WorldWideScience

Sample records for model plant description

  1. Description of reference (model) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For the workshop on Safeguards System design for a fuel fabrication plant, a generic example of a LEU bulk-handling facility that is based on the Exxon LWR fuel fabrication plants is used. The model plant information is given in the following separate sections: (1) process assumptions; (2) six-month material balance model; (3) measurements; (4) error parameters, measurements, and sigma MUF calculations; (5) material control areas; (6) accounting, records, and reports; (7) tamper-safing; and (8) measurement control program

  2. Description of the power plant model BWR-plasim outlined for the Barsebaeck 2 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P. la Cour.

    1979-08-01

    A description is given of a BWR power plant model outlined for the Barsebaeck 2 plant with data placed at our disposal by the Swedish Power Company Sydkraft A/B. The basic operations are derived and simplifications discussed. The model is implemented with a simulation system DYSYS which assures reliable solutions and easy programming. Emphasis has been placed on the models versatility and flexibility so new features are easy to incorporate. The model may be used for transient calculations for both normal plant conditions and for abnormal occurences as well as for control system studies. (author)

  3. CRAC2 model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  4. MCFire model technical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Conklin; James M. Lenihan; Dominique Bachelet; Ronald P. Neilson; John B. Kim

    2016-01-01

    MCFire is a computer program that simulates the occurrence and effects of wildfire on natural vegetation, as a submodel within the MC1 dynamic global vegetation model. This report is a technical description of the algorithms and parameter values used in MCFire, intended to encapsulate its design and features a higher level that is more conceptual than the level...

  5. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, W.A.; Sly, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  6. UO3 plant turnover - facility description document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document was developed to provide a facility description for those portions of the UO 3 Facility being transferred to Bechtel Hanford Company, Inc. (BHI) following completion of facility deactivation. The facility and deactivated state condition description is intended only to serve as an overview of the plant as it is being transferred to BHI

  7. Validation of a multi-phase plant-wide model for the description of the aeration process in a WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, I; Fernández-Arévalo, T; Beltrán, S; Ayesa, E; Grau, P

    2018-02-01

    This paper introduces a new mathematical model built under the PC-PWM methodology to describe the aeration process in a full-scale WWTP. This methodology enables a systematic and rigorous incorporation of chemical and physico-chemical transformations into biochemical process models, particularly for the description of liquid-gas transfer to describe the aeration process. The mathematical model constructed is able to reproduce biological COD and nitrogen removal, liquid-gas transfer and chemical reactions. The capability of the model to describe the liquid-gas mass transfer has been tested by comparing simulated and experimental results in a full-scale WWTP. Finally, an exploration by simulation has been undertaken to show the potential of the mathematical model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANNOTATION SCHEME FOR STANDARDIZED DESCRIPTION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN THE FIELD OF PLANT PROTECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T; Büttner, C; Käsbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models on properties and behavior of harmful organisms in the food chain are an increas- ingly relevant approach of the agriculture and food industry. As a consequence, there are many efforts to develop biological models in science, economics and risk assessment nowadays. However, there is a lack of international harmonized standards on model annotation and model formats, which would be neces- sary to set up efficient tools supporting broad model application and information exchange. There are some established standards in the field of systems biology, but there is currently no corresponding provi- sion in the area of plant protection. This work therefore aimed at the development of an annotation scheme using domain-specific metadata. The proposed scheme has been validated in a prototype implementation of a web-database model repository. This prototypic community resource currently contains models on aflatoxin secreting fungal Aspergillus flavus in maize, as these models have a high relevance to food safety and economic impact. Specifically, models describing biological processes of the fungus (growth, Aflatoxin secreting), as well as dose-response- and carry over models were included. Furthermore, phenological models for maize were integrated as well. The developed annotation scheme is based on the well-established data exchange format SBML, which is broadly applied in the field of systems biology. The identified example models were annotated according to the developed scheme and entered into a Web-table (Google Sheets), which was transferred to a web based demonstrator available at https://sites.google.com/site/test782726372685/. By implementation of a software demonstrator it became clear that the proposed annotation scheme can be applied to models on plant pathogens and that broad adoption within the domain could promote communication and application of mathematical models.

  9. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-07

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names.

  10. AREST model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) have supported the development of the Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AREST is a computer model developed to evaluate radionuclide release from an underground geologic repository. The AREST code can be used to calculate/estimate the amount and rate of each radionuclide that is released from the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the repository. The EBS is the man-made or disrupted area of the repository. AREST was designed as a system-level models to simulate the behavior of the total repository by combining process-level models for the release from an individual waste package or container. AREST contains primarily analytical models for calculating the release/transport of radionuclides to the lost rock that surrounds each waste package. Analytical models were used because of the small computational overhead that allows all the input parameters to be derived from a statistical distribution. Recently, a one-dimensional numerical model was also incorporated into AREST, to allow for more detailed modeling of the transport process with arbitrary length decay chains. The next step in modeling the EBS, is to develop a model that couples the probabilistic capabilities of AREST with a more detailed process model. This model will need to look at the reactive coupling of the processes that are involved with the release process. Such coupling would include: (1) the dissolution of the waste form, (2) the geochemical modeling of the groundwater, (3) the corrosion of the container overpacking, and (4) the backfill material, just to name a few. Several of these coupled processes are already incorporated in the current version of AREST.

  11. AREST model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) have supported the development of the Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AREST is a computer model developed to evaluate radionuclide release from an underground geologic repository. The AREST code can be used to calculate/estimate the amount and rate of each radionuclide that is released from the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the repository. The EBS is the man-made or disrupted area of the repository. AREST was designed as a system-level models to simulate the behavior of the total repository by combining process-level models for the release from an individual waste package or container. AREST contains primarily analytical models for calculating the release/transport of radionuclides to the lost rock that surrounds each waste package. Analytical models were used because of the small computational overhead that allows all the input parameters to be derived from a statistical distribution. Recently, a one-dimensional numerical model was also incorporated into AREST, to allow for more detailed modeling of the transport process with arbitrary length decay chains. The next step in modeling the EBS, is to develop a model that couples the probabilistic capabilities of AREST with a more detailed process model. This model will need to look at the reactive coupling of the processes that are involved with the release process. Such coupling would include: (1) the dissolution of the waste form, (2) the geochemical modeling of the groundwater, (3) the corrosion of the container overpacking, and (4) the backfill material, just to name a few. Several of these coupled processes are already incorporated in the current version of AREST

  12. 27 CFR 19.168 - Description of plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description of plant. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.168 Description of plant. (a) The application for registration shall include a description of each...

  13. New descriptive temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.

    The model profiles of the electron and ion temperature that have been proposed in connection with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) are surveyed, with a review given of the available data base. Plasma density is seen as exerting great influence, at least during daytime. It does not, however, appear to be appropriate for deriving the temperature unambiguously from the density value. On the basis of a comparison of measured data from the AE-C and Aeros-B satellites and incoherent backscatter stations Millstone Hill and Arecibo (U.S.) and Jicamarca (Peru), a new model relation between temperature and density is proposed for daylight hours. The relation depends on altitude and the modified magnetic dip latitude.

  14. New descriptive temperature model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilitza, D.

    1982-01-01

    The model profiles of the electron and ion temperature that have been proposed in connection with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) are surveyed, with a review given of the available data base. Plasma density is seen as exerting great influence, at least during daytime. It does not, however, appear to be appropriate for deriving the temperature unambiguously from the density value. On the basis of a comparison of measured data from the AE-C and Aeros-B satellites and incoherent backscatter stations Millstone Hill and Arecibo (U.S.) and Jicamarca (Peru), a new model relation between temperature and density is proposed for daylight hours. The relation depends on altitude and the modified magnetic dip latitude

  15. CRACUK model description (appendices to the CRAC2 model description)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, W.; Egan, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    The CRACUK computer code is a revised version of the US consequence modelling code CRAC2, adapted to suit UK requirements. The revisions include modifications to the models for spatial interval representation, weather sequence sampling, atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry and countermeasures. This document describes, in the form of appendices to the CRAC2 model description, each of the revisions made to the original model which collectively distinguish CRACUK from CRAC2. (author)

  16. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  17. General description of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A general description of systems and components of the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear power plant is presented, for the primary system (NSSS), the secondary system (BOP), the energy generation system and for other auxiliaries in the plant. (author)

  18. PEARL model for pesticide behaviour and emissions in soil-plant systems : description of the processes in FOCUS PEARL v 1.1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Tiktak, A.; Berg, van den F.

    2001-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture presents risks to the environment, which are increasingly evaluated by using computation models. The new PEARL model simulates the behaviour of pesticides in soil-plant systems and their emissions to the environment. The pesticide model is used in combination

  19. Preparation of plant and system design description documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This standard prescribes the purpose, scope, organization, and content of plant design requirements (PDR) documents and system design descriptions (SDDs), to provide a unified approach to their preparation and use by a project as the principal means to establish the plant design requirements and to establish, describe, and control the individual system designs from conception and throughout the lifetime of the plant. The Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Requirements Document should be considered for LWR plants

  20. Description of mathematical models and computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives a description of mathematical models and computer programs for analysing possible strategies for spent fuel management, with emphasis on economic analysis. The computer programs developed, describe the material flows, facility construction schedules, capital investment schedules and operating costs for the facilities used in managing the spent fuel. The computer programs use a combination of simulation and optimization procedures for the economic analyses. Many of the fuel cycle steps (such as spent fuel discharges, storage at the reactor, and transport to the RFCC) are described in physical and economic terms through simulation modeling, while others (such as reprocessing plant size and commissioning schedules, interim storage facility commissioning schedules etc.) are subjected to economic optimization procedures to determine the approximate lowest-cost plans from among the available feasible alternatives

  1. UO{sub 3} plant turnover - facility description document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document was developed to provide a facility description for those portions of the UO{sub 3} Facility being transferred to Bechtel Hanford Company, Inc. (BHI) following completion of facility deactivation. The facility and deactivated state condition description is intended only to serve as an overview of the plant as it is being transferred to BHI.

  2. Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    AD-AOB6 50 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE F/G 9/2 BUILDING PROGRAM MODELS INCREMENTALLY FROM INFORMAL DESCRIPTION--ETC(U) OCT 79 B P...port SCI.ICS.U.79.2 t Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions by Brian P. McCune Research sponsored by Defense Advanced...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions. , technical, October 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG

  3. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics (DLs) that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic...

  4. Site descriptive modelling - strategy for integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2003-02-01

    The current document establishes the strategy to be used for achieving sufficient integration between disciplines in producing Site Descriptive Models during the Site Investigation stage. The Site Descriptive Model should be a multidisciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using site investigation data from deep bore holes and from the surface as input. The modelling comprise the following iterative steps, evaluation of primary data, descriptive and quantitative modelling (in 3D), overall confidence evaluation. Data are first evaluated within each discipline and then the evaluations are checked between the disciplines. Three-dimensional modelling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space and its uncertainty) is made in a sequence, where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological model and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modelling etc. The three-dimensional description should present the parameters with their spatial variability over a relevant and specified scale, with the uncertainty included in this description. Different alternative descriptions may be required. After the individual discipline modelling and uncertainty assessment a phase of overall confidence evaluation follows. Relevant parts of the different modelling teams assess the suggested uncertainties and evaluate the feedback. These discussions should assess overall confidence by, checking that all relevant data are used, checking that information in past model versions is considered, checking that the different kinds of uncertainty are addressed, checking if suggested alternatives make sense and if there is potential for additional alternatives, and by discussing, if appropriate, how additional measurements (i.e. more data) would affect confidence. The findings as well as the modelling results are to be documented in a Site Description

  5. Plant description as exemplified by the Philippsburg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leider, W.; Haffmann, E.

    1993-01-01

    The installation description system at KPP forms the basis of the integrated management system and describes all installation objects for which operative management tasks should be coordinated and designed. It contains both technical data as well as their interrelations and their relevant documents and recurrent testing and maintenance measures. 6 figs

  6. LAGRANGIAN PARTICLE DISPERSION MODEL (LPDM) TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) uses the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) in conjunction with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System as an operational tool for emergency response consequence assessments for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The LPDM is an advanced stochastic atmospheric transport model used to transport and disperse passive tracers subject to the meteorological field generated by RAMS from sources of varying number and shape. The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the SRNL is undertaking the task of reviewing documentation and code for LPDM Quality Assurance (QA). The LPDM QA task will include a model technical description, computer coding descriptions, model applications, and configuration control. This report provides a comprehensive technical description of the LPDM model

  7. Power plant of Creys-Malville options and descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitcevsky, B.; Robert, E.; Casini, R.; Janberg, K.; Megy, J.; Crette, J.P.; Granito, F.; Leduc, J.

    The power plant of CREYS-MALVILLE is the third stage of a program which began with the experimental pile RAPSODIE and the demonstration power plant PHENIX. This is a first industrial realization in which the prime contractor will be NERSA and of which the steam plant will be supplied by the SUPER-PHENIX group under license of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). The power plant of CREYS-MALVILLE will be a base loaded power plant. The essentials of the options which were taken for PHENIX, were preserved (fuel UO 2 -PUO 2 , integral primary system, core instrumentation, handling mechanisms, etc.). The principal modifications have to do with the number of secondary systems, the primary sodium purification system, and the steam generators etc. A general description of the power and its operation is given

  8. Towards reproducible descriptions of neuronal network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilen Nordlie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in science depends on the effective exchange of ideas among scientists. New ideas can be assessed and criticized in a meaningful manner only if they are formulated precisely. This applies to simulation studies as well as to experiments and theories. But after more than 50 years of neuronal network simulations, we still lack a clear and common understanding of the role of computational models in neuroscience as well as established practices for describing network models in publications. This hinders the critical evaluation of network models as well as their re-use. We analyze here 14 research papers proposing neuronal network models of different complexity and find widely varying approaches to model descriptions, with regard to both the means of description and the ordering and placement of material. We further observe great variation in the graphical representation of networks and the notation used in equations. Based on our observations, we propose a good model description practice, composed of guidelines for the organization of publications, a checklist for model descriptions, templates for tables presenting model structure, and guidelines for diagrams of networks. The main purpose of this good practice is to trigger a debate about the communication of neuronal network models in a manner comprehensible to humans, as opposed to machine-readable model description languages. We believe that the good model description practice proposed here, together with a number of other recent initiatives on data-, model-, and software-sharing, may lead to a deeper and more fruitful exchange of ideas among computational neuroscientists in years to come. We further hope that work on standardized ways of describing--and thinking about--complex neuronal networks will lead the scientific community to a clearer understanding of high-level concepts in network dynamics, and will thus lead to deeper insights into the function of the brain.

  9. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1

  10. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  11. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  12. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  13. Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive modelling of

  14. Capital cost models for geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, P.D.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code, titled GEOCOST, has been developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, to rapidly and systematically calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. A description of the cost models in GEOCOST for the geothermal power plants is given here. Plant cost models include the flashed steam and binary systems. The data sources are described, along with the cost data correlations, resulting equations, and uncertainties. Comparison among GEOCOST plant cost estimates and recent A-E estimates are presented. The models are intended to predict plant costs for second and third generation units, rather than the more expensive first-of-a-kind units.

  15. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  16. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  17. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  18. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  19. The self-description data configuration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Lana, E-mail: lana.abadie@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Di Maio, Franck; Klotz, Wolf-Dieter; Mahajan, Kirti; Stepanov, Denis; Utzel, Nadine; Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the relational model to represent the configuration data for ITER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain the different modeled views namely physical, functional and control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how this information is used to generate configuration files. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain that this information is validated. - Abstract: ITER will consist of roughly 160 plant systems I and C delivered in kind which need to be integrated into the ITER control infrastructure. To make the integration of all these plant systems I and C, a smooth operation, the CODAC (Controls, Data Access and Communications) group release every year the core software environment which consists of many applications. In this paper we would like to describe what configuration data and how it is modeled in the version 2. The model is based on three views, the physical one which lists the components with their signals, the functional view which describes the control functions and variables required to implement them and the control view which links the two previous views. We use Hibernate as an ORM (Object Relational Mapping) framework with a PostgreSQL database and Spring as a framework to handle transactions.

  20. Power plant design model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartsock, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the Power Plant Design Model (PPDM) which is an interactive FORTRAN/2020 program with over 15,000 lines of code that allows a user to create an engineering model of a grass roots solid fuel-fired facility capable of generating steam for electrical power generation and/or sale. Capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates of the modeled plant are also generated. The model's technical output contains complete material and energy balances of all major streams, parasitic power calculations, boiler operating data and a major equipment list. The economic output consists of a capital cost estimate for the plant in a spreadsheet format detailing the material, labor and indirect costs associated with each piece of equipment. The model was intended for use as a marketing tool to replace engineering feasibility studies which are needed to determine the viability of a project. The model provides preliminary economics at a fraction of time and manpower effort normally associated with this task

  1. Description of a reference mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant (MOFFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environment impact, due to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plants, work has been initiated to describe the general design and operating conditions of a reference Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plant (MOFFP) for the 1990 time frame. The various reference data and basic assumptions for the reference MOFFP plant have been defined after discussion with experts. The data reported in this document are only made available to allow an evaluation of the environmental impact due to a reference MOFFP plant. These data have therefore not to be used as recommandation, standards, regulatory guides or requirements

  2. The descriptive capacity of ecological plant species groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, J.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we question whether ecological species groups are appropriate for describing the plant cover of the Netherlands with the aid of a national database containing distribution data of indigenous plant species on a kilometre square basis. To answer the question, a comparison is made with

  3. The anchor integration model: A descriptive model of anchoring effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon M; Schley, Dan R

    2016-11-01

    Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects. In this article, we introduce the Anchor Integration Model (AIM) as a descriptive tool for the measurement and quantification of anchoring effects. We develop two versions the model: one suitable for assessing between-participant anchoring effects, and another for assessing individual differences in anchoring effects. We then fit each model to data from two experiments, and demonstrate the model's utility in describing anchoring effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Description and starting of the VERA denitration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartes, H.; Koschorke, H.; Kaufmann, F.

    1977-05-01

    In the beginning of 1976 a plant for denitration of high and medium level fission product solutions has been set in inactive operation in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The plant and its several components are presented. The operation and the start-up are described in detail. Also the methods of measurement important for controlling the process are explained. The procedure for denitration of medium level waste with a molarity of 1.5 is described in detail. In this connection a discussion of possible failures is included. (orig.) [de

  5. Quantitative description of woody plant communities: Part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulas for the calculation of spatial tree volume are given as computer compatible expressions and the calculation procedures are described.Language: English. Keywords: botany; Calculations; canopy spread; dry mass; evapotranspiration; Formulas; plant communities; production; spatial tree volume; Spatial tree ...

  6. Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). Volume II. Summary plant description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-09-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) includes all buildings and structures, all steam and water facilities, all power generation and transmission systems, and all auxiliary systems which do not contain or handle sodium. In addition, the BOP includes all site facilities such as roads, fences, etc.

  7. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...

  8. Scattering in Soliton Models and the Bosonic Exchange description

    OpenAIRE

    Coriano', Claudio; Parwani, Rajesh R.; Yamagishi, Hidenaga; Zahed, Ismail

    1992-01-01

    We argue that the description of meson-nucleon dynamics based on the boson-exchange approach, is compatible with the description of the nucleon as a soliton in the nonrelativistic limit. Our arguments are based on an analysis of the meson-soliton form factor and the exact meson-soliton and soliton-soliton scattering amplitudes in the Sine-Gordon model.

  9. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. ...

  10. Adding Curvature to Minimum Description Length Shape Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling seeks a compact description of a set of shapes in terms of the coordinates of marks on the shapes. It has been shown that the mark positions resulting from this optimisation to a large extent solve the so-called point correspondence...

  11. A Descriptive Evaluation of Software Sizing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    compensate for a lack of understanding of a software job to be done. 1.3 REPORT OUTLINE The guiding principle for model selection for this paper was...MODEL SIZE ESTIMATES FOR THE CAiSS SENSITIVITY MODEL MODEL SLOC ESD 37,600+ SPQR 35,910 BYL 22,402 PRICE SZ 21,410 ASSET-R 11,943 SSM 11,700 ASSET-R...disk. ?. Date LS, De fault current date, Re quire ] - ,, ... perffr: an,- 1 ,’ e e st i ma t e. Quantitative inputs Note- Each of the nine quantitative

  12. Application of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model to Ecological Site Descriptions and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...

  13. Nuclear Power Station Kalkar, 300 MWe Prototype Nuclear Power Plant with Fast Sodium Cooled Reactor (SNR-300), Plant description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The nuclear power station Kalkar (SNR-300) is a prototype with a sodium cooled fast reactor and a thermal power of 762 MW. The present plant description has been made available in parallel to the licensing procedure for the reactor plant and its core Mark-Ia as supplementary information for the public. The report gives a detailed description of the whole plant including the prevention measures against the impact of external and plant internal events. The radioactive materials within the reactor cooling system and the irradiation protection and surveillance measures are outlined. Finally, the operation of the plant is described with the start-up procedures, power operation, shutdown phases with decay heat removal and handling procedures

  14. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  15. Projected shell model description for nuclear isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, Popular Republic (China)

    2008-12-15

    The study of nuclear isomer properties is a current research focus. To describe isomers, we present a method based on the Projected Shell Model. Two kinds of isomers, {kappa}-isomers and shape isomers, are discussed. For the {kappa}-isomer treatment, {kappa}-mixing is properly implemented in the model. It is found however that in order to describe the strong {kappa}-violation more efficiently, it may be necessary to further introduce triaxiality into the shell model basis. To treat shape isomers, a scheme is outlined which allows mixing those configurations belonging to different shapes. (Author)

  16. Description of the Battlescale Forecast Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henmi, Teizi

    1998-01-01

    .... Army Integrated Meteorological System Block II software. The Battlescale Forecast Model can be used operationally over any part of the world by using meteorological data obtained through the Automated Weather Distribution System...

  17. ECOPATH: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1996-01-01

    The model is based upon compartment theory and it is run in combination with a statistical error propagation method (PRISM, Gardner et al. 1983). It is intended to be generic for application on other sites with simple changing of parameter values. It was constructed especially for this scenario. However, it is based upon an earlier designed model for calculating relations between released amount of radioactivity and doses to critical groups (used for Swedish regulations concerning annual reports of released radioactivity from routine operation of Swedish nuclear power plants (Bergstroem och Nordlinder, 1991)). The model handles exposure from deposition on terrestrial areas as well as deposition on lakes, starting with deposition values. 14 refs, 16 figs, 7 tabs

  18. The study of prescriptive and descriptive models of decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok A Divekar; Sunita Bangal; Sumangala D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of decision making can be loosely divided into two parts: the study of prescriptive models and the study of descriptive models. Prescriptive decision scientists are concerned with prescribing methods for making optimal decisions. Descriptive decision researchers are concerned with the bounded way in which the decisions are actually made. The statistics courses treat risk from a prescriptive, by suggesting rational methods. This paper brings out the work done by many researchers by e...

