely and reliably by sluicing. In the project discussed in this report, the waste in Hanford single-shell Tank 241-C-106 will be mobilized by sluicing, retrieved by a slurry retrieval pump, and transferred via an 1800-ft slurry pipeline to Tank 241-AY-102. A sluicing strategy must be developed that ensures efficient use of the deployed configuration of the sluicing system: the nozzle(s) and the retrieval pump(s). Given a sluicing system configuration in a particular tank, it is desirable to prescribe the sequential locations at which the sludge will be mobilized and retrieved and the rate at which these mobilization and retrieval processes take place. In addition, it is necessary to know whether the retrieved waste slurry meets the requirements for cross-site slurry transport. Some of the physical phenomena that take place during mobilization and retrieval and certain aspects of the sluicing process are described in this report. First, a mathematical model gives (1) an idealized geometrical representation of where, within the confines of a storage tank containing a certain amount of settled waste, sludge can be removed and mobilized; and (2) a quantitative measure of the amount of sludge that can be removed during a sluicing campaign. A model describing an idealized water jet issuing from a circular nozzle located at a given height above a flat surface is also presented in this report. This dynamic water-jet model provides the basis for improving the geometrical sluicing model presented next. In this model the authors assume that the water jet follows a straight trajectory toward a target point on a flat surface. However, the water jet does not follow a straight line in the actual tank, and using the true trajectory will allow a more accurate estimate of the amount of disturbed material. Also, the authors hope that developing accurate force and pressure fields will lead to a better

  3. Thirteen challenges in modelling plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The underlying structure of epidemiological models, and the questions that models can be used to address, do not necessarily depend on the identity of the host. This means that certain preoccupations of plant disease modelers are similar to those of modelers of diseases in animals and humans. Howeve...

  4. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelate...

  5. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    , kinematics of brittle deformation in drill cores and outcrops, as well as studies with particular focus on minor deformation zones (MDZ) in both drill cores and in the field. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. High resolution airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) leading to a new digital elevation model (DEM) together with high-resolution ground magnetic and resistivity data providing the basis for further lineament interpretations. Further seismic refraction surveys and reprocessing and re-evaluation of seismic reflection data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format for rock domains, deformation zones and fracture domains, including detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, sizes, volumetric intensities, spatial correlations and models, and other parameters (lithology and scaling corrections, termination matrices) that are necessary for building stochastic models. The regional scale ductile deformation zones strike NNE-SSW and NE-SW, are subvertical and are characterised by sinistral strike-slip displacements, while E-W oriented zones, though more strongly overprinted by brittle deformation, display moderate to steep dips to the south or north. The kinematics of the latter are not resolved at Laxemar, but E-W ductile shear zones in the Simpevarp subarea show complex kinematics, including both reverse and normal dip-slip as well as sinistral and dextral strike-slip displacements. It should be noted that the regional and local major deformation zones, although the majority have a ductile precursor, are mainly brittle in character. The focussed volume is transected by a series of smaller deformation zones with a variety of orientations and with dips varying from sub-vertical to sub

  6. Description and Rationale for the Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation (PMI) Model: Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valeria A.

    The design of the Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation Model (PMI) and the aspects of the model that make it useful in public schools are the topics of this paper. After the objectives of a program or operation have been identified, the model specifies three additional pieces of information that are needed for an evaluation: inputs, processes,…

  7. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  8. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  9. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  10. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  11. Architecture Descriptions. A Contribution to Modeling of Production System Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Allan Dam; Hvam, Lars

    The subject of this PhD dissertation is architecture-centric design and the description of production system architecture. Companies are facing demands for the development and production of new products at an ever increasing rate, as the market life of products decreases and the rate at which...... design. This research contributes to the vocabulary and understanding of the architecture phenomenon. A conceptual framework is provided which allows for conceptualization of the architecture phenomenon, and how it applies within production system design. To aid the companies in the operational design...... and handling of production system architecture, research is conducted into the description of production system architecture, including what an architecture description contains in general and what it should describe for production systems specifically. The contribution in this area of research consists...

  12. Actant model of an extraction plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1999-05-01

    Facing a growing complexity of industrial plants, we recognise the need for qualitative modelling methods capturing functional and causal complexity in a human-centred way. The present paper presents actant modelling as a functional modelling method rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling combines actant models from linguistics with multilevel flow modelling (MFM). Thus the semantics of MFM functions is developed further and given an interpretation in terms of actant functions. The present challenge is to provide coherence between seemingly different categories of knowledge. Yet the gap between functional and causal modelling methods can be bridged. Actant modelling provides an open and provisional, but in no way exhaustive or final answer as to how teleological concepts like goals and functions relate to causal concepts. As the main focus of the paper an actant model of an extraction plant is presented. It is shown how the actant model merges functional and causal knowledge in a natural way.

  13. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size-asymmetric ......A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size...

  14. INTRA/Mod3.2. Manual and Code Description. Volume I - Physical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jenny; Edlund, O.; Hermann, J.; Johansson, Lise-Lotte

    1999-01-01

    The INTRA Manual consists of two volumes. Volume I of the manual is a thorough description of the code INTRA, the Physical modelling of INTRA and the ruling numerical methods and volume II, the User`s Manual is an input description. This document, the Physical modelling of INTRA, contains code characteristics, integration methods and applications

  15. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume III of III: software description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-29

    This volume contains a description of the software comprising the National Utility Financial Statement Model (NUFS). This is the third of three volumes describing NUFS provided by ICF Incorporated under contract DEAC-01-79EI-10579. The three volumes are entitled: model overview and description, user's guide, and software guide.

  16. An analytical model of memristors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Vladislav S; Volkov, Alexander G; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The memristor, a resistor with memory, was postulated by Chua in 1971 and the first solid-state memristor was built in 2008. Recently, we found memristors in vivo in plants. Here we propose a simple analytical model of 2 types of memristors that can be found within plants. The electrostimulation of plants by bipolar periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica with fingerprints of memristors. Memristive properties of the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica are linked to the properties of voltage gated K(+) ion channels. The potassium channel blocker TEACl transform plant memristors to conventional resistors. The analytical model of a memristor with a capacitor connected in parallel exhibits different characteristic behavior at low and high frequency of applied voltage, which is the same as experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in vivo.

  17. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...... is also provided by an analysis of the relations between levels of abstraction. It is also described how MFM supparts reazsonin about control actions by defining levels of intervention and by modal distinctions between function enablement and initiation....

  18. Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcaud, Thierry; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Stokes, Alexia; Lambers, Hans; Körner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Modelling plant growth allows us to test hypotheses and carry out virtual experiments concerning plant growth processes that could otherwise take years in field conditions. The visualization of growth simulations allows us to see directly and vividly the outcome of a given model and provides us with an instructive tool useful for agronomists and foresters, as well as for teaching. Functional–structural (FS) plant growth models are nowadays particularly important for integrating biological processes with environmental conditions in 3-D virtual plants, and provide the basis for more advanced research in plant sciences. Scope In this viewpoint paper, we ask the following questions. Are we modelling the correct processes that drive plant growth, and is growth driven mostly by sink or source activity? In current models, is the importance of soil resources (nutrients, water, temperature and their interaction with meristematic activity) considered adequately? Do classic models account for architectural adjustment as well as integrating the fundamental principles of development? Whilst answering these questions with the available data in the literature, we put forward the opinion that plant architecture and sink activity must be pushed to the centre of plant growth models. In natural conditions, sinks will more often drive growth than source activity, because sink activity is often controlled by finite soil resources or developmental constraints. PMA06 This viewpoint paper also serves as an introduction to this Special Issue devoted to plant growth modelling, which includes new research covering areas stretching from cell growth to biomechanics. All papers were presented at the Second International Symposium on Plant Growth Modeling, Simulation, Visualization and Applications (PMA06), held in Beijing, China, from 13–17 November, 2006. Although a large number of papers are devoted to FS models of agricultural and forest crop species, physiological and genetic

  19. Description of regolith at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Hedenstroem, Anna (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    This report compiles all known available information regarding the regolith in the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area. Regolith refers to the loose deposits overlying the bedrock. In the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, all known regolith was deposited during the Quaternary period and is consequently often referred to as Quaternary deposits (QD). In the terrestrial areas the uppermost part of the regolith, which has been affected by climate and vegetation, is referred to as soil. The geographical and stratigraphical distributions of the regolith have been used to construct a model showing the distribution of regolith depths in the whole model area. The stratigraphical units shown in the regolith depth and stratigraphy model have been characterised with respect to physical and chemical properties. Most of the data used for that characterisation have been obtained from the site investigation but some data were taken from the literature. All QD in the Laxemar area have most probably been deposited during or after the latest deglaciation. The ice sheet in the area moved from the north-west during the latest ice age. The Baltic Sea completely covered the investigated area after the latest deglaciation c 12,000 BC. Land uplift was fastest during the first few thousand years following the deglaciation and has subsequently decreased to the present value of 1 mm/year. Older QD have been eroded in areas exposed to waves and currents and the material has later been redeposited. Fine-grained sediments have been deposited on the floor of bays and in other sheltered positions. Peat has accumulated in many of the wetlands situated in topographically low positions. The groundwater table in many of the former wetlands has been artificially lowered to obtain land for forestry and agriculture, which has caused the peat to partly or completely oxidise. As land uplift proceeds, some new areas are being subjected to erosion at the same time as other new areas are becoming lakes and sheltered

  20. Description of regolith at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Hedenstroem, Anna (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    This report compiles all known available information regarding the regolith in the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area. Regolith refers to the loose deposits overlying the bedrock. In the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, all known regolith was deposited during the Quaternary period and is consequently often referred to as Quaternary deposits (QD). In the terrestrial areas the uppermost part of the regolith, which has been affected by climate and vegetation, is referred to as soil. The geographical and stratigraphical distributions of the regolith have been used to construct a model showing the distribution of regolith depths in the whole model area. The stratigraphical units shown in the regolith depth and stratigraphy model have been characterised with respect to physical and chemical properties. Most of the data used for that characterisation have been obtained from the site investigation but some data were taken from the literature. All QD in the Laxemar area have most probably been deposited during or after the latest deglaciation. The ice sheet in the area moved from the north-west during the latest ice age. The Baltic Sea completely covered the investigated area after the latest deglaciation c 12,000 BC. Land uplift was fastest during the first few thousand years following the deglaciation and has subsequently decreased to the present value of 1 mm/year. Older QD have been eroded in areas exposed to waves and currents and the material has later been redeposited. Fine-grained sediments have been deposited on the floor of bays and in other sheltered positions. Peat has accumulated in many of the wetlands situated in topographically low positions. The groundwater table in many of the former wetlands has been artificially lowered to obtain land for forestry and agriculture, which has caused the peat to partly or completely oxidise. As land uplift proceeds, some new areas are being subjected to erosion at the same time as other new areas are becoming lakes and sheltered

  1. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  2. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  3. Can simulations of flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere be improved by a more complex description of soil and plant processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Can simulations of flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere be improved by a more complex description of soil and plant processes? Christian Klein, Christian Biernath, Peter Hoffmann and Eckart Priesack Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Oberschleissheim, Germany christian.klein@helmholtz-muenchen.de, ++ 49 89 3187 3015 Recent studies show, that uncertainties in regional and global climate simulations are partly caused by inadequate descriptions of soil-plant-atmosphere. Therefore, we coupled the soil-plant model system Expert-N to the regional climate and weather forecast model WRF. Key features of the Expert-N model system are the simulation of water flow, heat transfer and solute transport in soils and the transpiration of grassland and forest stands. Particularly relevant for the improvement of regional weather forecast are simulations of the feedback between the land surface and atmosphere, which influences surface temperature, surface pressure and precipitation. The WRF model was modified to optionally select either the land surface model Expert-N or NOAH to simulate the exchange of water and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere for every single grid cell within the simulation domain. Where the standard land surface model NOAH interpolates monthly LAI input values to simulate interactions between plant and atmosphere Expert-N simulates a dynamic plant growth with respect to water and nutrient availability in the soil. In this way Expert-N can be applied to study the effect of dynamic vegetation growth simulation on regional climate simulation results. For model testing Expert-N was used with two different soil parameterizations. The first parametrization used the USGS soil texture classification and simplifies the soil profile to one horizon (similar to the NOAH model). The second parameterization is based on the German soil texture classification

  4. Modeling Performance of Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Kreuser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing degree day (GDD models can predict the performance of plant growth regulators (PGRs applied to creeping bentgrass ( L.. The goal of this letter is to describe experimental design strategies and modeling approaches to create PGR models for different PGRs, application rates, and turf species. Results from testing the models indicate that clipping yield should be measured until the growth response has diminished. This is in contrast to reapplication of a PGR at preselected intervals. During modeling, inclusion of an amplitude-dampening coefficient in the sinewave model allows the PGR effect to dissipate with time.

  5. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  6. Model feedstock supply processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of raw providing the processing enterprises entering into vertically integrated structure on production and processing of dairy raw materials, differing by an orientation on achievement of cumulative effect by the integrated structure acting as criterion function which maximizing is reached by optimization of capacities, volumes of deliveries of raw materials and its qualitative characteristics, costs of industrial processing of raw materials and demand for dairy production is developed.

  7. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  8. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency....... They represent not only the first regulators of zinc homeostasis identified in plants, but also a very promising starting-point that can provide new insights into the molecular basis of how plants sense and adapt to the stress of zinc deficiency. Considering the available information thus far we propose...... in this review a putative model of how plants sense zinc deficiency....

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  10. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  11. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  12. A continuous growth model for plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-12-01

    Morphogenesis in plants and animals involves large irreversible deformations. In plants, the response of the cell wall material to internal and external forces is determined by its mechanical properties. An appropriate model for plant tissue growth must include key features such as anisotropic and heterogeneous elasticity and cell dependent evaluation of mechanical variables such as turgor pressure, stress and strain. In addition, a growth model needs to cope with cell divisions as a necessary part of the growth process. Here we develop such a growth model, which is capable of employing not only mechanical signals but also morphogen signals for regulating growth. The model is based on a continuous equation for updating the resting configuration of the tissue. Simultaneously, material properties can be updated at a different time scale. We test the stability of our model by measuring convergence of growth results for a tissue under the same mechanical and material conditions but with different spatial discretization. The model is able to maintain a strain field in the tissue during re-meshing, which is of particular importance for modeling cell division. We confirm the accuracy of our estimations in two and three-dimensional simulations, and show that residual stresses are less prominent if strain or stress is included as input signal to growth. The approach results in a model implementation that can be used to compare different growth hypotheses, while keeping residual stresses and other mechanical variables updated and available for feeding back to the growth and material properties.

  13. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of Betu

  14. A UML model for the description of different brain-computer interface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Abbafati, Manuel; Saggio, Giovanni; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Bianchi, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    BCI research lacks a universal descriptive language among labs and a unique standard model for the description of BCI systems. This results in a serious problem in comparing performances of different BCI processes and in unifying tools and resources. In such a view we implemented a Unified Modeling Language (UML) model for the description virtually of any BCI protocol and we demonstrated that it can be successfully applied to the most common ones such as P300, mu-rhythms, SCP, SSVEP, fMRI. Finally we illustrated the advantages in utilizing a standard terminology for BCIs and how the same basic structure can be successfully adopted for the implementation of new systems.

  15. Description Model of Warehouse Architecture for Clinical Test at the Molecular Immunology Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rafael Sotolongo León

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and detailed description of the architecture of computer systems is very important to achieve success in their development. As informatic solutions, data warehouses and software support decision-making in institutions that need to implement a detailed description of the architecture. Ralph Kimball proposes the aspects to be considered of the description and explains how it is done. There are specific models used to describe the architecture such as Kruchten 4 +1 views of meta-model or the Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM however these models do not meet the need of the description that requires a data warehouse that integrates information from clinical trials of the Molecular Immunology Centre (CIM. In this paper we propose a model for describing the data warehouse architecture that fits the needs of the Molecular Immunology Center following the Kimball framework and using as UML 2.0 modeling language.

  16. Gamow shell model description of proton scattering on $^{18}$Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Jaganathen, Y; Płoszajczak, M

    2014-01-01

    We formulate the GSM in coupled-channel (GSM-CC) representation to describe low-energy elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on $^{18}$Ne. The GSM-CC formalism is applied to a translationally-invariant Hamiltonian with an effective finite-range two-body interaction. We discuss in details the GSM-CC formalism in coordinate space and give the description of the novel equivalent potential method for solving the GSM-CC system of integro-differential equations. We present the first application of the GSM-CC formalism for the calculation of excited states of $^{18}$Ne and $^{19}$Na, excitation function and the elastic/inelastic differential cross-sections in the $^{18}$Ne$(p,p')$ reaction at different energies.

  17. New concepts for dynamic plant uptake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are widely applied tools for human and wildlife exposure assessment, pesticide design and for environmental biotechnology such as phytoremediation. Steady-state considerations are often applied, because they are simple and have a small data...

  18. The systematic description of cacao clones and its significance for taxonomy and plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, J.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The value of germplasm collections depends to a large extent on the data accompanying the individual accessions. In order to facilitate the selection of the most useful characters for the systematic description of a cacao germplasm collection methods were developed to measure and to compare

  19. The systematic description of cacao clones and its significance for taxonomy and plant breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, J.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The value of germplasm collections depends to a large extent on the data accompanying the individual accessions. In order to facilitate the selection of the most useful characters for the systematic description of a cacao germplasm collection methods were developed to measure and to compare the disc

  20. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, H.H.

    1979-04-01

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation.

  1. A descriptive model of information problem solving while using internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information

  2. Description of the General Equilibrium Model of Ecosystem Services (GEMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack; David Finnoff; Jenny Apriesnig

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves as documentation for the General Equilibrium Model of Ecosystem Services (GEMES). GEMES is a regional computable general equilibrium model that is composed of values derived from natural capital and ecosystem services. It models households, producing sectors, and governments, linked to one another through commodity and factor markets. GEMES was...

  3. Advanced numerical description of the behavior of 700 C steam power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Schmidt, K.; Roos, E.; Klenk, A.; Speicher, M.

    2009-07-01

    To make full use of the strength potential of new boiler materials like the new 9-11% Cr steels and nickel based alloys, taking into account their specific stress-strain relaxation behavior, new design methods are required in the design of today's power plants. Highly loaded components are approaching more and more the classical design limits with regard to critical wall thicknesses and the related tolerable thermal gradients, due to planed increases of steam parameters like steam pressure and steam temperature. ''Design by analysis'' can be realized by modern state of the art Numerical Finite Element (FE) simulation codes and in some cases by the use of user defined advanced inelastic material laws. These material laws have to be adjusted to specific material behavior of new boiler materials. To model the strain and stress situation in components under high temperature loading, a constitutive equation based on a Graham-Walles approach is used in this paper. Furthermore essential steps and recommendations to implement experimental data in the user defined subroutines and the subsequent integration of the subroutines in modern FE codes like ABAQUS trademark and ANSYS trademark are given. As an example, the results of FE simulations of components like hollow cylinders and waterwall like components made of Alloy 617 or 9-11% Cr steels are discussed and verified with experimental results. In a last step, the successful application of the developed creep equation will be demonstrated by calculating the creep strains and stress relaxation of a P92 steam header under constant loading. (orig.)

  4. Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Fansler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.

  5. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).

  6. RELAP5 Model Description and Validation for the BR2 Loss-of-Flow Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Koonen, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the RELAP5 model, the calibration method used to obtain the minor loss coefficients from the available hydraulic data and the LOFA simulation results compared to the 1963 experimental tests for HEU fuel.

  7. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhen-min Tang; Xian-yi Cheng; Lan Shuai; Shu-qin Li; Jing-yu Yang

    2008-01-01

    At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative...

  8. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shu-qin; Shuai, Lan; Cheng, Xian-yi; Tang, Zhen-min; Yang, Jing-yu

    2005-01-01

    At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative...

  9. Plant adaptive behaviour in hydrological models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Teuling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evaporation regimes need a solid base that describes the essence of the processes involved [1]. Micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system may have a large impact on patterns emerging at larger scales. A complicating factor in the micro-behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, but such environmental changes may also trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [2-6]. Gene expression as a result of different environmental conditions may profoundly impact drought responses across the same plant species. Differences in response to an environmental stress, has consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. Models potentially provide a means to link root water uptake and transport to large scale processes (e.g. Rosnay and Polcher 1998, Feddes et al. 2001, Jung 2010), especially when powered with an integrated hydrological, ecological and physiological base. We explore the experimental evidence from natural vegetation to formulate possible alternative modeling concepts. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215

  10. Stochastic spatial models of plant diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D H

    2001-01-01

    I present three models of plant--pathogen interactions. The models are stochastic and spatially explicit at the scale of individual plants. For each model, I use a version of pair approximation or moment closure along with a separation of timescales argument to determine the effects of spatial clustering on threshold structure. By computing the spatial structure early in an invasion, I find explicit corrections to mean field theory. In the first chapter, I present a lattice model of a disease that is not directly lethal to its host, but affects its ability to compete with neighbors. I use a type of pair approximation to determine conditions for invasions and coexistence. In the second chapter, I study a basic SIR epidemic point process in continuous space. I implement a multiplicative moment closure scheme to compute the threshold transmission rate as a function of spatial parameters. In the final chapter, I model the evolution of pathogen resistance when two plant species share a pathogen. Evolution may lead...

  11. Toward a spin foam model description of black hole entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Islas, J Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, A Postal 20-726, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: jmgislas@leibniz.iimas.unam.mx

    2008-12-07

    We propose a way to describe the origin of black hole entropy in the spin foam models of quantum gravity. This stimulates a new way to study the relation of spin foam models and loop quantum gravity. (comments, replies and notes)

  12. Descriptive documentation for New Mexico electricity econometric final demand model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, J.D.; Ben-David, S.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for computing consumption and residential electric power demands for New Mexico. Factors considered in developing the model included: number of electric utility customers, past consumption data; household devices using electric power and their energy efficiencies; climatic conditions; and power costs. (LCL)

  13. The Description of the Open Model in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐林

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the current problems in the college English teaching and meet the demands of the "College English Curriculum Requirements", the Open Model in College English teaching is proposed in the thesis.The thesis describes the model from the five components.

  14. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  15. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control and implemented....... The model in the present paper provides on-line information on overflow volumes, pumping capacities, and remaining storage capacities. A linear overflow relation is found, differing significantly from the traditional deterministic modeling approach. The linearity of the formulas is explained by the inertia...

  16. Animal models of fear and anxiety: neurobehavioral descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Gallegos, Andrea; Salas Castillo, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of fear and anxiety have been widely used for the comprehension of anxiety disorders in humans, however, it has not been easy to distinguish between both concepts at physiological and behavioral levels. One way to model anxiety disorders is through behavioral tests of anxiety, (such as the elevated plus maze and the open field test), and fear (using the fear conditioning paradigm and active avoidance). Furthermore, animal models are relevant to study the involvement of different...

  17. Appendix to HDC 2118 design criteria 100-X reactor water plant, general description - section II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-03-29

    The factors responsible for the advances of 100-X compared with the older areas are: Simplification of the process, such as elimination of separate process water clearwells, by having the filtered water reservoirs perform that function. Combination of separate buildings into one building, such as combining filter pump house and process pump house. Use of electric standby. Use of higher capacity pumps and filter basins, and so fewer number of units. Centralization of control and operation. More compact arrangement of plant components. Use of waste heat for space heating, recovered from reactor effluent, backed up by steam plant.

  18. Description of two species of Tenuipalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes) from succulent plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Tenuipalpus, T. sarcophilus n. sp., (Tenuipalpidae) is described from specimens collected from several species of ornamental succulent plants in Florida, including Crassula tetragona L, Sedum spp., Echeveria spp., Pachyphytum spp. (Crassulaceae) and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae), and fr...

  19. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  20. Performance evaluation of solar assisted dryers for low temperature drying applications: Pt. 1; Plants description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arata, A. (Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile)); Sharma, V.K. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Research aimed at investigating the most appropriate cost effective food preservation technology suitable for implementation with limited financial resources is reported. It is hoped that the simple designs discussed in the present communication can be fabricated by small-scale industries using simple tools and relatively cheap and locally available materials. This first paper presents a detailed description, along with a preliminary heat transfer analysis, for fruit dryers developed and tested experimentally. Results obtained from the experiments conducted will be reported in a second paper. (author).

  1. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  2. Exploring model based engineering for large telescopes: getting started with descriptive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R.; Zamparelli, M.; Bauvir, B.; Koehler, B.; Noethe, L.; Balestra, A.

    2008-07-01

    Large telescopes pose a continuous challenge to systems engineering due to their complexity in terms of requirements, operational modes, long duty lifetime, interfaces and number of components. A multitude of decisions must be taken throughout the life cycle of a new system, and a prime means of coping with complexity and uncertainty is using models as one decision aid. The potential of descriptive models based on the OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysMLTM) is examined in different areas: building a comprehensive model serves as the basis for subsequent activities of soliciting and review for requirements, analysis and design alike. Furthermore a model is an effective communication instrument against misinterpretation pitfalls which are typical of cross disciplinary activities when using natural language only or free-format diagrams. Modeling the essential characteristics of the system, like interfaces, system structure and its behavior, are important system level issues which are addressed. Also shown is how to use a model as an analysis tool to describe the relationships among disturbances, opto-mechanical effects and control decisions and to refine the control use cases. Considerations on the scalability of the model structure and organization, its impact on the development process, the relation to document-centric structures, style and usage guidelines and the required tool chain are presented.

  3. Technical description of the RIVM/KNMI PUFF dispersion model. Version 4.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pul WAJ

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a technical description of the RIVM/KNMI PUFF model. The model may be used to calculate, given wind and rain field data, the dispersion of components emitted following an accident, emergency or calamity; the model area may be freely chosen to match the area of concern. The re

  4. Shell Model Description of Neutron-Deficient Sn Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Dikmen

    2009-01-01

    The shell model calculations in the sdgh major shell for the neutron-deficient 106,107,108,109Sn isotopes have been carried out by using CD-Bonn and Nijmegenl two-body effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. The single-shell states and the corresponding matrix elements needed for describing Sn isotopes are reconstructed to calculate the coefficient of fractional parantage by reducing the calculation requirements. This reconstruction allows us to do the shell model calculations of the neutron deficient Sn isotopes in very reasonable time. The results are compared to the recent high-resolution experimental data and found to be in good agreement with experiments.