  19. Description of a comprehensive mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Biomass gasification is still a promising technology after over 30 years’ research and development and has success only in a few niche markets. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model for biomass particle gasification is developed within a generic particle framework, assuming the feed i...

  20. Model description and evaluation of model performance: DOSDIM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewyckyj, N.; Zeevaert, T.

    1996-01-01

    DOSDIM was developed to assess the impact to man from routine and accidental atmospheric releases. It is a compartmental, deterministic, radiological model. For an accidental release, dynamic transfer are used in opposition to a routine release for which equilibrium transfer factors are used. Parameters values were chosen to be conservative. Transfer between compartments are described by first-order differential equations. 2 figs

  1. Model plant key measurement points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The key measurement points for the model low enriched fuel fabrication plant are described as well as the measurement methods. These are the measurement points and methods that are used to complete the plant's formal material balance. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the basis for each key measurement; and (2) understand the importance of each measurement to the overall plant material balance. The feed to the model low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant is UF 6 and the product is finished light water reactor fuel assemblies. The waste discards are solid and liquid wastes. The plant inventory consists of unopened UF 6 cylinders, UF 6 heels, fuel assemblies, fuel rods, fuel pellets, UO 2 powder, U 3 O 8 powder, and various scrap materials. At the key measurement points the total plant material balance (flow and inventory) is measured. The two types of key measurement points-flow and inventory are described

  2. Technical Description Lillgrund Wind Power Plant. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppsson, Joakim; Larsen, Poul Erik; Larsson, Aake (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Lillgrund offshore wind power plant comprises 48 wind turbines, each rated at 2.3 MW, bringing the total wind farm capacity to 110 MW. The Lillgrund offshore wind power plant is located in a shallow area of Oeresund, 7 km off the coast of Sweden and 7 km south from the Oeresund Bridge connecting Sweden and Denmark. An average wind speed of around 8,5 m/s at hub height, combined with a relatively low water depth of 4 to 8 meters makes it economically feasible to build here. Vattenfall Vindkraft AB is the owner and operator of Lillgrund offshore wind power plant. Lillgrund is a Swedish pilot project supported by the Swedish Energy Agency. The bidding process was completed during 2005 and the offshore power plant was constructed in the period 2006 to 2007. The wind farm was constructed on time and has now been successfully operational since December 2007. There is, however, always potential for improvement and the aim of this report has been to determine and highlight these areas. It is worth noting out that only the electrical system and the foundations are tailor made at offshore wind power plants. The wind turbines are more or less standard products with none or very limited possibilities for project specific design changes. Geotechnical investigations are expensive and it can be difficult to balance the risks as well as the benefits of this expense in the early phases of a large infrastructure project. As a whole, the geotechnical surveys at Lillgrund proved to be useful. They identified potential issues, such as the fact that extra excavation was required for two of the foundations. It also revealed the location of a small number of boulders that would have to be removed. Vattenfall requested a complete study of the electrical system for Lillgrund to be delivered with the bids. That request was not met. Instead Siemens Wind Power began a complete electrical system study after being awarded the Contract. The electrical system study was completed during the

  3. Social European Model between Descriptive and Contrafactual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Catalin Moraru

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania is about to become a member of EU and to participate, in an active way, to the european dream. After a short presentation of the origins of social market economy, authors analyze european social model, emphasizing the main dificulties of the present european construction. The paper ends with a comparative analisys of two different economic policies, being offered strong arguments in favor of pro-market policies. On long term, the only way to increase the economic prosperity (in the EU is by stimulating institutional competition, protecting property rights and liberty in order to increase welfare, and not by redistribution and uniformization.

  4. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant quality assurance program description: Overview and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplinger, W.H.

    1990-12-01

    This document describes the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Quality Assurance Program. This program is being implemented to ensure the acceptability of high-level radioactive canistered waste forms produced by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant for disposal in a licensed federal repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program is comprised of this Quality Assurance Program Description as well as the associated contractors' quality assurance programs. The objective of this Quality Assurance Program Description is to provide the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project participants with guidance and direction for program implementation while satisfying the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needs in repository licensing activities with regard to canistered waste forms. To accomplish this objective, this description will be prepared in three parts: Part 1 - Overview and applications document; Part 2 - Development and qualification of the canistered waste form; Part 3 - Production of canistered waste forms. Part 1 describes the background, strategy, application, and content of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program. This Quality Assurance Program Description, when complete, is designed to provide a level of confidence in the integrity of the canistered waste forms. 8 refs

  6. Linking statistical bias description to multiobjective model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, P.; Schuwirth, N.

    2012-09-01

    In the absence of model deficiencies, simulation results at the correct parameter values lead to an unbiased description of observed data with remaining deviations due to observation errors only. However, this ideal cannot be reached in the practice of environmental modeling, because the required simplified representation of the complex reality by the model and errors in model input lead to errors that are reflected in biased model output. This leads to two related problems: First, ignoring bias of output in the statistical model description leads to bias in parameter estimates, model predictions and, in particular, in the quantification of their uncertainty. Second, as there is no objective choice of how much bias to accept in which output variable, it is not possible to design an "objective" model calibration procedure. The first of these problems has been addressed by introducing a statistical (Bayesian) description of bias, the second by suggesting the use of multiobjective calibration techniques that cannot easily be used for uncertainty analysis. We merge the ideas of these two approaches by using the prior of the statistical bias description to quantify the importance of multiple calibration objectives. This leads to probabilistic inference and prediction while still taking multiple calibration objectives into account. The ideas and technical details of the suggested approach are outlined and a didactical example as well as an application to environmental data are provided to demonstrate its practical feasibility and computational efficiency.

  7. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  8. Database Description - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Database Description General information of database Database name PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list,...available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Descri...ption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - PGDBj Regis...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods

  9. Descriptive and mechanistic models of crop–weed competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, L.; Storkey, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crop-weed competitive relations are an important element of agroecosystems. Quantifying and understanding them helps to design appropriate weed management at operational, tactical and strategic level. This chapter presents and discusses simple descriptive and more mechanistic models for crop-weed

  10. Organization model and formalized description of nuclear enterprise information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Song Yafeng; Li Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Organization model is one of the most important models of Nuclear Enterprise Information System (NEIS). Scientific and reasonable organization model is the prerequisite that NEIS has robustness and extendibility, and is also the foundation of the integration of heterogeneous system. Firstly, the paper describes the conceptual model of the NEIS on ontology chart, which provides a consistent semantic framework of organization. Then it discusses the relations between the concepts in detail. Finally, it gives the formalized description of the organization model of NEIS based on six-tuple array. (authors)

  11. Potential model description of heavy ion elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations for a potential-model description of heavy-ion elastic and inelastic scattering attempt to follow the readjustments that the two ions must make as they begin to interact and imply modifications of the kinetic energy of relative motion as well as the potential energy. Phenomenology and the data, deep or shallow potentials, inelastic scattering, and folded potential models are treated with particular emphasis on the last

  12. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  13. Modeling of solar polygeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Roberto; Escobar, Rodrigo; Cardemil, José

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a exergoeconomic analysis of the joint production of electricity, fresh water, cooling and process heat for a simulated concentrated solar power (CSP) based on parabolic trough collector (PTC) with thermal energy storage (TES) and backup energy system (BS), a multi-effect distillation (MED) module, a refrigeration absorption module, and process heat module is carried out. Polygeneration plant is simulated in northern Chile in Crucero with a yearly total DNI of 3,389 kWh/m2/year. The methodology includes designing and modeling a polygeneration plant and applying exergoeconomic evaluations and calculating levelized cost. Solar polygeneration plant is simulated hourly, in a typical meteorological year, for different solar multiple and hour of storage. This study reveals that the total exergy cost rate of products (sum of exergy cost rate of electricity, water, cooling and heat process) is an alternative method to optimize a solar polygeneration plant.

  14. Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby

    2015-01-01

    In this positional paper, we discuss the potential benefits of using appearance models in additive manufacturing, metal casting, wind turbine blade production, and 3D content acquisition. Current state of the art in acquisition and rendering of appearance cannot easily be used for quality assurance...... in these areas. The common denominator is the need for descriptive and parsimonious appearance models. By ‘parsimonious’ we mean with few parameters so that a model is useful both for fast acquisition, robust fitting, and fast rendering of appearance. The word ‘descriptive’ refers to the fact that a model should...

  15. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  16. Multilevel model of polycrystalline materials: grain boundary sliding description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifullina, E.; Shveykin, A.; Trusov, P.

    2017-12-01

    Material behavior description in a wide range of thermomechanical effects is one of the topical areas in mathematical modeling. Inclusion of grain boundary sliding as an important mechanism of polycrystalline material deformation at elevated temperatures and predominant deformation mechanism of metals and alloys in structural superplasticity allows to simulate various deformation regimes and their transitions (including superplasticity regime with switch-on and switch-off regimes). The paper is devoted to description of grain boundary sliding in structure of two-level model, based on crystal plasticity, and relations for determination the contribution of this mechanism to inelastic deformation. Some results are presented concerning computational experiments of polycrystalline representative volume deformation using developed model.

  17. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  18. Plant and safety system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The design and development of a digital computer-based safety system for a nuclear power plant is a complex process. The process of design and product development must result in a final product free of critical errors; operational safety of nuclear power plants must not be compromised. This paper focuses on the development of a safety system model to assist designers, developers, and regulators in establishing and evaluating requirements for a digital computer-based safety system. The model addresses hardware, software, and human elements for use in the requirements definition process. The purpose of the safety system model is to assist and serve as a guide to humans in the cognitive reasoning process of establishing requirements. The goals in the use of the model are to: (1) enhance the completeness of the requirements and (2) reduce the number of errors associated with the requirements definition phase of a project

  19. Hydrodynamic description of spin Calogero-Sutherland model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanov, Alexander; Kulkarni, Manas; Franchini, Fabio

    2009-03-01

    We study a non-linear collective field theory for an integrable spin-Calogero-Sutherland model. The hydrodynamic description of this SU(2) model in terms of charge density, charge velocity and spin currents is used to study non-perturbative solutions (solitons) and examine their correspondence with known quantum numbers of elementary excitations [1]. A conventional linear bosonization or harmonic approximation is not sufficient to describe, for example, the physics of spin-charge (non)separation. Therefore, we need this new collective bosonic field description that captures the effects of the band curvature. In the strong coupling limit [2] this model reduces to integrable SU(2) Haldane-Shastry model. We study a non-linear coupling of left and right spin currents which form a Kac-Moody algebra. Our quantum hydrodynamic description for the spin case is an extension for the one found in the spinless version in [3].[3pt] [1] Y. Kato,T. Yamamoto, and M. Arikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1954-1961 (1997).[0pt] [2] A. Polychronakos, Phys Rev Lett. 70,2329-2331(1993).[0pt] [3] A.G.Abanov and P.B. Wiegmann, Phys Rev Lett 95, 076402(2005)

  20. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  1. An elemental diffusion description for LTE plasma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartgers, A; Heijden, H W P van der; Beks, M L; Dijk, J van; Mullen, J A M van der [Department of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-09-21

    A novel method to describe diffusive processes in plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was developed, based on the transport of elements instead of individual species. This method combines the elegance of the LTE description of a chemical composition with the flexibility of explicit transport for each element. A simple model of a metal halide lamp containing Hg dosed with NaI is used to illustrate the method.

  2. The Quantum Description of BF Model in Superspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Dwivedi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the BRST symmetric four-dimensional BF theory, a topological theory, containing antisymmetric tensor fields in Landau gauge and extend the BRST symmetry by introducing a shift symmetry to it. Within this formulation, the antighost fields corresponding to shift symmetry coincide with antifields of standard field/antifield formulation. Furthermore, we provide a superspace description for the BF model possessing extended BRST and extended anti-BRST transformations.

  3. Modeling of Wind Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spacil, D.; Santarius, P. [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Department of Electrical Measurement, FEECS, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava- Poruba (Czech Republic); Dobrucky, B. [University of Zilina, Department of Mechatronics and Electronics, FEE, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01

    The electrical power produced by the wind power plant has increased in the last years in the world and probably will increase further in the future. Therefore, wind power plants have a significant influence on the power production. In this article the connection of the wind turbine to a grid is described in order to determine the impact of the existing wind turbines as well as planned wind turbines on the grid and ensure the proper functioning of the wind turbine. The purpose of the presented work is to find an analytical generator model for the simulation of the wind power plant and determine the influence on the grid by programming with Matlab/Simulink.

  4. Mathematical modeling tendencies in plant pathology | Contreras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays plant diseases represent one of the major threats for crops around the world, because they carry healthy, economical, environmental and social problems. Considering this, it is necessary to have a description of the dynamics of plant disease in order to have sustainable strategies to prevent and diminish the ...

  5. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, molecular genetic studies and the completion of the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome have increased knowledge of hormonal regulation in plants. These signal transduction pathways act in concert through gene regulatory and signalling networks whose main components have begun to be elucidated. Our understanding of the resulting cellular processes is hindered by the complex, and sometimes counter-intuitive, dynamics of the networks, which may be interconnected through feedback controls and cross-regulation. Mathematical modelling provides a valuable tool to investigate such dynamics and to perform in silico experiments that may not be easily carried out in a laboratory. In this article, we firstly review general methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more comprehensive modelling studies of hormonal transport and signalling in a multi-scale setting. © EDP Sciences, 2013.

  6. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, Markus Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    comprehensive requirements for the superposition of event sequences and failure combinations. For this reason, the synthesis of a description language, under consideration of the aforementioned challenges, is necessary; supplemented by a method utilising the description language for efficient engineering and I and C design analysis. Due to the abstraction of AutomationML as a meta-metamodel, it is utilised as the basis for the description language synthesis, however AutomationML also does not fulfil all target criteria. On one hand, the description language synthesis is based on the syntax of AutomationML, and on the other hand, the semantics are determined by the context of computer-based I and C in nuclear power plants and structured utilising the general product, function, and location structures of standard IEC 81346. When modelling I and C failure combinations in addition to event sequences, the description language is completed by an event structure, for which CDL is utilised for the conceptualisation and the formalisation is accomplished with PSL. The PSL formalisation allows for implementing the description language in a knowledge-based system, so that automated engineering is enabled. The I and C modelling, as part of the method, is embedded in the IEC 61513 I and C safety life-cycle and is realised in two steps. Consequently, the I and C design can be analysed at both plant and system level. For the I and C design analysis the concepts of the D3-analysis, FTA, ETA, and FMEA are combined. The thesis is concluded with an example applying the description language and method to the modernisation of a reactor protection system; this illustrates the validation of the overall concept developed in this thesis.

  7. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, Markus Heinrich

    2013-10-25

    comprehensive requirements for the superposition of event sequences and failure combinations. For this reason, the synthesis of a description language, under consideration of the aforementioned challenges, is necessary; supplemented by a method utilising the description language for efficient engineering and I and C design analysis. Due to the abstraction of AutomationML as a meta-metamodel, it is utilised as the basis for the description language synthesis, however AutomationML also does not fulfil all target criteria. On one hand, the description language synthesis is based on the syntax of AutomationML, and on the other hand, the semantics are determined by the context of computer-based I and C in nuclear power plants and structured utilising the general product, function, and location structures of standard IEC 81346. When modelling I and C failure combinations in addition to event sequences, the description language is completed by an event structure, for which CDL is utilised for the conceptualisation and the formalisation is accomplished with PSL. The PSL formalisation allows for implementing the description language in a knowledge-based system, so that automated engineering is enabled. The I and C modelling, as part of the method, is embedded in the IEC 61513 I and C safety life-cycle and is realised in two steps. Consequently, the I and C design can be analysed at both plant and system level. For the I and C design analysis the concepts of the D3-analysis, FTA, ETA, and FMEA are combined. The thesis is concluded with an example applying the description language and method to the modernisation of a reactor protection system; this illustrates the validation of the overall concept developed in this thesis.

  8. Predicate Argument Structure Analysis for Use Case Description Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nakamura, Taiga; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In a large software system development project, many documents are prepared and updated frequently. In such a situation, support is needed for looking through these documents easily to identify inconsistencies and to maintain traceability. In this research, we focus on the requirements documents such as use cases and consider how to create models from the use case descriptions in unformatted text. In the model construction, we propose a few semantic constraints based on the features of the use cases and use them for a predicate argument structure analysis to assign semantic labels to actors and actions. With this approach, we show that we can assign semantic labels without enhancing any existing general lexical resources such as case frame dictionaries and design a less language-dependent model construction architecture. By using the constructed model, we consider a system for quality analysis of the use cases and automated test case generation to keep the traceability between document sets. We evaluated the reuse of the existing use cases and generated test case steps automatically with the proposed prototype system from real-world use cases in the development of a system using a packaged application. Based on the evaluation, we show how to construct models with high precision from English and Japanese use case data. Also, we could generate good test cases for about 90% of the real use cases through the manual improvement of the descriptions based on the feedback from the quality analysis system.

  9. THE SHEFFIELD ALCOHOL POLICY MODEL - A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John

    2014-09-30

    This methodology paper sets out a mathematical description of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.0, a model to evaluate public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction in the UK. Policies that can be appraised include a minimum price per unit of alcohol, restrictions on price discounting, and broader public health measures. The model estimates the impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers, retailers and government tax revenues. The synthesis of public and commercial data sources to inform the model structure is described. A detailed algebraic description of the model is provided. This involves quantifying baseline levels of alcohol purchasing and consumption by age and gender subgroups, estimating the impact of policies on consumption, for example, using evidence on price elasticities of demand for alcohol, quantification of risk functions relating alcohol consumption to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and finally monetary valuation of the consequences. The results framework, shown for a minimum price per unit of alcohol, has been used to provide policy appraisals for the UK government policy-makers. In discussion and online appendix, we explore issues around valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions, and ongoing plans for further development. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modeling and dynamic behaviour of hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Kishor, Nand

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to mathematical modeling of different configurations of hydropower plants over four sections - modeling and simulation approaches; control of hydropower plants; operation and scheduling of hydropower plants, including pumped storage; and special features of small hydropower plants.

  11. Towards an infrastructure description language for modeling computing infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; van der Ham, J.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Infrastructure and Network Description Language (INDL). The aim of INDL is to provide technology independent descriptions of computing infrastructures. These descriptions include the physical resources and the network infrastructure that connects these resources. The

  12. Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

  13. Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model description and users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R D; Turhollow, Jr, A F; Cohn, S M; Das, S; Rizy, C G; Tulley, Jr, J H; Kraemer, R D

    1984-02-01

    The Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) Model was developed for computing energy gains in complex regulated river basins. The model requires daily data on streamflows, storage changes at reservoirs, and power generation at hydroelectric plants. Mathematical relationships are derived from these data to explain the operation of storage reservoirs and the rating of hydropower plants. The HWBEG model assembles streamflows that would have been theoretically available for energy production under varying conditions of upstream reservoir operation. The model first eliminates all upstream storage changes to simulate an unregulated natural flow condition. The storage changes of upstream reservoirs are then added back to the unregulated natural flow in a sequence corresponding to the time the reservoirs began affecting streamflows. As each reservoir is added back to the river system, the hydropower generation attributable to that particular flow is calculated using the reservoir operating rules and the hydropower plant rating curves. Energy gains are determined by subtracting generation with from generation without the chronologically sequenced and combinatorial effects of the upstream storage reservoirs. The energy gains attributable to each storage reservoir are totalled yearly and become the basis for apportioning the cost of operating the upstream federal reservoir or headwater improvement. This report describes the operation of the model including the assembly of the requisite data bases and the use of the computer code.

  14. Descriptive documentation for New Mexico uranium milling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonem, G.; Livevano, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The New Mexico Uranium Milling Model is a linear programming model. It can demonstrate how cost minimizing management can reduce the costs of milling uranium subject to a series of environmental, resource, and technological constraints. For example, if 15,000 tons were the targeted level of milling output, the model would provide the minimum cost of this production level, given certain levels of environmental, fuel, water, and technological constraints. The model was developed to allow state policymakers to assess the uranium industry from various standpoints. Through the use of the model, state policymakers can determine the effects of air and water discharge standards and limited capital availability on: milling costs of production; uses of electricity, fuel, and water; and levels of air and water emissions. The model covers the following: process technologies which are acid leach and carbonate leach; raw materials mix; air and water discharges; residual treatment process; and plant types

  15. Modeling RHIC using the standard machine formal accelerator description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Trahern, C.G.; Wei, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Machine Format (SMF) is a structured description of accelerator lattices which supports both the hierarchy of beam lines and generic lattice objects as well as those deviations (field errors, alignment efforts, etc.) associated with each component of the as-installed machine. In this paper we discuss the use of SMF to describe the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as well as the ancillary data structures (such as field quality measurements) that are necessarily incorporated into the RHIC SMF model. Future applications of SMF are outlined, including its use in the RHIC operational environment

  16. RESRAD: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.

    1996-01-01

    RESRAD uses a pathway analysis method in which the relation between radionuclide concentrations in soil and the dose to a member of a critical population group is expressed as a pathway sum, which is the sum of products of ''pathway factors''. Pathway factors correspond to pathway segments, which connect compartments in the environment. Radionuclides can be transported, or radiation transmitted, between these compartments. Nine potential exposure pathways are analyzed: (1) direct exposure to external radiation from contaminated soil material; (2) internal radiation from inhalation of contaminated dust; (3) international radiation from inhalation of radon; (4) internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil and irrigated with water drawn from well or pond; (5) internal radiation from ingestion of meat from livestock fed with fodder grown in the contaminated soil and water drawn from a well or pond; (6) internal radiation from ingestion of milk from livestock fed with fodder grown in the contaminated soil and water drawn from a well or pond; (7) internal radiation from direct ingestion of contaminated soil; (8) internal radiation from ingestion of aquatic foods (fish) from a pond; and (9) internal radiation from drinking water from a well or pond. 4 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Modeling RHIC Using the Standard Machine Format Accelerator Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, F.; Trahern, C. G.; Wei, J.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.

    1997-05-01

    The Standard Machine Format (SMF)(N. Malitsky, R. Talman, et. al., A Proposed Flat Yet Hierarchical Accelerator Lattice Object Model), Particle Accel. 55, 313(1996). is a structured description of accelerator lattices which supports both the hierarchy of beam lines and generic lattice objects as well as the deviations (field errors, misalignments, etc.) associated with each distinct component which are necessary for accurate modeling of beam dynamics. In this paper we discuss the use of SMF to describe the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as well as the ancillary data structures (such as field quality measurements) that are necessarily incorporated into the RHIC SMF model. Future applications of SMF are outlined, including its use in the RHIC operational environment.

  18. FARMLAND: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, C.; Fayers, C.; Mayall, A.; Brown, J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The FARMLAND model was originally developed for use in connection with continuous, routine releases of radionuclides, but because it has many time-dependent features it has been developed further for a single accidental release. The most recent version of FARMLAND is flexible and can be used to predict activity concentrations in food as a function of time after both accidental and routine releases of radionuclides. The effect of deposition at different times of the year can be taken into account. FARMLAND contains a suite of models which simulate radionuclide transfer through different parts of the foodchain. The models can be used in different combinations and offer the flexibility to assess a variety of radiological situations. The main foods considered are green vegetables, grain products, root vegetables, milk, meat and offal from cattle, and meat and offal from sheep. A large variety of elements can be considered although the degree of complexity with which some are modelled is greater than others; isotopes of caesium, strontium and iodine are treated in greatest detail. 22 refs, 12 figs, 10 tabs

  19. DETRA: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1996-01-01

    The computer code DETRA is a generic tool for environmental transfer analyses of radioactive or stable substances. The code has been applied for various purposes, mainly problems related to the biospheric transfer of radionuclides both in safety analyses of disposal of nuclear wastes and in consideration of foodchain exposure pathways in the analyses of off-site consequences of reactor accidents. For each specific application an individually tailored conceptual model can be developed. The biospheric transfer analyses performed by the code are typically carried out for terrestrial, aquatic and food chain applications. 21 refs, 35 figs, 15 tabs

  20. A description of rotations for DEM models of particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we show how a vector parameterization of rotations can be adopted to describe the rotational motion of particles within the framework of the discrete element method (DEM). It is based on the use of a special rotation vector, called Rodrigues rotation vector, and accounts for finite rotations in a fully exact manner. The use of fictitious entities such as quaternions or complicated structures such as Euler angles is thereby circumvented. As an additional advantage, stick-slip friction models with inter-particle rolling motion are made possible in a consistent and elegant way. A few examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of the scheme. We believe that simple vector descriptions of rotations are very useful for DEM models of particle systems.

  1. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  3. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  4. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  5. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  6. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  7. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes

  8. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  9. Mathematical models for plant-herbivore interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhilan; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical Models of Plant-Herbivore Interactions addresses mathematical models in the study of practical questions in ecology, particularly factors that affect herbivory, including plant defense, herbivore natural enemies, and adaptive herbivory, as well as the effects of these on plant community dynamics. The result of extensive research on the use of mathematical modeling to investigate the effects of plant defenses on plant-herbivore dynamics, this book describes a toxin-determined functional response model (TDFRM) that helps explains field observations of these interactions. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in mathematical biology and ecology.

  10. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  11. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  12. Modeling a description logic vocabulary for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Frank W; de Coronado, Sherri; Dionne, Robert; Fragoso, Gilberto; Golbeck, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute has developed the NCI Thesaurus, a biomedical vocabulary for cancer research, covering terminology across a wide range of cancer research domains. A major design goal of the NCI Thesaurus is to facilitate translational research. We describe: the features of Ontylog, a description logic used to build NCI Thesaurus; our methodology for enhancing the terminology through collaboration between ontologists and domain experts, and for addressing certain real world challenges arising in modeling the Thesaurus; and finally, we describe the conversion of NCI Thesaurus from Ontylog into Web Ontology Language Lite. Ontylog has proven well suited for constructing big biomedical vocabularies. We have capitalized on the Ontylog constructs Kind and Role in the collaboration process described in this paper to facilitate communication between ontologists and domain experts. The artifacts and processes developed by NCI for collaboration may be useful in other biomedical terminology development efforts.

  13. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  14. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus; Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Gimeno, Maria; Hallbeck, Lotta; Molinero, Jorge; Waber, Nick

    2008-12-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  15. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Molinero, Jorge (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)); Waber, Nick (Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland))

    2008-12-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  16. General Description of Fission Observables: GEF Model Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.-H.; Jurado, B.; Amouroux, C.; Schmitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The GEF ("GEneral description of Fission observables") model code is documented. It describes the observables for spontaneous fission, neutron-induced fission and, more generally, for fission of a compound nucleus from any other entrance channel, with given excitation energy and angular momentum. The GEF model is applicable for a wide range of isotopes from Z = 80 to Z = 112 and beyond, up to excitation energies of about 100 MeV. The results of the GEF model are compared with fission barriers, fission probabilities, fission-fragment mass- and nuclide distributions, isomeric ratios, total kinetic energies, and prompt-neutron and prompt-gamma yields and energy spectra from neutron-induced and spontaneous fission. Derived properties of delayed neutrons and decay heat are also considered. The GEF model is based on a general approach to nuclear fission that explains a great part of the complex appearance of fission observables on the basis of fundamental laws of physics and general properties of microscopic systems and mathematical objects. The topographic theorem is used to estimate the fission-barrier heights from theoretical macroscopic saddle-point and ground-state masses and experimental ground-state masses. Motivated by the theoretically predicted early localisation of nucleonic wave functions in a necked-in shape, the properties of the relevant fragment shells are extracted. These are used to determine the depths and the widths of the fission valleys corresponding to the different fission channels and to describe the fission-fragment distributions and deformations at scission by a statistical approach. A modified composite nuclear-level-density formula is proposed. It respects some features in the superfluid regime that are in accordance with new experimental findings and with theoretical expectations. These are a constant-temperature behaviour that is consistent with a considerably increased heat capacity and an increased pairing condensation energy that is

  17. A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkens, H.; Hardy, N.; Beckmann, M.; Draper, J.; Smith, A.R.; Taylor, J.; Fiehn, O.; Goodacre, R.; Bino, R.J.; Hall, R.D.; Kopka, J.; Lane, G.A.; Lange, B.M.; Liu, J.R.; Mendes, P.; Nikolau, B.J.; Oliver, S.G.; Paton, I.R.; Roessner-Tunali, U.; Saito, K.; Smedsgaard, J.; Sumner, L.W.; Wang, T.; Walsh, S.; Wurtele, E.S.; Kell, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the metabolite complement of biological samples, known as metabolomics, is creating large amounts of data, and support for handling these data sets is required to facilitate meaningful analyses that will answer biological questions. We present a data model for plant metabolomics known

  18. A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, H.; Hardy, N.; Beckmann, M-

    2004-01-01

    The study of the metabolite complement of biological samples, known as metabolomics, is creating large amounts of data, and support for handling these data sets is required to facilitate meaningful analyses that will answer biological questions. We present a data model for plant metabolomics known...

  19. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  20. General description and production lines of the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.; Elseaidy, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a new facility, producing an MTR-type fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, as well as other plates or elements for an external clients with the same type and enrichment percent or lower, (LEU). General description is presented. The production lines in FMPP, which begin from uranium hexaflouride (UF 6 , 19.7±0.2 % U 235 by wt), aluminum powder, and nuclear grade 6061 aluminium alloy in sheets, bars, and rods with the different heat treatments and dimensions as a raw materials, are processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection, and quality control plan to produce the final specified MTR-type fuel elements. All these processes and the product control in each step are presented. The specifications of the final product are presented. (author)

  1. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  2. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  3. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  4. The electricity portfolio simulation model (EPSim) technical description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2005-09-01

    Stakeholders often have competing interests when selecting or planning new power plants. The purpose of developing this preliminary Electricity Portfolio Simulation Model (EPSim) is to provide a first cut, dynamic methodology and approach to this problem, that can subsequently be refined and validated, that may help energy planners, policy makers, and energy students better understand the tradeoffs associated with competing electricity portfolios. EPSim allows the user to explore competing electricity portfolios annually from 2002 to 2025 in terms of five different criteria: cost, environmental impacts, energy dependence, health and safety, and sustainability. Four additional criteria (infrastructure vulnerability, service limitations, policy needs and science and technology needs) may be added in future versions of the model. Using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach, users or groups of users apply weights to each of the criteria. The default energy assumptions of the model mimic Department of Energy's (DOE) electricity portfolio to 2025 (EIA, 2005). At any time, the user can compare alternative portfolios to this reference case portfolio.

  5. CSOIL 2000 an exposure model for human risk assessment of soil contamination. A model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand E; Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    This RIVM description of the CSOIL 2000 model deals, for the first time, with all aspects of the model. CSOIL 2000 can be used to derive intervention values. Intervention values are calculated for contaminated soil and represent a measure for determining when contaminated soil needs to be

  6. Descriptive models for single-jet sluicing of sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erian, F.F.; Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.

    1997-12-01

    Mobilization of sludge waste stored in underground storage tanks can be achieved safely and reliably by sluicing. In the project discussed in this report, the waste in Hanford single-shell Tank 241-C-106 will be mobilized by sluicing, retrieved by a slurry retrieval pump, and transferred via an 1800-ft slurry pipeline to Tank 241-AY-102. A sluicing strategy must be developed that ensures efficient use of the deployed configuration of the sluicing system: the nozzle(s) and the retrieval pump(s). Given a sluicing system configuration in a particular tank, it is desirable to prescribe the sequential locations at which the sludge will be mobilized and retrieved and the rate at which these mobilization and retrieval processes take place. In addition, it is necessary to know whether the retrieved waste slurry meets the requirements for cross-site slurry transport. Some of the physical phenomena that take place during mobilization and retrieval and certain aspects of the sluicing process are described in this report. First, a mathematical model gives (1) an idealized geometrical representation of where, within the confines of a storage tank containing a certain amount of settled waste, sludge can be removed and mobilized; and (2) a quantitative measure of the amount of sludge that can be removed during a sluicing campaign. A model describing an idealized water jet issuing from a circular nozzle located at a given height above a flat surface is also presented in this report. This dynamic water-jet model provides the basis for improving the geometrical sluicing model presented next. In this model the authors assume that the water jet follows a straight trajectory toward a target point on a flat surface. However, the water jet does not follow a straight line in the actual tank, and using the true trajectory will allow a more accurate estimate of the amount of disturbed material. Also, the authors hope that developing accurate force and pressure fields will lead to a better

  7. Descriptions and models of safety functions - a prestudy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms-Ringdahl, L.

    1999-09-01

    A study has been made with the focus on different theories and applications concerning 'safety functions' and 'barriers'. In this report, a safety function is defined as a technical or organisational function with the aim to reduce probability and/or consequences associated with a hazard. The study contains a limited review of practice and theories related to safety, with a focus on applications from nuclear and industrial safety. The study is based on a literature review and interviews. A summary has been made of definitions and terminology, which shows a large variation. E.g. 'barrier' can have a precise physical and technical meaning, or it can include human, technical and organisational elements. Only a few theoretical models describing safety functions have been found. One section of the report summarises problems related to safety issues and procedures. They concern errors in procedure design and user compliance. A proposal for describing and structuring safety functions has been made. Dimensions in a description could be degree of abstraction, systems level, the different parts of the function, etc. A model for safety functions has been proposed, which includes the division of a safety function in a number connected 'safety function elements'. One conclusion is that there is a potential for improving theories and tools for safety work and procedures. Safety function could be a useful concept in such a development, and advantages and disadvantages with this is discussed. If further work should be done, it is recommended that this is made as a combination of theoretical analysis and case studies

  8. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Drake, Henrik; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans; Juhlin, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    , kinematics of brittle deformation in drill cores and outcrops, as well as studies with particular focus on minor deformation zones (MDZ) in both drill cores and in the field. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. High resolution airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) leading to a new digital elevation model (DEM) together with high-resolution ground magnetic and resistivity data providing the basis for further lineament interpretations. Further seismic refraction surveys and reprocessing and re-evaluation of seismic reflection data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format for rock domains, deformation zones and fracture domains, including detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, sizes, volumetric intensities, spatial correlations and models, and other parameters (lithology and scaling corrections, termination matrices) that are necessary for building stochastic models. The regional scale ductile deformation zones strike NNE-SSW and NE-SW, are subvertical and are characterised by sinistral strike-slip displacements, while E-W oriented zones, though more strongly overprinted by brittle deformation, display moderate to steep dips to the south or north. The kinematics of the latter are not resolved at Laxemar, but E-W ductile shear zones in the Simpevarp subarea show complex kinematics, including both reverse and normal dip-slip as well as sinistral and dextral strike-slip displacements. It should be noted that the regional and local major deformation zones, although the majority have a ductile precursor, are mainly brittle in character. The focussed volume is transected by a series of smaller deformation zones with a variety of orientations and with dips varying from sub-vertical to sub

  9. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  10. Use of total plant models for plant performance optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardron, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is given to the mathematical techniques used by Nuclear Electric for steady state power plant analysis and performance optimisation. A quasi-Newton method is deployed to calculate the steady state followed by a model fitting procedure based on Lagrange's method to yield a fit to measured plant data. An optimising algorithm is used to establish maximum achievable power and efficiency. An example is described in which the techniques are applied to identify the plant constraints preventing output increases at a Nuclear Electric Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. (author)

  11. Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume III. Final report: demonstration plant equipment descriptions, test plan, and operating instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.C.; Harvey, W.W.; Warren, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The elements of the final, detailed design of the demonstration plant for the copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal steam are summarized. Descriptions are given of all items of equipment in sufficient detail that they can serve as purchase specifications. The process and mechanical design criteria which were used to develop the specifications, and the process descriptions and material and energy balance bases to which the design criteria were applied are included. (MHR)

  12. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    of candidate control structures. The present contribution focuses on development of a model ensemble for a plant with an illustartive example for a bioreactor. Starting from a functional model a process plant may be conceptually designed and qualitative operating models may be developed to cover the different...... regions within the plant operating window, including transitions between operating regions. Subsequently qualitative functional models may be developed when the means for achieving the desired functionality are sufficiently specified during the design process. Quantitative mathematical models of plant...... physics can be used for detailed design and optimization. However the qualitative functional models already provide a systematic framework based on the notion of means-end abstraction hierarchies. Thereby functional modeling provides a scientific basis for managing complexity. A functional modelling...

  13. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    , kinematics of brittle deformation in drill cores and outcrops, as well as studies with particular focus on minor deformation zones (MDZ) in both drill cores and in the field. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. High resolution airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) leading to a new digital elevation model (DEM) together with high-resolution ground magnetic and resistivity data providing the basis for further lineament interpretations. Further seismic refraction surveys and reprocessing and re-evaluation of seismic reflection data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format for rock domains, deformation zones and fracture domains, including detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, sizes, volumetric intensities, spatial correlations and models, and other parameters (lithology and scaling corrections, termination matrices) that are necessary for building stochastic models. The regional scale ductile deformation zones strike NNE-SSW and NE-SW, are subvertical and are characterised by sinistral strike-slip displacements, while E-W oriented zones, though more strongly overprinted by brittle deformation, display moderate to steep dips to the south or north. The kinematics of the latter are not resolved at Laxemar, but E-W ductile shear zones in the Simpevarp subarea show complex kinematics, including both reverse and normal dip-slip as well as sinistral and dextral strike-slip displacements. It should be noted that the regional and local major deformation zones, although the majority have a ductile precursor, are mainly brittle in character. The focussed volume is transected by a series of smaller deformation zones with a variety of orientations and with dips varying from sub-vertical to sub

  14. Description and Rationale for the Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation (PMI) Model: Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valeria A.

    The design of the Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation Model (PMI) and the aspects of the model that make it useful in public schools are the topics of this paper. After the objectives of a program or operation have been identified, the model specifies three additional pieces of information that are needed for an evaluation: inputs, processes,…

  15. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  16. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  17. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  18. New concepts for dynamic plant uptake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are widely applied tools for human and wildlife exposure assessment, pesticide design and for environmental biotechnology such as phytoremediation. Steady-state considerations are often applied, because they are simple and have a small data...... need. However, often the emission pattern is non-steady. Examples are pesticide spraying, or the application of manure and sewage sludge on agricultural fields. In these scenarios, steady-state solutions are not valid, and dynamic simulation is required. We compared different approaches for dynamic...... modelling of plant uptake in order to identify relevant processes and timescales of processes in the soil–plant–air system. Based on the outcome, a new model concept for plant uptake models was developed, approximating logistic growth and coupling transpiration to growing plant mass. The underlying system...

  19. Description of regolith at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Hedenstroem, Anna

    2008-11-01

    This report compiles all known available information regarding the regolith in the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area. Regolith refers to the loose deposits overlying the bedrock. In the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, all known regolith was deposited during the Quaternary period and is consequently often referred to as Quaternary deposits (QD). In the terrestrial areas the uppermost part of the regolith, which has been affected by climate and vegetation, is referred to as soil. The geographical and stratigraphical distributions of the regolith have been used to construct a model showing the distribution of regolith depths in the whole model area. The stratigraphical units shown in the regolith depth and stratigraphy model have been characterised with respect to physical and chemical properties. Most of the data used for that characterisation have been obtained from the site investigation but some data were taken from the literature. All QD in the Laxemar area have most probably been deposited during or after the latest deglaciation. The ice sheet in the area moved from the north-west during the latest ice age. The Baltic Sea completely covered the investigated area after the latest deglaciation c 12,000 BC. Land uplift was fastest during the first few thousand years following the deglaciation and has subsequently decreased to the present value of 1 mm/year. Older QD have been eroded in areas exposed to waves and currents and the material has later been redeposited. Fine-grained sediments have been deposited on the floor of bays and in other sheltered positions. Peat has accumulated in many of the wetlands situated in topographically low positions. The groundwater table in many of the former wetlands has been artificially lowered to obtain land for forestry and agriculture, which has caused the peat to partly or completely oxidise. As land uplift proceeds, some new areas are being subjected to erosion at the same time as other new areas are becoming lakes and sheltered

  20. Description of regolith at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Hedenstroem, Anna (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    This report compiles all known available information regarding the regolith in the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area. Regolith refers to the loose deposits overlying the bedrock. In the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, all known regolith was deposited during the Quaternary period and is consequently often referred to as Quaternary deposits (QD). In the terrestrial areas the uppermost part of the regolith, which has been affected by climate and vegetation, is referred to as soil. The geographical and stratigraphical distributions of the regolith have been used to construct a model showing the distribution of regolith depths in the whole model area. The stratigraphical units shown in the regolith depth and stratigraphy model have been characterised with respect to physical and chemical properties. Most of the data used for that characterisation have been obtained from the site investigation but some data were taken from the literature. All QD in the Laxemar area have most probably been deposited during or after the latest deglaciation. The ice sheet in the area moved from the north-west during the latest ice age. The Baltic Sea completely covered the investigated area after the latest deglaciation c 12,000 BC. Land uplift was fastest during the first few thousand years following the deglaciation and has subsequently decreased to the present value of 1 mm/year. Older QD have been eroded in areas exposed to waves and currents and the material has later been redeposited. Fine-grained sediments have been deposited on the floor of bays and in other sheltered positions. Peat has accumulated in many of the wetlands situated in topographically low positions. The groundwater table in many of the former wetlands has been artificially lowered to obtain land for forestry and agriculture, which has caused the peat to partly or completely oxidise. As land uplift proceeds, some new areas are being subjected to erosion at the same time as other new areas are becoming lakes and sheltered

  1. INTRA/Mod3.2. Manual and Code Description. Volume I - Physical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jenny; Edlund, O.; Hermann, J.; Johansson, Lise-Lotte

    1999-01-01

    The INTRA Manual consists of two volumes. Volume I of the manual is a thorough description of the code INTRA, the Physical modelling of INTRA and the ruling numerical methods and volume II, the User`s Manual is an input description. This document, the Physical modelling of INTRA, contains code characteristics, integration methods and applications

  2. Actant model of an extraction plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1999-05-01

    Facing a growing complexity of industrial plants, we recognise the need for qualitative modelling methods capturing functional and causal complexity in a human-centred way. The present paper presents actant modelling as a functional modelling method rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling combines actant models from linguistics with multilevel flow modelling (MFM). Thus the semantics of MFM functions is developed further and given an interpretation in terms of actant functions. The present challenge is to provide coherence between seemingly different categories of knowledge. Yet the gap between functional and causal modelling methods can be bridged. Actant modelling provides an open and provisional, but in no way exhaustive or final answer as to how teleological concepts like goals and functions relate to causal concepts. As the main focus of the paper an actant model of an extraction plant is presented. It is shown how the actant model merges functional and causal knowledge in a natural way.

  3. Actant model of an extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1999-01-01

    Facing a growing complexity of industrial plants, we recognise the need for qualitative modelling methods capturing functional and causal complexity in a human-centred way. The present paper presents actant modelling as a functional modelling method rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling combines actant models from linguistics with multilevel flow modelling (MFM). Thus the semantics of MFM functions is developed further and given an interpretation in terms of actant functions. The present challenge is to provide coherence between seemingly different categories of knowledge. Yet the gap between functional and causal modelling methods can be bridged. Actant modelling provides an open and provisional, but in no way exhaustive or final answer as to how teleological concepts like goals and functions relate to causal concepts. As the main focus of the paper an actant model of an extraction plant is presented. It is shown how the actant model merges functional and causal knowledge in a natural way

  4. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  5. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Follin, Sven; Hermanson, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model

  6. Hazard identification based on plant functional modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.; Whetton, C.

    1993-10-01

    A major objective of the present work is to provide means for representing a process plant as a socio-technical system, so as to allow hazard identification at a high level. The method includes technical, human and organisational aspects and is intended to be used for plant level hazard identification so as to identify critical areas and the need for further analysis using existing methods. The first part of the method is the preparation of a plant functional model where a set of plant functions link together hardware, software, operations, work organisation and other safety related aspects of the plant. The basic principle of the functional modelling is that any aspect of the plant can be represented by an object (in the sense that this term is used in computer science) based upon an Intent (or goal); associated with each Intent are Methods, by which the Intent is realized, and Constraints, which limit the Intent. The Methods and Constraints can themselves be treated as objects and decomposed into lower-level Intents (hence the procedure is known as functional decomposition) so giving rise to a hierarchical, object-oriented structure. The plant level hazard identification is carried out on the plant functional model using the Concept Hazard Analysis method. In this, the user will be supported by checklists and keywords and the analysis is structured by pre-defined worksheets. The preparation of the plant functional model and the performance of the hazard identification can be carried out manually or with computer support. (au) (4 tabs., 10 ills., 7 refs.)