  5. Simulating microbial denitrification with EPIC: Model description and initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Jones, Curtis D.; Link, Robert P.; Manowitz, D.; Schwab, D. E.; Zhang, Xuesong; Robertson, G. P.; Milar, Neville

    2017-09-01

    Microbial denitrification occurs in anaerobic soil microsites and aquatic environments leading to production of N2O and N2 gases, which eventually escape to the atmosphere. Atmospheric concentrations of N2O have been on the rise since the beginning of the industrial revolution due to large-scale manipulations of the N cycle in managed ecosystems, especially the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer. Here we document and test a microbial denitrification model identified as IMWJ and implemented as a submodel in the EPIC terrestrial ecosystem model. The IMWJ model is resolved on an hourly time step using the concept that C oxidation releases electrons that drive a demand for electron acceptors such as O2 and oxides of N (NO3-, NO2-, and N2O). A spherical diffusion approach is used to describe O2 transport to microbial surfaces while a cylindrical diffusion method is employed to depict O2 transport to root surfaces. Oxygen uptake by microbes and roots is described with Michaelis-Menten kinetic equations. If insufficient O2 is present to accept all electrons generated, the deficit for electron acceptors may be met by oxides of nitrogen, if available. The movement of O2, CO2 and N2O through the soil profile is modeled using the gas transport equation solved on hourly or sub-hourly time steps. Bubbling equations also move N2O and N2 through the liquid phase to the soil surface under highly anaerobic conditions. We used results from a 2-yr field experiment conducted in 2007 and 2008 at a field site in southwest Michigan to test the ability of EPIC, with the IMWJ option, to capture the non-linear response of N2O fluxes as a function of increasing rates of N application to maize [Zea mays L.]. Nitrous oxide flux, soil inorganic N, and ancillary data from 2007 were used for EPIC calibration while 2008 data were used for independent model validation. Overall, EPIC reproduced well the timing and magnitude of N2O fluxes and NO3- mass in surficial soil layers after N

  6. Description of Model Tests Carried Out by Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Schlütter, F.; Andersen, H.

    1996-01-01

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects.......As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  7. Process description of SWQN : A simplified hydraulic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Siderius, C.; Gerven, van L.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    SWQN is a simplified hydraulic model for surface water systems which computes water levels and flows in a network of nodes labelled as ‘volumes’ and segments labelled as ‘connectors’. The user can specify a variety of connectors like open water courses or structures such as weirs, gates, culverts or

  8. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality.

  9. Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby

    2015-01-01

    In this positional paper, we discuss the potential benefits of using appearance models in additive manufacturing, metal casting, wind turbine blade production, and 3D content acquisition. Current state of the art in acquisition and rendering of appearance cannot easily be used for quality assurance...

  10. Shell Model Description of $^{102-108}$Sn Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Trivedi, T; Negi, D; Mehrotra, I

    2012-01-01

    We have performed shell model calculations for neutron deficient even $^{102-108}$Sn and odd $^{103-107}$Sn isotopes in $sdg_{7/2}h_{11/2}$ model space using two different interactions. The first set of interaction is due to Brown {\\it et al.} and second is due to Hoska {\\it et al}. The calculations have been performed using doubly magic $^{100}$Sn as core and valence neutrons are distributed over the single particle orbits 1$g_{7/2}$, 2$d_{5/2}$, 2$d_{3/2}$, 3$s_{1/2}$ and 1$h_{11/2}$. In more recent experimental work for $^{101}$Sn [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105} (2010) 162502], the g.s. is predicted as 5/2$^+$ with excited 7/2$^+$ at 172 keV. We have also performed another two set of calculations by taking difference in single particle energies of 2$d_{5/2}$ and 1$g_{7/2}$ orbitals by 172 keV. The present state-of-the-art shell model calculations predicts fair agreements with the experimental data. These calculations serve as a test of nuclear shell model in the region far from stability for unstable Sn isotop...

  11. Shell Model Description of 102-108Sn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, T.; Srivastava, P. C.; Negi, D.; Mehrotra, I.

    2012-05-01

    We have performed shell model calculations for neutron deficient even 102-108Sn and odd 103-107Sn isotopes in sdg7/2h11/2 model space using two different interactions. The first set of interaction is due to Brown et al. and second is due to Hoska et al. The calculations have been performed using doubly magic 100Sn as core and valence neutrons are distributed over the single particle orbits 1g7/2, 2d5/2, 2d3/2, 3s1/2 and 1h11/2. In more recent experimental work for 101Sn [I. G. Darby et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 162502], the g.s. is predicted as 5/2+ with excited 7/2+ at 172 keV. We have also performed another two set of calculations by taking difference in single particle energies of 2d5/2 and 1g7/2 orbitals by 172 keV. The present state-of-the-art shell model calculations predict fair agreement with the experimental data. These calculations serve as a test of nuclear shell model in the region far from stability for unstable Sn isotopes near the doubly magic 100Sn core.

  12. Process description of SWQN : A simplified hydraulic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Siderius, C.; Gerven, van L.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    SWQN is a simplified hydraulic model for surface water systems which computes water levels and flows in a network of nodes labelled as ‘volumes’ and segments labelled as ‘connectors’. The user can specify a variety of connectors like open water courses or structures such as weirs, gates, culverts or

  13. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Rosen, L ars [Sweco Viak AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  14. An Efficient Explicit-time Description Method for Timed Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao; 10.4204/EPTCS.14.6

    2009-01-01

    Timed model checking, the method to formally verify real-time systems, is attracting increasing attention from both the model checking community and the real-time community. Explicit-time description methods verify real-time systems using general model constructs found in standard un-timed model checkers. Lamport proposed an explicit-time description method using a clock-ticking process (Tick) to simulate the passage of time together with a group of global variables to model time requirements. Two methods, the Sync-based Explicit-time Description Method using rendezvous synchronization steps and the Semaphore-based Explicit-time Description Method using only one global variable were proposed; they both achieve better modularity than Lamport's method in modeling the real-time systems. In contrast to timed automata based model checkers like UPPAAL, explicit-time description methods can access and store the current time instant for future calculations necessary for many real-time systems, especially those with p...

  15. MIRAGE: Model description and evaluation of aerosols and trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zhang, Yang; Saylor, Rick D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Leung, L. Ruby; Bian, Xindi; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2004-10-01

    The Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Global Exchanges (MIRAGE) modeling system, designed to study the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the global environment, is described. MIRAGE consists of a chemical transport model coupled online with a global climate model. The chemical transport model simulates trace gases, aerosol number, and aerosol chemical component mass (sulfate, methane sulfonic acid (MSA), organic matter, black carbon (BC), sea salt, and mineral dust) for four aerosol modes (Aitken, accumulation, coarse sea salt, and coarse mineral dust) using the modal aerosol dynamics approach. Cloud-phase and interstitial aerosol are predicted separately. The climate model, based on Community Climate Model, Version 2 (CCM2), has physically based treatments of aerosol direct and indirect forcing. Stratiform cloud water and droplet number are simulated using a bulk microphysics parameterization that includes aerosol activation. Aerosol and trace gas species simulated by MIRAGE are presented and evaluated using surface and aircraft measurements. Surface-level SO2 in North American and European source regions is higher than observed. SO2 above the boundary layer is in better agreement with observations, and surface-level SO2 at marine locations is somewhat lower than observed. Comparison with other models suggests insufficient SO2 dry deposition; increasing the deposition velocity improves simulated SO2. Surface-level sulfate in North American and European source regions is in good agreement with observations, although the seasonal cycle in Europe is stronger than observed. Surface-level sulfate at high-latitude and marine locations, and sulfate above the boundary layer, are higher than observed. This is attributed primarily to insufficient wet removal; increasing the wet removal improves simulated sulfate at remote locations and aloft. Because of the high sulfate bias, radiative forcing estimates for anthropogenic sulfur given in 2001 by S. J. Ghan and

  16. PERFORMANCE-BASED INTELLIGENT RESOURCE DESCRIPTION MODEL FOR INTERNET-BASED PRODUCT DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Issues on intelligent resource description and multiple intelligent resources integration for Internet-based collaborative design are analyzed. A performance-based intelligent resource description model for Internet-based product design is proposed, which can help to create, store,manipulate and exchange intelligent resource description information for applications, tools and systems in Internet-based product design. A method to integrate multiple intelligent resources to fulfill a complex product design and analysis via Internet is also proposed. A real project for improving the bearing system design of a turbo-expander with many intelligent resources in prominent universities is presented as a case study.

  17. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF Geologic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hakami, Eva [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Halvarson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar [Sweco VBB/VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden); Wahlgren, C.H. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline

  18. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Thermal Model Description of Collisions of Small Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Cleymans, J.; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Sharma, N.

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of particle production on the size of the colliding nuclei is analyzed in terms of the thermal model using the canonical ensemble. The concept of strangeness correlation in clusters of sub-volume $V_c$ is used to account for the suppression of strangeness. A systematic analysis is presented of the predictions of the thermal model for particle production in collisions of small nuclei. The pattern of the maxima in particle ratios of strange particles to pions as a function of beam energy is quite special, as they do not occur at the same beam energy and are sensitive to system size. In particular, the $\\Lambda/\\pi^+$ ratio shows a clear maximum even for the smallest systems while the maximum in the K$^+/\\pi^+$ ratio disappears in small systems.

  20. TWO-LAYER MODEL DESCRIPTION OF POLYMER THIN FILM DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong Peng; Ran-xing Nancy Li; Chi-hang Lam; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in the past two decades have shown that the glass transition temperature of polymer films can become noticeably different from that of the bulk when the film thickness is decreased below ca.100 nm.It is broadly believed that these observations are caused by a nanometer interfacial layer with dynamics faster or slower than that of the bulk.In this paper,we examine how this idea may be realized by using a two-layer model assuming a hydrodynamic coupling between the interfacial layer and the remaining,bulk-like layer in the film.Illustrative examples will be given showing how the two-layer model is applied to the viscosity measurements of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate films supported by silicon oxide,where divergent thickness dependences are observed.

  1. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  2. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  3. Model-based description of environment interaction for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Carlo; Pagello, Enrico; Vianello, Marco

    1999-01-01

    We consider a mobile robot that attempts to accomplish a task by reaching a given goal, and interacts with its environment through a finite set of actions and observations. The interaction between robot and environment is modeled by Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDP). The robot takes its decisions in presence of uncertainty about the current state, by maximizing its reward gained during interactions with the environment. It is able to self-locate into the environment by collecting actions and perception histories during the navigation. To make the state estimation more reliable, we introduce an additional information in the model without adding new states and without discretizing the considered measures. Thus, we associate to the state transition probabilities also a continuous metric given through the mean and the variance of some significant sensor measurements suitable to be kept under continuous form, such as odometric measurements, showing that also such unreliable data can supply a great deal of information to the robot. The overall control system of the robot is structured as a two-levels layered architecture, where the low level implements several collision avoidance algorithms, while the upper level takes care of the navigation problem. In this paper, we concentrate on how to use POMDP models at the upper level.

  4. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  5. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  6. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described.

  7. A review on 2D models for the description of pantographic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placidi, Luca; Barchiesi, Emilio; Turco, Emilio; Rizzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-10-01

    A review on models for pantographic fabrics, a new promising kind of metamaterials, is presented. We treat those models that are able to capture the peculiar effects conferred by their specific microstructure and that can be generalized for the description of more complex metamaterials. For each approach, model formulation and modeling assumptions are discussed along with the presentation of numerical solutions in exemplary cases and no attempt is made to model damage and failure phenomena.

  8. Description of “Tail Suspension” as a Model of ‹mmobilization in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayçe Atalay

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since human beings have included outer space to their living places, effects of gravity on bone has been extensively studied. Authors claim that basic biologic mechanisms are similar in rats and human so rats should serve as a useful model for studying osteoporosis. Models for simulating microgravity conditions can be grouped into two as local and systemic models. We aimed to summarize models for immobilization as well as detailed description of tail suspension model.

  9. A model independent description of the deutron asymptotic D state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Rosa-Clot, M.

    1982-04-01

    The asymptotic deutron D state is shown to result nearly model-independently from iterated OPEP yielding a predicted value η = (0.02633 ± 0.00035). Alternatively the result leads to a determination of the πN coupling constant [ f2 = (0.0792 ± 0.0012 )]. Attention is drawn to the implications for the size of quark bags. Analogous considerations of the deutron quadrupole moment permit the first direct determination of its non-potential part from experiment ΔQ = (0.005 ± 0.004) fm 2.

  10. MHD advanced power train. Phase 1, Final report: Volume 3, Power train system description and specification for 200MWe Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    This System Design Description and Specification provides the basis for the design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Train (PT) for a nominal 200 MWe early commercial tiHD/Steam Power Plant. This document has been developed under Task 2, Conceptual Design, of Contract DE-AC22-83PC60575 and is to be used by the project as the controlling and coordinating documentation during future design efforts. Modification and revision of this specification will occur as the design matures, and tiie-Westinghouse MHD Project Manager will be the focal point for maintaining this document and issuing periodic revisions. This document is intended to delineate the power train and-power train components requirements and assumptions that properly reflect the MHD/Steam Power Plant in the PT design. The parameters discussed in this document have been established through system calculations as well as through constraints set by technology and by limitations on materials, cost, physical processes associated with MHD, and the expected operating data for the plant. The specifications listed in this document have precedence over all referenced documents. Where this specification appears to conflict with the requirements of a reference document, such conflicts should be brought to the attention of the Westinghouse MHD Project Manager for resolution.

  11. Description of interacting channel gating using a stochastic Markovian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, K; Mathias, R T; Gudowska-Nowak, E

    1996-01-01

    Single-channel recordings from membrane patches frequently exhibit multiple conductance levels. In some preparations, the steady-state probabilities of observing these levels do not follow a binomial distribution. This behavior has been reported in sodium channels, potassium channels, acetylcholine receptor channels and gap junction channels. A non-binomial distribution suggests interaction of the channels or the presence of channels or the presence of channels with different open probabilities. However, the current trace sometimes exhibits single transitions spanning several levels. Since the probability of simultaneous transitions of independent channels is infinitesimally small, such observations strongly suggest a cooperative gating behavior. We present a Markov model to describe the cooperative gating of channels using only the all-points current amplitude histograms for the probability of observing the various conductance levels. We investigate the steady-state (or equilibrium) properties of a system of N channels and provide a scheme to express all the probabilities in terms of just two parameters. The main feature of our model is that lateral interaction of channels gives rise to cooperative gating. Another useful feature is the introduction of the language of graph theory which can potentially provide a different avenue to study ion channel kinetics. We write down explicit expressions for systems of two, three and four channels and provide a procedure to describe the system of N channels.

  12. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  13. Plant parameters for plant functional groups of western rangelands to enable process-based simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional environmental assessments with process-based models require realistic estimates of plant parameters for the primary plant functional groups in the region. “Functional group” in this context is an operational term, based on similarities in plant type and in plant parameter values. Likewise...

  14. Modeling Wood Encroachment in Abandoned Grasslands in the Eifel National Park - Model Description and Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Hudjetz

    Full Text Available The degradation of natural and semi-natural landscapes has become a matter of global concern. In Germany, semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species-rich habitat types but have suffered heavily from changes in land use. After abandonment, the course of succession at a specific site is often difficult to predict because many processes interact. In order to support decision making when managing semi-natural grasslands in the Eifel National Park, we built the WoodS-Model (Woodland Succession Model. A multimodeling approach was used to integrate vegetation dynamics in both the herbaceous and shrub/tree layer. The cover of grasses and herbs was simulated in a compartment model, whereas bushes and trees were modelled in an individual-based manner. Both models worked and interacted in a spatially explicit, raster-based landscape. We present here the model description, parameterization and testing. We show highly detailed projections of the succession of a semi-natural grassland including the influence of initial vegetation composition, neighborhood interactions and ungulate browsing. We carefully weighted the single processes against each other and their relevance for landscape development under different scenarios, while explicitly considering specific site conditions. Model evaluation revealed that the model is able to emulate successional patterns as observed in the field as well as plausible results for different population densities of red deer. Important neighborhood interactions such as seed dispersal, the protection of seedlings from browsing ungulates by thorny bushes, and the inhibition of wood encroachment by the herbaceous layer, have been successfully reproduced. Therefore, not only a detailed model but also detailed initialization turned out to be important for spatially explicit projections of a given site. The advantage of the WoodS-Model is that it integrates these many mutually interacting processes of succession.

  15. Generalized elastic model yields a fractional Langevin equation description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloni, Alessandro; Chechkin, Aleksei; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-04-23

    Starting from a generalized elastic model which accounts for the stochastic motion of several physical systems such as membranes, (semi)flexible polymers, and fluctuating interfaces among others, we derive the fractional Langevin equation (FLE) for a probe particle in such systems, in the case of thermal initial conditions. We show that this FLE is the only one fulfilling the fluctuation-dissipation relation within a new family of fractional Brownian motion equations. The FLE for the time-dependent fluctuations of the donor-acceptor distance in a protein is shown to be recovered. When the system starts from nonthermal conditions, the corresponding FLE, which does not fulfill the fluctuation-dissipation relation, is derived.

  16. Solitonic description of interface profiles in competition models

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, T; Menezes, J

    2014-01-01

    We consider the spatial patterns provided by mean field numerical simulations for two competing species. As all individuals have the same rate of mobility, reproduction and competition, interfaces of empty spaces separating domains of single species are formed by a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking. We construct a Lagrangian formalism for studying the static profile of such interfaces by means of a scalar field theory framework. We identify the number density of empty spaces created by the competition interactions with a function of the energy density in scalar field systems. We then present a potential with $Z_2$ symmetry, which leads to differential equations whose solitonic solutions describe interface profile. Finally, we compare the theoretical results with data from one-dimensional numerical simulation of the Lotka-Volterra equations and show that our model fits well the properties of interfaces.

  17. Parallel community climate model: Description and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.B.; Flanery, R.E.; Semeraro, B.D.; Worley, P.H. [and others

    1996-07-15

    This report gives an overview of a parallel version of the NCAR Community Climate Model, CCM2, implemented for MIMD massively parallel computers using a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallel implementation was developed on an Intel iPSC/860 with 128 processors and on the Intel Delta with 512 processors, and the initial target platform for the production version of the code is the Intel Paragon with 2048 processors. Because the implementation uses a standard, portable message-passing libraries, the code has been easily ported to other multiprocessors supporting a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallelization strategy used is to decompose the problem domain into geographical patches and assign each processor the computation associated with a distinct subset of the patches. With this decomposition, the physics calculations involve only grid points and data local to a processor and are performed in parallel. Using parallel algorithms developed for the semi-Lagrangian transport, the fast Fourier transform and the Legendre transform, both physics and dynamics are computed in parallel with minimal data movement and modest change to the original CCM2 source code. Sequential or parallel history tapes are written and input files (in history tape format) are read sequentially by the parallel code to promote compatibility with production use of the model on other computer systems. A validation exercise has been performed with the parallel code and is detailed along with some performance numbers on the Intel Paragon and the IBM SP2. A discussion of reproducibility of results is included. A user`s guide for the PCCM2 version 2.1 on the various parallel machines completes the report. Procedures for compilation, setup and execution are given. A discussion of code internals is included for those who may wish to modify and use the program in their own research.

  18. Effects of ionic strength and ion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solon, Kimberly; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Mbamba, Christian Kazadi

    2015-01-01

    ) and ion pairing on modelling of anaerobic digestion processes in such plant-wide models of wastewater treatment. Using the BSM2 as a case study with a number of model variants and cationic load scenarios, this paper presents the effects of an improved physico-chemical description on model predictions....... The paper describes: 1) how the anaerobic digester performance is affected by physico-chemical corrections; 2) the effect on pH and the anaerobic digestion products (CO2, CH4 and H2); and, 3) how these variations are propagated from the sludge treatment to the water line. Results at high ionic strength......Plant-wide models of wastewater treatment (such as the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 or BSM2) are gaining popularity for use in holistic virtual studies of treatment plant control and operations. The objective of this study is to show the influence of ionic strength (as activity corrections...

  19. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H[2]Sim) technical description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Kamery, William; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.; Lutz, Andrew E.; Rosthal, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to become an integral part of our energy transportation and heat and power sectors in the coming decades and offers a possible solution to many of the problems associated with a heavy reliance on oil and other fossil fuels. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H2Sim) was developed to provide a high level, internally consistent, strategic tool for evaluating the economic and environmental trade offs of alternative hydrogen production, storage, transport and end use options in the year 2020. Based on the model's default assumptions, estimated hydrogen production costs range from 0.68 $/kg for coal gasification to as high as 5.64 $/kg for centralized electrolysis using solar PV. Coal gasification remains the least cost option if carbon capture and sequestration costs ($0.16/kg) are added. This result is fairly robust; for example, assumed coal prices would have to more than triple or the assumed capital cost would have to increase by more than 2.5 times for natural gas reformation to become the cheaper option. Alternatively, assumed natural gas prices would have to fall below $2/MBtu to compete with coal gasification. The electrolysis results are highly sensitive to electricity costs, but electrolysis only becomes cost competitive with other options when electricity drops below 1 cent/kWhr. Delivered 2020 hydrogen costs are likely to be double the estimated production costs due to the inherent difficulties associated with storing, transporting, and dispensing hydrogen due to its low volumetric density. H2Sim estimates distribution costs ranging from 1.37 $/kg (low distance, low production) to 3.23 $/kg (long distance, high production volumes, carbon sequestration). Distributed hydrogen production options, such as on site natural gas, would avoid some of these costs. H2Sim compares the expected 2020 per mile driving costs (fuel, capital, maintenance, license, and registration) of current technology internal combustion engine (ICE

  20. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 1: Model description and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. CAFE integrates all key processes, including turbulent diffusion, emission, deposition and chemistry, throughout the forest canopy and mixed layer. It is the first model of its kind to incorporate the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM and a suite of reactions for the oxidation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, providing a more comprehensive description of the oxidative chemistry occurring within and above the forest. We use CAFE to simulate a young Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA. Utilizing meteorological constraints from the BEARPEX-2007 field campaign, we assess the sensitivity of modeled fluxes to parameterizations of diffusion, laminar sublayer resistance and radiation extinction. To characterize the general chemical environment of this forest, we also present modeled mixing ratio profiles of biogenic hydrocarbons, hydrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen. The vertical profiles of these species demonstrate a range of structures and gradients that reflect the interplay of physical and chemical processes within the forest canopy, which can influence net exchange.

  1. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 1: Model description and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. CAFE integrates all key processes, including turbulent diffusion, emission, deposition and chemistry, throughout the forest canopy and mixed layer. CAFE utilizes the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM and is the first model of its kind to incorporate a suite of reactions for the oxidation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, providing a more comprehensive description of the oxidative chemistry occurring within and above the forest. We use CAFE to simulate a young Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA. Utilizing meteorological constraints from the BEARPEX-2007 field campaign, we assess the sensitivity of modeled fluxes to parameterizations of diffusion, laminar sublayer resistance and radiation extinction. To characterize the general chemical environment of this forest, we also present modeled mixing ratio profiles of biogenic hydrocarbons, hydrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen. The vertical profiles of these species demonstrate a range of structures and gradients that reflect the interplay of physical and chemical processes within the forest canopy, which can influence net exchange.

  2. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for conceptual data modeling. It also raises the question of how existing conceptual models using ER, UML or ORM could be translated into Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics that have proved to be particularly appropriate for formalizing...

  3. Representing plant hydraulics in a global Earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models need improvement to reproduce observed seasonal and diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Model water stress parameterizations lag behind the plant physiology literature. A plant hydraulics model is developed and deployed in a global Earth system model (NCAR CESM 1.2.2 with CLM 4.5). Assimilation and transpiration are attenuated according to literature cavitation curves. Water stress is evaluated based on plant functional type hydraulic parameters forced by soil moisture and atmospheric conditions. Resolving the plant water status allows for modelling divergent strategies for water stress. The case of isohydric versus anisohydric species is presented, showing that including plant hydraulic traits alter modelled photosynthesis and transpiration.

  4. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  5. Software for Simulation of Power Plant Processes. Part B - Program Description and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modelling of energy systems has been increasingly more important. In particular the dynamic behaviour is critical when operating the systems closer to the limits (either of the process, the materials, the emissions or the economics, etc.). This enforces strong requirements on both the models and ...... of the energy system simulator DNA and a short tricky example showing that too simple models may result in unexpected problems....

  6. Vehicle Modeling for use in the CAFE model: Process description and modeling assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a process that, at a minimum, provides more robust information that can be used to calibrate inputs applicable under the CAFE model’s existing structure. The project will be more fully successful if a process can be developed that minimizes the need for decision trees and replaces the synergy factors by inputs provided directly from a vehicle simulation tool. The report provides a description of the process that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory and implemented in Autonomie.

  7. An ion species model for positive ion sources - part I description of the model

    CERN Document Server

    Surrey, E

    2014-01-01

    A one dimensional model of the magnetic multipole volume plasma source has been developed for use in intense ion/neutral atom beam injectors. The model uses plasma transport coefficients for particle and energy flow to create a detailed description of the plasma parameters along an axis parallel to that of the extracted beam. Primarily constructed for applications to neutral beam injection systems on fusion devices, the model concentrates on the hydrogenic isotopes but can be extended to any gas by substitution of the relevant masses, cross sections and rate coefficients. The model considers the flow of fast ionizing electrons that create the ratios of the three hydrogenic isotope ion species, H+, H2 +, H3 + (and similarly for deuterium and tritium) as they flow towards the beam extraction electrode, together with the production of negative hydrogenic ions through volume processes. The use of detailed energy balance in the discharge allows the determination of the fraction of the gas density that is in an ato...

  8. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  9. Mass balance-based plant-wide wastewater treatment plant models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... Mass balance-based plant-wide wastewater treatment plant models – Part ... organics under anaerobic conditions .... which limit the capacity of the WWTP. ..... Thermophilic Heat Treatment on the Anaerobic Digestibility of Pri-.

  10. Functional–structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Godin, Christophe; DeJong, Theodore M.; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2014-01-01

    A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional–structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes. PMID:25469374

  11. Functional-structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Godin, Christophe; DeJong, Theodore M; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2014-09-01

    A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional-structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes.

  12. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Theodore M; Da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2011-10-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant’s structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whole plants and plant communities. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum from algae to trees. FSPM is highly interdisciplinary and involves scientists with backgrounds in plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant morphology, mathematics, computer science, cellular biology, ecology and agronomy. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers that provide examples of comprehensive functional–structural models, models of key processes such as partitioning of resources, software for modelling plants and plant environments, data acquisition and processing techniques and applications of functional–structural plant models for agronomic purposes.

  13. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  14. Coupling of Groundwater Transport and Plant Uptake Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances...... to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out, in order to estimate concentrations in the soilplant- air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater....

  15. Mathematical modelling of plant water and nutrient uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Tiina

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation I will describe a model of plant water and nutrient uptake and how to translate this model and experimental data from the single root scale to the root branching structure scale. The model starts at the single root scale and describes the water and nutrient movement in the soil using Richards' equation (water uptake) and diffusion-convection equation (nutrient uptake). The water and nutrient uptake in the single root scale model is represented by boundary conditions. In the case of nutrient uptake this has the form of a non-linear Michaelis-Menten uptake law and in the case of water this is given by a soil-xylem pressure difference boundary condition. The flow of water in the xylem is modeled as Poiseuille flow. We solve the single root scale models using the analytic approximate technique of asymptotic expansions similar to Oseen expansions known from fluid dynamics. We will then discuss how to use the analytic expression to estimate the water and nutrient uptake by growing root branching systems. We model the growth of the root system using a dynamic population model to describe the branching and elongation of roots in the branching system. This root branching population model results in a hyperbolic equation similar to age dependent population models and it can be solved fully analytically using the method of characteristics. Thus we have a fully analytic description of the root branching system evolution. We use this branching model to estimate the nutrient uptake in a scenario when the competition between subbranches is small, i.e., as it is in the case of phosphate, potassium and arsenic. We compare our approximate analytic model to a full 3d simulation of the root system phosphate uptake and find that the analytic model almost perfectly reproduces the 3d numerical model. In addition the analytic model can be included in larger field/catchment/climate scale models something which is not practically possible with the numerical simulations

  16. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF Geologic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hakami, Eva [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Halvarson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar [Sweco VBB/VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden); Wahlgren, C.H. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline

  17. Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, A. D.

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines?. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  18. Wind turbine blockset in Saber. General overview and description of the models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project “Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines”. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  19. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  20. Effects of Modeling Instruction on Descriptive Writing and Observational Skills in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Logsdon, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Before science can be completely understood, one of the fundamental skills that must be developed is observation. Improving descriptive writing and investigating students' observational skills in the classroom is the purpose of this study. The study was designed to determine if such skills, practiced through modeling activities, serve as a…

  1. The Relationship between BIBFRAME and OCLC's Linked-Data Model of Bibliographic Description: A Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godby, Carol Jean

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a proposed alignment between BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) and a model being explored by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) with extensions proposed by the Schema Bib Extend project, a Worldwide Web Consortium sponsored (W3C-sponsored) community group tasked with enhancing Schema.org to the description of…

  2. A Short Introduction to Model Selection, Kolmogorov Complexity and Minimum Description Length (MDL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The concept of overtting in model selection is explained and demon- strated. After providing some background information on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a short explanation of Minimum Description Length and error minimization. We conclude with a discussion of the typical

  3. Multi-model Music Content Description and Retrieval Using IEEE 1599 XML Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pinto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The new format IEEE 1599 for music and audio content description defines a standard for the representation of retrieval models within music and music/audio formats that makes use of XML documents as content descriptors. In this article, it is described how music/audio semantics can be actually represented within the Structural Layer of IEEE 1599, thanks to the introduction of novel Music Information Retrieval (MIR objects that can be exploited by music search engines. A complete description of MIR objects is provided and it is shown how they can be used to embed metadata relative to specific music retrieval models, thus allowing for the description of music content in different retrieval contexts. To this aim, a new concept for MIR Model is introduced together with its formalization and tools provided by category theory. The role of MIR objects and morphisms in music content description and retrieval is explained. Furthermore, a concrete example is given with the implementation of a graph-based model within the IEEE 1599 framework.

  4. Effects of Modeling Instruction on Descriptive Writing and Observational Skills in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Logsdon, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Before science can be completely understood, one of the fundamental skills that must be developed is observation. Improving descriptive writing and investigating students' observational skills in the classroom is the purpose of this study. The study was designed to determine if such skills, practiced through modeling activities, serve as a way to…

  5. Effects of Modeling Instruction on Descriptive Writing and Observational Skills in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Logsdon, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Before science can be completely understood, one of the fundamental skills that must be developed is observation. Improving descriptive writing and investigating students' observational skills in the classroom is the purpose of this study. The study was designed to determine if such skills, practiced through modeling activities, serve as a way to…

  6. Crop plants as models for understanding plant adaptation and diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M Olsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of Darwin, biologists have understood the promise of crop plants and their wild relatives for providing insight into the mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. The intense selection imposed by our ancestors during plant domestication and subsequent crop improvement has generated remarkable transformations of plant phenotypes. Unlike evolution in natural settings, descendent and antecedent conditions for crop plants are often both extant, providing opportunities for direct comparisons through crossing and other experimental approaches. Moreover, since domestication has repeatedly generated a suite of domestication syndrome traits that are shared among crops, opportunities exist for gaining insight into the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie parallel adaptive evolution. Advances in our understanding of the genetic architecture of domestication-related traits have emerged from combining powerful molecular technologies with advanced experimental designs, including nested association mapping, genome-wide association studies, population genetic screens for signatures of selection, and candidate gene approaches. These studies may be combined with high-throughput evaluations of the various omics involved in trait transformation, revealing a diversity of underlying causative mutations affecting phenotypes and their downstream propagation through biological networks. We summarize the state of our knowledge of the mutational spectrum that generates phenotypic novelty in domesticated plant species, and our current understanding of how domestication can reshape gene expression networks and emergent phenotypes. An exploration of traits that have been subject to similar selective pressures across crops (e.g., flowering time suggests that a diversity of targeted genes and causative mutational changes can underlie parallel adaptation in the context of crop evolution.

  7. Plant growth simulation for landscape scale hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape scale hydrologic models can be improved by incorporating realistic, process-oriented plant models for simulating crops, grasses, and woody species. The objective of this project was to present some approaches for plant modeling applicable to hydrologic models like SWAT that can affect the...

  8. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing......), (ii) the special relationship between localizing and discourse-referential modifiers (section 5), and (iii) semantic and morpho-syntactic parallels between modifier categories in the noun phrase and the clause (section 6). In addition this sample-based typological study shows (contra Hawkins...

  9. A model for grain growth based on the novel description of dendrite shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wodo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We use novel description of dendritic shape in the micro solid phase growth model. The model describes evolution of both primary solid solution dendrite and eutectic that forms between arms and grains in the last stage of solidification. Obtained results show that our approach can be used in grain growth model to determine more reliable eutectic distribution. In the paper no kinetics connected with the eutectic transformation is taken into account. However, this does not affect the eutectic distribution because at the beginning of eutectic reaction all liquid phase was assumed to fully transform into eutectic. Results for solid phase growth model based on this description are presented. The obtained results of eutectic distribution are especially important in the hypoeutectic alloy solidification case, where the eutectic grains grow between formed solid solution grains. Thus, the distribution of solid solution grain becomes crucial due to its influence on the delay in solid fraction increase of eutectic grains.

  10. Mathematical modeling of heat transfer in plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnikov K.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conductive, convective and radiation heat exchange process in a natural system including plants aggregation, air lower layer and ground upper layer, is examined. The mathematical model of process is formulated in 1d unsteady approach. The numerical simulation of plants aggregation cooling is performed for the case of a radiation frost. It is found up that mutual influence of plants in an aggregation on the heat exchange with environment grows with the increase of plants size and plants number per ground area. The influence leads to that lower parts of plants are cooled slower, while upper parts are cooled faster. The estimations are made for the quantity of heat emitted in a thermogenic plant that is enough to prevent the plant cold stress. It is shown that in presence of enforced air flow the rate of plants cooling is noticeably lower, as well as the quantity of heat enough to prevent the plant cold stress.

  11. Time evolution of entropy in a growth model: Dependence on the description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Choi, Jungzae; Choi, Moo Young; Yoon, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    Entropy plays a key role in the statistical physics of complex systems, which in general exhibit diverse aspects of emergence on different scales. However, how entropy varies with the coarsegraining level and the description scale still remains not fully resolved. In this paper, we consider a Yule-type growth model, where each element is characterized by its size being either continuous or discrete. Entropy is then defined directly from the probability distribution of the states of all elements, as well as from the size distribution of the system. Probing in detail their relations and time evolutions, we find that heterogeneity, in addition to correlations between elements, can induce loss of information during the coarse-graining procedure. Another revelation is that the expansion of the size space domain depends on the description level, leading to a difference between the continuous and the discrete descriptions.

  12. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....

  13. Methodological and musicological investigation of the System & Contrast model for musical form description

    OpenAIRE

    Deruty, Emmanuel; Bimbot, Frédéric; Van Wymeersch, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The semiotic description of music structure aims at representing the high-level organization of music pieces in a concise, generic and reproducible way as a low-rate stream of arbitrary symbols from a limited alphabet, which results into a sequence of " semiotic units ". In this context, the purpose of the System & Contrast model is to address the internal organization of the semiotic units. In this report, the System & Contrast model is approached from different angles in relation to varied ...

  14. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-qin Li; Lan Shuai; Xian-yi Cheng; Zhen-min Tang; Jing-yu Yang

    2005-01-01

    At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from c...

  15. System Design Description and Requirements for Modeling the Off-Gas Systems for Fuel Recycling Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Jack D. Law; Troy J. Tranter

    2010-08-01

    This document provides descriptions of the off-gases evolved during spent nuclear fuel processing and the systems used to capture the gases of concern. Two reprocessing techniques are discussed, namely aqueous separations and electrochemical (pyrochemical) processing. The unit operations associated with each process are described in enough detail so that computer models to mimic their behavior can be developed. The document also lists the general requirements for the desired computer models.

  16. Classical mathematical models for description and prediction of experimental tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Benzekry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1 to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2 to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3 to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (≥80% extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (≥70% beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic.

  17. The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Model Description, Integration and Testing of the Transport Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.A.; Tannahill, J.R.; Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S.; Bergmann, D.; Proctor, D.; Rodriquez, J.M.; Lin, S.J.; Rood, R.B.; Prather, M.J.; Rasch, P.J.; Considine, D.B.; Ramaroson, R.; Kawa, S.R.

    2000-04-25

    We describe the three dimensional global stratospheric chemistry model developed under the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) to assess the possible environmental consequences from the emissions of a fleet of proposed high speed civil transport aircraft. This model was developed through a unique collaboration of the members of the GMI team. Team members provided computational modules representing various physical and chemical processes, and analysis of simulation results through extensive comparison to observation. The team members' modules were integrated within a computational framework that allowed transportability and simulations on massively parallel computers. A unique aspect of this model framework is the ability to interchange and intercompare different submodules to assess the sensitivity of numerical algorithms and model assumptions to simulation results. In this paper, we discuss the important attributes of the GMI effort, describe the GMI model computational framework and the numerical modules representing physical and chemical processes. As an application of the concept, we illustrate an analysis of the impact of advection algorithms on the dispersion of a NO{sub y}-like source in the stratosphere which mimics that of a fleet of commercial supersonic transports (High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)) flying between 17 and 20 kilometers.

  18. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  19. NONLINEAR MODELS FOR DESCRIPTION OF CACAO FRUIT GROWTH WITH ASSUMPTION VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL AUGUSTO MUNIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. is an important fruit in the Brazilian economy, which is mainly cultivated in the southern State of Bahia. The optimal stage for harvesting is a major factor for fruit quality and the knowledge on its growth curves can help, especially in identifying the ideal maturation stage for harvesting. Nonlinear regression models have been widely used for description of growth curves. However, several studies in this subject do not consider the residual analysis, the existence of a possible dependence between longitudinal observations, or the sample variance heterogeneity, compromising the modeling quality. The objective of this work was to compare the fit of nonlinear regression models, considering residual analysis and assumption violations, in the description of the cacao (clone Sial-105 fruit growth. The data evaluated were extracted from Brito and Silva (1983, who conducted the experiment in the Cacao Research Center, Ilheus, State of Bahia. The variables fruit length, diameter and volume as a function of fruit age were studied. The use of weighting and incorporation of residual dependencies was efficient, since the modeling became more consistent, improving the model fit. Considering the first-order autoregressive structure, when needed, leads to significant reduction in the residual standard deviation, making the estimates more reliable. The Logistic model was the most efficient for the description of the cacao fruit growth.

  20. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Eva (SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  1. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  2. Fast Visual Modeling for Plant Based on Real Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-feng; ZHU Qing-sheng; CAO Yu-kun; LIU Yin-bin; HE Xi-ping

    2004-01-01

    Structures of natural plants are complex and difficult to model. This paper proposes a fast visual modeling for plants based on a small set of images, and establishes a reasonable plant model.Based on knowledge about growth patterns of the plant, image segmentation and 3D reconstruction are first performed to construct the plant skeleton (trunk and major branches), from which the remainder of the plant grows. Then the system produces the realistic plant model images based on image synthesis and validation. It is unnecessary to acquire the complex structure (such as the complex production rules of L-systems). The method provides a high degree of control over the final shape by image validation,resulting in realistic reconstruction.

  3. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  4. Relating harmonic and projective descriptions of N=2 nonlinear sigma models

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers have established the relationship between projective superspace and a complexified version of harmonic superspace. We extend this construction to the case of general nonlinear sigma models in both frameworks. Using an analogy with Hamiltonian mechanics, we demonstrate how the Hamiltonian structure of the harmonic model and the symplectic structure of the projective model naturally arise from a single unifying action on a complexified version of harmonic superspace. This links the harmonic and projective descriptions of hyperkahler target spaces. For two examples, we show how to derive the projective superspace solutions for the Taub-NUT and Eguchi-Hanson models from the harmonic superspace solutions.

  5. Development of Semantic Description for Multiscale Models of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioł, Piotr; Regulski, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    We present a process of semantic meta-model development for data management in an adaptable multiscale modeling framework. The main problems in ontology design are discussed, and a solution achieved as a result of the research is presented. The main concepts concerning the application and data management background for multiscale modeling were derived from the AM3 approach—object-oriented Agile multiscale modeling methodology. The ontological description of multiscale models enables validation of semantic correctness of data interchange between submodels. We also present a possibility of using the ontological model as a supervisor in conjunction with a multiscale model controller and a knowledge base system. Multiscale modeling formal ontology (MMFO), designed for describing multiscale models' data and structures, is presented. A need for applying meta-ontology in the MMFO development process is discussed. Examples of MMFO application in describing thermo-mechanical treatment of metal alloys are discussed. Present and future applications of MMFO are described.

  6. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 1: MODEL DESCRIPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerosol component of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is designed to be an efficient and economical depiction of aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere. The approach taken represents the particle size distribution as the superposition of three lognormal subdis...

  7. Improved object optimal synthetic description, modeling, learning, and discrimination by GEOGINE computational kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A.; Dacquino, Gianfranco

    2005-03-01

    GEOGINE (GEOmetrical enGINE), a state-of-the-art OMG (Ontological Model Generator) based on n-D Tensor Invariants for n-Dimensional shape/texture optimal synthetic representation, description and learning, was presented in previous conferences elsewhere recently. Improved computational algorithms based on the computational invariant theory of finite groups in Euclidean space and a demo application is presented. Progressive model automatic generation is discussed. GEOGINE can be used as an efficient computational kernel for fast reliable application development and delivery in advanced biomedical engineering, biometric, intelligent computing, target recognition, content image retrieval, data mining technological areas mainly. Ontology can be regarded as a logical theory accounting for the intended meaning of a formal dictionary, i.e., its ontological commitment to a particular conceptualization of the world object. According to this approach, "n-D Tensor Calculus" can be considered a "Formal Language" to reliably compute optimized "n-Dimensional Tensor Invariants" as specific object "invariant parameter and attribute words" for automated n-Dimensional shape/texture optimal synthetic object description by incremental model generation. The class of those "invariant parameter and attribute words" can be thought as a specific "Formal Vocabulary" learned from a "Generalized Formal Dictionary" of the "Computational Tensor Invariants" language. Even object chromatic attributes can be effectively and reliably computed from object geometric parameters into robust colour shape invariant characteristics. As a matter of fact, any highly sophisticated application needing effective, robust object geometric/colour invariant attribute capture and parameterization features, for reliable automated object learning and discrimination can deeply benefit from GEOGINE progressive automated model generation computational kernel performance. Main operational advantages over previous

  8. Image-Based Modeling of Plants and Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Sing Bang

    2009-01-01

    Plants and trees are among the most complex natural objects. Much work has been done attempting to model them, with varying degrees of success. In this book, we review the various approaches in computer graphics, which we categorize as rule-based, image-based, and sketch-based methods. We describe our approaches for modeling plants and trees using images. Image-based approaches have the distinct advantage that the resulting model inherits the realistic shape and complexity of a real plant or tree. We use different techniques for modeling plants (with relatively large leaves) and trees (with re

  9. Descriptive and predictive evaluation of high resolution Markov chain precipitation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    . Continuous modelling of the Markov process proved attractive because of a marked decrease in the number of parameters. Inclusion of seasonality into the continuous Markov chain model proved difficult. Monte Carlo simulations with the models show that it is very difficult for all the model formulations...... to reproduce the time series on event level. Extreme events with short (10 min), medium (60 min) and long (12 h) durations were investigated because of their importance in urban hydrology. Both the descriptive likelihood based statistics and the predictive Monte Carlo simulation based statistics are valuable......A time series of tipping bucket recordings of very high temporal and volumetric resolution precipitation is modelled using Markov chain models. Both first and second‐order Markov models as well as seasonal and diurnal models are investigated and evaluated using likelihood based techniques...

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  11. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterization work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models and the coupled discrete basin (CDB-) model employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, an encompassing measurement program entailing data from six stations (of which two are close) has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR-) model of the Laxemar- Simpevarp study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR-) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this, it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain and further influence the water exchange with the interior, more secluded, basins. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that some periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Interference with ship traffic and lack of absolute calibration of the salinity meters necessitated dismissal of measurement data too. In this study so-called Mesan data have been consistently used for the meteorological forcing of the 3D-models. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the

  12. The global chemistry transport model TM5: description and evaluation of the tropospheric chemistry version 3.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijnen, V.; Williams, J.; van Weele, M.; van Noije, T.; Krol, M.; Dentener, F.; Segers, A.; Houweling, S.; Peters, W.; de Laat, J.; Boersma, F.; Bergamaschi, P.; van Velthoven, P.; Le Sager, P.; Eskes, H.; Alkemade, F.; Scheele, R.; Nédélec, P.; Pätz, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive description and benchmark evaluation of the tropospheric chemistry version of the global chemistry transport model TM5 (Tracer Model 5, version TM5-chem-v3.0). A full description is given concerning the photochemical mechanism, the interaction with aerosol, the treatment o

  13. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  14. Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, A. D.;

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines?. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  15. On the applicability of deformed jellium model to the description of metal clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Matveentsev, Anton; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to the elucidation the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties on the basis of comparison the jellium model results with those derived from experiment and within ab initio theoretical framework. On the basis of the Hartree-Fock and local......-density approximation deformed jellium model we have calculated the binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, deformation parameters and the optimized values of the Wigner-Seitz radii for neutral and singly charged sodium clusters with the number of atoms $N0$. These characteristics are compared...

  16. A descriptive model of a universe containing matter which produces gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvet, P.; Cervantes-Cota, J. (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico)); Klapp, J. (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico) Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1993-04-01

    The dynamics of the production of relative high frequency gravitational waves by astrophysical events taking place within the galaxies in the cosmological context can be well represented by a phenomenological description of the generating processes through a radiation energy profile that contains two adjustable parameters. This profile gives a relation between the total pressure and energy density of the matter generating gravitational radiation together with the waves themselves, both treated as ordinary hydrodynamic fluids. The resulting cosmological models then represent, in a descriptive way only, universes filled with two interacting fluids: on the one hand gravitational radiation, and the matter which emits it but does not reabsorb it, on the other. It is shown that the dynamic effects of the model can be significant, even if the conversion rate of matter into gravitational radiation is relatively small. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterization work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models and the coupled discrete basin (CDB-) model employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, an encompassing measurement program entailing data from six stations (of which two are close) has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR-) model of the Laxemar- Simpevarp study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR-) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this, it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain and further influence the water exchange with the interior, more secluded, basins. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that some periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Interference with ship traffic and lack of absolute calibration of the salinity meters necessitated dismissal of measurement data too. In this study so-called Mesan data have been consistently used for the meteorological forcing of the 3D-models. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the

  18. User's guide to the steel plant simulation model. [GASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.G.; Moodie, C.L.

    1976-08-01

    This is a guide to using the modified GASP IV steel plant simulation originally developed by Mackulak. It is a complex model and hopefully this guide will facilitate understanding and using the simulation. A descriptive overview of the model and presentation of the program code is the basis of this guide. Also source deck structure and input data deck set-up will be presented. It is hoped that this guide will provide a satisfactory starting point for those interested in using this model.

  19. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    CERN Document Server

    Tawa, G J; Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for solvation of classical electrostatic interactions the diele...

  20. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Rietveld; Borger, K.J.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; G. I. M. Worm

    2008-01-01

    For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a un...

  1. Description of Mixed-Phase Clouds in Weather Forecast and Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Description of Mixed-Phase Clouds in Weather Forecast...TERM GOALS To develop improved parameterizations of so-called mixed-phase stratocumulus in numerical models of weather and climate, and of their...impact on the surface energy budget over the Arctic Ocean, their impact on the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and relationships to larger

  2. Dynamic modeling of Badaling molten salt tower CSP pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang; Lu, Jiahui; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    Under the collaboration framework between EDF China R&D Centre and CAS-IEE, a preliminary numerical model of 1MWth molten salt tower solar power demonstration plant in Badaling, Beijing is presented in this paper. All key components in the plant are presented throughout detailed modules in the model according to its design specifications. Control strategies are also implemented to maintain the design system performance at transient scenario. By this model some key design figures of plant has been validated and it will be used to guide experiment set-up and plant commissioning.

  3. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assuncao, A.G.L.; Persson, D.P.; Husted, S.; Schjorring, J.K.; Alexander, R.D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are capable of inducing a range of physico-chemical and microbial modifications of the rhizosphere which can mobilize mineral nutrients or prevent toxic elements from entering the roots. Understanding how plants sense and adapt to variations in nutrient availability is essential in order to d

  4. A New Mathematical Model for Description of the Liquid Discrete Flow Within a Packed Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-shan; MU Xiao-jing; ZHENG Shao-bo; JIANG Guo-chang; XIAO Xing-guo; WANG Wen-zhong

    2008-01-01

    The molten liquid discrete flow inside a packed bed is a typical transport phenomenon in the blast furnace.As for the reportcd mathematieal models presenting the liquid discrete flow within the packed bed,there are some barriers for their application to an engineering scale-up,or some imperfections in model descriptions. To overcome these deficieneies,the effects of the packed bed on the liquid discrete flow have been divided into reststance action and dispcrsal action,and appropriate descriptions have been given for thc two actions,respectively.Consequently,a new mathematical model has been built to present the liquid discrete flow inside a coke bed in the blast furnace. The mathcmatical model can predict the distribution of liquid flux and the liquid flowing range inside the packed bed at any time.The prediction of this model accords well with the experimental data.The model will be much better for the simulation of the ironmaking process,compared with the existent model.

  5. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Atta-Boateng, Acheampong; Azihou, Akomian F.; Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Baumgartner, Aly; Binder, Brad M.; Braybrook, Siobhan A.; Chang, Cynthia; Coneva, Viktoirya; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Gehan, Malia A.; Diaz-Martinez, Diego Hernan; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Klein, Laura L.; Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Mao; Lynch, Jonathan P.; Maizel, Alexis; Maloof, Julin N.; Markelz, R. J. Cody; Martinez, Ciera C.; Miller, Laura A.; Mio, Washington; Palubicki, Wojtek; Poorter, Hendrik; Pradal, Christophe; Price, Charles A.; Puttonen, Eetu; Reese, John B.; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Spalding, Edgar P.; Sparks, Erin E.; Topp, Christopher N.; Williams, Joseph H.; Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics. PMID:28659934

  6. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics.

  7. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Atta-Boateng, Acheampong; Azihou, Akomian F; Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Baumgartner, Aly; Binder, Brad M; Braybrook, Siobhan A; Chang, Cynthia; Coneva, Viktoirya; DeWitt, Thomas J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Gehan, Malia A; Diaz-Martinez, Diego Hernan; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Klein, Laura L; Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Mao; Lynch, Jonathan P; Maizel, Alexis; Maloof, Julin N; Markelz, R J Cody; Martinez, Ciera C; Miller, Laura A; Mio, Washington; Palubicki, Wojtek; Poorter, Hendrik; Pradal, Christophe; Price, Charles A; Puttonen, Eetu; Reese, John B; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Spalding, Edgar P; Sparks, Erin E; Topp, Christopher N; Williams, Joseph H; Chitwood, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics.

  8. A general pairwise interaction model provides an accurate description of in vivo transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Santolini

    Full Text Available The identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs on genomic DNA is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting regulatory elements in gene networks. TFBS motifs are commonly described by Position Weight Matrices (PWMs, in which each DNA base pair contributes independently to the transcription factor (TF binding. However, this description ignores correlations between nucleotides at different positions, and is generally inaccurate: analysing fly and mouse in vivo ChIPseq data, we show that in most cases the PWM model fails to reproduce the observed statistics of TFBSs. To overcome this issue, we introduce the pairwise interaction model (PIM, a generalization of the PWM model. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy and explicitly describes pairwise correlations between nucleotides at different positions, while being otherwise as unconstrained as possible. It is mathematically equivalent to considering a TF-DNA binding energy that depends additively on each nucleotide identity at all positions in the TFBS, like the PWM model, but also additively on pairs of nucleotides. We find that the PIM significantly improves over the PWM model, and even provides an optimal description of TFBS statistics within statistical noise. The PIM generalizes previous approaches to interdependent positions: it accounts for co-variation of two or more base pairs, and predicts secondary motifs, while outperforming multiple-motif models consisting of mixtures of PWMs. We analyse the structure of pairwise interactions between nucleotides, and find that they are sparse and dominantly located between consecutive base pairs in the flanking region of TFBS. Nonetheless, interactions between pairs of non-consecutive nucleotides are found to play a significant role in the obtained accurate description of TFBS statistics. The PIM is computationally tractable, and provides a general framework that should be useful for describing and predicting

  9. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    on the conservation of water resources, this paper aims to propose an automation model of an Effluent Treatment Plant, using Ladder programming language and supervisory systems.

  10. A computationally efficient description of heterogeneous freezing: A simplified version of the Soccer ball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Ervens, Barbara; Clauss, Tina; Voigtländer, Jens; Wex, Heike; Hartmann, Susan; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In a recent study, the Soccer ball model (SBM) was introduced for modeling and/or parameterizing heterogeneous ice nucleation processes. The model applies classical nucleation theory. It allows for a consistent description of both apparently singular and stochastic ice nucleation behavior, by distributing contact angles over the nucleation sites of a particle population assuming a Gaussian probability density function. The original SBM utilizes the Monte Carlo technique, which hampers its usage in atmospheric models, as fairly time-consuming calculations must be performed to obtain statistically significant results. Thus, we have developed a simplified and computationally more efficient version of the SBM. We successfully used the new SBM to parameterize experimental nucleation data of, e.g., bacterial ice nucleation. Both SBMs give identical results; however, the new model is computationally less expensive as confirmed by cloud parcel simulations. Therefore, it is a suitable tool for describing heterogeneous ice nucleation processes in atmospheric models.