  7. Architecture Descriptions. A Contribution to Modeling of Production System Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Allan Dam; Hvam, Lars

    a proper understanding of the architecture phenomenon and the ability to describe it in a manner that allow the architecture to be communicated to and handled by stakeholders throughout the company. Despite the existence of several design philosophies in production system design such as Lean, that focus......The subject of this PhD dissertation is architecture-centric design and the description of production system architecture. Companies are facing demands for the development and production of new products at an ever increasing rate, as the market life of products decreases and the rate at which...... customers demand new product features and performance accelerates. Many of these companies are seeking to keep pace with market demands and the pressures of low cost production in other countries by adopting an architecture-centric or platform based approach to the design of their production systems...

  8. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  9. Modeling and optimization of a chiller plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiupeng; Xu, Guanglin; Kusiak, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A data-driven approach is utilized to model a chiller plant that has four chillers, four cooling towers, and two chilled water storage tanks. The chillers have varying energy efficiency. Since the chiller plant model derived from data-driven approach is nonlinear and non-convex, it is not practical to solve it by using the traditional gradient-based optimization algorithm. A two-level intelligent algorithm is developed to solve the model aiming at minimizing the total cost of the chilled water plant. The proposed algorithm can effectively search the optimum under the non-convex and nonlinear situation. A simulation case is conducted and the corresponding results are discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a data-driven based model of a complete chiller plant. • A two-level intelligent algorithm is proposed to optimize the chiller plant which is non-convex and nonlinear problem. • A simulation is conducted to verify the performance of the model and algorithm. • 14 percent of energy saving can be achieved with proposed method

  10. Context discovery using attenuated Bloom codes: model description and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Heijenk, Geert

    A novel approach to performing context discovery in ad-hoc networks based on the use of attenuated Bloom filters is proposed in this report. In order to investigate the performance of this approach, a model has been developed. This document describes the model and its validation. The model has been

  11. Description of the General Equilibrium Model of Ecosystem Services (GEMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack; David Finnoff; Jenny Apriesnig

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves as documentation for the General Equilibrium Model of Ecosystem Services (GEMES). GEMES is a regional computable general equilibrium model that is composed of values derived from natural capital and ecosystem services. It models households, producing sectors, and governments, linked to one another through commodity and factor markets. GEMES was...

  12. Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Fansler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.

  13. Modeling of a combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohamad Idris

    2001-01-01

    The combined cycle power plant is a non-linear, closed loop system, which consists of high-pressure (HP) superheater, HP evaporator, HP economizer, low-pressure (LP) evaporator, HP drum, HP deaerator, condenser, HP and LP steam turbine and gas turbine. The two types of turbines in the plant for example the gas turbine and the HP and LP steam turbines operate concurrently to generate power to the plant. The exhaust gas which originate from the combustion chamber drives the gas turbine, after which it flows into the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to generate superheated steam to be used in driving the HP and LP steam turbines. In this thesis, the combined cycle power plant is modeled at component level using the physical method. Assuming that there is delay in transport, except for the gas turbine system, the mass and heat balances are applied on the components of the plant to derive the governing equations of the components. These time dependent equations, which are of first order differential types, are then solved for the mass and enthalpy of the components. The solutions were simulated using Matlab Simulink using measured plant data. Where necessary there is no plant data available, approximated data were used. The generalized regression neural networks are also used to generate extra sets of simulation data for the HRSG system. Comparisons of the simulation results with its corresponding plant data showed good agreements between the two and indicated that the models developed for the components could be used to represent the combined cycle power plant under study. (author)

  14. Model feedstock supply processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of raw providing the processing enterprises entering into vertically integrated structure on production and processing of dairy raw materials, differing by an orientation on achievement of cumulative effect by the integrated structure acting as criterion function which maximizing is reached by optimization of capacities, volumes of deliveries of raw materials and its qualitative characteristics, costs of industrial processing of raw materials and demand for dairy production is developed.

  15. Description and comparison of energy impact assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.A.; Fraley, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    During the past few years the need for more comprehensive analytical techniques for assessing the environmental, economic, and social impacts of energy supply-demand systems and related public policy-making activities has increased. The research and academic communities have responded to this need by developing a wide range of models and other analytical tools for energy impact estimation. The models generally fall into two categories: large-scale and specialized. This report examines the general features and shortcomings of current large-scale and specialized modeling efforts from the point of view of energy impact assessment. Characteristics deemed desirable in large-scale energy-impact-assessment models and related studies are discussed. An outline of criteria for describing and comparing such models is presented, from which seven large-scale energy models and one impact-assessment study are described and compared in considerable detail. Tables are also presented which summarize the results of the categorizations.

  16. LPJmL4 - a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land - Part 1: Model description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Biemans, Hester; Forkel, Matthias; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Knauer, Jürgen; Langerwisch, Fanny; Lucht, Wolfgang; Müller, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne; Waha, Katharina

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive description of the newest version of the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model with managed Land, LPJmL4. This model simulates - internally consistently - the growth and productivity of both natural and agricultural vegetation as coherently linked through their water, carbon, and energy fluxes. These features render LPJmL4 suitable for assessing a broad range of feedbacks within and impacts upon the terrestrial biosphere as increasingly shaped by human activities such as climate change and land use change. Here we describe the core model structure, including recently developed modules now unified in LPJmL4. Thereby, we also review LPJmL model developments and evaluations in the field of permafrost, human and ecological water demand, and improved representation of crop types. We summarize and discuss LPJmL model applications dealing with the impacts of historical and future environmental change on the terrestrial biosphere at regional and global scale and provide a comprehensive overview of LPJmL publications since the first model description in 2007. To demonstrate the main features of the LPJmL4 model, we display reference simulation results for key processes such as the current global distribution of natural and managed ecosystems, their productivities, and associated water fluxes. A thorough evaluation of the model is provided in a companion paper. By making the model source code freely available at https://gitlab.pik-potsdam.de/lpjml/LPJmL, we hope to stimulate the application and further development of LPJmL4 across scientific communities in support of major activities such as the IPCC and SDG process.

  17. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES, model description – Part 2: Carbon fluxes and vegetation dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Clark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES is a process-based model that simulates the fluxes of carbon, water, energy and momentum between the land surface and the atmosphere. Many studies have demonstrated the important role of the land surface in the functioning of the Earth System. Different versions of JULES have been employed to quantify the effects on the land carbon sink of climate change, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, changing atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone, and the response of methane emissions from wetlands to climate change.

    This paper describes the consolidation of these advances in the modelling of carbon fluxes and stores, in both the vegetation and soil, in version 2.2 of JULES. Features include a multi-layer canopy scheme for light interception, including a sunfleck penetration scheme, a coupled scheme of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, representation of the effects of ozone on leaf physiology, and a description of methane emissions from wetlands. JULES represents the carbon allocation, growth and population dynamics of five plant functional types. The turnover of carbon from living plant tissues is fed into a 4-pool soil carbon model.

    The process-based descriptions of key ecological processes and trace gas fluxes in JULES mean that this community model is well-suited for use in carbon cycle, climate change and impacts studies, either in standalone mode or as the land component of a coupled Earth system model.

  18. Stochastic description of heterogeneities of permeability within groundwater flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacas, M.C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ledoux, E.; Marsily, G. de

    1991-01-01

    In order to model radionuclide migration in the geosphere realistically at the field scale, the hydrogeologist needs to be able to simulate groundwater flow in heterogeneous media. Heterogeneity of the medium can be described using a stochastic approach, that affects the way in which a flow model is formulated. In this paper, we discuss the problems that we have encountered in modelling both continuous and fractured media. The stochastic approach leads to a methodology that enables local measurements of permeability to be integrated into a model which gives a good prediction of groundwater flow on a regional scale. 5 Figs.; 8 Refs

  19. Dynamic modelling of Industrial Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the isotopic enrichment unites of the Industrial Heavy Water Plant, located in Arroyito, Neuquen, Argentina, was modeled and simulated in the present work. Dynamic models of the chemical and isotopic interchange processes existent in the plant, were developed. This served as a base to obtain representative models of the different unit and control systems. The developed models were represented in a modular code for each unit. Each simulator consists of approximately one hundred non-linear-first-order differential equations and some other algebraic equation, which are time resolved by the code. The different simulators allow to change a big number of boundary conditions and the control systems set point for each simulation, so that the program become very versatile. The output of the code allows to see the evolution through time of the variables of interest. An interface which facilitates the use of the first enrichment stage simulator was developed. This interface allows an easy access to generate wished events during the simulation and includes the possibility to plot evolution of the variables involved. The obtained results agree with the expected tendencies. The calculated nominal steady state matches by the manufacturer. The different steady states obtained, agree with previous works. The times and tendencies involved in the transients generated by the program, are in good agreement with the experience obtained at the plant. Based in the obtained results, it is concluded that the characteristic times of the plant are determined by the masses involved in the process. Different characteristics in the system dynamic behavior were generated with the different simulators, and were validated by plant personnel. This work allowed to understand the different process involved in the heavy water manufacture, and to develop a very useful tool for the personnel of the plant. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs. plant. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs

  20. Pattern formation in flocking models: A hydrodynamic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis; Chaté, Hugues; Tailleur, Julien

    2015-12-01

    We study in detail the hydrodynamic theories describing the transition to collective motion in polar active matter, exemplified by the Vicsek and active Ising models. Using a simple phenomenological theory, we show the existence of an infinity of propagative solutions, describing both phase and microphase separation, that we fully characterize. We also show that the same results hold specifically in the hydrodynamic equations derived in the literature for the active Ising model and for a simplified version of the Vicsek model. We then study numerically the linear stability of these solutions. We show that stable ones constitute only a small fraction of them, which, however, includes all existing types. We further argue that, in practice, a coarsening mechanism leads towards phase-separated solutions. Finally, we construct the phase diagrams of the hydrodynamic equations proposed to qualitatively describe the Vicsek and active Ising models and connect our results to the phenomenology of the corresponding microscopic models.

  1. Pattern formation in flocking models: A hydrodynamic description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis; Chaté, Hugues; Tailleur, Julien

    2015-12-01

    We study in detail the hydrodynamic theories describing the transition to collective motion in polar active matter, exemplified by the Vicsek and active Ising models. Using a simple phenomenological theory, we show the existence of an infinity of propagative solutions, describing both phase and microphase separation, that we fully characterize. We also show that the same results hold specifically in the hydrodynamic equations derived in the literature for the active Ising model and for a simplified version of the Vicsek model. We then study numerically the linear stability of these solutions. We show that stable ones constitute only a small fraction of them, which, however, includes all existing types. We further argue that, in practice, a coarsening mechanism leads towards phase-separated solutions. Finally, we construct the phase diagrams of the hydrodynamic equations proposed to qualitatively describe the Vicsek and active Ising models and connect our results to the phenomenology of the corresponding microscopic models.

  2. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency....... They represent not only the first regulators of zinc homeostasis identified in plants, but also a very promising starting-point that can provide new insights into the molecular basis of how plants sense and adapt to the stress of zinc deficiency. Considering the available information thus far we propose...... in this review a putative model of how plants sense zinc deficiency....

  3. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  4. Integrating cognitive process and descriptive models of attitudes and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Guy E; Marley, A A J; Heathcote, Andrew; Flynn, Terry N; Louviere, Jordan J; Brown, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Discrete choice experiments--selecting the best and/or worst from a set of options--are increasingly used to provide more efficient and valid measurement of attitudes or preferences than conventional methods such as Likert scales. Discrete choice data have traditionally been analyzed with random utility models that have good measurement properties but provide limited insight into cognitive processes. We extend a well-established cognitive model, which has successfully explained both choices and response times for simple decision tasks, to complex, multi-attribute discrete choice data. The fits, and parameters, of the extended model for two sets of choice data (involving patient preferences for dermatology appointments, and consumer attitudes toward mobile phones) agree with those of standard choice models. The extended model also accounts for choice and response time data in a perceptual judgment task designed in a manner analogous to best-worst discrete choice experiments. We conclude that several research fields might benefit from discrete choice experiments, and that the particular accumulator-based models of decision making used in response time research can also provide process-level instantiations for random utility models. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. RELAP5 Model Description and Validation for the BR2 Loss-of-Flow Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Koonen, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the RELAP5 model, the calibration method used to obtain the minor loss coefficients from the available hydraulic data and the LOFA simulation results compared to the 1963 experimental tests for HEU fuel.

  6. Software Test Description (STD) for the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Posey, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Test Description (STD) is to establish formal test cases to be used by personnel tasked with the installation and verification of the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides...

  7. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 3: Program descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Burroughs, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Program descriptions, flow charts, and program listings for the SIMWEST model generation program, the simulation program, the file maintenance program, and the printer plotter program are given. For Vol 2, see .

  8. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  9. Thermodynamically consistent description of criticality in models of correlated electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janiš, Václav; Kauch, Anna; Pokorný, Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 045108. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14259S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : conserving approximations * Anderson model * Hubbard model * parquet equations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  10. Description of the National Hydrologic Model for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steven; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland J.; Norton, Parker A.; Driscoll, Jessica M.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2018-01-08

    This report documents several components of the U.S. Geological Survey National Hydrologic Model of the conterminous United States for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). It provides descriptions of the (1) National Hydrologic Model, (2) Geospatial Fabric for National Hydrologic Modeling, (3) PRMS hydrologic simulation code, (4) parameters and estimation methods used to compute spatially and temporally distributed default values as required by PRMS, (5) National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database, and (6) model extraction tool named Bandit. The National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database contains values for all PRMS parameters used in the National Hydrologic Model. The methods and national datasets used to estimate all the PRMS parameters are described. Some parameter values are derived from characteristics of topography, land cover, soils, geology, and hydrography using traditional Geographic Information System methods. Other parameters are set to long-established default values and computation of initial values. Additionally, methods (statistical, sensitivity, calibration, and algebraic) were developed to compute parameter values on the basis of a variety of nationally-consistent datasets. Values in the National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database can periodically be updated on the basis of new parameter estimation methods and as additional national datasets become available. A companion ScienceBase resource provides a set of static parameter values as well as images of spatially-distributed parameters associated with PRMS states and fluxes for each Hydrologic Response Unit across the conterminuous United States.

  11. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan

    2007-09-01

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  12. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  13. Activated aging dynamics and effective trap model description in the random energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baity-Jesi, M.; Biroli, G.; Cammarota, C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the out-of-equilibrium aging dynamics of the random energy model (REM) ruled by a single spin-flip Metropolis dynamics. We focus on the dynamical evolution taking place on time-scales diverging with the system size. Our aim is to show to what extent the activated dynamics displayed by the REM can be described in terms of an effective trap model. We identify two time regimes: the first one corresponds to the process of escaping from a basin in the energy landscape and to the subsequent exploration of high energy configurations, whereas the second one corresponds to the evolution from a deep basin to the other. By combining numerical simulations with analytical arguments we show why the trap model description does not hold in the former but becomes exact in the second.

  14. Semantic description of three-dimensional models of Bologna porches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ballabeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is part of a broader search coordinated by the Department of Architecture of the University of Bologna, the Cineca and the city of Bologna for the nomination of the city porticoes in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The study describes, first, the problems and the methods adopted for the survey, the numerical modeling and visualization of the arcades models. In addition, the paper aims to describe a method for the semantic studying of the porticoes architecture and the segmentation of the models. The goal is also to establish an integrated approach to the semantic cataloguing of the Bologna arcades based on historical, material, formal, dimensional and theoretical data, and to make this information easily readable and communicable.

  15. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  16. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  17. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapito, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.) [pt

  18. Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...

  19. Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor M.

    2007-01-01

    The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements

  20. A Descriptive Model of Decision Making: Review of Idiographic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye; Bryant, H. David

    1988-01-01

    This article provides an overview of decision-making literature, describes individual and organizational decision stages, and reviews selected idiographic influences on decision-making. Also presented is a model for predicting and explaining variations in decision outcomes. These outcomes include affective, cognitive, and behavioral conditions.…

  1. General Description of Fission Observables - JEFF Report 24. GEF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz; Amouroux, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project is a collaborative effort among the member countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank to develop a reference nuclear data library. The JEFF library contains sets of evaluated nuclear data, mainly for fission and fusion applications; it contains a number of different data types, including neutron and proton interaction data, radioactive decay data, fission yield data and thermal scattering law data. The General fission (GEF) model is based on novel theoretical concepts and ideas developed to model low energy nuclear fission. The GEF code calculates fission-fragment yields and associated quantities (e.g. prompt neutron and gamma) for a large range of nuclei and excitation energy. This opens up the possibility of a qualitative step forward to improve further the JEFF fission yields sub-library. This report describes the GEF model which explains the complex appearance of fission observables by universal principles of theoretical models and considerations on the basis of fundamental laws of physics and mathematics. The approach reveals a high degree of regularity and provides a considerable insight into the physics of the fission process. Fission observables can be calculated with a precision that comply with the needs for applications in nuclear technology. The relevance of the approach for examining the consistency of experimental results and for evaluating nuclear data is demonstrated. (authors)

  2. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan; Rosen, L ars

    2007-09-01

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  3. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Rosen, L ars [Sweco Viak AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  4. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  5. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  6. Plant balance model for RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza M, R.; Filio L, C.; Araiza M, E.; Ortiz V, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we developed an integral model for a nuclear power plant and have a more general picture of what happens in both the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the Balance of Plant (Bop) system during abnormal events that are presented in operation. RELAP/SCDAPSIM (RSS) is a computation code of the type of best estimate that can simulate the transient and accident behavior of a nuclear installation. The development of a Bop model for RSS can result in the simulation of transients such as turbine trip due to loss of vacuum in the main steam condenser. This work shows the development of models of the Bop main components for the RSS code, such as the set of high and low pressure turbines, as well as their steam extractions to the feed water heaters, the main steam condenser, a feed water heater and the condensate and water feed pumps. This new model of the Plant Balance system was then coupled to the NSSS model that is already in RSS. First, results of the steady state with this new integral model are show, to later show results of the transients simulation: 1) turbine trip due to loss of vacuum in the main steam condenser; 2) loss of condensate pumps; and 3) failure of the feed water heater. (Author)

  7. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neises, Ty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ferguson, Tom [Global Resources, Northbrook, IL (United States); Gilman, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [Janzou Consulting, Idaho Springs, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  8. Linking normative models of natural tasks to descriptive models of neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaini, Priyank; Burge, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how nervous systems exploit task-relevant properties of sensory stimuli to perform natural tasks is fundamental to the study of perceptual systems. However, there are few formal methods for determining which stimulus properties are most useful for a given natural task. As a consequence, it is difficult to develop principled models for how to compute task-relevant latent variables from natural signals, and it is difficult to evaluate descriptive models fit to neural response. Accuracy maximization analysis (AMA) is a recently developed Bayesian method for finding the optimal task-specific filters (receptive fields). Here, we introduce AMA-Gauss, a new faster form of AMA that incorporates the assumption that the class-conditional filter responses are Gaussian distributed. Then, we use AMA-Gauss to show that its assumptions are justified for two fundamental visual tasks: retinal speed estimation and binocular disparity estimation. Next, we show that AMA-Gauss has striking formal similarities to popular quadratic models of neural response: the energy model and the generalized quadratic model (GQM). Together, these developments deepen our understanding of why the energy model of neural response have proven useful, improve our ability to evaluate results from subunit model fits to neural data, and should help accelerate psychophysics and neuroscience research with natural stimuli.

  9. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  10. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM C , FSM E W007, FSM N , FSM N E005, FSM S , and FSM W . The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the alternative model and the P

  11. Development of fragility descriptions of equipment for seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Campbell, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant for postulated hazard requires the development of fragility relationships for the plants' safety related equipment. The objective of this paper is to present some general results and conclusions concerning the development of these seismic fragility levels. Participation in fragility-related research and experience gained from the completion of several PRA studies of a variety of nuclear power plants have provided much insight as to the most vulnerable equipment and the most efficient use of resources for development of fragilities. Plants studied had seismic design bases ranging from very simple equivalent static analysis for some of the earlier plants to state-of-the-art complex multimode dyanamic analyses for plants currently under construction. Increased sophistication and rigor in seismic qualification of equipment has resulted for the most part in increased seismic resistance. The majority of equipment has been found, however, to possess more than adequate resistance to seismic loading regardless of the degree of sophistication utilized in design as long as seismic loading was included in the design process. This paper presents conclusions of the authors as to which items of equipment typically require an individual ''plant-specific'' fragility analysis and which can be treated in a generic fashion. In addition, general conclusions on the relative seismic capacity levels and most frequent failure modes are summarized for generic equipment groups

  12. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of

  13. The systematic description of cacao clones and its significance for taxonomy and plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, J.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The value of germplasm collections depends to a large extent on the data accompanying the individual accessions. In order to facilitate the selection of the most useful characters for the systematic description of a cacao germplasm collection methods were developed to measure and to compare

  14. A simplified description of the three-dimensional structure of agroforestry trees for use with a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, S.

    1998-01-01

    To simulate transmitted radiation in agroforestry systems, radiative transfer models usually require a detailed three-dimensional description of the tree canopy. We propose here a simplification of the description of the three-dimensional structure of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium). The simplified tree description was tested against the detailed one for five-year-old wild cherry. It allowed accurate simulation of transmitted radiation and avoided tedious measurements of tree structure. The simplified description was then applied to older trees. Allometric relationships were used to compute the parameters not available on free-grown trees. The transmitted radiation in an agroforestry system was simulated at four different ages: 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. The trees were planted on a 5 m square grid. Two row orientations, chosen to provide different transmitted radiation patterns, were tested: north/south and north- east/south-west. The simulations showed that the daily mean transmitted radiation was reduced from 92% of incident radiation under five-year-old trees to 37% under 20-year-old trees. The variability of transmitted radiation increased with tree growth. The row orientation had only small effects on the shaded area at the beginning and end of the day when solar elevation was low. (author)

  15. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  16. The collaborative historical African rainfall model: description and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Michaelsen, Joel; Verdin, Jim; Artan, Guleid; Husak, Greg; Senay, Gabriel; Gadain, Hussein; Magadazire, Tamuka

    2003-01-01

    In Africa the variability of rainfall in space and time is high, and the general availability of historical gauge data is low. This makes many food security and hydrologic preparedness activities difficult. In order to help overcome this limitation, we have created the Collaborative Historical African Rainfall Model (CHARM). CHARM combines three sources of information: climatologically aided interpolated (CAI) rainfall grids (monthly/0.5° ), National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis precipitation fields (daily/1.875° ) and orographic enhancement estimates (daily/0.1° ). The first set of weights scales the daily reanalysis precipitation fields to match the gridded CAI monthly rainfall time series. This produces data with a daily/0.5° resolution. A diagnostic model of orographic precipitation, VDELB - based on the dot-product of the surface wind V and terrain gradient (DEL) and atmospheric buoyancy B - is then used to estimate the precipitation enhancement produced by complex terrain. Although the data are produced on 0.1° grids to facilitate integration with satellite-based rainfall estimates, the true resolution of the data will be less than this value, and varies with station density, topography, and precipitation dynamics. The CHARM is best suited, therefore, to applications that integrate rainfall or rainfall-driven model results over large regions.The CHARM time series is compared with three independent datasets: dekadal satellite-based rainfall estimates across the continent, dekadal interpolated gauge data in Mali, and daily interpolated gauge data in western Kenya. These comparisons suggest reasonable accuracies (standard errors of about half a standard deviation) when data are aggregated to regional scales, even at daily time steps. Thus constrained, numerical weather prediction precipitation fields do a reasonable job of representing large-scale diurnal variations. Published in 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Advanced numerical description of the behavior of 700 C steam power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Schmidt, K.; Roos, E.; Klenk, A.; Speicher, M.

    2009-07-01

    To make full use of the strength potential of new boiler materials like the new 9-11% Cr steels and nickel based alloys, taking into account their specific stress-strain relaxation behavior, new design methods are required in the design of today's power plants. Highly loaded components are approaching more and more the classical design limits with regard to critical wall thicknesses and the related tolerable thermal gradients, due to planed increases of steam parameters like steam pressure and steam temperature. ''Design by analysis'' can be realized by modern state of the art Numerical Finite Element (FE) simulation codes and in some cases by the use of user defined advanced inelastic material laws. These material laws have to be adjusted to specific material behavior of new boiler materials. To model the strain and stress situation in components under high temperature loading, a constitutive equation based on a Graham-Walles approach is used in this paper. Furthermore essential steps and recommendations to implement experimental data in the user defined subroutines and the subsequent integration of the subroutines in modern FE codes like ABAQUS trademark and ANSYS trademark are given. As an example, the results of FE simulations of components like hollow cylinders and waterwall like components made of Alloy 617 or 9-11% Cr steels are discussed and verified with experimental results. In a last step, the successful application of the developed creep equation will be demonstrated by calculating the creep strains and stress relaxation of a P92 steam header under constant loading. (orig.)

  18. Plant adaptive behaviour in hydrological models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Teuling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evaporation regimes need a solid base that describes the essence of the processes involved [1]. Micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system may have a large impact on patterns emerging at larger scales. A complicating factor in the micro-behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, but such environmental changes may also trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [2-6]. Gene expression as a result of different environmental conditions may profoundly impact drought responses across the same plant species. Differences in response to an environmental stress, has consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. Models potentially provide a means to link root water uptake and transport to large scale processes (e.g. Rosnay and Polcher 1998, Feddes et al. 2001, Jung 2010), especially when powered with an integrated hydrological, ecological and physiological base. We explore the experimental evidence from natural vegetation to formulate possible alternative modeling concepts. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215

  19. Emergent phase space description of unitary matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Arghya; Dutta, Parikshit; Dutta, Suvankar

    2017-11-01

    We show that large N phases of a 0 dimensional generic unitary matrix model (UMM) can be described in terms of topologies of two dimensional droplets on a plane spanned by eigenvalue and number of boxes in Young diagram. Information about different phases of UMM is encoded in the geometry of droplets. These droplets are similar to phase space distributions of a unitary matrix quantum mechanics (UMQM) ((0 + 1) dimensional) on constant time slices. We find that for a given UMM, it is possible to construct an effective UMQM such that its phase space distributions match with droplets of UMM on different time slices at large N . Therefore, large N phase transitions in UMM can be understood in terms of dynamics of an effective UMQM. From the geometry of droplets it is also possible to construct Young diagrams corresponding to U( N) representations and hence different large N states of the theory in momentum space. We explicitly consider two examples: single plaquette model with Tr U 2 terms and Chern-Simons theory on S 3. We describe phases of CS theory in terms of eigenvalue distributions of unitary matrices and find dominant Young distributions for them.

  20. Neutrino detector for the nuclear power plant in Belarus and description of the neutrino field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewsky, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility and desirability of constructing a neutrino detector near the Belarus Nuclear Power Plant are justified. Possible ways of describing the neutrino field are analyzed. A convenient decomposition of the Dirac field into two Majorana ones is found.

  1. Description of a practice model for pharmacist medication review in a general practice setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mette; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, Trine Graabæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practical descriptions of procedures used for pharmacists' medication reviews are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe a model for medication review by pharmacists tailored to a general practice setting. METHODS: A stepwise model is described. The model is based on data from the medical chart...... no indication (n=47, 23%). Most interventions were aimed at cardiovascular drugs. CONCLUSION: We have provided a detailed description of a practical approach to pharmacists' medication review in a GP setting. The model was tested and found to be usable, and to deliver a medication review with high acceptance...

  2. Modeling Wood Encroachment in Abandoned Grasslands in the Eifel National Park - Model Description and Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Hudjetz

    Full Text Available The degradation of natural and semi-natural landscapes has become a matter of global concern. In Germany, semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species-rich habitat types but have suffered heavily from changes in land use. After abandonment, the course of succession at a specific site is often difficult to predict because many processes interact. In order to support decision making when managing semi-natural grasslands in the Eifel National Park, we built the WoodS-Model (Woodland Succession Model. A multimodeling approach was used to integrate vegetation dynamics in both the herbaceous and shrub/tree layer. The cover of grasses and herbs was simulated in a compartment model, whereas bushes and trees were modelled in an individual-based manner. Both models worked and interacted in a spatially explicit, raster-based landscape. We present here the model description, parameterization and testing. We show highly detailed projections of the succession of a semi-natural grassland including the influence of initial vegetation composition, neighborhood interactions and ungulate browsing. We carefully weighted the single processes against each other and their relevance for landscape development under different scenarios, while explicitly considering specific site conditions. Model evaluation revealed that the model is able to emulate successional patterns as observed in the field as well as plausible results for different population densities of red deer. Important neighborhood interactions such as seed dispersal, the protection of seedlings from browsing ungulates by thorny bushes, and the inhibition of wood encroachment by the herbaceous layer, have been successfully reproduced. Therefore, not only a detailed model but also detailed initialization turned out to be important for spatially explicit projections of a given site. The advantage of the WoodS-Model is that it integrates these many mutually interacting processes of succession.

  3. Parallel community climate model: Description and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.B.; Flanery, R.E.; Semeraro, B.D.; Worley, P.H. [and others

    1996-07-15

    This report gives an overview of a parallel version of the NCAR Community Climate Model, CCM2, implemented for MIMD massively parallel computers using a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallel implementation was developed on an Intel iPSC/860 with 128 processors and on the Intel Delta with 512 processors, and the initial target platform for the production version of the code is the Intel Paragon with 2048 processors. Because the implementation uses a standard, portable message-passing libraries, the code has been easily ported to other multiprocessors supporting a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallelization strategy used is to decompose the problem domain into geographical patches and assign each processor the computation associated with a distinct subset of the patches. With this decomposition, the physics calculations involve only grid points and data local to a processor and are performed in parallel. Using parallel algorithms developed for the semi-Lagrangian transport, the fast Fourier transform and the Legendre transform, both physics and dynamics are computed in parallel with minimal data movement and modest change to the original CCM2 source code. Sequential or parallel history tapes are written and input files (in history tape format) are read sequentially by the parallel code to promote compatibility with production use of the model on other computer systems. A validation exercise has been performed with the parallel code and is detailed along with some performance numbers on the Intel Paragon and the IBM SP2. A discussion of reproducibility of results is included. A user`s guide for the PCCM2 version 2.1 on the various parallel machines completes the report. Procedures for compilation, setup and execution are given. A discussion of code internals is included for those who may wish to modify and use the program in their own research.

  4. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO2, slurry pH-profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual...... wet FGD plants....

  5. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  6. Kinetic analyses and mathematical modeling of primary photochemical and photoelectrochemical processes in plant photosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the model and simulation of primary photochemical and photo-electrochemical reactions in dark-adapted intact plant leaves is presented. A descriptive algorithm has been derived from analyses of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and P700 oxidation kinetics upon excitation with

  7. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO 4 , HCO 3 , HPO 4 and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never detrimentally affect

  8. Pressurizer model for Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkansky, D.G.; Bedrossian, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    Since the models normally used for he simulation of eventual accidents at the Embalse nuclear power plant with the FIREBIRD III code did not work satisfactorily when the pressurizer becomes empty of liquid, a new model was developed. This report presents the governing equations as well as the calculation technique, for which a computer program was made. An example of application is also presented. The results show that this new model can easily solve the problem of lack of liquid in the pressurizer, as it lets the fluid enter and exit freely, according to the pressure transient at the reactor outlet headers. (author)

  9. Description of group-theoretical model of developed turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, V L; Gorokhovski, M A

    2008-01-01

    We propose to associate the phenomenon of stationary turbulence with the special self-similar solutions of the Euler equations. These solutions represent the linear superposition of eigenfields of spatial symmetry subgroup generators and imply their dependence on time through the parameter of the symmetry transformation only. From this model, it follows that for developed turbulent process, changing the scale of averaging (filtering) of the velocity field is equivalent to composition of scaling, translation and rotation transformations. We call this property a renormalization-group invariance of filtered turbulent fields. The renormalization group invariance provides an opportunity to transform the averaged Navier-Stokes equation over a small scale (inner threshold of the turbulence) to larger scales by simple scaling. From the methodological point of view, it is significant to note that the turbulent viscosity term appeared not as a result of averaging of the nonlinear term in the Navier-Stokes equation, but from the molecular viscosity term with the help of renormalization group transformation.

  10. Description of group-theoretical model of developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, V L [Institute of Ionosphere, Almaty 050020 (Kazakhstan); Gorokhovski, M A [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, Avenue Guy de Collongues, F69134 Ecully-Cedex (France)], E-mail: saveliev@topmail.kz, E-mail: mikhael.gorokhovski@ec-lyon.fr

    2008-12-15

    We propose to associate the phenomenon of stationary turbulence with the special self-similar solutions of the Euler equations. These solutions represent the linear superposition of eigenfields of spatial symmetry subgroup generators and imply their dependence on time through the parameter of the symmetry transformation only. From this model, it follows that for developed turbulent process, changing the scale of averaging (filtering) of the velocity field is equivalent to composition of scaling, translation and rotation transformations. We call this property a renormalization-group invariance of filtered turbulent fields. The renormalization group invariance provides an opportunity to transform the averaged Navier-Stokes equation over a small scale (inner threshold of the turbulence) to larger scales by simple scaling. From the methodological point of view, it is significant to note that the turbulent viscosity term appeared not as a result of averaging of the nonlinear term in the Navier-Stokes equation, but from the molecular viscosity term with the help of renormalization group transformation.

  11. Reference modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant: Concept description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a summary description of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concept and interim results of assessments of costs, safety, constructibility, operability, maintainability, and availability. Conceptual design of this concept was initiated in October 1985 and is scheduled for completion in 1987. Participating industrial contractors are Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), GA Technologies, Inc. (GA), General Electric Co. (GE), and Combustion Engineering, Inc

  12. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 1: Model description and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. CAFE integrates all key processes, including turbulent diffusion, emission, deposition and chemistry, throughout the forest canopy and mixed layer. CAFE utilizes the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM and is the first model of its kind to incorporate a suite of reactions for the oxidation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, providing a more comprehensive description of the oxidative chemistry occurring within and above the forest. We use CAFE to simulate a young Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA. Utilizing meteorological constraints from the BEARPEX-2007 field campaign, we assess the sensitivity of modeled fluxes to parameterizations of diffusion, laminar sublayer resistance and radiation extinction. To characterize the general chemical environment of this forest, we also present modeled mixing ratio profiles of biogenic hydrocarbons, hydrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen. The vertical profiles of these species demonstrate a range of structures and gradients that reflect the interplay of physical and chemical processes within the forest canopy, which can influence net exchange.

  13. Current status and technical description of Chinese 2 x 250 MWth HTR-PM demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi; Wu Zongxin; Wang Dazhong; Xu Yuanhui; Sun Yuliang; Li Fu; Dong Yujie

    2009-01-01

    After the nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl the world nuclear community made great efforts to increase research on nuclear reactors and to develop advanced nuclear power plants with much improved safety features. Following the successful construction and a most gratifying operation of the 10 MW th high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University has developed and designed an HTR demonstration plant, called the HTR-PM (high-temperature-reactor pebble-bed module). The design, having jointly been carried out with industry partners from China and in collaboration of experts worldwide, closely follows the design principles of the HTR-10. Due to intensive engineering and R and D efforts since 2001, the basic design of the HTR-PM has been finished while all main technical features have been fixed. A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been compiled. The HTR-PM plant will consist of two nuclear steam supply system (NSSS), so called modules, each one comprising of a single zone 250 MW th pebble-bed modular reactor and a steam generator. The two NSSS modules feed one steam turbine and generate an electric power of 210 MW. A pilot fuel production line will be built to fabricate 300,000 pebble fuel elements per year. This line is closely based on the technology of the HTR-10 fuel production line. The main goals of the project are two-fold. Firstly, the economic competitiveness of commercial HTR-PM plants shall be demonstrated. Secondly, it shall be shown that HTR-PM plants do not need accident management procedures and will not require any need for offsite emergency measures. According to the current schedule of the project the completion date of the demonstration plant will be around 2013. The reactor site has been evaluated and approved; the procurement of long-lead components has already been started. After the successful operation of the demonstration plant

  14. Vehicle Modeling for use in the CAFE model: Process description and modeling assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a process that, at a minimum, provides more robust information that can be used to calibrate inputs applicable under the CAFE model’s existing structure. The project will be more fully successful if a process can be developed that minimizes the need for decision trees and replaces the synergy factors by inputs provided directly from a vehicle simulation tool. The report provides a description of the process that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory and implemented in Autonomie.

  15. PREDICTIVE CAPACITY OF INSOLVENCY MODELS BASED ON ACCOUNTING NUMBERS AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Petson Santana de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, research into models to predict insolvency started in the 1970s, with most authors using discriminant analysis as a statistical tool in their models. In more recent years, authors have increasingly tried to verify whether it is possible to forecast insolvency using descriptive data contained in firms’ reports. This study examines the capacity of some insolvency models to predict the failure of Brazilian companies that have gone bankrupt. The study is descriptive in nature with a quantitative approach, based on research of documents. The sample is omposed of 13 companies that were declared bankrupt between 1997 and 2003. The results indicate that the majority of the insolvency prediction models tested showed high rates of correct forecasts. The models relying on descriptive reports on average were more likely to succeed than those based on accounting figures. These findings demonstrate that although some studies indicate a lack of validity of predictive models created in different business settings, some of these models have good capacity to forecast insolvency in Brazil. We can conclude that both models based on accounting numbers and those relying on descriptive reports can predict the failure of firms. Therefore, it can be inferred that the majority of bankruptcy prediction models that make use of accounting numbers can succeed in predicting the failure of firms.

  16. Study on the methodology for hydrogeological site descriptive modelling by discrete fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ando, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Shuuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to establish comprehensive techniques for site descriptive modelling considering the hydraulic heterogeneity due to the Water Conducting Features in fractured rocks. The WCFs was defined by the interpretation and integration of geological and hydrogeological data obtained from the deep borehole investigation campaign in the Mizunami URL project and Regional Hydrogeological Study. As a result of surface based investigation phase, the block-scale hydrogeological descriptive model was generated using hydraulic discrete fracture networks. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modelling were addressed in a systematic way. (author)

  17. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume II: introduction and site description, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effecs of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. This report presents the results from the first year of the two year study and also summarizes results from previous studies on aquatic ecosystems of the Savannah River Plant. Five major program elements are addressed: water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands ecology, aquatic ecology, and endangered species. 63 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Appendix to HDC 2118 design criteria 100-X reactor water plant, general description - section II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-03-29

    The factors responsible for the advances of 100-X compared with the older areas are: Simplification of the process, such as elimination of separate process water clearwells, by having the filtered water reservoirs perform that function. Combination of separate buildings into one building, such as combining filter pump house and process pump house. Use of electric standby. Use of higher capacity pumps and filter basins, and so fewer number of units. Centralization of control and operation. More compact arrangement of plant components. Use of waste heat for space heating, recovered from reactor effluent, backed up by steam plant.

  19. Development of a dynamic model of a BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonboel, E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a one-dimensional steady-state model of a high-pressure steam turbine, a low-pressure steam turbine, a moisture separator, a reheater, a condenser, feedwater heaters and feedwater pump for a nuclear power plant. The model is contained in the program ''TURBPLANT''. The dynamic part of this model is presented in part II of this report. (author)

  20. Plants status monitor: Modelling techniques and inherent benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, R.J.; Lainoff, S.M.; Rees, D.C.; Prather, W.A.; Fickiessen, K.O.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Status Monitor (PSM) is designed to provide plant personnel with information on the operational status of the plant and compliance with the plant technical specifications. The PSM software evaluates system models using a 'distributed processing' technique in which detailed models of individual systems are processed rather than by evaluating a single, plant-level model. In addition, development of the system models for PSM provides inherent benefits to the plant by forcing detailed reviews of the technical specifications, system design and operating procedures, and plant documentation. (orig.)

  1. Initiation of Setaria as a model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmin DIAO,James SCHNABLE,Jeffrey L. BENNETZEN,Jiayang LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa have proven essential for efficient scientific discovery and development of new methods. With the diversity of plant lineages, some important processes such as C4 photosynthesis are not found in either Arabidopsis or rice, so new model species are needed. Due to their small diploid genomes, short life cycles, self-pollination, small adult statures and prolific seed production, domesticated foxtail millet (Setaria italica and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (S. viridis, have recently been proposed as novel model species for functional genomics of the Panicoideae, especially for study of C4 photosynthesis. This review outlines the development of these species as model organisms, and discusses current challenges and future potential of a Setaria model.

  2. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  3. Impact of uncertainty description on assimilating hydraulic head in the MIKE SHE distributed hydrological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Donghua; Madsen, Henrik; Ridler, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a popular data assimilation (DA) technique that has been extensively used in environmental sciences for combining complementary information from model predictions and observations. One of the major challenges in EnKF applications is the description of model un...... with respect to performance and sensitivity. Results show that inappropriate definition of model uncertainty can greatly degrade the assimilation performance, and an appropriate combination of different model uncertainty sources is advised....

  4. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Berglund, Johan; Follin, Sven; Hakami, Eva; Halvarson, Jan; Hermanson, Jan; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Rhen, Ingvar; Wahlgren, C.H.

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline and after this

  5. Complexities in a Plant-Herbivore Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni SHARMA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple host-parasite type model has been considered to study the interaction of certain plants and herbivores. The two dimensional discrete time model utilizes leaf and herbivore biomass as state variables. The parameter space consists of the growth rate of the host population and a parameter describing the damage inflicted by herbivores. Perceptive bifurcation diagrams, which give insightful results, have been present here showing chaos and complexity in the system during evolution. Measure of complexity and chaos in the system be explained by performing numerical calculations and obtaining Lyapunov exponents, topological entropies and correlation dimension. Results are displayed through interesting graphics.

  6. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the

  7. Biotrans functional and technical description. Report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; Egging, R.; Londo, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuels and to identify the possibilities and strategies towards large scale sustainable production, use and trading of biofuels for the transport sector in Europe, including Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). The report supplements the two other reports in the work package: 'Biofuel and Bio-energy implementation scenarios - final report of VIEWLS WP5' (2005) and 'VIEWLS modelling and analysis, technical data for biofuel production chains' (2005). This document contains a functional and technical description of the BioTrans model, accompanied by a description of the system. Section 2 contains a conceptual and functional description of the biofuel model. Section 3 describes the optimisation method in technical terms, discussing aspects like the target function and constraints used. Finally, section 4 discusses the input and output requirements for the BioTrans system

  8. Nuclear power plant shift technical advisor. Recommendations for position description, qualifications, education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the position and identify specific areas of formal education, plant-specific training and experience necessary to assure an advanced level of analytical ability on shift. These recommendations will provide a level of technical ability that is essential to improved operational safety and are consistent with regulatory requirements. This position was developed in conjunction with representatives of utilities, equipment vendors and engineering educators, giving consideration to specific contributions the function must make to shift operations

  9. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described

  10. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described.

  11. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  12. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  14. A model for grain growth based on the novel description of dendrite shape

    OpenAIRE

    O. Wodo; N. Sczygiol

    2007-01-01

    We use novel description of dendritic shape in the micro solid phase growth model. The model describes evolution of both primary solid solution dendrite and eutectic that forms between arms and grains in the last stage of solidification. Obtained results show that our approach can be used in grain growth model to determine more reliable eutectic distribution. In the paper no kinetics connected with the eutectic transformation is taken into account. However, this does not affect the eutectic d...

  15. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  16. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  17. Description of a ceramic waste form and canister for Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.L.; Allender, J.S.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A canistered ceramic waste form for possible immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive wastes is described. Characteristics reported for the form include waste loading, chemical composition, heat content, isotope inventory, mechanical and thermal properties, and leach rates. A conceptual design of a potential production process for making this canistered form are also described. The ceramic form was selected in November 1981 as the primary alternative to the reference waste form, borosilicate glass, for making a final waste form decision for SRP waste by FY-1983. 11 tables

  18. Description of the local dose rate measuring system for the Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Lilian Rose Sobral da; Souza Mendes, Jorge Eduardo de

    1995-01-01

    The equipment used and the measured value processing involved in the Local Dose Rate Measuring System is described including the installation points for the measuring equipment in the reactor building, the auxiliary building and at the main gate of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant. Under normal operating conditions protecting of the personnel is ensured by measuring the local dose rate at those points which are generally accessible. In some cases , fixed sensors are not suitable so that mobile equipment is used. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  19. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  20. The United States nuclear plant reliability data program: Its description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute Subcommittee N18-20 has developed and implemented the United States Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). The NPRDS is designed to accumulate, store, analyse, and report reliability and failure statistics on systems and components of nuclear power plants related to nuclear safety. Input data to the NPRDS consist of engineering, operating, and failure information submitted on a voluntary basis by participating utilities. Prior to entry into the computerized data base, the data are thoroughly checked for accuracy by both the submitting organizations and the NPRDS operating contractor. The data base is the source of various periodic output reports to the nuclear power industry and is utilized to produce special reports upon request. The present data base represents data accumulated from about thirty nuclear units with additional units expected to begin submitting data immediately. The objective is to have essentially all operating nuclear units in the United States of America participating in the program by the end of 1975. The first NPRDS annual reports containing meaningful reliability and failure statistics are expected to be produced following the end of 1975. (author)

  1. Wind turbine blockset in Saber. General overview and description of the models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project “Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines”. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  2. Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, A. D.