  11. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  12. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  13. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation: state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Henze, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    This review paper focuses on modelling of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). White-box modelling is widely applied in this field, with learning, design and process optimisation as the main applications. The introduction of the ASM model family by the IWA task group was of great importance......, providing researchers and practitioners with a standardised. set of basis models. This paper introduces the nowadays most frequently used white-box models for description of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal activated sludge processes. These models are mainly applicable to municipal wastewater...... systems, but can be adapted easily to specific situations such as the presence of industrial wastewater. Some of the main model assumptions are highlighted, and their implications for practical model application are discussed. A step-wise procedure leads from the model purpose definition to a calibrated...

  14. Computational Modeling of Auxin: A Foundation for Plant Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morales-Tapia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of agriculture, humans have relied on the cultivation of plants to satisfy our increasing demand for food, natural products, and other raw materials. As we understand more about plant development, we can better manipulate plants to fulfill our particular needs.Auxins are a class of simple metabolites that coordinate many developmental activities like growth and the appearance of functional structures in plants. Computational modeling of auxin has proven to be an excellent tool in elucidating many mechanisms that underlie these developmental events. Due to the complexity of these mechanisms, current modelling efforts are concerned only with single phenomena focused on narrow spatial and developmental contexts; but a general model of plant development could be assembled by integrating the insights from all of them.In this perspective, we summarize the current collection of auxin-driven computational models, focusing on how they could come together into a single model for plant development. A model of this nature would allow researchers to test hypotheses in silico and yield accurate predictions about the behavior of a plant under a given set of physical and biochemical constraints. It would also provide a solid foundation towards the establishment of plant engineering, a proposed discipline intended to enable the design and production of plants that exhibit an arbitrarily defined set of features.

  15. A model of plant strategies in fluvial hydrosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Tabacchi, E.; Hupp, C.; Puijalon, S.; Rostan, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    1. We propose a model of plant strategies in temperate fluvial hydrosystems that considers the hydraulic and geomorphic features that control plant recruitment, establishment and growth in river floodplains. 2. The model describes first how the disturbance gradient and the grain-size of the river be

  16. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...... functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained...

  17. Systems biology of bacterial nitrogen fixation: High-throughput technology and its integrative description with constraint-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resendis-Antonio Osbaldo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial nitrogen fixation is the biological process by which atmospheric nitrogen is uptaken by bacteroids located in plant root nodules and converted into ammonium through the enzymatic activity of nitrogenase. In practice, this biological process serves as a natural form of fertilization and its optimization has significant implications in sustainable agricultural programs. Currently, the advent of high-throughput technology supplies with valuable data that contribute to understanding the metabolic activity during bacterial nitrogen fixation. This undertaking is not trivial, and the development of computational methods useful in accomplishing an integrative, descriptive and predictive framework is a crucial issue to decoding the principles that regulated the metabolic activity of this biological process. Results In this work we present a systems biology description of the metabolic activity in bacterial nitrogen fixation. This was accomplished by an integrative analysis involving high-throughput data and constraint-based modeling to characterize the metabolic activity in Rhizobium etli bacteroids located at the root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (bean plant. Proteome and transcriptome technologies led us to identify 415 proteins and 689 up-regulated genes that orchestrate this biological process. Taking into account these data, we: 1 extended the metabolic reconstruction reported for R. etli; 2 simulated the metabolic activity during symbiotic nitrogen fixation; and 3 evaluated the in silico results in terms of bacteria phenotype. Notably, constraint-based modeling simulated nitrogen fixation activity in such a way that 76.83% of the enzymes and 69.48% of the genes were experimentally justified. Finally, to further assess the predictive scope of the computational model, gene deletion analysis was carried out on nine metabolic enzymes. Our model concluded that an altered metabolic activity on these enzymes induced

  18. Heat exchanger modelling in central receiver solar power plant using dense particle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Gómez-García, Fabrisio; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel; Benoit, Hadrien; Flamant, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a detailed thermodynamic model for a heat exchanger (HX) working with a dense particle suspension (DPS) as heat transfer fluid (HTF) in the solar loop and water-steam as working fluid is presented. HX modelling is based on fluidized bed (FB) technology and its design has been conceived to couple solar plant using DPS as HTF and storage media with Rankine cycle for power generation. Using DPS as heat transfer fluid allows extending operating temperature range what will help to reduce thermal energy storage costs favoring higher energy densities but will also allow running power cycle at higher temperature what will increase its efficiency. Besides HX modelling description, this model will be used to reproduce solar plant performance under steady state and transient conditions.

  19. Effects of ion strength and ion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Solon, Kimberly;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the influence of ionic strength (as activity corrections) andion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion processes in wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs). Using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) as a case study, this paper presents...... the effects that an improved physico-chemical description will have on the predicted effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices. The acid-base equilibria implemented in the Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) are modified to account for non-ideal aqueous-phase chemistry. The model corrects...... processes. Results at high ionic strength demonstrate that corrections to account for non-ideal conditions lead to significant differences in predicted process performance. In addition, the paper describes: 1) how the anaerobic digester performance is affected; 2) the effect on pH and the anaerobic...

  20. Individualism in plant populations: using stochastic differential equations to model individual neighbourhood-dependent plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Schneider, Manuel K; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2008-08-01

    We study individual plant growth and size hierarchy formation in an experimental population of Arabidopsis thaliana, within an integrated analysis that explicitly accounts for size-dependent growth, size- and space-dependent competition, and environmental stochasticity. It is shown that a Gompertz-type stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, involving asymmetric competition kernels and a stochastic term which decreases with the logarithm of plant weight, efficiently describes individual plant growth, competition, and variability in the studied population. The model is evaluated within a Bayesian framework and compared to its deterministic counterpart, and to several simplified stochastic models, using distributional validation. We show that stochasticity is an important determinant of size hierarchy and that SDE models outperform the deterministic model if and only if structural components of competition (asymmetry; size- and space-dependence) are accounted for. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of plant ecology and in more general modelling situations.

  1. Plant lessons: exploring ABCB functionality through structural modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien eBailly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammalian ABCB1 proteins, narrow substrate specificity has been extensively documented for plant orthologs shown to catalyze the transport of the plant hormone, auxin. Using the crystal structures of the multidrug exporters Sav1866 and MmABCB1 as templates, we have developed structural models of plant ABCB proteins with a common architecture. Comparisons of these structures identified kingdom-specific candidate substrate-binding regions within the translocation chamber formed by the transmembrane domains of ABCBs from the model plant Arabidopsis. These results suggest an early evolutionary divergence of plant and mammalian ABCBs. Validation of these models becomes a priority for efforts to elucidate ABCB function and manipulate this class of transporters to enhance plant productivity and quality.

  2. Wind Turbine Blockset in Matlab/Simulink. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A. D.; Soerensen, P.

    This report presents a new developed Matlab/Simulink Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines? and it has been used as a general developer tool for other three simulation tools......: Saber, DIgSILENT, HAWC. The report provides first a quick overview over Matlab issues and then explains the structure of the developed toolbox. The attention in the report is mainly drawn to the description of the most important mathematical models, which have been developed in the Toolbox. Then, some...

  3. Description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, C. T.; Groom, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    A description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory model is presented. The AMCD is a momentum exchange device which is under development as an advanced control effector for spacecraft attitude control systems. The digital computer simulation of this device incorporates the following models: six degree of freedom rigid body dynamics; rim warp; controller dynamics; nonlinear distributed element axial bearings; as well as power driver and power supply current limits. An annotated FORTRAN IV source code listing of the computer program is included.

  4. An Extended Ontology Model and Ontology Checking Based on Description Logics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 蒋馥; 吴家春

    2004-01-01

    Ontology is defined as an explicit specification of a conceptualization. In this paper, an extended ontology model was constructed using description logics, which is a 5-tuples including term set, individual set, term definition set, instantiation assertion set and term restriction set. Based on the extended model, the issue on ontology checking was studied with the conclusion that the four kinds of term checking, including term satisfiability checking, term subsumption checking, term equivalence checking and term disjointness checking, can be reduced to the satisfiability checking, and satisfiability checking can be transformed into instantiation consistence checking.

  5. Description and critical environmental evaluation of the REE refining plant LAMP near Kuantan/Malaysia. Radiological and non-radiological environmental consequences of the plant's operation and its wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerhard

    2013-01-25

    The description of the critical environmental evaluation of the REE refining plant LAMP near Kuantan/Malaysia covers the radiological and non-radiological consequences of the plant operation and its waste. The Australian company Lynas plans to import ore concentrate from Australia to Malaysia and to process the concentrate in the plant LAMP in Kuantan, Malaysia. The authors have analyzed the emissions of radon over the stack, the emissions of sulfuric acid and dust over the stack, the hazards and their control in the production processes and the wastes from the production process with respect to the radiological and non-radiological toxicity.

  6. Electrical description of N2 capacitively coupled plasmas with the global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming-Lu; Lu, Yi-Jia; Cheng, Jia; Ji, Lin-Hong; Engineering Design Team

    2016-10-01

    N2 discharges in a commercial capacitively coupled plasma reactor are modelled by a combination of an equivalent circuit and the global model, for a range of gas pressure at 1 4 Torr. The ohmic and inductive plasma bulk and the capacitive sheath are represented as LCR elements, with electrical characteristics determined by plasma parameters. The electron density and electron temperature are obtained from the global model in which a Maxwellian electron distribution is assumed. Voltages and currents are recorded by a VI probe installed after the match network. Using the measured voltage as an input, the current flowing through the discharge volume is calculated from the electrical model and shows excellent agreement with the measurements. The experimentally verified electrical model provides a simple and accurate description for the relationship between the external electrical parameters and the plasma properties, which can serve as a guideline for process window planning in industrial applications.

  7. Description of a practice model for pharmacist medication review in a general practice setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mette; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, Trine Graabæk;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practical descriptions of procedures used for pharmacists' medication reviews are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe a model for medication review by pharmacists tailored to a general practice setting. METHODS: A stepwise model is described. The model is based on data from the medical chart...... and clinical or laboratory data. The medication review focuses on the diagnoses of the patient instead of the individual drugs. Patient interviews are not part of the model. The model was tested in a pilot study by conducting medical reviews on 50 polypharmacy patients (i.e. receiving 7 or more drugs...... concerned the reporting of interventions and the considerations of the GPs. 208 interventions were proposed among the 50 patients. The acceptance rate among the GPs was 82%. The most common interventions were lack of clinical or laboratory data (n=57, 27%) and drugs that should be discontinued as they had...

  8. The compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2: description and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Boucher, Olivier; Quilcaille, Yann; Tortora, Maxime; Bopp, Laurent; Hauglustaine, Didier

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive description of OSCAR v2.2, a simple Earth system model. The general philosophy of development is first explained, followed by a complete description of the model's drivers and various modules. All components of the Earth system necessary to simulate future climate change are represented in the model: the oceanic and terrestrial carbon cycles - including a book-keeping module to endogenously estimate land-use change emissions - so as to simulate the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide; the tropospheric chemistry and the natural wetlands, to simulate that of methane; the stratospheric chemistry, for nitrous oxide; 37 halogenated compounds; changing tropospheric and stratospheric ozone; the direct and indirect effects of aerosols; changes in surface albedo caused by black carbon deposition on snow and land-cover change; and the global and regional response of climate - in terms of temperature and precipitation - to all these climate forcers. Following the probabilistic framework of the model, an ensemble of simulations is made over the historical period (1750-2010). We show that the model performs well in reproducing observed past changes in the Earth system such as increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases or increased global mean surface temperature.

  9. On the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matveentsev, Anton; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to the elucidation of the applicability of the jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties. We compare the jellium model results with those derived within ab initio theoretical approaches and with experiments. On the basis of Hartree–Fock and local-density a......This work is devoted to the elucidation of the applicability of the jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties. We compare the jellium model results with those derived within ab initio theoretical approaches and with experiments. On the basis of Hartree–Fock and local......-density approximations we have calculated the binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, deformation parameters and optimized values of the Wigner–Seitz radii for neutral and singly charged sodium clusters with the number of atoms N... role of the cluster shape deformations in the formation cluster properties and quite reasonable level of applicability of the deformed jellium model. This elucidates the similarities of atomic cluster physics with the physics of atomic nuclei....

  10. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger [Galson Sciences Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference

  11. Impact of uncertainty description on assimilating hydraulic head in the MIKE SHE distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghua; Madsen, Henrik; Ridler, Marc E.; Refsgaard, Jens C.; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2015-12-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a popular data assimilation (DA) technique that has been extensively used in environmental sciences for combining complementary information from model predictions and observations. One of the major challenges in EnKF applications is the description of model uncertainty. In most hydrological EnKF applications, an ad hoc model uncertainty is defined with the aim of avoiding a collapse of the filter. The present work provides a systematic assessment of model uncertainty in DA applications based on combinations of forcing, model parameters, and state uncertainties. This is tested in a case where groundwater hydraulic heads are assimilated into a distributed and integrated catchment-scale model of the Karup catchment in Denmark. A series of synthetic data assimilation experiments are carried out to analyse the impact of different model uncertainty assumptions on the feasibility and efficiency of the assimilation. The synthetic data used in the assimilation study makes it possible to diagnose model uncertainty assumptions statistically. Besides the model uncertainty, other factors such as observation error, observation locations, and ensemble size are also analysed with respect to performance and sensitivity. Results show that inappropriate definition of model uncertainty can greatly degrade the assimilation performance, and an appropriate combination of different model uncertainty sources is advised.

  12. Statistical model of fractures and deformation zones. Preliminary site description, Laxemar subarea, version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The goal of this summary report is to document the data sources, software tools, experimental methods, assumptions, and model parameters in the discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the local model volume in Laxemar, version 1.2. The model parameters presented herein are intended for use by other project modeling teams. Individual modeling teams may elect to simplify or use only a portion of the DFN model, depending on their needs. This model is not intended to be a flow model or a mechanical model; as such, only the geometrical characterization is presented. The derivations of the hydraulic or mechanical properties of the fractures or their subsurface connectivities are not within the scope of this report. This model represents analyses carried out on particular data sets. If additional data are obtained, or values for existing data are changed or excluded, the conclusions reached in this report, and the parameter values calculated, may change as well. The model volume is divided into two subareas; one located on the Simpevarp peninsula adjacent to the power plant (Simpevarp), and one further to the west (Laxemar). The DFN parameters described in this report were determined by analysis of data collected within the local model volume. As such, the final DFN model is only valid within this local model volume and the modeling subareas (Laxemar and Simpevarp) within.

  13. Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

  14. Grammatical Conversion of Descriptive Narrative - an application of discourse analysis in conceptual modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Calway

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Fact-oriented conceptual modelling begins with the search for facts about a universe of discourse (UoD. These facts may be obtained from many sources, including information systems reports, tables, manuals and descriptive narrative both verbal and written. This paper presents some initial findings that support the use of discourse analysis techniques as an approach to developing elementary fact based sentences for information systems conceptual schema development from written text. Although this discussion paper only considers the NIAM (fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling method, the IS087 report from which the research case study is taken describes other conceptual methods for which the research contained in this paper could be applicable (e.g. Entity Relationship analysis. The case study could be modelled exactly in the form in which the text is initially found, but grammatical analysis focuses consideration on alternative, potentially better, expressions of a sentence, a theme which is described and demonstrated. As a result of having applied grammatical sentence simplification with co-ordinate clause splitting, each sentence could be expressed as a complete, finite, independent collection of declarative simple statements. The outcome from the application of the techniques described provides at a minimum a discourse analysis of descriptive narrative which will have retained its meaning and contextual integrity while at the same time providing a simplified and independent clause representation for input to the fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling procedure.

  15. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  16. General description and operation of the agro-environmental system: Crop management modeling. [Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, E.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Input for a data management system to provide farmers with information to improve crop management practices in Virginia requires monitoring of control crops at field stations, crop surveys derived from remotely sensed aircraft data, meteorological data from synchronous satellites, and details of local agricultural conditions. Presently models are under development for determining pest problems, water balance in the soil, stages of plant maturity, and optimum planting date. The status of the Cerospora leafspot model for peanut crop management is considered. Other models under development planned relate to Cylindtocladium Blackrot and Sclerotinia blight of peanuts, cyst nematode (Globerdena solanacearum) of tobacco, and red crown rot of soybeans. A software for program for estimating precipitation and solar radiation on a statewise basis is also being developed.

  17. Protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a 4-distance description of side-chain interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Yuval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation and modelling of residue-residue interactions within and between proteins is a key aspect of computational structure prediction including homology modelling, protein-protein docking, refinement of low-resolution structures, and computational protein design. Results Here we introduce a method for accurate protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a novel 4-distance description of residue-residue interaction geometry. Statistical 4-distance preferences were extracted from high-resolution protein structures and were used as a basis for a knowledge-based potential, called Hunter. We demonstrate that 4-distance description of side chain interactions can be used reliably to discriminate the native structure from a set of decoys. Hunter ranked the native structure as the top one in 217 out of 220 high-resolution decoy sets, in 25 out of 28 "Decoys 'R' Us" decoy sets and in 24 out of 27 high-resolution CASP7/8 decoy sets. The same concept was applied to side chain modelling in protein structures. On a set of very high-resolution protein structures the average RMSD was 1.47 Å for all residues and 0.73 Å for buried residues, which is in the range of attainable accuracy for a model. Finally, we show that Hunter performs as good or better than other top methods in homology modelling based on results from the CASP7 experiment. The supporting web site http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/hunter/ was developed to enable the use of Hunter and for visualization and interactive exploration of 4-distance distributions. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hunter can be used as a tool for evaluation and for accurate modelling of residue-residue interactions in protein structures. The same methodology is applicable to other areas involving high-resolution modelling of biomolecules.

  18. Irrigation Optimization by Modeling of Plant-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling is an important issue for crop management, in a general context of limited water resources and increasing concern about agricultural productivity. Methods to optimize crop irrigation should take into account the impact of water stress on plant growth and the water balance in the plant-soil-atmosphere system. In this article, we propose a methodology to solve the irrigation scheduling problem. For this purpose, a plant-soil interaction model is used to simulate the struct...

  19. Single Plant Root System Modeling under Soil Moisture Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Chen, X.; Scheibe, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    A prognostic Virtual Plant-Atmosphere-Soil System (vPASS) model is being developed that integrates comprehensively detailed mechanistic single plant modeling with microbial, atmospheric, and soil system processes in its immediate environment. Three broad areas of process module development are targeted: Incorporating models for root growth and function, rhizosphere interactions with bacteria and other organisms, litter decomposition and soil respiration into established porous media flow and reactive transport models Incorporating root/shoot transport, growth, photosynthesis and carbon allocation process models into an integrated plant physiology model Incorporating transpiration, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emission, particulate deposition and local atmospheric processes into a coupled plant/atmosphere model. The integrated plant ecosystem simulation capability is being developed as open source process modules and associated interfaces under a modeling framework. The initial focus addresses the coupling of root growth, vascular transport system, and soil under drought scenarios. Two types of root water uptake modeling approaches are tested: continuous root distribution and constitutive root system architecture. The continuous root distribution models are based on spatially averaged root development process parameters, which are relatively straightforward to accommodate in the continuum soil flow and reactive transport module. Conversely, the constitutive root system architecture models use root growth rates, root growth direction, and root branching to evolve explicit root geometries. The branching topologies require more complex data structures and additional input parameters. Preliminary results are presented for root model development and the vascular response to temporal and spatial variations in soil conditions.

  20. Quantitative plant ecology:statistical and ecological modelling of plant abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com)The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also mean...

  1. Measurement and modelling of sap flow in maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Florian; Biernath, Christian; Hoffmann, Peter; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change as well as the changing composition of the atmosphere will have an impact on future yield of agricultural plants. In order to better estimate these impacts new, mechanistic plant growth models are needed. These models should be able to dynamically reproduce the plants' reactions to modified climate state variables like temperature, atmospheric CO2-concentration and water availability. In particular, to better describe the crop response to more strongly changing water availability the simulation of plant-internal water and solute transport processes in xylem and phloem needs to be improved. Our existing water transport model consists of two coupled 1-D Richards equations to calculate water transport in the soil and in the plants. This model has already been successfully applied to single Fagus sylvatica L. trees. At present it is adapted to agricultural plants such as maize. To simulate the water transport within the plants a representation of the flow paths, i.e. the plant architecture, is required. Aboveground plant structures are obtained from terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements at different development stages. These TLSs have been executed at the lysimeter facilities of Helmholtz Zentrum München and at the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) research farm Scheyern. Additionally, an L-system model is used to simulate aboveground and belowground plant architectures. In a further step, the quality of the explicit water flow model has to be tested using measurements. The Heat-Ratio-Method has been employed to directly measure sap flow in larger maize plants during a two-months-period in summer 2013 with a resolution of 10 minutes and thus, the plants' transpiration can be assessed. Water losses from the soil are determined by measuring the weight of lysimeters. From this evapotranspiration can be calculated. Transpiration and evapotranspiration are also simulated by application of the modelling system Expert-N. This framework

  2. Equivalence of Different Descriptions for η Particle in Simplest Little Higgs Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ran; WANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    In the SU(3) simplest little Higgs model,a characteristic particle is the light pseudoscalar boson η,it can leads to interesting signals in the LHC/ILC and has been studied in the literature with different parameterizations.We show that these different descriptions for η particle are equivalent up to some SU(3) rotations as long as we suitably redefine the pseudo-Goldstone boson fields.We evaluate the necessary SU(3) rotations and build up explicit expressions for redefined fields.

  3. Uncertainty analysis of a one-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory alloy thermomechanical description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Sergio A.; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in engineering applications has increased the interest of the accuracy analysis of their thermomechanical description. This work presents an uncertainty analysis related to experimental tensile tests conducted with shape memory alloy wires. Experimental data...... are compared with numerical simulations obtained from a constitutive model with internal constraints employed to describe the thermomechanical behavior of SMAs. The idea is to evaluate if the numerical simulations are within the uncertainty range of the experimental data. Parametric analysis is also developed...

  4. Non-classical solutions of a continuum model for rock descriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikhail A.Guzev

    2014-01-01

    The strain-gradient and non-Euclidean continuum theories are employed for construction of non-classical solutions of continuum models. The linear approximation of both models’ results in identical structures in terms of their kinematic and stress characteristics. The solutions obtained in this study exhibit a critical behaviour with respect to the external loading parameter. The conclusions are obtained based on an investigation of the solution for the scalar curvature in the non-Euclidean continuum theory. The proposed analysis enables us to use different theoretical approaches for description of rock critical behaviour under different loading conditions.

  5. Database Description - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d and funding Name: Database Integration Coordination Program (FY2011-FY2013) Integration of plant databases...ency (JST) Reference(s) Article title: Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj): A Portal Website for the Integ...ration of Plant Genome-Related Databases Author name(s): Erika Asamizu, Hisako Ichi

  6. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  7. Models of cognitive behavior in nuclear power plant personnel. A feasibility study: main report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Hanes, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    This report contains the results of a feasibility study to determine if the current state of models human cognitive activities can serve as the basis for improved techniques for predicting human error in nuclear power plants emergency operations. Based on the answer to this questions, two subsequent phases of research are planned. Phase II is to develop a model of cognitive activities, and Phase III is to test the model. The feasibility study included an analysis of the cognitive activities that occur in emergency operations and an assessment of the modeling concepts/tools available to capture these cognitive activities. The results indicated that a symbolic processing (or artificial intelligence) model of cognitive activities in nuclear power plants is both desirable and feasible. This cognitive model can be built upon the computational framework provided by an existing artificial intelligence system for medical problem solving called Caduceus. The resulting cognitive model will increase the capability to capture the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessments studies. Volume I summarizes the major findings and conclusions of the study. Volume II provides a complete description of the methods and results, including a synthesis of the cognitive activities that occur during emergency operations, and a literature review on cognitive modeling relevant to nuclear power plants. 112 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  9. Stoichiometric plant-herbivore models and their interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Huisman, J.; Elser, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to mechanistically formulate a math-ematically tractable model that specifically deals with the dynamics of plant-herbivore interaction in a closed phosphorus (P)-limiting environment. The key to our approach is the employment of the plant cell P quota and the Droop

  10. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  11. Editorial: Plant organ abscission: from models to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shedding of plant organs is a highly coordinated process essential for both vegetative and reproductive development (Addicott, 1982; Sexton and Roberts, 1982; Roberts et al., 2002; Leslie et al., 2007; Roberts and Gonzalez-Carranza, 2007; Estornell et al., 2013). Research with model plants, name...

  12. The development of Arabidopsis as a plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Meinke, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Arabidopsis thaliana emerged as the model organism of choice for research in plant biology. A consensus was reached about the need to focus on a single organism to integrate the classical disciplines of plant science with the expanding fields of genetics and molecular biology.

  13. Wind Turbine Blockset in Matlab/Simulink - General overview and description of the models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-03-01

    This report presents a new developed Matlab/Simulink Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project 'Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines' and it has been used as a general developer tool for other three simulation tools: Saber, DIgSILENT, HAWC. The report provides first a quick overview over Matlab issues and then explains the structure of the developed toolbox. The attention in the report is mainly drawn to the description of the most important mathematical models, which have been developed in the Toolbox. Then, some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally, some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work are made. (au)

  14. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory Using Meteorological Measurements and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known well for reconstructing observed extensive air showers, especially when measured using the fluorescence technique. For the Pierre Auger Observatory, a sophisticated network of atmospheric monitoring devices has been conceived. Part of this monitoring was a weather balloon program to measure atmospheric state variables above the Observatory. To use the data in reconstructions of air showers, monthly models have been constructed. Scheduled balloon launches were abandoned and replaced with launches triggered by high-energetic air showers as part of a rapid monitoring system. Currently, the balloon launch program is halted and atmospheric data from numerical weather prediction models are used. A description of the balloon measurements, the monthly models as well as the data from the numerical weather prediction are presented.

  15. Contested collaboration: A descriptive model of intergroup communication in information system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    support patterns of work activities, social groups, and personal beliefs. In these situations, design is fundamentally an interactive process that requires communication among users, designers, and developers. However, communication among these groups is often difficult although of paramount importance...... to design outcomes. Through a qualitative analysis of a house, expert system, and telecommunications network architecture and management system design situations, a descriptive model of design that characterizes communication among users, designers, and developers as they create an artifact was developed....... The model describes design phases, roles, themes, and intergroup communication networks as they evolve throughout the design process and characterizes design as a process of ''contested collaboration.'' It is a first step towards a predictive design model that suggests strategies which may help participants...

  16. Development of a pressure based room acoustic model using impedance descriptions of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    If a simulation tool is to be used for the optimization of absorbent ceilings, it is important that the simulation tool includes a good description of the surface. This study therefore aims at developing a model which can describe surfaces by their impedance values and not just by their statistical...... absorption coefficient, thus retaining the phase and the angle dependence. The approach of the proposed model will be to calculate the pressure impulse response using a combination of the image source method and acoustic radiosity. The image source method will account for the specular reflections...... and acoustic radiosity will account for the diffuse reflections. This paper presents the motivation for the new model in the form of results in literature, which show the importance of retaining the angle dependence and phase information in reflections along with simple examples of angle dependent reflection...

  17. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with modeling the kinetics of essential oils extraction from plant materials by water and steam distillation. The experimental data were obtained by studying the hydrodistillation kinetics of essential oil from juniper berries. The literature data on the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation from different plant materials were also included into the modeling. A physical model based on simultaneous washing and diffusion of essential oil from plant materials were developed to describe the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation, and two other simpler models were derived from this physical model assuming either instantaneous washing followed by diffusion or diffusion with no washing (i.e. the first-order kinetics. The main goal was to compare these models and suggest the optimum ones for water and steam distillation and for different plant materials. All three models described well the experimental kinetic data on water distillation irrespective of the type of distillation equipment and its scale, the type of plant materials and the operational conditions. The most applicable one is the model involving simultaneous washing and diffusion of the essential oil. However, this model was generally inapplicable for steam distillation of essential oils, except for juniper berries. For this hydrodistillation technique, the pseudo first-order model was shown to be the best one. In a few cases, a variation of the essential oil yield with time was observed to be sigmoidal and was modeled by the Boltzmann sigmoid function.

  18. Development of a dynamical systems model of plant programmatic performance on nuclear power plant safety risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Stephen M. [Sensortex, Inc., 515 Schoolhouse Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348 (United States)]. E-mail: smhess@sensortex.com; Albano, Alfonso M. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010 (United States); Gaertner, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to model nuclear power plant accident sequences has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events, equipment failures and operator errors that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has resulted in significant improvements in plant operation and safety. However, this approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. The research described in this paper presents an alternative approach to addressing this issue. In this paper we propose a dynamical systems model that describes the interaction of important plant processes on nuclear safety risk. We discuss development of the mathematical model including the identification and interpretation of significant inter-process interactions. Next, we review the techniques applicable to analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems that are utilized in the characterization of the model. This is followed by a preliminary analysis of the model that demonstrates that its dynamical evolution displays features that have been observed at commercially operating plants. From this analysis, several significant insights are presented with respect to the effective control of nuclear safety risk. As an important example, analysis of the model dynamics indicates that significant benefits in effectively managing risk are obtained by integrating the plant operation and work management processes such that decisions are made utilizing a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach. We note that although the model was developed specifically to be applicable to nuclear power plants, many of the insights and conclusions obtained are likely applicable to other process industries.

  19. Implementing a business improvement model based on integrated plant information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanepoel, Hendrika Francina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Energy Council defines numerous challenges in the global energy arena that put pressure on owners and /operators to operate run existing plant better and more efficiently. As such there is an increasing focus on the use of business and technical plant information and data to make better, more integrated, and more informed decisions on the plant. The research study developed a business improvement model (BIM that can be used to establish an integrated plant information management infrastructure as the core foundation for of business improvement initiatives. Operational research then demonstrated how this BIM approach could be successfully implemented to improve business operations and provide decision-making insight.

  20. Plant Phenotyping using Probabilistic Topic Models: Uncovering the Hyperspectral Language of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2016-03-09

    Modern phenotyping and plant disease detection methods, based on optical sensors and information technology, provide promising approaches to plant research and precision farming. In particular, hyperspectral imaging have been found to reveal physiological and structural characteristics in plants and to allow for tracking physiological dynamics due to environmental effects. In this work, we present an approach to plant phenotyping that integrates non-invasive sensors, computer vision, as well as data mining techniques and allows for monitoring how plants respond to stress. To uncover latent hyperspectral characteristics of diseased plants reliably and in an easy-to-understand way, we "wordify" the hyperspectral images, i.e., we turn the images into a corpus of text documents. Then, we apply probabilistic topic models, a well-established natural language processing technique that identifies content and topics of documents. Based on recent regularized topic models, we demonstrate that one can track automatically the development of three foliar diseases of barley. We also present a visualization of the topics that provides plant scientists an intuitive tool for hyperspectral imaging. In short, our analysis and visualization of characteristic topics found during symptom development and disease progress reveal the hyperspectral language of plant diseases.

  1. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  2. Dynamics of an ant-plant-pollinator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Nathaniel Holland, J.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider plant-pollinator-ant systems in which plant-pollinator interaction and plant-ant interaction are both mutualistic, but there also exists interference of pollinators by ants. The plant-pollinator interaction can be described by a Beddington-DeAngelis formula, so we extend the formula to characterize plant-pollinator mutualisms, including the interference by ants, and form a plant-pollinator-ant model. Using dynamical systems theory, we show uniform persistence of the model. Moreover, we demonstrate conditions under which boundary equilibria are globally asymptotically stable. The dynamics exhibit mechanisms by which the three species could coexist when ants interfere with pollinators. We define a threshold in ant interference. When ant interference is strong, it can drive plant-pollinator mutualisms to extinction. Furthermore, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for their persistence, then sufficiently strong ant interference could lead to their own extinction as well. Yet, when ant interference is weak, plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms can promote the persistence of one another.

  3. Model development and validation of a solar cooling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Darine; Garcia-Gabin, Winston [Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Los Andes, La Hechicera, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Bordons, Carlos; Camacho, Eduardo F. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, Sevilla 41092 (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    This paper describes the dynamic model of a solar cooling plant that has been built for demonstration purposes using market-available technology and has been successfully operational since 2001. The plant uses hot water coming from a field of solar flat collectors which feed a single-effect absorption chiller of 35 kW nominal cooling capacity. The work includes model development based on first principles and model validation with a set of experiments carried out on the real plant. The simulation model has been done in a modular way, and can be adapted to other solar cooling-plants since the main modules (solar field, absorption machine, accumulators and auxiliary heater) can be easily replaced. This simulator is a powerful tool for solar cooling systems both during the design phase, when it can be used for component selection, and also for the development and testing of control strategies. (author)

  4. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  5. Preliminary site description: Groundwater flow simulations. Simpevarp area (version 1.1) modelled with CONNECTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Worth, David [Serco Assurance Ltd, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Holmen, Johan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the role of known and unknown hydrogeological conditions for the present-day distribution of saline groundwater at the Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. An improved understanding of the paleo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Descriptive Model in general and the Site Hydrogeological Description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. This objective implies a testing of: geometrical alternatives in the structural geology and bedrock fracturing, variants in the initial and boundary conditions, and parameter uncertainties (i.e. uncertainties in the hydraulic property assignment). This testing is necessary in order to evaluate the impact on the groundwater flow field of the specified components and to promote proposals of further investigations of the hydrogeological conditions at the site. The general methodology for modelling transient salt transport and groundwater flow using CONNECTFLOW that was developed for Forsmark has been applied successfully also for Simpevarp. Because of time constraints only a key set of variants were performed that focussed on the influences of DFN model parameters, the kinematic porosity, and the initial condition. Salinity data in deep boreholes available at the time of the project was too limited to allow a good calibration exercise. However, the model predictions are compared with the available data from KLX01 and KLX02 below. Once more salinity data is available it may be possible to draw more definite conclusions based on the differences between variants. At the moment though the differences should just be used understand the sensitivity of the models to various input parameters.

  6. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lema\\^itre model with non-negligible pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaitre model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=\\rho/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential \\psi and the curvature potential \\phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation \\psi+\\phi={\\cal O}(\\phi^2), which holds for the case of a dust fluid, is not valid for a relativistic fluid and effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaitre model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids...

  7. A Description Of Space Relations In An NLP Model: The ABBYY Compreno Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Leontyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is devoted to a formal analysis of the space category and, especially, to questions bound with the presentation of space relations in a formal NLP model. The aim is to demonstrate how linguistic and cognitive problems relating to spatial categorization, definition of spatial entities, and the expression of different locative senses in natural languages can be solved in an artificial intelligence system. We offer a description of the locative groups in the ABBYY Compreno formalism – an integral NLP framework applied for machine translation, semantic search, fact extraction, and other tasks based on the semantic analysis of texts. The model is based on a universal semantic hierarchy of the thesaurus type and includes a description of all possible semantic and syntactic links every word can attach. In this work we define the set of semantic locative relations between words, suggest different tools for their syntactic presentation, give formal restrictions for the word classes that can denote spaces, and show different strategies of dealing with locative prepositions, especially as far as the problem of their machine translation is concerned.

  8. Efficiencies of power plants, quasi-static models and the geometric-mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2017-02-01

    Observed efficiencies of industrial power plants are often approximated by the square-root formula: 1 - √T-/T+, where T+(T-) is the highest (lowest) temperature achieved in the plant. This expression can be derived within finite-time thermodynamics, or, by entropy generation minimization, based on finite rates for the processes. In these analyses, a closely related quantity is the optimal value of the intermediate temperature for the hot stream, given by the geometric-mean value: √T+/T-. In this paper, instead of finite-time models, we propose to model the operation of plants by quasi-static work extraction models, with one reservoir (source/sink) as finite, while the other as practically infinite. No simplifying assumption is made on the nature of the finite system. This description is consistent with two model hypotheses, each yielding a specific value of the intermediate temperature, say T1 and T2. The lack of additional information on validity of the hypothesis that may be actually realized, motivates to approach the problem as an exercise in inductive inference. Thus we define an expected value of the intermediate temperature as the equally weighted mean: (T1 + T2)/2. It is shown that the expected value is very closely given by the geometric-mean value for almost all of the observed power plants.

  9. A benchmark simulation model to describe plant-wide phosphorus transformations in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Ikumi, D.; Kazadi-Mbamba, C.

    It is more than 10 years since the publication of the BSM1 technical report (Copp, 2002). The main objective of BSM1 was to create a platform for benchmarking C and N removal strategies in activated sludge systems. The initial platform evolved into BSM1_LT and BSM2, which allowed for the evaluati...... to be addressed and presents the simulation results of the first software prototype....... of monitoring and plant-wide control strategies, respectively. In addition, researchers working within the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants developed other BSM related spin-off products, such as the dynamic influent generator, sensor/actuators/fault models......) pursue biological/chemical phosphorus removal. However, realistic descriptions of combined C, N and P removal, adds a major, but unavoidable degree of complexity in wastewater treatment process models. This paper identifies and discusses important issues that need to be addressed to upgrade the BSM2...

  10. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  11. Mouth-clicks used by blind expert human echolocators - signal description and model based signal synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Thaler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Echolocation is the ability to use sound-echoes to infer spatial information about the environment. Some blind people have developed extraordinary proficiency in echolocation using mouth-clicks. The first step of human biosonar is the transmission (mouth click and subsequent reception of the resultant sound through the ear. Existing head-related transfer function (HRTF data bases provide descriptions of reception of the resultant sound. For the current report, we collected a large database of click emissions with three blind people expertly trained in echolocation, which allowed us to perform unprecedented analyses. Specifically, the current report provides the first ever description of the spatial distribution (i.e. beam pattern of human expert echolocation transmissions, as well as spectro-temporal descriptions at a level of detail not available before. Our data show that transmission levels are fairly constant within a 60° cone emanating from the mouth, but levels drop gradually at further angles, more than for speech. In terms of spectro-temporal features, our data show that emissions are consistently very brief (~3ms duration with peak frequencies 2-4kHz, but with energy also at 10kHz. This differs from previous reports of durations 3-15ms and peak frequencies 2-8kHz, which were based on less detailed measurements. Based on our measurements we propose to model transmissions as sum of monotones modulated by a decaying exponential, with angular attenuation by a modified cardioid. We provide model parameters for each echolocator. These results are a step towards developing computational models of human biosonar. For example, in bats, spatial and spectro-temporal features of emissions have been used to derive and test model based hypotheses about behaviour. The data we present here suggest similar research opportunities within the context of human echolocation. Relatedly, the data are a basis to develop synthetic models of human echolocation

  12. A first proposal for a general description model of forensic traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Ina; Schäler, Martin; Vielhauer, Claus; Saake, Gunter; Hildebrandt, Mario

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the amount of digitally captured traces at crime scenes increased rapidly. There are various kinds of such traces, like pick marks on locks, latent fingerprints on various surfaces as well as different micro traces. Those traces are different from each other not only in kind but also in which information they provide. Every kind of trace has its own properties (e.g., minutiae for fingerprints, or raking traces for locks) but there are also large amounts of metadata which all traces have in common like location, time and other additional information in relation to crime scenes. For selected types of crime scene traces, type-specific databases already exist, such as the ViCLAS for sexual offences, the IBIS for ballistic forensics or the AFIS for fingerprints. These existing forensic databases strongly differ in the trace description models. For forensic experts it would be beneficial to work with only one database capable of handling all possible forensic traces acquired at a crime scene. This is especially the case when different kinds of traces are interrelated (e.g., fingerprints and ballistic marks on a bullet casing). Unfortunately, current research on interrelated traces as well as general forensic data models and structures is not mature enough to build such an encompassing forensic database. Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of contact-less scanning make it possible to acquire different kinds of traces with the same device. Therefore the data of these traces is structured similarly what simplifies the design of a general forensic data model for different kinds of traces. In this paper we introduce a first common description model for different forensic trace types. Furthermore, we apply for selected trace types from the well established database schema development process the phases of transferring expert knowledge in the corresponding forensic fields into an extendible, database-driven, generalised forensic description model. The

  13. Computing maximum-likelihood estimates for parameters of the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the mathematical expressions and the computational techniques required to compute maximum-likelihood estimates for the parameters of the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF), a statistical model used to predict the concentration of methylmercury in fish tissue. The expressions and techniques reported here were prepared to support the development of custom software capable of computing NDMMF parameter estimates more quickly and using less computer memory than is currently possible with available general-purpose statistical software. Computation of maximum-likelihood estimates for the NDMMF by numerical solution of a system of simultaneous equations through repeated Newton-Raphson iterations is described. This report explains the derivation of the mathematical expressions required for computational parameter estimation in sufficient detail to facilitate future derivations for any revised versions of the NDMMF that may be developed.

  14. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondeau Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  15. Analogue model for anti-de Sitter as a description of point sources in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Mosna, Ricardo A; Richartz, Maurício

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an analogue model for a nonglobally hyperbolic spacetime in terms of a two-dimensional fluid. This is done by considering the propagation of sound waves in a radial flow with constant velocity. We show that the equation of motion satisfied by sound waves is the wave equation on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. Since this spacetime is not globally hyperbolic, the dynamics of the Klein-Gordon field is not well defined until boundary conditions at the spatial boundary of $AdS_2$ are prescribed. On the analogue model end, those extra boundary conditions provide an effective description of the point source at $r=0$. For waves with circular symmetry, we relate the different physical evolutions to the phase difference between ingoing and outgoing scattered waves. We also show that the fluid configuration can be stable or unstable depending on the chosen boundary condition.

  16. Analogue model for anti-de Sitter as a description of point sources in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosna, Ricardo A.; Pitelli, João Paulo M.; Richartz, Maurício

    2016-11-01

    We introduce an analogue model for a nonglobally hyperbolic spacetime in terms of a two-dimensional fluid. This is done by considering the propagation of sound waves in a radial flow with constant velocity. We show that the equation of motion satisfied by sound waves is the wave equation on AdS2×S1. Since this spacetime is not globally hyperbolic, the dynamics of the Klein-Gordon field is not well defined until boundary conditions at the spatial boundary of AdS2 are prescribed. On the analogue model end, those extra boundary conditions provide an effective description of the point source at r =0 . For waves with circular symmetry, we relate the different physical evolutions to the phase difference between ingoing and outgoing scattered waves. We also show that the fluid configuration can be stable or unstable depending on the chosen boundary condition.

  17. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Simonas Tamaliūnas; Henrikas Sivilevičius

    2011-01-01

    The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP). The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas Tamaliūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP. The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Linear programming model of a meat processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.A.; Okos, M.R.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    A multi-period and multi-product production-planning model of an operational meat processing plant is presented. The model input is the time-varying customer demand and the output is the optimum product mix. The model results are interpreted and compared with actual data. Various production strategies are evaluated.

  20. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Borger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a unit is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes. Using this library, a hydraulic model was set up and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek.

  1. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  2. Power system models - A description of power markets and outline of market modelling in Wilmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P.; Morthors, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C.; Snader, K.; Swider, D. [Univ. of Stuttgart, IER (Germany); Ravn, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-12-01

    This report is Deliverable 3.2 of the Wilmar project. The report describes the power markets in the Nordic countries and Germany, together with the market models to be implemented in the Wilmar Planning model-ling tool developed in the project. (au)

  3. The study and applications of photochemical-dynamical gravity wave model Ⅰ--Model description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jiyao(徐寄遥); MA; Ruiping(马瑞平); A.K.Smith

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional, nonlinear, compressible, diabatic, nonhydrostatic photochemical- dynamical gravity wave model has been advanced. The model includes diabetic process produced by photochemistry and the effect of gravity wave on atmospheric chemical species. In the horizontal direction, the pseudospectral method is used. The finite difference approximations are used in vertical direction z and time t. The FICE method is used to solve the model. The model results on small amplitude fluctuation are very close to those of linear theory, which demonstrates the correctness of the model.

  4. Model study on Bohai ecosystem 1. Model description and primary productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hao; YIN Baoshu

    2006-01-01

    A Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton(NPZD) type of ecological model is developed to reflect the biochemical process, and further coupled to a primitive equation ocean model, an irradiation model as well as a river discharge model to reproduce ecosystem dynamics in the Bohai Sea. Modeled primary production shows reasonable consistency with observations quantitatively and qualitatively; in addition, f-ratio is examined in detail in the first time, which is also within the range reported in other studies and reveals some meaningful insight into the relative contributions of ammonium and nitrate to the growth of phytoplankton in the Bohai Sea.

  5. Model of annual plants dynamics with facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Michel; Pękalski, Andrzej

    2013-10-21

    An individual-based model describing the dynamics of one type of annual plants is presented. We use Monte Carlo simulations where each plant has its own history and the interactions among plants are between nearest neighbours. The character of the interaction (positive or negative) depends on local conditions. The plants compete for two external resources-water and light. The amount of water and/or light a plant receives depends on the external factor but also on local arrangement. Survival, growth and seed production of plants are determined by how well their demands for the resources are met. The survival and seeds production tests have a probabilistic character, which makes the dynamics more realistic than by using a deterministic approach. There is a non-linear coupling between the external supplies. Water evaporates from the soil at a rate depending on constant evaporation rate, local conditions and the amount of light. We examine the dynamics of the plant population along two environmental gradients, allowing also for surplus of water and/or light. We show that the largest number of plants is when the demands for both resources are equal to the supplies. We estimate also the role of evaporation and we find that it depends on the situation. It could be negative, but sometimes it has a positive character. We show that the link between the type of interaction (positive or negative) and external conditions has a complex character. In general in favourable environment plants have a stronger tendency for competitive interactions, leading to mostly isolated plants. When the conditions are getting more difficult, cooperation becomes the dominant type of interactions and the plants grow in clusters. The type of plants-sun-loving or shade tolerating, plays also an important role.

  6. A plant-wide energy model for wastewater treatment plants: application to anaerobic membrane bioreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a detailed and comprehensive plant-wide model for assessing the energy demand of different wastewater treatment systems (beyond the traditional activated sludge) in both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The proposed model makes it possible to calculate power and heat requirements (W and Q, respectively), and to recover both power and heat from methane and hydrogen capture. In order to account for the effect of biological processes on heat requirements, the model has been coupled to the extended version of the BNRM2 plant-wide mathematical model, which is implemented in DESSAS simulation software. Two case studies have been evaluated to assess the model's performance: (1) modelling the energy demand of two urban wastewater treatment plants based on conventional activated sludge and submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technologies in steady-state conditions and (2) modelling the dynamics of reactor temperature and heat requirements in an AnMBR plant in unsteady-state conditions. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to assess the energy performance of different wastewater treatment processes and would thus be useful, for example, WWTP design or upgrading or the development of new control strategies for energy savings.

  7. A dynamical systems model for nuclear power plant risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Stephen Michael

    The recent transition to an open access generation marketplace has forced nuclear plant operators to become much more cost conscious and focused on plant performance. Coincidentally, the regulatory perspective also is in a state of transition from a command and control framework to one that is risk-informed and performance-based. Due to these structural changes in the economics and regulatory system associated with commercial nuclear power plant operation, there is an increased need for plant management to explicitly manage nuclear safety risk. Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to model plant hardware has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events and equipment failures that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has supported improved plant operation and safety over the previous decade. However, this analytical approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. Thus, the research described in this dissertation presents a different approach to address this issue. Here we propose a dynamical model that describes the interaction of important plant processes among themselves and their overall impact on nuclear safety risk. We first provide a review of the techniques that are applied in a conventional probabilistic risk assessment of commercially operating nuclear power plants and summarize the typical results obtained. The limitations of the conventional approach and the status of research previously performed to address these limitations also are presented. Next, we present the case for the application of an alternative approach using dynamical systems theory. This includes a discussion of previous applications of dynamical models to study other important socio-economic issues. Next, we review the analytical techniques that are applicable to analysis of

  8. A plant wide aqueous phase chemistry model describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, X.; Mbamba, C. Kazadi; Solon, K.;

    There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico-chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics (Batstone et al., 2012). Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description......, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems (Ikumi et al., 2014). In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation......). Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 (Henze et al., 2000) comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under...

  9. Mathematical Model of Hydrodynamic Torque Converter and Analytic Description of Streamline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shiping; QUAN Long

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical model of a 3-element centripetal-turbine hydrodynamic torque converter and analytic description of fluid flow inside the hydrodynamic torque converter are investigated. A new torus coordinate system is proposed so as to quantitatively describe fluid movement inside the hydrodynamic torque converter. The particle movement inside the hydrodynamic torque converter is decomposed into meridional component movement and torus component movement, and a universal meridional streamline equation is derived. According to the relationship between the converter wheel velocity polygon and its blade angle, a torus streamline differential equation is established. The universal meridional streamline equation is approximated with square polynomials. The approximation error curve is given and the percentage error is not greater than 0.86%. Considered as a function of polar angle, the blade angle cotangent of each converter wheel varies linearly with polar angle. By using integral calculus, torus streamline equations are obtained. As a result, the problem of difficult flow description of the hydrodynamic torque converter is solved and a new analytic research system is established.

  10. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO2- transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate produce one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Much of this uncertainty arises from the multi-scale nature of the interactions between aerosols, clouds and large-scale dynamics, which are difficult to represent in conventional general circulation models (GCMs. In this study, we develop a multi-scale aerosol-climate model that treats aerosols and clouds across different scales, and evaluate the model performance, with a focus on aerosol treatment. This new model is an extension of a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF model that embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM within each grid column of a GCM. In this extension, the effects of clouds on aerosols are treated by using an explicit-cloud parameterized-pollutant (ECPP approach that links aerosol and chemical processes on the large-scale grid with statistics of cloud properties and processes resolved by the CRM. A two-moment cloud microphysics scheme replaces the simple bulk microphysics scheme in the CRM, and a modal aerosol treatment is included in the GCM. With these extensions, this multi-scale aerosol-climate model allows the explicit simulation of aerosol and chemical processes in both stratiform and convective clouds on a global scale.

    Simulated aerosol budgets in this new model are in the ranges of other model studies. Simulated gas and aerosol concentrations are in reasonable agreement with observations (within a factor of 2 in most cases, although the model underestimates black carbon concentrations at the surface by a factor of 2–4. Simulated aerosol size distributions are in reasonable agreement with observations in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, while the model underestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations near the surface, and overestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations in the middle and upper free troposphere by a factor

  12. The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Liu, X.; Kassianov, E.; Qian, Y.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Larson, V. E.; Schanen, D. P.; Khairoutdinov, M.; Morrison, H.

    2011-03-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate produce one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Much of this uncertainty arises from the multi-scale nature of the interactions between aerosols, clouds and large-scale dynamics, which are difficult to represent in conventional general circulation models (GCMs). In this study, we develop a multi-scale aerosol-climate model that treats aerosols and clouds across different scales, and evaluate the model performance, with a focus on aerosol treatment. This new model is an extension of a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) model that embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each grid column of a GCM. In this extension, the effects of clouds on aerosols are treated by using an explicit-cloud parameterized-pollutant (ECPP) approach that links aerosol and chemical processes on the large-scale grid with statistics of cloud properties and processes resolved by the CRM. A two-moment cloud microphysics scheme replaces the simple bulk microphysics scheme in the CRM, and a modal aerosol treatment is included in the GCM. With these extensions, this multi-scale aerosol-climate model allows the explicit simulation of aerosol and chemical processes in both stratiform and convective clouds on a global scale. Simulated aerosol budgets in this new model are in the ranges of other model studies. Simulated gas and aerosol concentrations are in reasonable agreement with observations (within a factor of 2 in most cases), although the model underestimates black carbon concentrations at the surface by a factor of 2-4. Simulated aerosol size distributions are in reasonable agreement with observations in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, while the model underestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations near the surface, and overestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations in the middle and upper free troposphere by a factor of about 2. The

  13. The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate produce one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Much of this uncertainty arises from the multi-scale nature of the interactions between aerosols, clouds and large-scale dynamics, which are difficult to represent in conventional global climate models (GCMs. In this study, we develop a multi-scale aerosol climate model that treats aerosols and clouds across different scales, and evaluate the model performance, with a focus on aerosol treatment. This new model is an extension of a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF model that embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM within each grid column of a GCM. In this extension, the effects of clouds on aerosols are treated by using an explicit-cloud parameterized-pollutant (ECPP approach that links aerosol and chemical processes on the large-scale grid with statistics of cloud properties and processes resolved by the CRM. A two-moment cloud microphysics scheme replaces the simple bulk microphysics scheme in the CRM, and a modal aerosol treatment is included in the GCM. With these extensions, this multi-scale aerosol-climate model allows the explicit simulation of aerosol and chemical processes in both stratiform and convective clouds on a global scale.