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines?. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  3. On the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matveentsev, Anton; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to the elucidation of the applicability of the jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties. We compare the jellium model results with those derived within ab initio theoretical approaches and with experiments. On the basis of Hartree–Fock and local-density a......This work is devoted to the elucidation of the applicability of the jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties. We compare the jellium model results with those derived within ab initio theoretical approaches and with experiments. On the basis of Hartree–Fock and local...... model are compared with the results derived from ab initio simulations of cluster electronic and ionic structure based on density functional theory and systematic post Hartree–Fock many-body perturbation theory accounting for all electrons in the system. The comparison performed demonstrates the great...

  4. Knowledge management for modelling nuclear power plants control in incidental and accidental states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MIllerat, P.

    1996-11-01

    A knowledge model uses different techniques of complex systems management. Progress realised in the computer representation of links between different documents allows us to design a software facilitating the comprehension of the model built. This model is a qualitative model of the operators' behaviour in nuclear power plant accidental control. This model concerned three topics closely linked together. The first gives a description of every physical phenomena implied the application of the State-oriented Approach (APE in French) procedures. It's referred as model of process. The second gives a description of every activities used by the operators' team to manage all thermohydraulic incidents and accidents. It's a functional model also referred as tasks model. The quality of the method, based on the Systems' Science, capitalized a know-how simply transferable to design a new software on industrial process to support the operators. (author)

  5. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF Geologic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hakami, Eva [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Halvarson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar [Sweco VBB/VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden); Wahlgren, C.H. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline

  6. The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Model Description, Integration and Testing of the Transport Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.A.; Tannahill, J.R.; Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S.; Bergmann, D.; Proctor, D.; Rodriquez, J.M.; Lin, S.J.; Rood, R.B.; Prather, M.J.; Rasch, P.J.; Considine, D.B.; Ramaroson, R.; Kawa, S.R.

    2000-04-25

    We describe the three dimensional global stratospheric chemistry model developed under the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) to assess the possible environmental consequences from the emissions of a fleet of proposed high speed civil transport aircraft. This model was developed through a unique collaboration of the members of the GMI team. Team members provided computational modules representing various physical and chemical processes, and analysis of simulation results through extensive comparison to observation. The team members' modules were integrated within a computational framework that allowed transportability and simulations on massively parallel computers. A unique aspect of this model framework is the ability to interchange and intercompare different submodules to assess the sensitivity of numerical algorithms and model assumptions to simulation results. In this paper, we discuss the important attributes of the GMI effort, describe the GMI model computational framework and the numerical modules representing physical and chemical processes. As an application of the concept, we illustrate an analysis of the impact of advection algorithms on the dispersion of a NO{sub y}-like source in the stratosphere which mimics that of a fleet of commercial supersonic transports (High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)) flying between 17 and 20 kilometers.

  7. Software for Simulation of Power Plant Processes. Part B - Program Description and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modelling of energy systems has been increasingly more important. In particular the dynamic behaviour is critical when operating the systems closer to the limits (either of the process, the materials, the emissions or the economics, etc.). This enforces strong requirements on both the models and ...

  8. Descriptive and predictive evaluation of high resolution Markov chain precipitation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    . Continuous modelling of the Markov process proved attractive because of a marked decrease in the number of parameters. Inclusion of seasonality into the continuous Markov chain model proved difficult. Monte Carlo simulations with the models show that it is very difficult for all the model formulations......A time series of tipping bucket recordings of very high temporal and volumetric resolution precipitation is modelled using Markov chain models. Both first and second‐order Markov models as well as seasonal and diurnal models are investigated and evaluated using likelihood based techniques....... The first‐order Markov model seems to capture most of the properties of precipitation, but inclusion of seasonal and diurnal variation improves the model. Including a second‐order Markov Chain component does improve the descriptive capabilities of the model, but is very expensive in its parameter use...

  9. A Short Introduction to Model Selection, Kolmogorov Complexity and Minimum Description Length (MDL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The concept of overtting in model selection is explained and demon- strated. After providing some background information on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a short explanation of Minimum Description Length and error minimization. We conclude with a discussion of the typical

  10. The Role of Visuo-Spatial Abilities in Recall of Spatial Descriptions: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gyselinck, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how visuo-spatial abilities (such as mental rotation--MR--and visuo-spatial working memory--VSWM--) work together to influence the recall of environmental descriptions. We tested a mediation model in which VSWM was assumed to mediate the relationship between MR and spatial text recall. First, 120 participants were…

  11. Discrepancies between Normative and Descriptive Models of Decision Making and the Understanding/Acceptance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    Examines tasks from the heuristics and biases literature in light of the understanding/acceptance principle of P. Slovic and A. Tversky (1974). Shows how the variation and instability of responses can be analyzed to yield inferences about why descriptive and normative models of human reasoning and decision making sometimes do not coincide.…

  12. The Relationship between BIBFRAME and OCLC's Linked-Data Model of Bibliographic Description: A Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godby, Carol Jean

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a proposed alignment between BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) and a model being explored by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) with extensions proposed by the Schema Bib Extend project, a Worldwide Web Consortium sponsored (W3C-sponsored) community group tasked with enhancing Schema.org to the description of…

  13. Development of a Novel Bidirectional Canopy Reflectance Model for Row-Planted Rice and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice and wheat are mainly planted in a row structure in China. Radiative transfer models have the potential to provide an accurate description of the bidirectional reflectance characteristics of the canopies of row-planted crops, but few of them have addressed the problem of row-planted structures. In this paper, a new 4SAIL-RowCrop model for row-planted rice and wheat canopies was developed by integrating the 4SAIL model and the Kimes geometric model. The Kimes model and the Kimes–Porous geometric optics (GO module were used to simulate different scene component proportions. Spectral reflectance and transmittance were subsequently calculated using the 4SAIL model to determine the reflectance of crucial scene components: the illuminated canopy, illuminated background and shadowed background. The model was validated by measuring the reflectance of rice and wheat cultivars at different growth stages, planting densities and nitrogen fertilization rates. The directional and nadir reflectance simulated by the model agreed well with experimental data, with squared correlation coefficients of 0.69 and 0.98, root mean square errors of 0.013 and 0.009 and normalized root mean square errors of 15.8% and 12.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the 4SAIL-RowCrop model is suitable for simulating the spectral reflectance of the canopy of row-planted rice and wheat.

  14. Documentation for Grants Equal to Tax model: Volume 1, Technical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A computerized model, the Grants Equal to Tax (GETT) model, was developed to assist in evaluating the amount of federal grant monies that would go to state and local jurisdictions under the provisions outlined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The GETT model is capable of forecasting the amount of tax liability associated with all property owned and all activities undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in site characterization and repository development. The GETT program is a user-friendly, menu-driven model developed using dBASE III/trademark/, a relational data base management system. The data base for GETT consists primarily of eight separate dBASE III/trademark/ files corresponding to each of the eight taxes levied by state and local jurisdictions on business property and activity. Additional smaller files help to control model inputs and reporting options. Volume 1 of the GETT model documentation is a technical description of the program and its capabilities providing (1) descriptions of the data management system and its procedures; (2) formulas for calculating taxes (illustrated with flow charts); (3) descriptions of tax data base variables for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, Richton Dome, Mississippi, and Davis Canyon, Utah, salt sites; and (4) data inputs for the GETT model. 10 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Descriptions of plant communities at the proposed reference repository location and implications for reclamation of disturbed ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents an ecological description of the natural vegetation in the Cold Creek Valley located in the west central portion of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The description includes plant species composition, canopy cover, and shrub density obtained from 10 study plots distributed in three habitat-types: sagebrush/Sandberg's bluegrass, spiny hopsage/Sandberg's bluegrass, and sagebrush/needle-and-thread grass. Of the relatively few species of shrubs and herbs in the Cold Creek Valley, the most abundant were sagebrush and spiny hopsage. The most abundant herbs were cheatgrass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and needle-and-thread grass. The amount of canopy cover provided by shrubs ranged between 7.4 and 33% in seven plots without a history of recent burning. Herbaceous plants in these same plots provided canopy cover that ranged between 18 and 41%. The three plots placed in areas with a recent history of burning had more herbaceous cover than did adjacent plots without a recent burn history. This was attributed to absence of living shrubs and freedom from competition for soil water and nutrients. There was less living herb cover in 1987 than in 1986 which is likely due to the lesser amount of growing season precipitation in 1987 (i.e. 10.3 cm vs 17.1 cm). Even with the absence of livestock grazing for 44 years, cheatgrass, an exotic annual generally provided more canopy cover than native perennial grasses. However, in the few places with good stands of Sandberg's bluegrass, cheatgrass was less abundant. 12 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  17. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  18. Exercise in completing design information questionnaire for model research reactor: model description, notes, questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger, J.; Ho, T.

    1989-01-01

    The document which defines the inspection measures which the IAEA can deploy at any given nuclear facility is known as the Facility Attachment. For the Agency to negotiate an effective Facility Attachment it must have available certain design information, including the facility's identity, capacity and location; the form, location and flow of nuclear material and the layout of important items of equipment; and a description of the features and procedures relating to nuclear material accountancy, containment and surveillance. In practice such information is solicited in a format, standardized for each facility type, known as the Design Information Questionnaire or the D.I.Q. The nuclear activities used as a model in this course are those of a fictitious country called Pacifica. These nuclear activities bear some resemblance to those at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Specifically, Pacifica has a 10 MW heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor using enriched uranium fuel which is very similar to the HIFAR reactor. The reactor and the associated laboratories are described and the Design Information Questionnaire for them is completed. figs., tabs

  19. On correctness of the two-level model for description of active medium in quantum plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubchev, E. D.; Andrianov, E. S.; Pukhov, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. P.; Lisyansky, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In order to simplify the theoretical description of spasers, a gain medium is commonly represented by a two-level system (TLS). A realistic model, however, should have four levels. By using the Lindblad equations we develop a description of such a system and show that depending on ratios of the Rabi frequency and the rate of relaxation of the polarization, a four-level system (FLS) may be reduced to one of two effective TLSs that reproduce the key properties of a FLS.

  20. A model for grain growth based on the novel description of dendrite shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wodo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We use novel description of dendritic shape in the micro solid phase growth model. The model describes evolution of both primary solid solution dendrite and eutectic that forms between arms and grains in the last stage of solidification. Obtained results show that our approach can be used in grain growth model to determine more reliable eutectic distribution. In the paper no kinetics connected with the eutectic transformation is taken into account. However, this does not affect the eutectic distribution because at the beginning of eutectic reaction all liquid phase was assumed to fully transform into eutectic. Results for solid phase growth model based on this description are presented. The obtained results of eutectic distribution are especially important in the hypoeutectic alloy solidification case, where the eutectic grains grow between formed solid solution grains. Thus, the distribution of solid solution grain becomes crucial due to its influence on the delay in solid fraction increase of eutectic grains.

  1. Classical mathematical models for description and prediction of experimental tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekry, Sébastien; Lamont, Clare; Beheshti, Afshin; Tracz, Amanda; Ebos, John M L; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma) and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1) to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2) to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3) to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (≥80%) extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (≥70%) beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic.

  2. Classical mathematical models for description and prediction of experimental tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Benzekry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1 to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2 to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3 to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (≥80% extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (≥70% beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic.

  3. Large regional groundwater modeling - a sensitivity study of some selected conceptual descriptions and simplifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Holmen, Johan

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of this report is: - To present a supplementary, in-depth evaluation of certain conceptual simplifications, descriptions and model uncertainties in conjunction with regional groundwater simulation, which in the first instance refer to model depth, topography, groundwater table level and boundary conditions. Implementation was based on geo-scientifically available data compilations from the Smaaland region but different conceptual assumptions have been analysed

  4. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-qin; Shuai, Lan; Cheng, Xian-yi; Tang, Zhen-min; Yang, Jing-yu

    2006-01-01

    At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from c...

  5. System Design Description and Requirements for Modeling the Off-Gas Systems for Fuel Recycling Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Jack D. Law; Troy J. Tranter

    2010-08-01

    This document provides descriptions of the off-gases evolved during spent nuclear fuel processing and the systems used to capture the gases of concern. Two reprocessing techniques are discussed, namely aqueous separations and electrochemical (pyrochemical) processing. The unit operations associated with each process are described in enough detail so that computer models to mimic their behavior can be developed. The document also lists the general requirements for the desired computer models.

  6. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Andersson, Eva

    2008-11-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  7. LINDOZ model for Finland environment: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Apostoaie, A.I.; Mocanu, N.; Paunescu, N.

    1996-01-01

    LINDOZ model was developed as a realistic assessment tool for radioactive contamination of the environment. It was designed to produce estimates for the concentration of the pollutant in different compartments of the terrestrial ecosystem (soil, vegetation, animal tissue, and animal products), and to evaluate human exposure to the contaminant (concentration in whole human body, and dose to humans) from inhalation, ingestion and external irradiation. The user can apply LINDOZ for both routine and accidental type of releases. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. META-SITUATIONAL MODELING IN DESCRIPTION OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESSES IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Konev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of meta-situational modeling concept in the field of formalized description of nondeterministic socio-economic processes in relation to education. The goal of the paper is to increase the efficiency and optimization of decision-making procedure, in general, and informational support for formalized processes, in particular. To achieve this goal, it is proposed to introduce the concept and methodology of modeling as meta-situational integration situation (event and ontological (semantic approaches. It is assumed that the two-level description of the situation (at declarative and descriptive levels will give the possibility for varying levels of abstraction in relation to process and get access to data and knowledge about it at that stage, when it is objectively necessary. Another obvious advantage of the proposed approach is simplicity of implementation due to a widespread situation and ontological approaches and, consequently, their formalization methods (mathematical apparatus and instrumental software implementation (programming languages, display formats, etc.. To verify the efficiency of the proposed meta-situational approach, a typical example of weakly formalized situations is considered - one of the options assessment tools traditionally used in education. Both components of the process are described in detail: situational one, specifying stepwise development procedures and ontological, characterizing taxonomic aspect of the process. The order of a formalized description for meta-situational model structure based on data representation formats similar to XML (category "Semantic Web" is determined.

  9. Description of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in a field theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, J.

    1984-08-01

    For the purpose of studying high energy heavy-ion collisions a self-consistent theory of relativistic nuclear fluid-dynamics coupled to classical meson fields is developed. The essential difference to the conventional fluid dynamic description arises from the coupling of meson fields to the nuclear fluid and from the non-linear relation for the effective baryon mass leading to a relativistic self-consistent description for the nuclear equation of state. The effects of different equations of state resulting from linear and nonlinear mean field approaches are studied in the event-by-event kinetic flow analysis of heavy ion collisions. The predictions for the symmetrical system Nb(Esub(Lab)=400 MeV/N)Nb are in good agreement with the experimental 4π-data. Investigating the phase structure in the linear mean field approach a phase transition occuring at Tapprox.=200 MeV for chemical potential μ=0 was found in this model. This transition is similar to recent QCD predictions. The model indicates a further phase transition at Tapprox.=20 MeV (baryon fluid to gas). There is, however, no correct description of the compressibility of nuclear matter in the linear mean field model. The extension to nonlinear scalar meson interaction allows for a correct description of the bulk properties of nuclear matter. It was found though that the phase transition is always present for reasonable values of the coupling constants. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Graph-theoretical models to calculate the reliability and availability of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterkind, D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper has three main subjects namely: 1) Establishment of reliability models, 2) modification and use of stochastic networks for the mathematical description of multistage and/or non-markoff processes and physical reliability models, and 3) reliability analysis in two examples of application. Some important characteristics of power plants are quantified with the aid of short surveys on the availabilities of coal-fired and nuclear power plant units and with the help of exemplary investigations of time curves of the availability of steam generators, maintenance success, and distributions of operating and outage periods of steam generator components. (orig./HP) [de

  11. A three-dimensional model of solar radiation transfer in a non-uniform plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashova, N. T.; Mukhartova, Yu V.

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of solar radiation transfer in a non-uniform plant canopy was developed. It is based on radiative transfer equations and a so-called turbid medium assumption. The model takes into account the multiple scattering contributions of plant elements in radiation fluxes. These enable more accurate descriptions of plant canopy reflectance and transmission in different spectral bands. The model was applied to assess the effects of plant canopy heterogeneity on solar radiation transmission and to quantify the difference in a radiation transfer between photosynthetically active radiation PAR (=0.39-0.72 μm) and near infrared solar radiation NIR (Δλ = 0.72-3.00 μm). Comparisons of the radiative transfer fluxes simulated by the 3D model within a plant canopy consisted of sparsely planted fruit trees (plant area index, PAI - 0.96 m2 m-2) with radiation fluxes simulated by a one-dimensional (1D) approach, assumed horizontal homogeneity of plant and leaf area distributions, showed that, for sunny weather conditions with a high solar elevation angle, an application of a simplified 1D approach can result in an underestimation of transmitted solar radiation by about 22% for PAR, and by about 26% for NIR.

  12. NONLINEAR MODELS FOR DESCRIPTION OF CACAO FRUIT GROWTH WITH ASSUMPTION VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL AUGUSTO MUNIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. is an important fruit in the Brazilian economy, which is mainly cultivated in the southern State of Bahia. The optimal stage for harvesting is a major factor for fruit quality and the knowledge on its growth curves can help, especially in identifying the ideal maturation stage for harvesting. Nonlinear regression models have been widely used for description of growth curves. However, several studies in this subject do not consider the residual analysis, the existence of a possible dependence between longitudinal observations, or the sample variance heterogeneity, compromising the modeling quality. The objective of this work was to compare the fit of nonlinear regression models, considering residual analysis and assumption violations, in the description of the cacao (clone Sial-105 fruit growth. The data evaluated were extracted from Brito and Silva (1983, who conducted the experiment in the Cacao Research Center, Ilheus, State of Bahia. The variables fruit length, diameter and volume as a function of fruit age were studied. The use of weighting and incorporation of residual dependencies was efficient, since the modeling became more consistent, improving the model fit. Considering the first-order autoregressive structure, when needed, leads to significant reduction in the residual standard deviation, making the estimates more reliable. The Logistic model was the most efficient for the description of the cacao fruit growth.

  13. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants.

  14. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  16. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Eva (SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  17. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  18. Vegetation description, rare plant inventory, and vegetation monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, M.; Moseley, R.

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals

  19. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterization work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models and the coupled discrete basin (CDB-) model employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, an encompassing measurement program entailing data from six stations (of which two are close) has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR-) model of the Laxemar- Simpevarp study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR-) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this, it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain and further influence the water exchange with the interior, more secluded, basins. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that some periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Interference with ship traffic and lack of absolute calibration of the salinity meters necessitated dismissal of measurement data too. In this study so-called Mesan data have been consistently used for the meteorological forcing of the 3D-models. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the

  20. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterization work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models and the coupled discrete basin (CDB-) model employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, an encompassing measurement program entailing data from six stations (of which two are close) has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR-) model of the Laxemar- Simpevarp study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR-) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this, it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain and further influence the water exchange with the interior, more secluded, basins. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that some periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Interference with ship traffic and lack of absolute calibration of the salinity meters necessitated dismissal of measurement data too. In this study so-called Mesan data have been consistently used for the meteorological forcing of the 3D-models. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the

  1. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume III. Program descriptions. [SIMWEST CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume III, the SIMWEST program description contains program descriptions, flow charts and program listings for the SIMWEST Model Generation Program, the Simulation program, the File Maintenance program and the Printer Plotter program. Volume III generally would not be required by SIMWEST user.

  2. The Colonization of Private Relationships by the Economic Discourse: A Critic to Descriptive Models of Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Marcos Carvalho de Avila Negri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the reconstructive method of approach and by adopting the communicative rationality habermasian as epistemological framework, this paper discusses the process of colonization of private relations by economic discourse in the corporate field. It examines, in particular, descriptive models of business relationships, as the nexus of contracts theory and dispute resolution forms as the "default rule" and the "hypothetical bargain." With a content analysis of these models, it investigates the hypothesis that there are non-problematized normative claims in the descriptions of business relationships and decision-making in the corporate field, such as specialization and efficiency while rationality parameters. It addresses procedural and substantive objections to the approached models.

  3. Model description for calculating the source term of the Angra 1 environmental control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Amaral Neto, J.D.; Salles, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    This work presents the model used for evaluation of source term released from Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant in case of an accident. After that, an application of the model for the case of a Fuel Assembly Drop Accident Inside the Fuel Handling Building during reactor refueling is presented. (author) [pt

  4. Modeling radon entry into houses with basements: Model description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We model radon entry into basements using a previously developed three-dimensional steady-state finite difference model that has been modified in the following ways: first, cylindrical coordinates are used to take advantage of the symmetry of the problem in the horizontal plant; second, the configuration of the basement has been made more realistic by incorporating the concrete footer; third, a quadratic relationship between the pressure and flow in the L-shaped gap between slab, footer, and wall has been employed; fourth, the natural convection of the soil gas which follows from the heating of the basement in winter has been taken into account. The temperature field in the soil is determined from the equation of energy conservation, using the basement, surface, and deep-soil temperatures as boundary conditions. The pressure field is determined from Darcy's law and the equation of mass conservation (continuity), assuming that there is no flow across any boundary except the soil surface (atmospheric pressure) and the opening in the basement shell (fixed pressure). After the pressure and temperatures field have been obtained the velocity field is found from Darcy's law. Finally, the radon concentration field is found from the equation of mass-transport. The convective radon entry rate through the opening or openings is then calculated. In this paper we describe the modified model, compare the predicted radon entry rates with and without the consideration of thermal convection, and compare the predicted rates with determined from data from 7 houses in the Spokane River valley of Washington and Idaho. Although the predicted rate is much lower than the mean of the rates determined from measurements, errors in the measurement of soil permeability and variations in the permeability of the area immediately under the basement slab, which has a significant influence on the pressure field, can account for the range of entry rates inferred from the data. 25 refs., 8 figs

  5. Improved object optimal synthetic description, modeling, learning, and discrimination by GEOGINE computational kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A.; Dacquino, Gianfranco

    2005-03-01

    GEOGINE (GEOmetrical enGINE), a state-of-the-art OMG (Ontological Model Generator) based on n-D Tensor Invariants for n-Dimensional shape/texture optimal synthetic representation, description and learning, was presented in previous conferences elsewhere recently. Improved computational algorithms based on the computational invariant theory of finite groups in Euclidean space and a demo application is presented. Progressive model automatic generation is discussed. GEOGINE can be used as an efficient computational kernel for fast reliable application development and delivery in advanced biomedical engineering, biometric, intelligent computing, target recognition, content image retrieval, data mining technological areas mainly. Ontology can be regarded as a logical theory accounting for the intended meaning of a formal dictionary, i.e., its ontological commitment to a particular conceptualization of the world object. According to this approach, "n-D Tensor Calculus" can be considered a "Formal Language" to reliably compute optimized "n-Dimensional Tensor Invariants" as specific object "invariant parameter and attribute words" for automated n-Dimensional shape/texture optimal synthetic object description by incremental model generation. The class of those "invariant parameter and attribute words" can be thought as a specific "Formal Vocabulary" learned from a "Generalized Formal Dictionary" of the "Computational Tensor Invariants" language. Even object chromatic attributes can be effectively and reliably computed from object geometric parameters into robust colour shape invariant characteristics. As a matter of fact, any highly sophisticated application needing effective, robust object geometric/colour invariant attribute capture and parameterization features, for reliable automated object learning and discrimination can deeply benefit from GEOGINE progressive automated model generation computational kernel performance. Main operational advantages over previous

  6. A benchmark simulation model to describe plant-wide phosphorus transformations in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Ikumi, D.; Kazadi-Mbamba, C.

    of monitoring and plant-wide control strategies, respectively. In addition, researchers working within the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants developed other BSM related spin-off products, such as the dynamic influent generator, sensor/actuators/fault models...... to BSM2-P, for example: 1) new/upgraded mathematical models; 2) model integration; 3) new influent characterization; 4) new plant layout; and, 5) new/extended evaluation criteria. The paper covers and analyses all these aspects at a reasonable level of detail, identifies the main bottlenecks that need......) pursue biological/chemical phosphorus removal. However, realistic descriptions of combined C, N and P removal, adds a major, but unavoidable degree of complexity in wastewater treatment process models. This paper identifies and discusses important issues that need to be addressed to upgrade the BSM2...

  7. Full-range stress–strain behaviour of contemporary pipeline steels: Part I. Model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelé, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; Denys, Rudi; Verstraete, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The stress–strain relationship of contemporary pipeline steels is often approximated by the relatively simple Ramberg–Osgood equation. However, these steels often show a more complex post-yield behaviour, which can result in significant errors. To address this limitation for cases where an accurate full-range description is needed, the authors developed a new ‘UGent’ stress–strain model which has two independent strain-hardening exponents. This paper compares the UGent model with the Ramberg–Osgood model for a wide range of experimental data, by means of least-squares curve fitting. A significant improvement is observed for contemporary pipeline steels with a yield-to-tensile ratio above 0.80. These steels typically exhibit two distinct stages of strain hardening. In contrast to the Ramberg–Osgood model, both stages are successfully described by the UGent model. A companion paper (Part II) discusses how to find appropriate model parameter values for the UGent model. - Highlights: ► Contemporary pipeline steels often show two strain-hardening stages. ► This phenomenon is progressively apparent as Y/T exceeds 0.80. ► Both stages cannot be simultaneously described by the Ramberg–Osgood model. ► A new “UGent” model provides significantly better descriptions. ► The improvement becomes more pronounced as Y/T increases.

  8. Crop plants as models for understanding plant adaptation and diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Since the time of Darwin, biologists have understood the promise of crop plants and their wild relatives for providing insight into the mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. The intense selection imposed by our ancestors during plant domestication and subsequent crop improvement has generated remarkable transformations of plant phenotypes. Unlike evolution in natural settings, descendent and antecedent conditions for crop plants are often both extant, providing opportunities for direct comparisons through crossing and other experimental approaches. Moreover, since domestication has repeatedly generated a suite of “domestication syndrome” traits that are shared among crops, opportunities exist for gaining insight into the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie parallel adaptive evolution. Advances in our understanding of the genetic architecture of domestication-related traits have emerged from combining powerful molecular technologies with advanced experimental designs, including nested association mapping, genome-wide association studies, population genetic screens for signatures of selection, and candidate gene approaches. These studies may be combined with high-throughput evaluations of the various “omics” involved in trait transformation, revealing a diversity of underlying causative mutations affecting phenotypes and their downstream propagation through biological networks. We summarize the state of our knowledge of the mutational spectrum that generates phenotypic novelty in domesticated plant species, and our current understanding of how domestication can reshape gene expression networks and emergent phenotypes. An exploration of traits that have been subject to similar selective pressures across crops (e.g., flowering time) suggests that a diversity of targeted genes and causative mutational changes can underlie parallel adaptation in the context of crop evolution. PMID:23914199

  9. Crop plants as models for understanding plant adaptation and diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M Olsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of Darwin, biologists have understood the promise of crop plants and their wild relatives for providing insight into the mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. The intense selection imposed by our ancestors during plant domestication and subsequent crop improvement has generated remarkable transformations of plant phenotypes. Unlike evolution in natural settings, descendent and antecedent conditions for crop plants are often both extant, providing opportunities for direct comparisons through crossing and other experimental approaches. Moreover, since domestication has repeatedly generated a suite of domestication syndrome traits that are shared among crops, opportunities exist for gaining insight into the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie parallel adaptive evolution. Advances in our understanding of the genetic architecture of domestication-related traits have emerged from combining powerful molecular technologies with advanced experimental designs, including nested association mapping, genome-wide association studies, population genetic screens for signatures of selection, and candidate gene approaches. These studies may be combined with high-throughput evaluations of the various omics involved in trait transformation, revealing a diversity of underlying causative mutations affecting phenotypes and their downstream propagation through biological networks. We summarize the state of our knowledge of the mutational spectrum that generates phenotypic novelty in domesticated plant species, and our current understanding of how domestication can reshape gene expression networks and emergent phenotypes. An exploration of traits that have been subject to similar selective pressures across crops (e.g., flowering time suggests that a diversity of targeted genes and causative mutational changes can underlie parallel adaptation in the context of crop evolution.

  10. Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, A. D.

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines?. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...

  11. EBT time-dependent point model code: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.F.; Uckan, N.A.

    1977-07-01

    A D-T time-dependent point model has been developed to assess the energy balance in an EBT reactor plasma. Flexibility is retained in the model to permit more recent data to be incorporated as they become available from the theoretical and experimental studies. This report includes the physics models involved, the program logic, and a description of the variables and routines used. All the files necessary for execution are listed, and the code, including a post-execution plotting routine, is discussed

  12. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  13. Active Vertex Model for cell-resolution description of epithelial tissue mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Barton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an Active Vertex Model (AVM for cell-resolution studies of the mechanics of confluent epithelial tissues consisting of tens of thousands of cells, with a level of detail inaccessible to similar methods. The AVM combines the Vertex Model for confluent epithelial tissues with active matter dynamics. This introduces a natural description of the cell motion and accounts for motion patterns observed on multiple scales. Furthermore, cell contacts are generated dynamically from positions of cell centres. This not only enables efficient numerical implementation, but provides a natural description of the T1 transition events responsible for local tissue rearrangements. The AVM also includes cell alignment, cell-specific mechanical properties, cell growth, division and apoptosis. In addition, the AVM introduces a flexible, dynamically changing boundary of the epithelial sheet allowing for studies of phenomena such as the fingering instability or wound healing. We illustrate these capabilities with a number of case studies.

  14. Active Vertex Model for cell-resolution description of epithelial tissue mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Daniel L; Henkes, Silke; Weijer, Cornelis J; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2017-06-01

    We introduce an Active Vertex Model (AVM) for cell-resolution studies of the mechanics of confluent epithelial tissues consisting of tens of thousands of cells, with a level of detail inaccessible to similar methods. The AVM combines the Vertex Model for confluent epithelial tissues with active matter dynamics. This introduces a natural description of the cell motion and accounts for motion patterns observed on multiple scales. Furthermore, cell contacts are generated dynamically from positions of cell centres. This not only enables efficient numerical implementation, but provides a natural description of the T1 transition events responsible for local tissue rearrangements. The AVM also includes cell alignment, cell-specific mechanical properties, cell growth, division and apoptosis. In addition, the AVM introduces a flexible, dynamically changing boundary of the epithelial sheet allowing for studies of phenomena such as the fingering instability or wound healing. We illustrate these capabilities with a number of case studies.

  15. Nuclear power plant training simulator modeling organization and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliston, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a training simulator for the full-scope real-time dynamic operation of a nuclear power plant which utilizes apparatus that includes control consoles having manual and automatic devices corresponding to simulated plant components and indicating devices for monitoring physical values in the simulated plants. A digital computer configuration is connected to the control consoles to calculate the dynamic real-time simulated operation of the plant in accordance with the simulated plant components to provide output data including data for operating the control console indicating devices. The plant simulation is modularized into various plant components or component systems. Simulated plant components or component systems are described by a mathematical equation embodied in a computer program which accepts data from other simulated plant components or systems, calculates output values including values which are used as inputs for simulator calculators by other simulated plant components or systems, and responds in a manner similar to that of its corresponding physical entity in both transient and steady states

  16. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  17. A computationally efficient description of heterogeneous freezing: A simplified version of the Soccer ball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Ervens, Barbara; Clauss, Tina; Voigtländer, Jens; Wex, Heike; Hartmann, Susan; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In a recent study, the Soccer ball model (SBM) was introduced for modeling and/or parameterizing heterogeneous ice nucleation processes. The model applies classical nucleation theory. It allows for a consistent description of both apparently singular and stochastic ice nucleation behavior, by distributing contact angles over the nucleation sites of a particle population assuming a Gaussian probability density function. The original SBM utilizes the Monte Carlo technique, which hampers its usage in atmospheric models, as fairly time-consuming calculations must be performed to obtain statistically significant results. Thus, we have developed a simplified and computationally more efficient version of the SBM. We successfully used the new SBM to parameterize experimental nucleation data of, e.g., bacterial ice nucleation. Both SBMs give identical results; however, the new model is computationally less expensive as confirmed by cloud parcel simulations. Therefore, it is a suitable tool for describing heterogeneous ice nucleation processes in atmospheric models.

  18. Modeling the element cycle of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaeda, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an important role in element cycles in wetlands and the efficiency of the process is extremely related to their proportional biomass allocation to above- and belowground organs. Therefore, the framework of most macrophyte productivity models is usually similar with a mass-balance approach consisting of gross production, respiration and mortality losses and the translocation between organs. These growth models are incorporated with decomposition models to evaluate the annual cycle of elements. Perennial emergent macrophytes with a relatively large biomass have a particularly important role in element cycles. Their phenological stages, such as the beginning of hibernation of belowground rhizome systems, emergence of new shoots in spring with resources stocked in the rhizomes, flowering, downward translocation of photosynthetic products later on and then the mortality of the aboveground system in late autumn, depend on the environmental conditions, basically the nutrients, water depth, climatic variations, etc. Although some species retain standing dead shoots for a long time, dead shoots easily fall into water, starting to decompose in the immediate aftermath. However, their decomposition rates in the water are relatively low, causing to accumulate large amounts of organic sediments on the bottom. Together with the deposition of allochthonous suspended matters in the stand, this process decreases the water depth, transforming wetlands gradually into land. The depth of penetration of roots into the sediments to uptake nutrients and water is extremely site specific, however, in water-logged areas, the maximum penetrable depth may be approximately estimated by considering the ability of oxygen transport into the rhizome system. The growth of perennial submerged plants is also estimated by a process similar to that of emergent macrophytes. However, compared with emergent macrophytes, the root system of submerged macrophytes is weaker, and the nutrient

  19. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  20. Effects of ionic strength and ion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solon, Kimberly; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Mbamba, Christian Kazadi

    2015-01-01

    ) and ion pairing on modelling of anaerobic digestion processes in such plant-wide models of wastewater treatment. Using the BSM2 as a case study with a number of model variants and cationic load scenarios, this paper presents the effects of an improved physico-chemical description on model predictions...... and overall plant performance indicators, namely effluent quality index (EQI) and operational cost index (OCI). The acid-base equilibria implemented in the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) are modified to account for non-ideal aqueous-phase chemistry. The model corrects for ionic strength via the Davies....... The paper describes: 1) how the anaerobic digester performance is affected by physico-chemical corrections; 2) the effect on pH and the anaerobic digestion products (CO2, CH4 and H2); and, 3) how these variations are propagated from the sludge treatment to the water line. Results at high ionic strength...

  1. ASPEN: A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell model for simulating parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, H.X.; Bezzerides, B.; DuBois, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) model is presented in which deviations from quasineutrality, electron and ion kinetic effects, and nonlinear interactions between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities are modeled correctly. The model is based on a reduced description where the electromagnetic field is represented by three separate temporal envelopes in order to model parametric instabilities with low-frequency and high-frequency daughter waves. Because temporal envelope approximations are invoked, the simulation can be performed on the electron time scale instead of the time scale of the light waves. The electrons and ions are represented by discrete finite-size particles, permitting electron and ion kinetic effects to be modeled properly. The Poisson equation is utilized to ensure that space-charge effects are included. The RPIC model is fully three dimensional and has been implemented in two dimensions on the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) parallel computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the resulting simulation code has been named ASPEN. The authors believe this code is the first particle-in-cell code capable of simulating the interaction between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities in multiple dimensions. Test simulations of stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and Langmuir decay instability are presented

  2. Multi-scale modelling of ions in solution: from atomistic descriptions to chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ions in solution play a fundamental role in many physical, chemical, and biological processes. The PUREX process used in the nuclear industry to the treatment of spent nuclear fuels is considered as an example. For industrial applications these systems are usually described using simple analytical models which are fitted to reproduce the available experimental data. In this work, we propose a multi-scale coarse graining procedure to derive such models from atomistic descriptions. First, parameters for classical force-fields of ions in solution are extracted from ab-initio calculations. Effective (McMillan-Mayer) ion-ion potentials are then derived from radial distribution functions measured in classical molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to define an implicit solvent model of electrolytes. Finally, perturbation calculations are performed to define the best possible representation for these systems, in terms of charged hard-sphere models. Our final model is analytical and contains no free 'fitting' parameters. It shows good agreement with the exact results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations for the thermodynamic and structural properties. Development of a similar model for the electrolyte viscosity, from information derived from atomistic descriptions, is also introduced. (author)

  3. Multiscale and Multimodal Approaches to Study Autophagy in Model Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marion

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a catabolic process used by eukaryotic cells to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. A better understanding of autophagy in plant biology could lead to an improvement of the recycling processes of plant cells and thus contribute, for example, towards reducing the negative ecological consequences of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agriculture. It may also help to optimize plant adaptation to adverse biotic and abiotic conditions through appropriate plant breeding or genetic engineering to incorporate useful traits in relation to this catabolic pathway. In this review, we describe useful protocols for studying autophagy in the plant cell, taking into account some specificities of the plant model.

  4. General thermodynamic description of pollutants and preservatives in water at high temperature: application to primary and secondary circuits of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jorge L.; Kukuljan, Juan A.; Gutkowski, Karin; Japas, Maria L.; Fernandez Prini, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    A formalism has been developed for the description of solubilities and other thermodynamic functions, based only on the Krichevskii function and properties of the pure solvent. This formalism is applied to pollutants of primary and secondary circuits nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. On the applicability of deformed jellium model to the description of metal clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Matveentsev, Anton; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to the elucidation the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties on the basis of comparison the jellium model results with those derived from experiment and within ab initio theoretical framework. On the basis of the Hartree-Fock and local...... with the results derived from the ab initio all-electron simulations of cluster electronic and ionic structure based on the density functional theory as well as on the post Hartree-Fock perturbation theory on many-electron correlation interaction. The comparison performed demonstrates the great role of cluster...

  6. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

    2013-01-01

    A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it.

  7. SASSYS-1 balance-of-plant component models for an integrated plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J.-Y.

    1989-01-01

    Models of power plant heat transfer components and rotating machinery have been added to the balance-of-plant model in the SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis code. This work is part of a continuing effort in plant network simulation based on the general mathematical models developed. The models described in this paper extend the scope of the balance-of-plant model to handle non-adiabatic conditions along flow paths. While the mass and momentum equations remain the same, the energy equation now contains a heat source term due to energy transfer across the flow boundary or to work done through a shaft. The heat source term is treated fully explicitly. In addition, the equation of state is rewritten in terms of the quality and separate parameters for each phase. The models are simple enough to run quickly, yet include sufficient detail of dominant plant component characteristics to provide accurate results. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Systems biology of bacterial nitrogen fixation: High-throughput technology and its integrative description with constraint-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resendis-Antonio Osbaldo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial nitrogen fixation is the biological process by which atmospheric nitrogen is uptaken by bacteroids located in plant root nodules and converted into ammonium through the enzymatic activity of nitrogenase. In practice, this biological process serves as a natural form of fertilization and its optimization has significant implications in sustainable agricultural programs. Currently, the advent of high-throughput technology supplies with valuable data that contribute to understanding the metabolic activity during bacterial nitrogen fixation. This undertaking is not trivial, and the development of computational methods useful in accomplishing an integrative, descriptive and predictive framework is a crucial issue to decoding the principles that regulated the metabolic activity of this biological process. Results In this work we present a systems biology description of the metabolic activity in bacterial nitrogen fixation. This was accomplished by an integrative analysis involving high-throughput data and constraint-based modeling to characterize the metabolic activity in Rhizobium etli bacteroids located at the root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (bean plant. Proteome and transcriptome technologies led us to identify 415 proteins and 689 up-regulated genes that orchestrate this biological process. Taking into account these data, we: 1 extended the metabolic reconstruction reported for R. etli; 2 simulated the metabolic activity during symbiotic nitrogen fixation; and 3 evaluated the in silico results in terms of bacteria phenotype. Notably, constraint-based modeling simulated nitrogen fixation activity in such a way that 76.83% of the enzymes and 69.48% of the genes were experimentally justified. Finally, to further assess the predictive scope of the computational model, gene deletion analysis was carried out on nine metabolic enzymes. Our model concluded that an altered metabolic activity on these enzymes induced

  9. Coupling of Groundwater Transport and Plant Uptake Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances...... in environmental systems at different scale. Feedback mechanisms between plants and hydrological systems can play an important role, however having received little attention to date. Here, a new model concept for dynamic plant uptake models applying analytical matrix solutions is presented, which can be coupled...... to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out, in order to estimate concentrations in the soilplant- air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater....

  10. Dynamic plant uptake modelling and mass flux estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the set-up of mass balances...... in environmental systems at different scales. Feedback mechanisms between plants and hydrological systems can play an important role. However, they have received little attention to date. Here, a new model concept for dynamic plant uptake models applying analytical matrix solutions is presented, which can...... be coupled to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out in order to estimate chemical concentrations in the soil–plant–air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater....

  11. Numerical Modeling for the Solute Uptake from Groundwater by Plants-Plant Uptake Package

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Amr A.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model is presented to describe solute transport in groundwater coupled to sorption by plant roots, translocation into plant stems, and finally evapotranspiration. The conceptual model takes into account both Root Concentration Factor, RCF, and Transpiration Stream Concentration Factor, TSCF for chemicals which are a function of Kow. A similar technique used to simulate the solute transport in groundwater to simulate sorption and plant uptake is used. The mathematical equation is s...

  12. Statistical model of fractures and deformation zones. Preliminary site description, Laxemar subarea, version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The goal of this summary report is to document the data sources, software tools, experimental methods, assumptions, and model parameters in the discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the local model volume in Laxemar, version 1.2. The model parameters presented herein are intended for use by other project modeling teams. Individual modeling teams may elect to simplify or use only a portion of the DFN model, depending on their needs. This model is not intended to be a flow model or a mechanical model; as such, only the geometrical characterization is presented. The derivations of the hydraulic or mechanical properties of the fractures or their subsurface connectivities are not within the scope of this report. This model represents analyses carried out on particular data sets. If additional data are obtained, or values for existing data are changed or excluded, the conclusions reached in this report, and the parameter values calculated, may change as well. The model volume is divided into two subareas; one located on the Simpevarp peninsula adjacent to the power plant (Simpevarp), and one further to the west (Laxemar). The DFN parameters described in this report were determined by analysis of data collected within the local model volume. As such, the final DFN model is only valid within this local model volume and the modeling subareas (Laxemar and Simpevarp) within.

  13. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference between

  14. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger [Galson Sciences Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference

  15. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    -asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  16. Mathematical modeling tendencies in plant pathology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Computers and electronics in agriculture, 64: 149-161. Pandey KK, Pandey PK, Kallo G, Benerje MK (2003). Resistance to early blight of tomato with respect to various parameters of disease epidemics. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 69: 364-371. Parker IM, Gilbert GS (2004). The evolutionary ecology of novel plant-.

  17. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    on the conservation of water resources, this paper aims to propose an automation model of an Effluent Treatment Plant, using Ladder programming language and supervisory systems.

  18. The structure concept in the description of mixing turbulence: the 2SFK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llor, A.; Poujade, O.; Lardjane, N.

    2009-01-01

    To meet our modelling needs on turbulent flows produced by gravitational instabilities (of Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov type), we have developed an original approach, designated as 2SFK for '2-structure, 2-fluid, 2-turbulent'. We provide the physical elements, theoretical, experimental, and numerical, which support this choice. A full description being out of question here, we give the principles of the model derivation, which hinges around an averaging conditioned by presence functions of the large structures in the flow, and discuss its distinctive properties compared to usual 'single-fluid' models. Numerical 1-dimension results on elementary flows illustrate the satisfactory behaviour of the model. All along this article, emphasis is given on the peculiar characteristics of turbulence in the Rayleigh-Taylor flow (possibly under variable acceleration): energy balance, characteristic size of large eddies, directed transport, enhanced diffusion, etc. (authors)

  19. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-min Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from cooperative entity layer, ability layer and relative layer we research team formation and cooperative mechanism, and discuss how to optimize relative action sets during the evolution. The dynamic evolution model of robot team and cooperative relationships between robot teams proposed and described in this paper can not only generalize the robot team as a whole, but also depict the dynamic evolving process quantitatively. Users can also make the prediction of the cooperative relationship and the action of the robot team encountering new demands based on this model.

  20. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-qin Li

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from cooperative entity layer, ability layer and relative layer we research team formation and cooperative mechanism, and discuss how to optimize relative action sets during the evolution. The dynamic evolution model of robot team and cooperative relationships between robot teams proposed and described in this paper can not only generalize the robot team as a whole, but also depict the dynamic evolving process quantitatively. Users can also make the prediction of the cooperative relationship and the action of the robot team encountering new demands based on this model.