    Simulated aerosol budgets in this new model are in the ranges of other model studies. Simulated gas and aerosol concentrations are in reasonable agreement with observations, although the model underestimates black carbon concentrations at the surface. Simulated aerosol size distributions are in reasonable agreement with observations in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, while the model underestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations near the surface, and overestimates the accumulation number concentrations in the free troposphere. Simulated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations are within the observational

  14. Hydrogeological DFN modelling using structural and hydraulic data from KLX04. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Stigsson, Martin [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (ISI) and a complete site investigation phase (CSI). The results of the ISI phase are used as a basis for deciding on the subsequent CSI phase. On the basis of the CSI investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the less fractured rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other disciplines (surface ecosystems, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a hydrogeological DFN model (Discrete Fracture Network) for the Preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar area on a regional-scale (SDM version L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the propagation of uncertainties in the geological DFN modelling reported for L1.2 into the groundwater flow modelling. An improved understanding is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. The latter will serve as a basis for describing the present

  15. Consistent model reduction of polymer chains in solution in dissipative particle dynamics: Model description

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2015-06-30

    We introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain models for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, where the properties governing the phase equilibria such as the characteristic size of the chain, compressibility, density, and temperature are preserved. The proposed methodology reduces the number of degrees of freedom required in traditional DPD representations to model equilibrium properties of systems with complex molecules (e.g., linear polymers). Based on geometrical considerations we explicitly account for the correlation between beads in fine-grained DPD models and consistently represent the effect of these correlations in a reduced model, in a practical and simple fashion via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. In order to satisfy the geometrical constraints in the reduced model we introduce bond-angle potentials that account for the changes in the chain free energy after the model reduction. Following this coarse-graining process we represent high molecular weight DPD chains (i.e., ≥200≥200 beads per chain) with a significant reduction in the number of particles required (i.e., ≥20≥20 times the original system). We show that our methodology has potential applications modeling systems of high molecular weight molecules at large scales, such as diblock copolymer and DNA.

  16. Ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea. Part 1. Description of the ProDeMo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ProDeMo (Production and Destruction of Organic Matter Model, a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model, was formulated and applied to the whole Baltic Sea and the subregion of the Gulf of Gdansk. It describes nutrient cycles (phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon through the food web with 15 state variables, oxygen conditions and the parameterisation of water-sediment interactions. The present version of the model takes two groups of phytoplankton - diatoms and non-diatoms - as well as zooplankton into consideration. It covers the flow of matter and energy in the sea, including river discharges and atmospheric deposition. Numerical applications are embedded on a 1 NM grid for the Gulf of Gdansk and a 5 NM grid for the Baltic Sea.     Since the model results largely concur with observations, the model can be regarded as a reliable tool for analysing the behaviour of the Baltic ecosystem. Some examples of the spatial-temporal variability of the most important biological and chemical parameters are presented. The model results are compared with those of other modelling research in the Baltic Sea.     Both the ProDeMo model algorithm and its computing procedures need to be further developed. The next version should therefore enable more phytoplankton groups to be defined, for example cyanobacteria, which are able to take up molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere (nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the sediment phase should be divided into active and non-active layers.

  17. Criticality and phase behavior in the restricted-primitive model electrolyte: Description of ion association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianwen; Blum, Lesser; Bernard, Oliver; Prausnitz, John M.; Sandler, Stanley I.

    2002-05-01

    Ion association is incorporated into the restricted-primitive model electrolyte to account for the strong attraction between unlike ions. Two methods are investigated within the McMillan-Mayer framework: first is the binding mean-spherical approximation (BIMSA) based on the Wertheim Ornstein-Zernike integral equation formalism; and the second is the combination of the BIMSA with a simple interpolation scheme based on the Wertheim thermodynamic perturbation theory. The latter gives a better description. Four different association constants are used to calculate the degree of dissociation, the critical point, and the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. An increase in the association constant leads to a lower critical temperature and a higher critical density, and better agreement with computer simulations. When unlike ions are fully paired, corresponding to a charged hard dumbbell system, we obtain the best agreement with the most recent computer simulations of the RPM electrolyte.

  18. Description of the proton and neutron radiative capture reactions in the Gamow shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Fossez, K; Płoszajczak, M; Jaganathen, Y

    2015-01-01

    We formulate the Gamow shell model (GSM) in coupled-channel (CC) representation for the description of proton/neutron radiative capture reactions and present the first application of this new formalism for the calculation of cross-sections in mirror reactions 7Be(p,gamma)8B and 7Li(n,gamma)8Li. The GSM-CC formalism is applied to a translationally-invariant Hamiltonian with an effective finite-range two-body interaction. Reactions channels are built by GSM wave functions for the ground state 3/2- and the first excited state 1/2- of 7Be/7Li and the proton/neutron wave function expanded in different partial waves.

  19. Multiscale description of avian migration: from chemical compass to behaviour modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J. Boiden; Nielsen, Claus; Solov'Yov, Ilia A.

    2016-11-01

    Despite decades of research the puzzle of the magnetic sense of migratory songbirds has still not been unveiled. Although the problem really needs a multiscale description, most of the individual research efforts were focused on single scale investigations. Here we seek to establish a multiscale link between some of the scales involved, and in particular construct a bridge between electron spin dynamics and migratory bird behaviour. In order to do that, we first consider a model cyclic reaction scheme that could form the basis of the avian magnetic compass. This reaction features a fast spin-dependent process which leads to an unusually precise compass. We then propose how the reaction could be realized in a realistic molecular environment, and argue that it is consistent with the known facts about avian magnetoreception. Finally we show how the microscopic dynamics of spins could possibly be interpreted by a migrating bird and used for the navigational purpose.

  20. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  1. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  2. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  3. Thysanoptera intercepted in the Netherlands on plant products from Ethiopia, with description of two new species of the genus Thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierbergen, Gijsbertus

    2014-02-18

    An overview is given of 18 Thysanoptera species found on Ethiopian cut flowers, cuttings and vegetables during import inspection in the Netherlands. Consignments consisted mostly of cut flowers, in total belonging to twelve plant genera. Details on geographical distribution and host plants of the thrips encountered are given, and two are newly described: T. cacuminis sp. n. and T. dezeeuwi sp. n. The results do not give any serious indication of increased invasiveness by Ethiopian Thysanoptera. 

  4. Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi

    2010-10-28

    Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise.

  5. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-03-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+phi=Script O(phi2)—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+phi= [Script O(phi2),Script O(cs2phi δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to -1, where w and cs are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+phi=Script O(phi2) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to -1.

  6. Non-smooth plant disease models with economic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Xiao, Yanni; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    In order to control plant diseases and eventually maintain the number of infected plants below an economic threshold, a specific management strategy called the threshold policy is proposed, resulting in Filippov systems. These are a class of piecewise smooth systems of differential equations with a discontinuous right-hand side. The aim of this work is to investigate the global dynamic behavior including sliding dynamics of one Filippov plant disease model with cultural control strategy. We examine a Lotka-Volterra Filippov plant disease model with proportional planting rate, which is globally studied in terms of five types of equilibria. For one type of equilibrium, the global structure is discussed by the iterative equations for initial numbers of plants. For the other four types of equilibria, the bounded global attractor of each type is obtained by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. The ideas of constructing Lyapunov functions for Filippov systems, the methods of analyzing such systems and the main results presented here provide scientific support for completing control regimens on plant diseases in integrated disease management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  8. Steady-State Plant Model to Predict Hydroden Levels in Power Plant Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  9. Power system models - A description of power markets and outline of market modelling in Wilmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2004-01-01

    , VTT, Nord Pool Consult, Technical University of Denmark, ELSAM A/S and Elkraft-System A/S. This report is Deliverable 3.2 of the project. Thereport describes the power markets in the Nordic countries and Germany, together with the market models to be implemented in the Wilmar Planning modelling tool......The aim of the Wilmar project is to investigate technical and economical problems related to large-scale deployment of renewable sources and to develop a modelling tool that can handle system simulations for a larger geographical region with anInternational power exchange. Wilmar is an abbreviation...

  10. Description of codes and models to be used in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Human health and environmental risk assessments will be performed as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical and computer encoded numerical models are commonly used during both the remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) to predict or estimate the concentration of contaminants at the point of exposure to humans and/or the environment. This document has been prepared to identify the computer codes that will be used in support of RI/FS human health and environmental risk assessments at the Hanford Site. In addition to the CERCLA RI/FS process, it is recommended that these computer codes be used when fate and transport analyses is required for other activities. Additional computer codes may be used for other purposes (e.g., design of tracer tests, location of observation wells, etc.). This document provides guidance for unit managers in charge of RI/FS activities. Use of the same computer codes for all analytical activities at the Hanford Site will promote consistency, reduce the effort required to develop, validate, and implement models to simulate Hanford Site conditions, and expedite regulatory review. The discussion provides a description of how models will likely be developed and utilized at the Hanford Site. It is intended to summarize previous environmental-related modeling at the Hanford Site and provide background for future model development. The modeling capabilities that are desirable for the Hanford Site and the codes that were evaluated. The recommendations include the codes proposed to support future risk assessment modeling at the Hanford Site, and provides the rational for the codes selected. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Dynamical Opacity-Sampling Models of Mira Variables. I: Modelling Description and Analysis of Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, M J; Wood, P R

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Cool Opacity-sampling Dynamic EXtended (CODEX) atmosphere models of Mira variable stars, and examine in detail the physical and numerical approximations that go in to the model creation. The CODEX atmospheric models are obtained by computing the temperature and the chemical and radiative states of the atmospheric layers, assuming gas pressure and velocity profiles from Mira pulsation models, which extend from near the H-burning shell to the outer layers of the atmosphere. Although the code uses the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and a grey approximation in the dynamical atmosphere code, many key observable quantities, such as infrared diameters and low-resolution spectra, are predicted robustly in spite of these approximations. We show that in visible light, radiation from Mira variables is dominated by fluorescence scattering processes, and that the LTE approximation likely under-predicts visible-band fluxes by a factor of two.

  12. Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pigs: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Low phosphorus (P) digestibility combined with intensive pig production can increase P diffuse pollution and environmental load. The aim of this paper was to develop a deterministic, dynamic model able to represent P digestion, retention and ultimately excretion in growing and finishing pigs of different genotypes, offered access to diets of different composition. The model represented the limited ability of pig endogenous phytase activity to dephosphorylate phytate as a linear function of dietary calcium (Ca). Phytate dephosphorylation in the stomach by exogenous microbial phytase enzymes was expressed by a first order kinetics relationship. The absorption of non-phytate P from the lumen of the small intestine into the blood stream was set at 0.8 and the dephosphorylated phytate from the large intestine was assumed to be indigestible. The net efficiency of using digested P was set at 0.94 and assumed to be independent of BW, and constant across genotype and sex. P requirements for both maintenance and growth were made simple functions of body protein mass, and hence functions of animal genotype. Undigested P was assumed to be excreted in the feaces in both soluble and insoluble forms. If digestible P exceeded the requirements for P then the excess digestible P was excreted through the urinary flow; thus the model represented both forms of P excretion (soluble and insoluble) into the environment. Using a UK industry standard diet, model behaviour was investigated for its predictions of P digestibility, retention and excretion under different levels of inclusion of microbial phytase and dietary Ca, and different non-phytate P : phytate ratios in the diet, thus covering a broad space of potential diet compositions. Model predictions were consistent with our understanding of P digestion, metabolism and excretion. Uncertainties associated with the underlying assumptions of the model were identified. Their consequences on model predictions, as well as the model

  13. Regional modelling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke Part I: Model description and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Schepanski, Kerstin; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke; Kandler, Konrad; Knippertz, Peter; Müller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Toledano, Carlos; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal evolution of the Saharan dust and biomass-burning plume during the SAMUM-2 field campaign in January and February 2008 is simulated at 28 km horizontal resolution with the regional model-system COSMO-MUSCAT. The model performance is thoroughly tested using routine ground-based and space-borne remote sensing and local field measurements. Good agreement with the observations is found in many cases regarding transport patterns, aerosol optical thicknesses and the ratio of dus...

  14. Model-based plant-wide optimization of large-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2017-01-01

    with respect to maximum economic profit of a large scale biorefinery plant using a systematic model-based plantwide optimization methodology. The following key process parameters are identified as decision variables: pretreatment temperature, enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, and yeast loading per batch...... in fermentation. The plant is treated in an integrated manner taking into account the interactions and trade-offs between the conversion steps. A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis follows at the optimal solution considering both model and feed parameters. It is found that the optimal point is more sensitive...

  15. Aggregated wind power plant models consisting of IEC wind turbine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2015-01-01

    turbines, parameters and models to represent each individual wind turbine in detail makes it necessary to develop aggregated wind power plant models considering the simulation time for power system stability studies. In this paper, aggregated wind power plant models consisting of the IEC 61400-27 variable...

  16. Simulation model for plant growth in controlled environment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, C. D., Jr.; Wann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the mathematical model is to relate the individual processes to environmental conditions and the behavior of the whole plant. Using the controlled-environment facilities of the phytotron at North Carolina State University for experimentation at the whole-plant level and methods for handling complex models, researchers developed a plant growth model to describe the relationships between hierarchial levels of the crop production system. The fundamental processes that are considered are: (1) interception of photosynthetically active radiation by leaves, (2) absorption of photosynthetically active radiation, (3) photosynthetic transformation of absorbed radiation into chemical energy of carbon bonding in solube carbohydrates in the leaves, (4) translocation between carbohydrate pools in leaves, stems, and roots, (5) flow of energy from carbohydrate pools for respiration, (6) flow from carbohydrate pools for growth, and (7) aging of tissues. These processes are described at the level of organ structure and of elementary function processes. The driving variables of incident photosynthetically active radiation and ambient temperature as inputs pertain to characterization at the whole-plant level. The output of the model is accumulated dry matter partitioned among leaves, stems, and roots; thus, the elementary processes clearly operate under the constraints of the plant structure which is itself the output of the model.

  17. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  18. Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 1: Model description and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-lit snow is increasingly recognized as a chemical reactor that plays an active role in uptake, transformation, and release of atmospheric trace gases. Snow is known to influence boundary layer air on a local scale, and given the large global surface coverage of snow may also be significant on regional and global scales.

    We present a new detailed one-dimensional snow chemistry module that has been coupled to the 1-D atmospheric boundary layer model MISTRA, we refer to the coupled model as MISTRA-SNOW. The new 1-D snow module, which is dynamically coupled to the overlaying atmospheric model, includes heat transport in the snowpack, molecular diffusion, and wind pumping of gases in the interstitial air. The model includes gas phase photochemistry and chemical reactions both in the interstitial air and the atmosphere. Heterogeneous and multiphase chemistry on atmospheric aerosol is considered explicitly. The chemical interaction of interstitial air with snow grains is simulated assuming chemistry in a liquid (aqueous layer on the grain surface. The model was used to investigate snow as the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and gas phase reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer in the remote snow covered Arctic (over the Greenland ice sheet as well as to investigate the link between halogen cycling and ozone depletion that has been observed in interstitial air. The model is validated using data taken 10 June–13 June, 2008 as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx experiment (GSHOX. The model predicts that reactions involving bromide and nitrate impurities in the surface snow at Summit can sustain atmospheric NO and BrO mixing ratios measured at Summit during this period.

  19. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  20. Description of the neutron deficient Sr and Zr isotopes in the interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata, G.; Cutoiu, D.; Constantinescu, G.; Ivascu, M.; Zamfir, N.V. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania))

    1983-05-30

    The available experimental data for the neutron deficient isotopes of Sr (78 to 86) and Zr (80 to 86) are collected and compared to the predictions of IBA-1 model calculations. The variations of the collectivity along these two isotopic chains is well reproduced with a set of smoothly varying parameters of the model. The description of both the energy levels and the B(E2) transition probabilities improves with decreasing N, the hamiltonian evolving towards an SU(3) dynamical symmetry. Both the large B(E2) value of the 2/sub 1//sup +/->0/sup +/sub(g.s.) transition and the predicted prolate shape for the very light isotopes, agree well with the recent findings of superdeformed nuclei around Z, N proportional 38. Transition strengths for the (p,t) reaction are calculated and compared to experimental observations for 0/sup +/ states, and a discussion is made about the possible intruder character of the O/sub 2//sup +/ state. The interacting boson-fermion approximation (IBFA) model is used to extend the calculations to some odd nuclei. Two shell (1gsub(9/2), 2dsub(5/2)) calculations are performed for the positive-parity states in /sup 83/Sr, /sup 81/Sr and /sup 85/Y and they compare well with the experimental level scheme of these nuclei below 3 MeV excitation.

  1. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  2. How Plant Hydraulics can Improve the Modeling of Plant and Ecosystem Responses to Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, J.; Anderegg, W.; Mackay, D. S.; Venturas, M.

    2016-12-01

    Stomatal regulation is an important, yet problematic component in modeling plant-environment interactions. The problem is that stomata respond to so many environmental cues via complex and uncertain mechanisms. But the assumed end result of regulation is conceptually simple: an optimization of CO2 for H2O exchange in response to changing conditions. Stomata open when photosynthetic opportunity is high and water is cheap. They close if photosynthetic opportunity is low or water is very expensive. Photosynthetic opportunity is relatively easy to model. The cost of water loss is also easy to model if it is assumed to rise with greater proximity to hydraulic failure and desiccation. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves of soil- and plant are used to estimate proximity to failure. At any given instant, a model can calculate opportunity and cost curves associated with greater stomatal opening. If stomata regulate to maximize the instantaneous difference between photosynthetic gain and hydraulic cost, then a model can predict the trajectory of stomatal responses to changes in environment across time. Results of this optimization routine extend the utility of hydraulic predecessor models, and are consistent with widely used empirical models across a wide range of vapor pressure deficit and ambient CO2 concentrations for wet soil. The advantage of the optimization approach is the absence of empirical coefficients, applicability to dry as well as wet soil, and prediction of plant hydraulic status along with gas exchange. The optimization algorithm is a trait- and process-based approach that could improve next generation land surface models.

  3. Modeling driver behavior on motorways: Description of the SiMoNe model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, M.M.; Bovy, P.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Driver behavior on motorways is subject of study. It is essential to model driver behavior realistically in order to study traffic flow characteristics. Impacts of foreseen road geometry changes, vehicle characteristic adaptations or vehicle fleet composition changes on road capacity can be assessed

  4. Description of a comprehensive mathematical model: Towards a comprehensive biomass particle gasification model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Biomass gasification is still a promising technology after over 30 years’ research and development and has success only in a few niche markets. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model for biomass particle gasification is developed within a generic particle framework, assuming the feed...

  5. Dynamic probabilistic modelling of reproduction and replacement management in sow herds. General aspects and model description.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalvingh, A.W.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A dynamic probabilistic model has been designed for the personal computer to determine the technical and economic consequences of various biological variables and management strategies concerning reproduction and replacement in swine. In it, the Markov chain approach is used to simulate herd

  6. Dehydration Kinetics of Embryonic Axes from Desiccation-sensitive Seeds:An Assessment of Descriptive Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tobias M.Ntuli; Norman W.Pammenter

    2009-01-01

    The response of desiccation-sensitive plant tissues to dehydration is significantly affected by dehydration conditions,particularly the rate of drying. Consequently it is important to be able to quantify drying rate. The aim of the study was to assess two models that have been proposed to describe drying kinetics, and thus to provide a quantification of non-linear drying rates, of embryonic axes excised from recalcitrant seeds. These models are an exponential drying time course, and a modified inverse relationship, respectively. For the six species investigated here the inverse function was generally found to fit drying data better than the exponential function under both rapid and slow drying conditions,and so is recommended. The rate of drying, under the conditions used here, was determined by axis size and possibly the nature of the axis outer coverings, rather than the water activity difference between the tissue and surrounding air.

  7. Parameter-free one-center model potential for an effective one-electron description of molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Vanne, Yulian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    For the description of an H2 molecule, an effective one-electron model potential is proposed which is fully determined by the exact ionization potential of the H2 molecule. In order to test the model potential and examine its properties, it is employed to determine excitation energies, transition...

  8. A computational model for estimating the mechanics of horizontal flapping flight in bats: model description and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, P; Mitchell, E J; Swartz, S M

    2001-08-01

    We combine three-dimensional descriptions of the movement patterns of the shoulder, elbow, carpus, third metacarpophalangeal joint and wingtip with a constant-circulation estimation of aerodynamic force to model the wing mechanics of the grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) in level flight. Once rigorously validated, this computer model can be used to study diverse aspects of flight. In the model, we partitioned the wing into a series of chordwise segments and calculated the magnitude of segmental aerodynamic forces assuming an elliptical, spanwise distribution of circulation at the middle of the downstroke. The lift component of the aerodynamic force is typically an order of magnitude greater than the thrust component. The largest source of drag is induced drag, which is approximately an order of magnitude greater than body form and skin friction drag. Using this model and standard engineering beam theory, we calculate internal reaction forces, moments and stresses at the humeral and radial midshaft during flight. To assess the validity of our model, we compare the model-derived stresses with our previous in vivo empirical measurements of bone strain from P. poliocephalus in free flapping flight. Agreement between bone stresses from the simulation and those calculated from empirical strain measurements is excellent and suggests that the computer model captures a significant portion of the mechanics and aerodynamics of flight in this species.

  9. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  10. Incorporating Plant Phenology Dynamics in a Biophysical Canopy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Raquel A.; Drewry, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Layer Canopy Model (MLCan) is a vegetation model created to capture plant responses to environmental change. Themodel vertically resolves carbon uptake, water vapor and energy exchange at each canopy level by coupling photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance. The model is forced by incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, as well as near-surface meteorological conditions. The original formulation of MLCan utilized canopy structural traits derived from observations. This project aims to incorporate a plant phenology scheme within MLCan allowing these structural traits to vary dynamically. In the plant phenology scheme implemented here, plant growth is dependent on environmental conditions such as air temperature and soil moisture. The scheme includes functionality that models plant germination, growth, and senescence. These growth stages dictate the variation in six different vegetative carbon pools: storage, leaves, stem, coarse roots, fine roots, and reproductive. The magnitudes of these carbon pools determine land surface parameters such as leaf area index, canopy height, rooting depth and root water uptake capacity. Coupling this phenology scheme with MLCan allows for a more flexible representation of the structure and function of vegetation as it responds to changing environmental conditions.

  11. One of Us: Multilevel Models Examining the Impact of Descriptive Representation on Civic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Pippa; Krook, Mona Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of descriptive representation in comparative perspective. The goals are to establish (1) whether descriptive representation mobilizes attitudinal and behavioral indicators of civic engagement; (2) whether the strength of any such relationship differs for women and young people; and (3) whether this relationship is evident cross-nationally. The first section provides an overview of existing research on descriptive representation and the civic engagement of women ...

  12. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Kazemzadeh, Sedigheh; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, Hossein; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Ćetković, Aleksandar; Popović, Anđelka; Bodlah, Lmran; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.

  13. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization.

  14. Statistics of modelled conductive fractures based on Laxemar and Forsmark. Site descriptive model data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2009-12-15

    The objectives of this report is to investigate the frequency of fractures assumed to be water conductive, i.e. open or partly open and directly or indirectly connected to a source. Also the distribution of total transmissivity in 100 m and 20 m horizontal sections and 8 m vertical sections is calculated. The report is only intended to serve as input to the SER, Site Engineering Report, at Laxemar and Forsmark. The input data for the analyses is taken, as is, from the Discrete Fracture Network sections in published reports. No evaluation that the model parameters are appropriate for the task or sensitivity analysis is performed. The tunnels and deposition holes are modelled as scanlines which is a very coarse approximation, but it may give some rough estimation of the frequency of the water bearing features, especially for the larger ones, and the total transmissivity in a section

  15. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...... for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented....

  16. Predicting plants -modeling traits as a function of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar

    2016-04-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits

  17. Tecnomatix Plant Simulation modeling and programming by means of examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bangsow, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the development of simulation models as well as the implementation and evaluation of simulation experiments with Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. It deals with all users of Plant Simulation, who have more complex tasks to handle. It also looks for an easy entry into the program. Particular attention has been paid to introduce the simulation flow language SimTalk and its use in various areas of the simulation. The author demonstrates with over 200 examples how to combine the blocks for simulation models and how to deal with SimTalk for complex control and analys

  18. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  19. Description and identification of four species of plant parasitic nematodes associated with grassland, fruit trees and maize in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badi, M; Geraert, E

    2002-01-01

    Three species of plant parasitic nematodes present in two romanian soil samples were described and identified in the present study. The species belong to order tylenchida and to taxonomical families Tylenchidae (Basiria aberrans) and Belonolaimidae (Tylenchorhynchus georgiensis and Merlinius brevidens). The identification of the present specimens was based on the classical taxonomy, following morphological and morphometrical characters in the species specific identification keys.

  20. New displaying models of bibliographic data and resources: cataloguing/resource description and search results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Trombone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The logical model outlined in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records in 1998 has led to a theoretical reflection on the function of data and their organization into catalogues that hasn’t found stable effects in the representation of information yet. A consequence of the wide theoretical resonance of FRBR report was the review of regulatory codes and standards for electronic recording of bibliographic data. The first code that partly implements the FRBR model is the Italian one, published in 2009, the Italian cataloguing Rules: REICAT. The revision the Anglo-American cataloging rules has resulted in a new tool, based on the FRBR model and not set as a cataloging code: RDA. Resource Description and Access, released in 2010. To changing patterns of information models and contents’ media it has to add new information environment available to users, accustomed to using search engines as information retrieval tools, powerful and generalist.Today’s electronic catalogs are based on MARC formats for encoding of information, aimed at sharing and exchanging bibliographic records. However, the library data encoded in MARC exchange formats are invisible to search engines.Gradually, over the last few years, software modules devoted to cataloging have been differentiated from those for consultation, data visualization interfaces dedicated to users aimed to simplify the search mechanisms.One of the open issues relating to the new display systems concerns the selection and presentation of data. The sorting order is based on the criteria of relevance, which is based on scores that a software assigns to the record in relation to the weight or importance of the words entered in the search string.The new display systems of users ‘ searches, the discovery platforms that simultaneously query heterogeneous data bases for content and location, including also the OPACs, no longer use the languages of librarianship. The final display of search results

  1. Description of alpha decay and cluster radioactivity in the dinuclear system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, S. N.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    A unified description of cluster radioactivity and α-decay of cold nuclei in the dinuclear system model is proposed. Quantum dynamical fluctuations along the charge (mass) asymmetry coordinate determine the spectroscopic factor, and tunneling along the relative distance coordinate determines the penetrability of the barrier of the nucleus-nucleus interaction potential. A new method for calculating the spectroscopic factor is proposed. The hindrance factors for the orbital angular momentum transfer are studied. A potential reason for the half-life to deviate from the Geiger-Nuttall law in α-decays of neutron-deficient nuclei 194, 196Rn is found. The fine structure of α-decays of U and Th isotopes is predicted and characterized. The model is used to describe α-decays from the rotational band of even-even nuclei. The known half-lives in the regions of "lead" and "tin" radioactivities are reproduced well, and the most probable cluster yields are predicted. The cluster decay of excited nuclei is discussed. The relation of cluster radioactivity to spontaneous fission and highly deformed nuclear states is analyzed.

  2. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover.

  3. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  4. Model description of non-Maxwellian nuclear processes in the solar interior

    CERN Document Server

    Voronchev, Victor T; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2016-01-01

    A consistent model for the description of non-Maxwellian nuclear processes in the solar core triggered by fast reaction-produced particles is formulated. It essentially extends an approach to study suprathermal solar reactions discussed previously [Phys. Rev. C 91, 028801 (2015)] and refines its predictions. The model is applied to examine in detail the slowing-down of 8.7-MeV alpha particles produced in the 7Li(p,alpha)alpha reaction of the pp chain, and to study suprathermal processes in the solar CNO cycle induced by them. The influence of electron degeneracy and electron screening on suprathermal reactions through in-flight reaction probability and fast particle emission rate is clarified. In particular, these effects account for a 20% increase of the 14N(alpha,p)17O reaction rate at R 18F of nuclear flow transforms to abnormal sequential flow 14N --> 17O --> 18F, and the 14N(alpha,p)17O reaction rate exceeds the rate of 17O burn up through conventional 17O(p,alpha)14N and 17O(p,gamma)18F processes. It i...

  5. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  6. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  7. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle.

  8. An improved dust emission model - Part 1: Model description and comparison against measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Mahowald, N. M.; Fratini, G.; Gillies, J. A.; Ishizuka, M.; Leys, J. F.; Mikami, M.; Park, M.-S.; Park, S.-U.; Van Pelt, R. S.; Zobeck, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Simulations of the dust cycle and its interactions with the changing Earth system are hindered by the empirical nature of dust emission parameterizations in weather and climate models. Here we take a step towards improving dust cycle simulations by using a combination of theory and numerical simulations to derive a physically based dust emission parameterization. Our parameterization is straightforward to implement into large-scale models, as it depends only on the wind friction velocity and the soil's threshold friction velocity. Moreover, it accounts for two processes missing from most existing parameterizations: a soil's increased ability to produce dust under saltation bombardment as it becomes more erodible, and the increased scaling of the dust flux with wind speed as a soil becomes less erodible. Our treatment of both these processes is supported by a compilation of quality-controlled vertical dust flux measurements. Furthermore, our scheme reproduces this measurement compilation with substantially less error than the existing dust flux parameterizations we were able to compare against. A critical insight from both our theory and the measurement compilation is that dust fluxes are substantially more sensitive to the soil's threshold friction velocity than most current schemes account for.

  9. Description of the Process Model for the Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Stack Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dale A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-08

    This model description is supplemental to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) report LLNL-TR-642494, Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for CO2 Removal at Near- Commercial Scale at Duke Energy Gibson 3 Plant. We describe the assumptions and methodology used in the Laboratory’s simulation of its understanding of Huaneng’s novel amine solvent for CO2 capture with 35% mixed amine. The results of that simulation have been described in LLNL-TR-642494. The simulation was performed using ASPEN 7.0. The composition of the Huaneng’s novel amine solvent was estimated based on information gleaned from Huaneng patents. The chemistry of the process was described using nine equations, representing reactions within the absorber and stripper columns using the ELECTNRTL property method. As a rate-based ASPEN simulation model was not available to Lawrence Livermore at the time of writing, the height of a theoretical plate was estimated using open literature for similar processes. Composition of the flue gas was estimated based on information supplied by Duke Energy for Unit 3 of the Gibson plant. The simulation was scaled at one million short tons of CO2 absorbed per year. To aid stability of the model, convergence of the main solvent recycle loop was implemented manually, as described in the Blocks section below. Automatic convergence of this loop led to instability during the model iterations. Manual convergence of the loop enabled accurate representation and maintenance of model stability.

  10. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  11. A Multiscale Mechanical Model for Plant Tissue Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Pasini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant petioles and stems are hierarchical cellular structures, displaying structuralfeatures defined at multiple length scales. The current work focuses on the multi-scalemodelling of plant tissue, considering two orders of structural hierarchy, cell wall and tissue.The stiffness of plant tissue is largely governed by the geometry of the tissue cells, thecomposition of the cell wall and the structural properties of its constituents. The cell wallis analogous to a fiber reinforced composite, where the cellulose microfibril (CMF is theload bearing component. For multilayered cell wall, the microfibril angle (MFA in themiddle layer of the secondary cell wall (S2 layer largely affects the longitudinal stiffnessfor values up to 40o. The MFA in turn influences the overall wall stiffness. In this work,the effective stiffness of a model system based on collenchyma cell wall of a dicotyledonousplant, the Rheum rhabarbarum, is computed considering generic MFA and volume fractions.At the cellular level, a 2-D Finite Edge Centroidal Voronoi tessellation (FECVT has beendeveloped and implemented to generate the non-periodic microstructure of the plant tissue.The effective elastic properties of the cellular tissue are obtained through finite elementanalysis (FEA of the Voronoi model coupled with the cell wall properties. The stiffness ofthe hierarchically modeled tissue is critically important in determining the overall structuralproperties of plant petioles and stems.

  12. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail.

  13. Words and Maps: Developmental Changes in Mental Models of Spatial Information Acquired from Descriptions and Depictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, David H.; Fisher, Joan A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present…

  14. New model concepts for dynamic plant uptake and mass flux estimates in the soil-plant-air system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances...... in environmental systems at different scales. Feedback mechanisms between plants and hydrological systems can play an important role. However, they have received little attention to date. Here, a new model concept for dynamic plant uptake models applying analytical matrix solutions is presented, which can...... be coupled to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out in order to estimate chemical concentrations in the soil-plant-air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater....

  15. Description of the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Goosse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of the new version 1.2 of the three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM are briefly described. LOVECLIM 1.2 includes representations of the atmosphere, the ocean and sea ice, the land surface (including vegetation, the ice sheets, the icebergs and the carbon cycle. The atmospheric component is ECBilt2, a T21, 3-level quasi-geostrophic model. The ocean component is CLIO3, which consists of an ocean general circulation model coupled to a comprehensive thermodynamic-dynamic sea-ice model. Its horizontal resolution is of 3° by 3°, and there are 20 levels in the ocean. ECBilt-CLIO is coupled to VECODE, a vegetation model that simulates the dynamics of two main terrestrial plant functional types, trees and grasses, as well as desert. VECODE also simulates the evolution of the carbon cycle over land while the ocean carbon cycle is represented by LOCH, a comprehensive model that takes into account both the solubility and biological pumps. The ice sheet component AGISM is made up of a three-dimensional thermomechanical model of the ice sheet flow, a visco-elastic bedrock model and a model of the mass balance at the ice-atmosphere and ice-ocean interfaces. For both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, calculations are made on a 10 km by 10 km resolution grid with 31 sigma levels. LOVECLIM1.2 reproduces well the major characteristics of the observed climate both for present-day conditions and for key past periods such as the last millennium, the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum. However, despite some improvements compared to earlier versions, some biases are still present in the model. The most serious ones are mainly located at low latitudes with an overestimation of the temperature there, a too symmetric distribution of precipitation between the two hemispheres, and an overestimation of precipitation and vegetation cover in the subtropics. In addition, the atmospheric circulation is

  16. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  17. Plants as model in biomimetics and biorobotics: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2014-01-01

    Especially in robotics, rarely plants have been considered as a model of inspiration for designing and developing new technology. This is probably due to their radically different operational principles compared to animals and the difficulty to study their movements and features. Owing to the sessile nature of their lifestyle, plants have evolved the capability to respond to a wide range of signals and efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions. Plants in fact are able to show considerable plasticity in their morphology and physiology in response to variability within their environment. This results in movements that are characterized by energy efficiency and high density. Plant materials are optimized to reduce energy consumption during motion and these capabilities offer a plethora of solutions in the artificial world, exploiting approaches that are muscle-free and thus not necessarily animal-like. Plant roots then are excellent natural diggers, and their characteristics such as adaptive growth, low energy consumption movements, and the capability of penetrating soil at any angle are interesting from an engineering perspective. A few examples are described to lay the perspectives of plants in the artificial world.

  18. Plants as model in biomimetics and biorobotics: New perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMazzolai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Especially in robotics, rarely plants have been considered as a model of inspiration for designing and developing new technology. This is probably due to their radically different operational principles compared to animals and the difficulty to study their movements and features. Owing to the sessile nature of their lifestyle, plants have evolved the capability to respond to a wide range of signals and efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions. Plants in fact are able to show considerable plasticity in their morphology and physiology in response to variability within their environment. This results in movements that are characterized by energy efficiency and high density. Plant materials are optimized to reduce energy consumption during motion and these capabilities offer a plethora of solutions in the artificial world, exploiting approaches that are muscle-free and thus not necessarily animal-like. Plant roots then are excellent natural diggers, and their characteristics such as adaptive growth, low energy consumption movements, and the capability of penetrating soil at any angle are interesting from an engineering perspective. A few examples are described to lay the perspectives of plants in the artificial world.

  19. Representing plants as rigid cylinders in experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Calvani, Giulio; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.

    2016-07-01

    Simulating the morphological adaptation of water systems often requires including the effects of plants on water and sediment dynamics. Physical and numerical models need representing vegetation in a schematic easily-quantifiable way despite the variety of sizes, shapes and flexibility of real plants. Common approaches represent plants as rigid cylinders, but the ability of these schematizations to reproduce the effects of vegetation on morphodynamic processes has never been analyzed systematically. This work focuses on the consequences of representing plants as rigid cylinders in laboratory tests and numerical simulations. New experiments show that the flow resistance decreases for increasing element Reynolds numbers for both plants and rigid cylinders. Cylinders on river banks can qualitatively reproduce vegetation effects on channel width and bank-related processes. A comparative review of numerical simulations shows that Baptist's method that sums the contribution of bed shear stress and vegetation drag, underestimates bed erosion within sparse vegetation in real rivers and overestimates the mean flow velocity in laboratory experiments. This is due to assuming uniform flow among plants and to an overestimation of the role of the submergence ratio.

  20. 4Mx Soil-Plant Model: Applications, Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Fodor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop simulation models describe the main processes of the soil-plant system in a dynamic way usually in a daily time-step. With the help of these models we may monitor the soil- and plant-related processes of the simulated system as they evolve according to the atmospheric and environmental conditions. Crop models could be successfully applied in the following areas: (1 Education: by promoting the system-oriented thinking a comprehensive overview of the interrelations of the soil-plant system as well as of the environmental protection related aspects of the human activities could be presented. (2 Research: The results of observations as well as of experiments could be extrapolated in time and space, thus, for example, the possible effects of the global climate change could be estimated. (3 Practice: Model calculations could be used in intelligent irrigation control and decision supporting systems as well as for providing scientific background for policy makers. The most spectacular feature of the 4Mx crop model is that its graphical user interface enables the user to alter not only the parameters of the model but the function types of its governing equations as well. The applicability of the 4Mx model is presented via several case-studies.

  1. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...

  2. Gene Discovery and Functional Analyses in the Model Plant Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Ping Feng; John Mundy

    2006-01-01

    The present mini-review describes newer methods and strategies, including transposon and T-DNA insertions,TILLING, Deleteagene, and RNA interference, to functionally analyze genes of interest in the model plant Arabidopsis. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the systems are also discussed.

  3. Gene Discovery and Functional Analyses in the Model Plant Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Cai-ping; Mundy, J.

    2006-01-01

    The present mini-review describes newer methods and strategies, including transposon and T-DNA insertions, TILLING, Deleteagene, and RNA interference, to functionally analyze genes of interest in the model plant Arabidopsis. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the systems are also...

  4. Description of nuclei in the A$\\sim$100 mass region with the interacting boson model

    CERN Document Server

    Böyükata, M; Uluer, I

    2010-01-01

    Even--even nuclei in the $A\\sim100$ mass region are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson model-1 (\\mbox{IBM-1}). The study includes energy spectra and electric quadrupole transition properties of zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium and palladium isotopes with neutron number $N\\geq52$. A global parametrization of the \\mbox{IBM-1} Hamiltonian is found leading to a description of about 300 collective levels in 30 nuclei with a root-mean-square deviation from the observed level energies of 120~keV. The importance of the $d_{5/2}$ subshell closure at neutron number $N=56$ is pointed out. The geometric character of the nuclei can be visualized by plotting the potential energy surface $V(\\beta,\\gamma)$ obtained from the \\mbox{IBM-1} Hamiltonian in the classical limit. The parametrization established on the basis of known elements is used to predict properties of the unknown, neutron-rich isotopes $^{106}$Zr, $^{112}$Mo, $^{116}$Ru and $^{122}$Pd.

  5. Stressors, stress and stress consequences during long-duration manned space missions: a descriptive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano; Brunelli, Francesco; Perino, Maria A.

    Keeping crew members in good health is a major factor in the success or failure of long-duration manned space missions. Among the many possible agents that can affect the crew's general well-being, stress is certainly one of the most critical because of its implications on human health and performance, both physical and mental. Nevertheless, very few studies have been performed on this fundamental issue and none of them has addressed it in its entirity, considering its diverse physical and psychological aspects. In this work, a descriptive model is proposed to expound the mechanism and sequence of events which mediate stress. A critical analysis of the information provided by past manned spaceflights and by dedicated research performed in analogous environments is presented, and an extrapolation of the available data on human stress in such extreme conditions is proposed. Both internal and external stressors have been identified, at physical and psychosocial levels, thus providing the basis for their early detection and preventive reduction. The possible negative consequences of stress that may lead to disease in crewmembers are described. Finally, the most effective instruments which may be of help in reducing space-related human stress and treating its negative consequences are suggested.

  6. Self-consistent model of a solid for the description of lattice and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.; Jaščur, M.

    2017-03-01

    In the paper a self-consistent theoretical description of the lattice and magnetic properties of a model system with magnetoelastic interaction is presented. The dependence of magnetic exchange integrals on the distance between interacting spins is assumed, which couples the magnetic and the lattice subsystem. The framework is based on summation of the Gibbs free energies for the lattice subsystem and magnetic subsystem. On the basis of minimization principle for the Gibbs energy, a set of equations of state for the system is derived. These equations of state combine the parameters describing the elastic properties (relative volume deformation) and the magnetic properties (magnetization changes). The formalism is extensively illustrated with the numerical calculations performed for a system of ferromagnetically coupled spins S=1/2 localized at the sites of simple cubic lattice. In particular, the significant influence of the magnetic subsystem on the elastic properties is demonstrated. It manifests itself in significant modification of such quantities as the relative volume deformation, thermal expansion coefficient or isothermal compressibility, in particular, in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. On the other hand, the influence of lattice subsystem on the magnetic one is also evident. It takes, for example, the form of dependence of the critical (Curie) temperature and magnetization itself on the external pressure, which is thoroughly investigated.

  7. Computing ordinary least-squares parameter estimates for the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2013-01-01

    A specialized technique is used to compute weighted ordinary least-squares (OLS) estimates of the parameters of the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF) in less time using less computer memory than general methods. The characteristics of the NDMMF allow the two products X'X and X'y in the normal equations to be filled out in a second or two of computer time during a single pass through the N data observations. As a result, the matrix X does not have to be stored in computer memory and the computationally expensive matrix multiplications generally required to produce X'X and X'y do not have to be carried out. The normal equations may then be solved to determine the best-fit parameters in the OLS sense. The computational solution based on this specialized technique requires O(8p2+16p) bytes of computer memory for p parameters on a machine with 8-byte double-precision numbers. This publication includes a reference implementation of this technique and a Gaussian-elimination solver in preliminary custom software.

  8. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants.

  9. Trichomes as models for studying plant cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changxian; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-06-01

    Trichomes, originating from epidermal cells, are present on nearly all terrestrial plants. They exist in diverse forms, are readily accessible, and serve as an excellent model system for analyzing the molecular mechanisms in plant cell differentiation, including cell fate choices, cell cycle control, and cell morphogenesis. In Arabidopsis, two regulatory models have been identified that function in parallel in trichome formation; the activator-inhibitor model and the activator-depletion model. Cotton fiber, a similar unicellular structure, is controlled by some functional homologues of Arabidopsis trichome-patterning genes. Multicellular trichomes, as in tobacco and tomato, may form through a distinct pathway from unicellular trichomes. Recent research has shown that cell cycle control participates in trichome formation. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of unicellular and multicellular trichomes, and discuss the integration of the cell cycle in its initiation and morphogenesis.

  10. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  11. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a unifying model for the conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    An important basis for the successful development of rehabilitation practice and research is a conceptually sound description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy based on a universally accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. With the approval of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and the reference to the ICF in the World Health Assembly's resolution on "Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation" in 2005, we can now rely on a universally accepted conceptual model. It is thus time to initiate the process of evolving an ICF-based conceptual description that can serve as a basis for similar conceptual descriptions and according definitions of the professions applying the rehabilitation strategy and of distinct scientific fields of human functioning and rehabilitation research. In co-operation with the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and its professional practice committee, we present a first tentative version of an ICF-based conceptual description in this paper. A brief definition describes rehabilitation as the health strategy applied by PRM and professionals in the health sector and across other sectors that aims to enable people with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with the environment. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute towards achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  12. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  13. Perspectives on modelling micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouzot, Ludiwine; Cloutier, Frédéric; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Models for predicting the fate of micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been developed to provide engineers and decision-makers with tools that they can use to improve their understanding of, and evaluate how to optimize, the removal of MPs and determine their impact......) addressing advancements in WWTP treatment technologies, (iii) making use of common approaches to data acquisition for model calibration and (iv) integrating ecotoxicological effects of MPs in receiving waters....

  14. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Eva (SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  15. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno;

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging...... from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw—1. Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw—1. Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates...

  16. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  17. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  18. Plant model of KIPT neutron source facility simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, Thomas Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grelle, Austin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine are collaborating on constructing a neutron source facility at KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility has 100-kW electron beam driving a subcritical assembly (SCA). The electron beam interacts with a natural uranium target or a tungsten target to generate neutrons, and deposits its power in the target zone. The total fission power generated in SCA is about 300 kW. Two primary cooling loops are designed to remove 100-kW and 300-kW from the target zone and the SCA, respectively. A secondary cooling system is coupled with the primary cooling system to dispose of the generated heat outside the facility buildings to the atmosphere. In addition, the electron accelerator has a low efficiency for generating the electron beam, which uses another secondary cooling loop to remove the generated heat from the accelerator primary cooling loop. One of the main functions the KIPT neutron source facility is to train young nuclear specialists; therefore, ANL has developed the KIPT Neutron Source Facility Simulator for this function. In this simulator, a Plant Control System and a Plant Protection System were developed to perform proper control and to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper operation of the facility during the steady-state and the transient states using a facility plant model. This report focuses on describing the physics of the plant model and provides several test cases to demonstrate its capabilities. The plant facility model uses the PYTHON script language. It is consistent with the computer language of the plant control system. It is easy to integrate with the simulator without an additional interface, and it is able to simulate the transients of the cooling systems with system control variables changing on real-time.

  19. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  20. A Descriptive Model of Patient Readiness, Motivators, and Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Australian Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%–3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. Method and Findings We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. Conclusion This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for

  1. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  2. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  3. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Muhammad Mohsin, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  4. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  5. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  6. Gravity research on plants: use of single cell experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eChebli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided.

  7. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  8. Development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture will be discussed. The IGCC reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power using Illinois No.6 coal as the feed. The plant includes an entrained, downflow, General Electric Energy (GEE) gasifier with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC), a two-stage water gas shift (WGS) conversion process, and two advanced 'F' class combustion turbines partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit (ASU). A subcritical steam cycle is considered for heat recovery steam generation. Syngas is selectively cleaned by a SELEXOL acid gas removal (AGR) process. Sulfur is recovered using a two-train Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. A multistage intercooled compressor is used for compressing CO2 to the pressure required for sequestration. Using Illinois No.6 coal, the reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power. The plant-wide steady-state and dynamic IGCC simulations have been generated using the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} and Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign} process simulators, respectively. The model is generated based on the Case 2 IGCC configuration detailed in the study available in the NETL website1. The GEE gasifier is represented with a restricted equilibrium reactor model where the temperature approach to equilibrium for individual reactions can be modified based on the experimental data. In this radiant-only configuration, the syngas from the Radiant Syngas Cooler (RSC) is quenched in a scrubber. The blackwater from the scrubber bottom is further cleaned in the blackwater treatment plant. The cleaned water is returned back to the scrubber and also used for slurry preparation. The acid gas from the sour water stripper (SWS) is sent to the Claus plant. The syngas from the scrubber passes through a sour shift process. The WGS reactors are modeled as adiabatic plug flow reactors with rigorous kinetics based on

  9. Structural and functional models in molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic chemistry: description of selected model complexes, present scenario and possible future scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Amit

    2014-06-28

    A brief description about some selected model complexes in molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic chemistry is provided. The synthetic strategies involved and their limitations are discussed. Current status of molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic modeling chemistry is presented briefly and synthetic problems associated therein are analyzed. Possible future directions which may expand the scope of modeling chemistry are suggested.

  10. How plant architecture affects light absorption and photosynthesis in tomato: towards an ideotype for plant architecture using a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims - Manipulation of plant structure can strongly affect light distribution in the canopy and photosynthesis. The aim of this paper is to find a plant ideotype for optimization of light absorption and canopy photosynthesis. Using a static functional structural plant model (FSPM), a

  11. How plant architecture affects light absorption and photosynthesis in tomato: towards an ideotype for plant architecture using a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims - Manipulation of plant structure can strongly affect light distribution in the canopy and photosynthesis. The aim of this paper is to find a plant ideotype for optimization of light absorption and canopy photosynthesis. Using a static functional structural plant model (FSPM), a

  12. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    process. It controls chloride concentration that, in turn, determines the re-equilibrium path (water-rock interaction) triggered by mixing. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the groundwater age, tritium content and calcite dissolution/precipitation processes at shallow groundwater depths at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. The modelled results provide additional support to hydrogeological models by using independent hydrochemical information and added support to the general hydrogeochemical understanding of the site. In this evaluation the groundwater model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided additional possibilities to address independently the various processes in question.

  13. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  14. Verification of Geometric Model-Based Plant Phenotyping Methods for Studies of Xerophytic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Drapikowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of verification of certain non-contact measurement methods of plant scanning to estimate morphological parameters such as length, width, area, volume of leaves and/or stems on the basis of computer models. The best results in reproducing the shape of scanned objects up to 50 cm in height were obtained with the structured-light DAVID Laserscanner. The optimal triangle mesh resolution for scanned surfaces was determined with the measurement error taken into account. The research suggests that measuring morphological parameters from computer models can supplement or even replace phenotyping with classic methods. Calculating precise values of area and volume makes determination of the S/V (surface/volume ratio for cacti and other succulents possible, whereas for classic methods the result is an approximation only. In addition, the possibility of scanning and measuring plant species which differ in morphology was investigated.

  15. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  16. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model, which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site and using greater grid resolution. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Forsmark area on a regional-scale based on the available data of 30 June 2004 and the previous Site Description. A more specific

  17. A compact model for the complex plant circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier eGonze

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock is an endogenous timekeeper that allows organisms to anticipate and adapt to the daily variations of their environment. The plant clock is an intricate network of interlocked feedback loops, in which transcription factors regulate each other to generate oscillations with expression peaks at specific times of the day. Over the last decade, mathematical modeling approaches have been used to understand the inner workings of the clock in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Those efforts have produced a number of models of ever increasing complexity. Here, we present an alternative model that combines a low number of equations and parameters, similar to the very earliest models, with the complex network structure found in more recent ones. This simple model describes the temporal evolution of the abundance of eight clock genes and captures key features of the clock on a qualitative level, namely the entrained and free-running behaviors of the wild type clock, as well as the defects found in knockout mutants (such as altered free-running periods, lack of entrainment, or changes in the expression of other clock genes. Additionally, our model produces complex responses to various light cues, such as extreme photoperiods and non-24h environmental cycles, and can describe the control of hypocotyl growth by the clock. Our model constitutes a useful tool to probe dynamical properties of the clock as well as model more clock-dependent processes.

  18. Azolla - A Model Organism for Plant Genomic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long Qiu; Jun Yu

    2003-01-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation. Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture, its unique position in plant evolution, its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, and its moderate-sized genome. The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes. Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing, the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  19. Azolla—A Model Organism for Plant Genomic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-LongQiu; JunYu

    2003-01-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation.Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture,its unique position in plant evolution,its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium,Anabaena azollae,and its moderate-sized genome.The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes.Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing,the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  20. Venation Skeleton-Based Modeling Plant Leaf Wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglian Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A venation skeleton-driven method for modeling and animating plant leaf wilting is presented. The proposed method includes five principal processes. Firstly, a three-dimensional leaf skeleton is constructed from a leaf image, and the leaf skeleton is further used to generate a detailed mesh for the leaf surface. Then a venation skeleton is generated interactively from the leaf skeleton. Each vein in the venation skeleton consists of a segmented vertices string. Thirdly, each vertex in the leaf mesh is banded to the nearest vertex in the venation skeleton. We then deform the venation skeleton by controlling the movement of each vertex in the venation skeleton by rotating it around a fixed vector. Finally, the leaf mesh is mapped to the deformed venation skeleton, as such the deformation of the mesh follows the deformation of the venation skeleton. The proposed techniques have been applied to simulate plant leaf surface deformation resulted from biological responses of plant wilting.

  1. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang Xinxin [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow Modeling is given and a detailed presentation of the foundational means-end concepts is presented and the conditions for proper use in modelling accidents are identified. It is shown that Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used for modelling and reasoning about design basis accidents. Its possible role for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented.

  2. Stochastic modeling of deterioration in nuclear power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianxun

    2007-12-01

    The risk-based life-cycle management of engineering systems in a nuclear power plant is intended to ensure safe and economically efficient operation of energy generation infrastructure over its entire service life. An important element of life-cycle management is to understand, model and forecast the effect of various degradation mechanisms affecting the performance of engineering systems, structures and components. The modeling of degradation in nuclear plant components is confounded by large sampling and temporal uncertainties. The reason is that nuclear systems are not readily accessible for inspections due to high level of radiation and large costs associated with remote data collection methods. The models of degradation used by industry are largely derived from ordinary linear regression methods. The main objective of this thesis is to develop more advanced techniques based on stochastic process theory to model deterioration in engineering components with the purpose of providing more scientific basis to life-cycle management of aging nuclear power plants. This thesis proposes a stochastic gamma process (GP) model for deterioration and develops a suite of statistical techniques for calibrating the model parameters. The gamma process is a versatile and mathematically tractable stochastic model for a wide variety of degradation phenomena, and another desirable property is its nonnegative, monotonically increasing sample paths. In the thesis, the GP model is extended by including additional covariates and also modeling for random effects. The optimization of age-based replacement and condition-based maintenance strategies is also presented. The thesis also investigates improved regression techniques for modeling deterioration. A linear mixed-effects (LME) regression model is presented to resolve an inconsistency of the traditional regression models. The proposed LME model assumes that the randomness in deterioration is decomposed into two parts: the unobserved

  3. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP1 (ASM1 & 3) and WWTP2 (ASM2d). The second set of models includes a reactive settler, which extends the description of the non-reactive TSS sedimentation and transport in the reference case with the full set of ASM processes. Finally, the third set of models is based on including electron acceptor dependency of biomass decay rates for ASM1 (WWTP1) and ASM2d (WWTP2). The results show that incorporation of a reactive settler: (1) increases the hydrolysis of particulates; (2) increases the overall plant's denitrification efficiency by reducing the S(NOx) concentration at the bottom of the clarifier; (3) increases the oxidation of COD compounds; (4) increases X(OHO) and X(ANO) decay; and, finally, (5) increases the growth of X(PAO) and formation of X(PHA,Stor) for ASM2d, which has a major impact on the whole P removal system. Introduction of electron acceptor dependent decay leads to a substantial increase of the concentration of X(ANO), X(OHO) and X(PAO) in the bottom of the clarifier. The paper ends with a critical discussion of the influence of the different model assumptions, and emphasizes the need for a model user to understand the significant differences in simulation results that are obtained when applying different combinations of 'standard' models.

  4. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen simulations over the Euro-CORDEX domain: model description and emission calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, li; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Vautard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a highly allergenic invasive plant. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007). In the context of the ATOPICA EU program we are studying the links between climate, land use and ecological changes on the ragweed pollen emissions and concentrations. For this purpose, we implemented a pollen emission/transport module in the RegCM4 regional climate model in collaboration with ATOPICA partners. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model, i.e. RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from (ORCHIDEE French) Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species (Fabien et al., 2008). We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain (simulation for future condition is been considering). Hindcast simulations (2000~2011) were driven by the ERA-Interim re-analyses and designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens, which were calibrated with parts of observations and verified by comparison with the additional observations. Historical simulations (1985~2004) were driven by HadGEM CMPI5 and designed to serve as a baseline for comparison with future airborne concentrations as obtained from climate and land-use scenarios. To reduce the uncertainties on the ragweed pollen emission, an assimilation-like method (Rouǐl et al., 2009) was used to calibrate release based on airborne pollen observations. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately. A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then

  5. NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING OF BLENDING PROCESS IN CEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Olarotimi Araromi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of a cement plant depends largely on the efficient operation of the blending stage, therefore, there is a need to control the process at the blending stage in order to maintain the chemical composition of the raw mix near or at the desired value with minimum variance despite variation in the raw material composition. In this work, neuro-fuzzy model is developed for a dynamic behaviour of the system to predict the total carbonate content in the raw mix at different clay feed rates. The data used for parameter estimation and model validation was obtained from one of the cement plants in Nigeria. The data was pre-processed to remove outliers and filtered using smoothening technique in order to reveal its dynamic nature. Autoregressive exogenous (ARX model was developed for comparison purpose. ARX model gave high root mean square error (RMSE of 5.408 and 4.0199 for training and validation respectively. Poor fit resulting from ARX model is an indication of nonlinear nature of the process. However, both visual and statistical analyses on neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS model gave a far better result. RMSE of training and validation are 0.28167 and 0.7436 respectively, and the sum of square error (SSE and R-square are 39.6692 and 0.9969 respectively. All these are an indication of good performance of ANFIS model. This model can be used for control design of the process.

  6. Application of Digital Elevation Model (DEM for description of soil microtopography changes in laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stańczyk Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study we evaluated spatial and quantitative changes in soil surface microtopography to describe water erosion process under simulated rain with use of a non-contact optical 3D scanner. The experiment was conducted in two variants: with and without drainage layer. Two clay soils collected from farmlands from the catchment of lake Zgorzała (Warsaw were investigated. Six tests of simulated rain were applied, with 55 mm·h−1. The surface roughness and microrelief were determined immediately after every 10 min of rainfall simulation by 3D scanner. The volume of surface and underground runoff as well as soil moisture were measured. The surface points coordinates obtained while scanning were interpolated using natural neighbour method and GIS software to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM with a 0.5 mm resolution. Two DEM-derived surface roughness indices: Random Roughness (RR and Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI were used for microrelief description. Calculated values of both roughness factors have decreased with time under the influence of rainfall in all analyzed variants. During the sprinkling the moisture of all samples had been growing rapidly from air-dry state reaching values close to the maximum water capacity (37–48% vol. in 20–30 min. Simultaneously the intensity of surface runoff was increasing and cumulative runoff value was: 17–35% for variants with drainage and 72–83% for the variants without drainage, relative to cumulative rainfall. The observed soil surface elevation changes were associated with aggregates decomposition, erosion and sedimentation, and above all, with a compaction of the soil, which was considered to be a dominant factor hindering the assessment of the erosion intensity of the of the scanned surface.

  7. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 7. A check list of plant nematodes from the Fynbos Biome, with a description of Helicotylenchus curatus sp. n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant nematodes recorded during surveys in the Fynbos Biome are listed and a new Helicotylenchus species is described. Helicotylenchus curatus sp. n. is characterised bystylet length (42-46 μm in females, 37-40 μm in males, presence of two rudimentary subdorsal and two rudimentary subventral lobes on the labial disc, first lip annulus divided into six sectors, presence of fasciculi and presence of males. Nine families represented by 32 genera and 152 species were identified from the Fynbos Biome. The generaCriconema, Helicotylenchus, Hemicycliophora, Rotylenchus, Scutellonema and Xiphinema were found in more than 30 % of the localities, whereas Caloosia, Criconemoides, Ditylenchus, Geocenamus, Hemicriconemoides, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Longidorus, Meloidogyne, Mesocriconema, Ogma, Paralongidorus, Paratrichodorus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchoides, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Trichodorusand Tylenchorhynchus were found at fewer localities. The genera Anguina, Hirschmaniella, Histotylenchus and Zygotylenchus were each identified from a single locality.

  8. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern (ed.)

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  9. Simulation Model of Hydro Power Plant Using Matlab/Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Sattouf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower has now become the best source of electricity on earth. It is produced due to the energy provided by moving or falling water. History proves that the cost of this electricity remains constant over the year. Because of the many advantages, most of the countries now have hydropower as the source of major electricity producer. The most important advantage of hydropower is that t is green energy, which mean that no air or water pollutants are produced, also no greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide are produced which makes this source of energy environment-friendly. It prevents us from the danger of global warming. This paper describes a generalized model which can be used to simulate a hydro power plant using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The plant consists of hydro turbine connected to synchronous generator, which is connected to public grid. Simulation of hydro turbine and synchronous generator can be done using various simulation tools, In this work, SIMULINK/MATLAB is favored over other tools in modeling the dynamics of a hydro turbine and synchronous machine. The SIMULINK program in MATLAB is used to obtain a schematic model of the hydro plant by means of basic function blocks. This approach is pedagogically better than using a compilation of program code as in other software programs .The library of SIMULINK software programs includes function blocks which can be linked and edited to model. The main objectives of this model are aimed to achieve some operating modes of the hydro plant and some operating tests.

  10. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  11. Future of Plant Functional Types in Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iversen, C. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modelers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current, and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration, and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially belowground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and remote sensing will be

  12. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  13. Modelling of Water Turbidity Parameters in a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of chemical analysis of water has necessitated various researches into finding alternative method of determining portable water quality. This paper is aimed at modelling the turbidity value as a water quality parameter. Mathematical models for turbidity removal were developed based on the relationships between water turbidity and other water criteria. Results showed that the turbidity of water is the cumulative effect of the individual parameters/factors affecting the system. A model equation for the evaluation and prediction of a clarifier’s performance was developed:Model: T = T0(-1.36729 + 0.037101∙10λpH + 0.048928t + 0.00741387∙alkThe developed model will aid the predictive assessment of water treatment plant performance. The limitations of the models are as a result of insufficient variable considered during the conceptualization.

  14. MODELING OF HIGH STORAGE SHEET DEPOT WITH PLANT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jardzioch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are becoming increasingly automated. Introduction of innovative solutions often necessitate processing very large number of signals from various devices. Correctness tests of the components configuration becomes a compiled operation requiring vast expenditure of time and knowledge. The models may be a mathematical reflection of the actual object. Many actions can be computer-assisted to varying degree. One example is construction of simulation models. These can also be simulation models developed in advanced software. The stages of creating a model may be purely random. This paper aims at a closer analysis of the simulation model based on the high storage sheet depot modeling using Plant Simulation software. The results of analysis can be used for optimization, but this stage is a separate issue.

  15. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Plant description layout D - Forsmark; Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Anlaeggningsbeskrivning layout D - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    This document describes the final repository for spent nuclear fuel, SFK, which is located at Forsmark, in Oesthammar. The bedrock at the site is part of a so-called tectonic lens, in which the rock composition is relatively homogeneous and less deformed than outside the lens. The bedrock consists mainly of granite with high quartz content and good thermal conductivity. The central parts above ground are grouped in an operations area, located at the Soederviken on the south side of the intake duct for cooling water for nuclear power plant. Operating area is divided into an internal, secured portion, where the canisters of fuel are handled and there are links to the underground part, and a outer part, where the buffer, backfill and sealing used in the repository's barriers are produced. The above-ground part of the plant and also include storage of excavated rock, ventilation stations, and supplies of bentonite. The underground portion consists of a central area and a storage area. Caverns of the central area contain features for the underground operation. It communicates with the internal operating range above ground via a spiral ramp and several shafts. The ramp used to transport capsules of spent fuel and other heavy or bulky transport. The shafts are used to transport rock, buffer, backfill and staff, as well as for ventilation. The largest part of the space below ground is the repository where the canisters with the spent fuel are disposed. The capsules are deposited in vertical holes in the tunnels. When the deposit in a tunnel is complete, the tunnel is re-filled. The two main activities underground is rock work and disposal work, which are conducted separately from each other. Rock works covers all steps required to excavate tunnels and drill deposition holes, as well as to make temporary installations in the tunnels. To the landfill works count, besides the deposit of the capsule, the placement of the bentonite buffer in the deposition hole and

  16. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases together with microbial modelling. Site description model SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Laxemar site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on available primary data from the extended data freeze L2.3 (Nov 2007). This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases. Several methods must be used to characterise active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of

  17. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  18. Special feature: a multifacet circumplex model of personality as a basis for the description and therapy of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P

    1998-01-01

    A new circumplex model of personality, based upon two higher order personality factors, mental health and behavior control, is presented. This eight-octant model, which also includes the two multifacet dimensions of "social adaptation vs. unrestraint" and "self-actualization vs. inhibition," should not be confused with two other well-known circumplex models: the interpersonal model and the Eysenck model. Mental health, a multifacet construct, is defined as the ability to cope with external and internal demands. Behavior control, also a multifacet construct, is characterized by self-control (norm-, future-, work-, and reason-orientation; orderliness) vs. spontaneity (hedonism, excitement seeking, feeling orientation, liveliness). The theoretical background and facets of these constructs are presented. The model is useful for the description of personality disorders, and etiological hypotheses are formulated from the combination of this model with a circumplex model of interpersonal behavior. Finally, some therapeutic implications of the model are discussed.

  19. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was

  20. OCAM - A CELSS modeling tool: Description and results. [Object-oriented Controlled Ecological Life Support System Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is critical to the Space Exploration Initiative. NASA's Kennedy Space Center has been performing CELSS research for several years, developing data related to CELSS design. We have developed OCAM (Object-oriented CELSS Analysis and Modeling), a CELSS modeling tool, and have used this tool to evaluate CELSS concepts, using this data. In using OCAM, a CELSS is broken down into components, and each component is modeled as a combination of containers, converters, and gates which store, process, and exchange carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen on a daily basis. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options modeled include combustion, leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic or anaerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. Results include printouts and time-history graphs of total system mass, biomass, carbon dioxide, and oxygen quantities; energy consumption; and manpower requirements. The contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost have been analyzed to compare configurations and determine appropriate research directions.

  1. OCAM - A CELSS modeling tool: Description and results. [Object-oriented Controlled Ecological Life Support System Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is critical to the Space Exploration Initiative. NASA's Kennedy Space Center has been performing CELSS research for several years, developing data related to CELSS design. We have developed OCAM (Object-oriented CELSS Analysis and Modeling), a CELSS modeling tool, and have used this tool to evaluate CELSS concepts, using this data. In using OCAM, a CELSS is broken down into components, and each component is modeled as a combination of containers, converters, and gates which store, process, and exchange carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen on a daily basis. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options modeled include combustion, leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic or anaerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. Results include printouts and time-history graphs of total system mass, biomass, carbon dioxide, and oxygen quantities; energy consumption; and manpower requirements. The contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost have been analyzed to compare configurations and determine appropriate research directions.

  2. Health-aware Model Predictive Control of Pasteurization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Puig, Vicenç; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize the trade-off between components life and energy consumption, the integration of a system health management and control modules is required. This paper proposes the integration of model predictive control (MPC) with a fatigue estimation approach that minimizes the damage of the components of a pasteurization plant. The fatigue estimation is assessed with the rainflow counting algorithm. Using data from this algorithm, a simplified model that characterizes the health of the system is developed and integrated with MPC. The MPC controller objective is modified by adding an extra criterion that takes into account the accumulated damage. But, a steady-state offset is created by adding this extra criterion. Finally, by including an integral action in the MPC controller, the steady-state error for regulation purpose is eliminated. The proposed control scheme is validated in simulation using a simulator of a utility-scale pasteurization plant.

  3. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  4. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  5. Plants: a unique model for research on high diluted substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vladimirovna Novasadyuk

    2011-09-01

    adding Coca 1000 СН remedy, and then in one month the upper part of the plant was sprayed with Echinacea 30 СН. The same amounts of similar plants of the same breeds treated according to conventional agricultural technology were used as a control group. Results: As a result earlier ripening was found in the Typhoon F1 tomato breed: it occurred by 19 days earlier: that is by 18.3% than in the control group. The Titan tomatoes group ripened by 14.3% faster than in the control one. Every plant of the Typhoon breed produced an average of 45 tomato fruits, while in the control group the average number amounted to 14 (i.e. there was an increase of 221.4% in the test group. An average of 78 tomato fruits were produced by the Titan breed plants, while in the control group this number was only 20 (increase by 290%. Mean weight of the Typhoon tomato fruit increased by 59.5 g from the control values, i.e. by 180.8%. Mean weight of the Titan tomato fruit increased by 128.5 i.e. by 208.9%. A notable difference was found by all observers in the taste of experimental and control vegetables. The experimental plants had significantly better taste characteristics and they were also more resistant to buck eye rot. Conclusion: In such a way, the studies performed confirm the existence of homeopathic phenomenon in live organisms in the absence of the placebo effect. It has been demonstrated that the use of homeopathic remedies is effective in improvement of agricultural productivity. Plants are unique model for research of ultrahigh dilutions of substances.

  6. A land surface model combined with a crop growth model for paddy rice (MATCRO-Rice v. 1) - Part 1: Model description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Yuji; Ono, Keisuke; Mano, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Miyata, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Crop growth and agricultural management can affect climate at various spatial and temporal scales through the exchange of heat, water, and gases between land and atmosphere. Therefore, simulation of fluxes for heat, water, and gases from agricultural land is important for climate simulations. A land surface model (LSM) combined with a crop growth model (CGM), called an LSM-CGM combined model, is a useful tool for simulating these fluxes from agricultural land. Therefore, we developed a new LSM-CGM combined model for paddy rice fields, the MATCRO-Rice model. The main objective of this paper is to present the full description of MATCRO-Rice. The most important feature of MATCRO-Rice is that it can consistently simulate latent and sensible heat fluxes, net carbon uptake by crop, and crop yield by exchanging variables between the LSM and CGM. This feature enables us to apply the model to a wide range of integrated issues.

  7. Multilevel Flow Modeling for Nuclear Power Plant Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gola, G; Thunem, Harald P-J; Thunem, Atoosa P-J

    2012-01-01

    As complexity and safety requirements of current and future nuclear power plants increase, innovative methods are being investigated to perform accurate and reliable system diagnoses. Detecting malfunctions, identifying their causes and possibly predicting their consequences are major challenges...... detected anomalies. The combination of a data reconciliation system and the Multilevel Flow Modeling approach is illustrated with regard to the secondary loop of the Loviisa-2 Pressurized Water Reactor located in Finland....

  8. Stochastic models for plant microtubule self-organization and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Ezgi C; Dixit, Ram; Gautam, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    One of the key enablers of shape and growth in plant cells is the cortical microtubule (CMT) system, which is a polymer array that forms an appropriately-structured scaffolding in each cell. Plant biologists have shown that stochastic dynamics and simple rules of interactions between CMTs can lead to a coaligned CMT array structure. However, the mechanisms and conditions that cause CMT arrays to become organized are not well understood. It is prohibitively time-consuming to use actual plants to study the effect of various genetic mutations and environmental conditions on CMT self-organization. In fact, even computer simulations with multiple replications are not fast enough due to the spatio-temporal complexity of the system. To redress this shortcoming, we develop analytical models and methods for expeditiously computing CMT system metrics that are related to self-organization and array structure. In particular, we formulate a mean-field model to derive sufficient conditions for the organization to occur. We show that growth-prone dynamics itself is sufficient to lead to organization in presence of interactions in the system. In addition, for such systems, we develop predictive methods for estimation of system metrics such as expected average length and number of CMTs over time, using a stochastic fluid-flow model, transient analysis, and approximation algorithms tailored to our problem. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerical test instances and discuss biological insights.

  9. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  10. Mathematical Description and Modeling of the Vibration Isolation Device with Neodymium Compensator Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurova, E. G.

    2017-07-01

    In this article a mathematical description of the block diagram of the vibration isolation device with stiffness compensator is given. The vibration isolation system simulation performed with different functional elements, during which operation waveforms obtained with neodymium device compensator of the stiffness. Research & Development is under the scholarship of the President of Russian Federation, order No 184 from 10th of March 2015.

  11. Software Design Description for the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) Version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    cstr ,lenc) Data Declaration: Integer lenc Character cstr Coamps_uvg2uv Subroutine COAMPS_UVG2UV...are removed from the substrings. Calling Sequence: strpars(cline, cdelim, nstr, cstr , nsto, ierr) NRL/MR/7320--08-9149...NCOM Version 4.0 SDD 92 Subroutine Description Data Declaration: Character cline, cstr ,cdelim

  12. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...... presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...

  13. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...... reference tracking and disturbance rejection in an economically optimal way. The performance function is chosen as a mixture of the `1-norm and a linear weighting to model the economics of the system. Simulations show a significant improvement of the performance of the MPC compared to the current...

  14. RESPONSE OF PLANT-BACTERIA INTERACTION MODELS TO NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Degrassi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using some models developed to study the plant-bacteria interaction mechanisms for the assessment of the impact of chronic exposure to nanoparticles. Rice-associated bacteria showed that some models are sensitive to the presence of NPs and allow a quantification of the effects. Further work needs to be performed in order to set appropriate reference baselines and standards to assess the impact of NPs on the proposed biological systems.

  15. An investigation into the description of patients' problems by nurses using two different needs-based nursing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes an investigation into how nurses describe patients' problems and the possible effects of an espoused nursing model on these descriptions. A descriptive study was conducted on two medical wards in a Welsh District General Hospital. Data collected were subjected to content analysis using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns to order the data. The two wards investigated, whilst being very similar in many ways, utilized different nursing models. Findings showed that the nurses studied, when describing patients' problems, most commonly used medical diagnoses or the medical reasons for admission. Patients' problems identified predominately addressed bio-physical needs with scant attention given to psycho-social needs. Despite the use of two different nursing models the language and emphasis of problem description were very similar and there was no evidence of the application of the conceptual underpinnings of the two models. It is suggested that although the use of a ready-made nursing language may have drawbacks, the British nurse should understand and assess the value of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association's (NANDA) nursing diagnoses. Without such involvement this system may be implemented in the United Kingdom (UK) without the input and influence of practising nurses.

  16. Scrape-off layer modeling with kinetic or diffusion description of charge-exchange atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope atoms, generated by charge-exchange (c-x) of neutral particles recycling from the first wall of a fusion reactor, are described either kinetically or in a diffusion approximation. In a one-dimensional (1-D) geometry, kinetic calculations are accelerated enormously by applying an approximate pass method for the assessment of integrals in the velocity space. This permits to perform an exhaustive comparison of calculations done with both approaches. The diffusion approximation is deduced directly from the velocity distribution function of c-x atoms in the limit of charge-exchanges with ions occurring much more frequently than ionization by electrons. The profiles across the flux surfaces of the plasma parameters averaged along the main part of the scrape-off layer (SOL), beyond the X-point and divertor regions, are calculated from the one-dimensional equations where parallel flows of charged particles and energy towards the divertor are taken into account as additional loss terms. It is demonstrated that the heat losses can be firmly estimated from the SOL averaged parameters only; for the particle loss the conditions in the divertor are of importance and the sensitivity of the results to the so-called "divertor impact factor" is investigated. The coupled 1-D models for neutral and charged species, with c-x atoms described either kinetically or in the diffusion approximation, are applied to assess the SOL conditions in a fusion reactor, with the input parameters from the European DEMO project. It is shown that the diffusion approximation provides practically the same profiles across the flux surfaces for the plasma density, electron, and ion temperatures, as those obtained with the kinetic description for c-x atoms. The main difference between the two approaches is observed in the characteristics of these species themselves. In particular, their energy flux onto the wall is underestimated in calculations with the diffusion approximation by 20 %-30

  17. Description and Reconstruction of Soil Structure Using Correlation Functions: Morphological and Pore-Scale Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsanina, M.; Gerke, K.; Vasilyev, R.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Korost, D. V.; Mallants, D.

    2013-12-01

    It is now well-established that structure of porous or composite media (i.e., distribution of different materials or phases) defines all physical properties, including multi-phase flow and solute transport. To characterize soil structure conventional soil science uses such metrics as grain size distribution, morphology or numerous classifications. However, all these descriptors provide only limited and often qualitative information about structural properties, cannot be used to reconstruct real structure or predict physical properties. With the progress of modern non-destructive analysis tools we can obtain detailed 3D structure information and use it for calculation of any physical property. Such 3D data is a valuable verification dataset to check the usefulness of soil structure description using stochastic measures such as correlation functions. Any potential soil structure descriptor should possess two main features: 1) represent structure in some mathematical way, 2) reconstruction based on this mathematical function alone should be statistically equal to the original structure (e.g., have similar pore size distributions, physical properties, etc.). To check the applicability to soil science, we choose different 2D and 3D segmented soil images and calculated their correlation function. The modified Yeong-Torquato procedure was then used to reconstruct images based on calculated correlation functions. This method was applied to three different soil datasets: 1) a set of 2D thin-sections, 2) 3D images of soils with known hydraulic properties (Ksat and WRC), 3) 3D images of soils and aggregates from the same soil profile, but different genetic horizons. In the first case, we use conventional morphological descriptors in 2D original and reconstructed images (pore size, shapes and orientations) to quantify reconstructions quality. In the second case, we use pore-network models extracted from original and reconstructed 3D images to calculate Ksat, WRC and relative

  18. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high

  19. An implicit approach to model plant infestation by insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Christelle; Spataro, Thierry; Doursat, Christophe; Lapchin, Laurent; Arditi, Roger

    2007-09-07

    Various spatial approaches were developed to study the effect of spatial heterogeneities on population dynamics. We present in this paper a flux-based model to describe an aphid-parasitoid system in a closed and spatially structured environment, i.e. a greenhouse. Derived from previous work and adapted to host-parasitoid interactions, our model represents the level of plant infestation as a continuous variable corresponding to the number of plants bearing a given density of pests at a given time. The variation of this variable is described by a partial differential equation. It is coupled to an ordinary differential equation and a delay-differential equation that describe the parasitized host population and the parasitoid population, respectively. We have applied our approach to the pest Aphis gossypii and to one of its parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, in a melon greenhouse. Numerical simulations showed that, regardless of the number and distribution of hosts in the greenhouse, the aphid population is slightly larger if parasitoids display a type III rather than a type II functional response. However, the population dynamics depend on the initial distribution of hosts and the initial density of parasitoids released, which is interesting for biological control strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the delay in the parasitoid equation and the growth rate of the pest population are crucial parameters for predicting the dynamics. We demonstrate here that such a flux-based approach generates relevant predictions with a more synthetic formalism than a common plant-by-plant model. We also explain how this approach can be better adapted to test different management strategies and to manage crops of several greenhouses.

  20. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeshoff, Kennert; Lanaro, Flavio [Berg Bygg Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lanru Jing [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the results of one part of a wide project for the determination of a methodology for the determination of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass for the so-called Aespoe Test Case. The Project consists of three major parts: the empirical part dealing with the characterisation of the rock mass by applying empirical methods, a part determining the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass through numerical modelling, and a third part carrying out numerical modelling for the determination of the stress state at Aespoe. All Project's parts were performed based on a limited amount of data about the geology and mechanical tests on samples selected from the Aespoe Database. This Report only considers the empirical approach. The purpose of the project is the development of a descriptive rock mechanics model for SKBs rock mass investigations for a final repository site. The empirical characterisation of the rock mass provides correlations with some of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass such as the deformation modulus, the friction angle and cohesion for a certain stress interval and the uniaxial compressive strength. For the characterisation of the rock mass, several empirical methods were analysed and reviewed. Among those methods, some were chosen because robust, applicable and widespread in modern rock mechanics. Major weight was given to the well-known Tunnel Quality Index (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) but also the Rock Mass Index (RMi), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Ramamurthy's Criterion were applied for comparison with the two classical methods. The process of: i) sorting the geometrical/geological/rock mechanics data, ii) identifying homogeneous rock volumes, iii) determining the input parameters for the empirical ratings for rock mass characterisation; iv) evaluating the mechanical properties by using empirical relations with the rock mass ratings; was considered. By comparing the methodologies involved