  1. Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

  2. A model-independent description of few-body system with strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors discuss the formulation of equations that provide model-independent description of systems of three and more nucleons irrespective of the details of the interaction, substantiate the approach, estimate the correction terms with respect to the force range, and give basic qualitative results obtained by means of the model-independent procedure. They consider three nucleons in the doublet state (spin S=I/2) taking into account only S-interaction. The elastic nd-scattering amplitude may be found from the model-independent equations that follow from the Faddeev equations in the short-range-force limit. They note that the solutions of several model-independent equations and basic results obtained with the use of this approach may serve both as a standard solution and starting point in the discussion of various conceptions concerning the details of nuclear interactions

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  4. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Grammatical Conversion of Descriptive Narrative - an application of discourse analysis in conceptual modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Calway

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Fact-oriented conceptual modelling begins with the search for facts about a universe of discourse (UoD. These facts may be obtained from many sources, including information systems reports, tables, manuals and descriptive narrative both verbal and written. This paper presents some initial findings that support the use of discourse analysis techniques as an approach to developing elementary fact based sentences for information systems conceptual schema development from written text. Although this discussion paper only considers the NIAM (fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling method, the IS087 report from which the research case study is taken describes other conceptual methods for which the research contained in this paper could be applicable (e.g. Entity Relationship analysis. The case study could be modelled exactly in the form in which the text is initially found, but grammatical analysis focuses consideration on alternative, potentially better, expressions of a sentence, a theme which is described and demonstrated. As a result of having applied grammatical sentence simplification with co-ordinate clause splitting, each sentence could be expressed as a complete, finite, independent collection of declarative simple statements. The outcome from the application of the techniques described provides at a minimum a discourse analysis of descriptive narrative which will have retained its meaning and contextual integrity while at the same time providing a simplified and independent clause representation for input to the fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling procedure.

  6. Protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a 4-distance description of side-chain interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Yuval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation and modelling of residue-residue interactions within and between proteins is a key aspect of computational structure prediction including homology modelling, protein-protein docking, refinement of low-resolution structures, and computational protein design. Results Here we introduce a method for accurate protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a novel 4-distance description of residue-residue interaction geometry. Statistical 4-distance preferences were extracted from high-resolution protein structures and were used as a basis for a knowledge-based potential, called Hunter. We demonstrate that 4-distance description of side chain interactions can be used reliably to discriminate the native structure from a set of decoys. Hunter ranked the native structure as the top one in 217 out of 220 high-resolution decoy sets, in 25 out of 28 "Decoys 'R' Us" decoy sets and in 24 out of 27 high-resolution CASP7/8 decoy sets. The same concept was applied to side chain modelling in protein structures. On a set of very high-resolution protein structures the average RMSD was 1.47 Å for all residues and 0.73 Å for buried residues, which is in the range of attainable accuracy for a model. Finally, we show that Hunter performs as good or better than other top methods in homology modelling based on results from the CASP7 experiment. The supporting web site http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/hunter/ was developed to enable the use of Hunter and for visualization and interactive exploration of 4-distance distributions. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hunter can be used as a tool for evaluation and for accurate modelling of residue-residue interactions in protein structures. The same methodology is applicable to other areas involving high-resolution modelling of biomolecules.

  7. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained......Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...

  8. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation: state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Henze, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    , providing researchers and practitioners with a standardised. set of basis models. This paper introduces the nowadays most frequently used white-box models for description of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal activated sludge processes. These models are mainly applicable to municipal wastewater......This review paper focuses on modelling of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). White-box modelling is widely applied in this field, with learning, design and process optimisation as the main applications. The introduction of the ASM model family by the IWA task group was of great importance...... systems, but can be adapted easily to specific situations such as the presence of industrial wastewater. Some of the main model assumptions are highlighted, and their implications for practical model application are discussed. A step-wise procedure leads from the model purpose definition to a calibrated...

  9. How rhizobial symbionts invade plants: the Sinorhizobium–Medicago model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn M.; Kobayashi, Hajime; Davies, Bryan W.; Taga, Michiko E.; Walker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants have evolved complex signal exchange mechanisms that allow a specific bacterial species to induce its host plant to form invasion structures through which the bacteria can enter the plant root. Once the bacteria have been endocytosed within a host-membrane-bound compartment by root cells, the bacteria differentiate into a new form that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Bacterial differentiation and nitrogen fixation are dependent on the microaerobic environment and other support factors provided by the plant. In return, the plant receives nitrogen from the bacteria, which allows it to grow in the absence of an external nitrogen source. Here, we review recent discoveries about the mutual recognition process that allows the model rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to invade and differentiate inside its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and the model host plant barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). PMID:17632573

  10. Balancing the stochastic description of uncertainties as a function of hydrologic model complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, D.; Reichert, P.; Albert, C.; Kalcic, M.; Logsdon Muenich, R.; Scavia, D.; Bosch, N. S.; Michalak, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty analysis is becoming an important component of forecasting water and pollutant fluxes in urban and rural environments. Properly accounting for errors in the modeling process can help to robustly assess the uncertainties associated with the inputs (e.g. precipitation) and outputs (e.g. runoff) of hydrological models. In recent years we have investigated several Bayesian methods to infer the parameters of a mechanistic hydrological model along with those of the stochastic error component. The latter describes the uncertainties of model outputs and possibly inputs. We have adapted our framework to a variety of applications, ranging from predicting floods in small stormwater systems to nutrient loads in large agricultural watersheds. Given practical constraints, we discuss how in general the number of quantities to infer probabilistically varies inversely with the complexity of the mechanistic model. Most often, when evaluating a hydrological model of intermediate complexity, we can infer the parameters of the model as well as of the output error model. Describing the output errors as a first order autoregressive process can realistically capture the "downstream" effect of inaccurate inputs and structure. With simpler runoff models we can additionally quantify input uncertainty by using a stochastic rainfall process. For complex hydrologic transport models, instead, we show that keeping model parameters fixed and just estimating time-dependent output uncertainties could be a viable option. The common goal across all these applications is to create time-dependent prediction intervals which are both reliable (cover the nominal amount of validation data) and precise (are as narrow as possible). In conclusion, we recommend focusing both on the choice of the hydrological model and of the probabilistic error description. The latter can include output uncertainty only, if the model is computationally-expensive, or, with simpler models, it can separately account

  11. The effect of simplifying the building description on the numerical modeling of its thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetiu, Corina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A thermal building simulation program is a numerical model that calculates the response of the building envelopes to weather and human activity, simulates dynamic heating and cooling loads, and heating and cooling distribution systems, and models building equipment operation. The scope of the research is to supply the users of such programs with information about the dangers and benefits of simplifying the input to their models. The Introduction describes the advantages of modeling the heat transfer mechanisms in a building. The programs that perform this type of modeling have, however, limitations. The user is therefore often put in the situation of simplifying the floor plans of the building under study, but not being able to check the effects that this approximation introduces in the results of the simulation. Chapter 1 is a description of methods. It also introduces the floor plans for the office building under study and the ``reasonable`` floor plans simplifications. Chapter 2 presents DOE-2, the thermal building simulation program used in the sensitivity study. The evaluation of the accuracy of the DOE-2 program itself is also presented. Chapter 3 contains the sensitivity study. The complicated nature of the process of interpreting the temperature profile inside a space leads to the necessity of defining different building modes. The study compares the results from the model of the detailed building description with the results from the models of the same building having simplified floor plans. The conclusion is reached that a study of the effects of simplifying the floor plans of a building is important mainly for defining the cases in which this approximation is acceptable. Different results are obtained for different air conditioning/load regimes of the building. 9 refs., 24 figs.

  12. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Atta-Boateng, Acheampong; Azihou, Akomian F.; Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Baumgartner, Aly; Binder, Brad M.; Braybrook, Siobhan A.; Chang, Cynthia; Coneva, Viktoirya; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Gehan, Malia A.; Diaz-Martinez, Diego Hernan; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Klein, Laura L.; Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Mao; Lynch, Jonathan P.; Maizel, Alexis; Maloof, Julin N.; Markelz, R. J. Cody; Martinez, Ciera C.; Miller, Laura A.; Mio, Washington; Palubicki, Wojtek; Poorter, Hendrik; Pradal, Christophe; Price, Charles A.; Puttonen, Eetu; Reese, John B.; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Spalding, Edgar P.; Sparks, Erin E.; Topp, Christopher N.; Williams, Joseph H.; Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics. PMID:28659934

  13. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics.

  14. Evaluation model and experimental validation of tritium in agricultural plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Suk; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lee, Han Soo; Jun, In; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    This paper describes a compartment dynamic model for evaluating the contamination level of tritium in agricultural plants exposed by accidentally released tritium. The present model uses a time dependent growth equation of plant so that it can predict the effect of growth stage of plant during the exposure time. The model including atmosphere, soil and plant compartments is described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is able to predict time-dependent concentrations of tritium in the compartments. To validate the model, a series of exposure experiments of HTO vapor on Chinese cabbage and radish was carried out at the different growth stage of each plant. At the end of exposure, the tissue free water(TFWT) and the organically bound tritium (OBT) were measured. The measured concentrations were agreed well with model predictions.

  15. Application of fault tree methodology to modeling of the AP1000 plant digital reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teolis, D.S.; Zarewczynski, S.A.; Detar, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor trip system (RTS) and engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS) in nuclear power plants utilizes instrumentation and control (IC) to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper reactor operation during steady-state and transient power operations. During normal operating conditions, various plant parameters are continuously monitored to assure that the plant is operating in a safe state. In response to deviations of these parameters from pre-determined set points, the protection system will initiate actions required to maintain the reactor in a safe state. These actions may include shutting down the reactor by opening the reactor trip breakers and actuation of safety equipment based on the situation. The RTS and ESFAS are represented in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to reflect the impact of their contribution to core damage frequency (CDF). The reactor protection systems (RPS) in existing nuclear power plants are generally analog based and there is general consensus within the PRA community on fault tree modeling of these systems. In new plants, such as AP1000 plant, the RPS is based on digital technology. Digital systems are more complex combinations of hardware components and software. This combination of complex hardware and software can result in the presence of faults and failure modes unique to a digital RPS. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently performing research on the development of probabilistic models for digital systems for inclusion in PRAs; however, no consensus methodology exists at this time. Westinghouse is currently updating the AP1000 plant PRA to support initial operation of plants currently under construction in the United States. The digital RPS is modeled using fault tree methodology similar to that used for analog based systems. This paper presents high level descriptions of a typical analog based RPS and of the AP1000 plant digital RPS. Application of current fault

  16. Plant lessons: exploring ABCB functionality through structural modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien eBailly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammalian ABCB1 proteins, narrow substrate specificity has been extensively documented for plant orthologs shown to catalyze the transport of the plant hormone, auxin. Using the crystal structures of the multidrug exporters Sav1866 and MmABCB1 as templates, we have developed structural models of plant ABCB proteins with a common architecture. Comparisons of these structures identified kingdom-specific candidate substrate-binding regions within the translocation chamber formed by the transmembrane domains of ABCBs from the model plant Arabidopsis. These results suggest an early evolutionary divergence of plant and mammalian ABCBs. Validation of these models becomes a priority for efforts to elucidate ABCB function and manipulate this class of transporters to enhance plant productivity and quality.

  17. Plant Lessons: Exploring ABCB Functionality Through Structural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurélien; Yang, Haibing; Martinoia, Enrico; Geisler, Markus; Murphy, Angus S.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to mammalian ABCB1 proteins, narrow substrate specificity has been extensively documented for plant orthologs shown to catalyze the transport of the plant hormone, auxin. Using the crystal structures of the multidrug exporters Sav1866 and MmABCB1 as templates, we have developed structural models of plant ABCB proteins with a common architecture. Comparisons of these structures identified kingdom-specific candidate substrate-binding regions within the translocation chamber formed by the transmembrane domains of ABCBs from the model plant Arabidopsis. These results suggest an early evolutionary divergence of plant and mammalian ABCBs. Validation of these models becomes a priority for efforts to elucidate ABCB function and manipulate this class of transporters to enhance plant productivity and quality. PMID:22639627

  18. Data description and quality assessment of ionospheric electron density profiles for ARPA modeling project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conkright, R.O.

    1977-03-01

    This report presents a description of the automated method used to produce electron density (N(h)) profiles from ionograms recorded on 35mm film and an assessment of the resulting data base. A large data base of about 30,000 profiles was required for an ionospheric modeling project. This motivated a search for an automated method of producing profiles. The automated method used is fully described, the resulting data are given a quality grade, and the noon and midnight profiles are presented. Selected portions of this data base are compared with profiles produced by the standard profiling method in use by the Environmental Data Service at Boulder, Colorado

  19. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  20. Heat exchanger modelling in central receiver solar power plant using dense particle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Gómez-García, Fabrisio; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel; Benoit, Hadrien; Flamant, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a detailed thermodynamic model for a heat exchanger (HX) working with a dense particle suspension (DPS) as heat transfer fluid (HTF) in the solar loop and water-steam as working fluid is presented. HX modelling is based on fluidized bed (FB) technology and its design has been conceived to couple solar plant using DPS as HTF and storage media with Rankine cycle for power generation. Using DPS as heat transfer fluid allows extending operating temperature range what will help to reduce thermal energy storage costs favoring higher energy densities but will also allow running power cycle at higher temperature what will increase its efficiency. Besides HX modelling description, this model will be used to reproduce solar plant performance under steady state and transient conditions.

  1. Formation and Development of a Breaker Bar under Regular Waves. Part 1: Model Description and Hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    in dissipation of organised energy into turbulence is described. The relation of this phase lag to the distribution of the location of maxima in bed shear stresses and magnitude of the undertow is also described. Furthermore, processes in the hydrodynamics, which will have a smoothing effect on the mean cross......In this work a detailed hydrodynamic model is presented, which is used for the study of cross-shore sediment transport and morphodynamics in two dimensions. The model is described in the framework of the generally unstructured, finite volume method. Considerable emphasis is put on those subtleties...... in the morphological formulation, which are required to achieve mass conservation for the amount of sediment in the bed and in suspension. In this first part of two, the hydrodynamic description over the cross-shore profile is presented. The model is validated against an experiment with detailed measurements...

  2. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  3. Model potential for the description of metal/organic interface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Nico; Schiller, Frederik; Güdde, Jens; Höfer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical one-dimensional model potential for the description of electronic interface states that form at the interface between a metal surface and flat-lying adlayers of π-conjugated organic molecules. The model utilizes graphene as a universal representation of these organic adlayers. It predicts the energy position of the interface state as well as the overlap of its wave function with the bulk metal without free fitting parameters. We show that the energy of the interface state depends systematically on the bond distance between the carbon backbone of the adayers and the metal. The general applicability and robustness of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of the calculated energies with numerous experimental results for a number of flat-lying organic molecules on different closed-packed metal surfaces that cover a large range of bond distances. PMID:28425444

  4. SMATASY. A Program for the model independent description of the Z resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, S.; Riemann, T.

    1994-07-01

    SMATASY is an interface for the ZF I T T ER package and may be used for the model independent description of the Z resonance at LEP 1 and SLC. It allows the determination of the Z mass and width and its resonance shape parameters r and j for cross-sections and their asymmetries. The r describes the peak height and j the interference of the Z resonance with photon exchange in each scattering channel and for σ T , σ FB , σ lr , σ pol etc. separately. Alternatively, the helicity amplitudes for a given scattering channel may be determined. We compare our formalism with other model independent approaches. The model independent treatment of QED corrections in SMATASY is applicable also far away from the Z peak. (orig.)

  5. Wind Turbine Blockset in Matlab/Simulink - General overview and description of the models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-03-01

    This report presents a new developed Matlab/Simulink Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project 'Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines' and it has been used as a general developer tool for other three simulation tools: Saber, DIgSILENT, HAWC. The report provides first a quick overview over Matlab issues and then explains the structure of the developed toolbox. The attention in the report is mainly drawn to the description of the most important mathematical models, which have been developed in the Toolbox. Then, some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally, some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work are made. (au)

  6. Model description. NUDOS: A computer program for assessing the consequences of airborne releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, A.D.

    1996-02-01

    NUDOS is a computer program that can be used to evaluate the consequences of airborne releases of radioactive material. The consequences which can be evaluated are individual dose and associated radiological risk, collective dose and the contamination of land. The code is capable of dealing with both continuous (routine) and accidental releases. For accidental releases both deterministic and probabilistic calculations can be performed, and the impact and effectiveness of emergency actions can be evaluated. This report contains a description of the models contained in NUDOS92 and the recommended values for the input parameters of these models. Additionally, a short overview is given of the future model improvement planned for the next NUDOS-version. (orig.)

  7. Development of a pressure based room acoustic model using impedance descriptions of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    and acoustic radiosity will account for the diffuse reflections. This paper presents the motivation for the new model in the form of results in literature, which show the importance of retaining the angle dependence and phase information in reflections along with simple examples of angle dependent reflection......If a simulation tool is to be used for the optimization of absorbent ceilings, it is important that the simulation tool includes a good description of the surface. This study therefore aims at developing a model which can describe surfaces by their impedance values and not just by their statistical...... absorption coefficient, thus retaining the phase and the angle dependence. The approach of the proposed model will be to calculate the pressure impulse response using a combination of the image source method and acoustic radiosity. The image source method will account for the specular reflections...

  8. Individualism in plant populations: using stochastic differential equations to model individual neighbourhood-dependent plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Schneider, Manuel K; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2008-08-01

    We study individual plant growth and size hierarchy formation in an experimental population of Arabidopsis thaliana, within an integrated analysis that explicitly accounts for size-dependent growth, size- and space-dependent competition, and environmental stochasticity. It is shown that a Gompertz-type stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, involving asymmetric competition kernels and a stochastic term which decreases with the logarithm of plant weight, efficiently describes individual plant growth, competition, and variability in the studied population. The model is evaluated within a Bayesian framework and compared to its deterministic counterpart, and to several simplified stochastic models, using distributional validation. We show that stochasticity is an important determinant of size hierarchy and that SDE models outperform the deterministic model if and only if structural components of competition (asymmetry; size- and space-dependence) are accounted for. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of plant ecology and in more general modelling situations.

  9. Selection of optimal complexity for ENSO-EMR model by minimum description length principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, E. M.; Mukhin, D.; Mukhina, A.; Gavrilov, A.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Feigin, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main problems arising in modeling of data taken from natural system is finding a phase space suitable for construction of the evolution operator model. Since we usually deal with strongly high-dimensional behavior, we are forced to construct a model working in some projection of system phase space corresponding to time scales of interest. Selection of optimal projection is non-trivial problem since there are many ways to reconstruct phase variables from given time series, especially in the case of a spatio-temporal data field. Actually, finding optimal projection is significant part of model selection, because, on the one hand, the transformation of data to some phase variables vector can be considered as a required component of the model. On the other hand, such an optimization of a phase space makes sense only in relation to the parametrization of the model we use, i.e. representation of evolution operator, so we should find an optimal structure of the model together with phase variables vector. In this paper we propose to use principle of minimal description length (Molkov et al., 2009) for selection models of optimal complexity. The proposed method is applied to optimization of Empirical Model Reduction (EMR) of ENSO phenomenon (Kravtsov et al. 2005, Kondrashov et. al., 2005). This model operates within a subset of leading EOFs constructed from spatio-temporal field of SST in Equatorial Pacific, and has a form of multi-level stochastic differential equations (SDE) with polynomial parameterization of the right-hand side. Optimal values for both the number of EOF, the order of polynomial and number of levels are estimated from the Equatorial Pacific SST dataset. References: Ya. Molkov, D. Mukhin, E. Loskutov, G. Fidelin and A. Feigin, Using the minimum description length principle for global reconstruction of dynamic systems from noisy time series, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 80, P 046207, 2009 Kravtsov S, Kondrashov D, Ghil M, 2005: Multilevel regression

  10. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  11. Artificial Life of Soybean Plant Growth Modeling Using Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atris Suyantohadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The natural process on plant growth system has a complex system and it has could be developed on characteristic studied using intelligent approaches conducting with artificial life system. The approaches on examining the natural process on soybean (Glycine Max L.Merr plant growth have been analyzed and synthesized in these research through modeling using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Lindenmayer System (L-System methods. Research aimed to design and to visualize plant growth modeling on the soybean varieties which these could help for studying botany of plant based on fertilizer compositions on plant growth with Nitrogen (N, Phosphor (P and Potassium (K. The soybean plant growth has been analyzed based on the treatments of plant fertilizer compositions in the experimental research to develop plant growth modeling. By using N, P, K fertilizer compositions, its capable result on the highest production 2.074 tons/hectares. Using these models, the simulation on artificial life for describing identification and visualization on the characteristic of soybean plant growth could be demonstrated and applied.

  12. Preliminary site description: Groundwater flow simulations. Simpevarp area (version 1.1) modelled with CONNECTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Worth, David; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Holmen, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the role of known and unknown hydrogeological conditions for the present-day distribution of saline groundwater at the Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. An improved understanding of the paleo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Descriptive Model in general and the Site Hydrogeological Description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. This objective implies a testing of: geometrical alternatives in the structural geology and bedrock fracturing, variants in the initial and boundary conditions, and parameter uncertainties (i.e. uncertainties in the hydraulic property assignment). This testing is necessary in order to evaluate the impact on the groundwater flow field of the specified components and to promote proposals of further investigations of the hydrogeological conditions at the site. The general methodology for modelling transient salt transport and groundwater flow using CONNECTFLOW that was developed for Forsmark has been applied successfully also for Simpevarp. Because of time constraints only a key set of variants were performed that focussed on the influences of DFN model parameters, the kinematic porosity, and the initial condition. Salinity data in deep boreholes available at the time of the project was too limited to allow a good calibration exercise. However, the model predictions are compared with the available data from KLX01 and KLX02 below. Once more salinity data is available it may be possible to draw more definite conclusions based on the differences between variants. At the moment though the differences should just be used understand the sensitivity of the models to various input parameters

  13. Modeling fuels and fire effects in 3D: Model description and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Pimont; Russell Parsons; Eric Rigolot; Francois de Coligny; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Philippe Dreyfus; Rodman R. Linn

    2016-01-01

    Scientists and managers critically need ways to assess how fuel treatments alter fire behavior, yet few tools currently exist for this purpose.We present a spatially-explicit-fuel-modeling system, FuelManager, which models fuels, vegetation growth, fire behavior (using a physics-based model, FIRETEC), and fire effects. FuelManager's flexible approach facilitates...

  14. Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 1. Model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halas, V.; Dijkstra, J.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic mechanistic model was developed for growing and fattening pigs. The aim of the model was to predict growth rate and the chemical and anatomical body compositions from the digestible nutrient intake of gilts (20-105 kg live weight). The model represents the partitioning of digestible

  15. Power system models - A description of power markets and outline of market modelling in Wilmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meibom, P.; Morthors, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Weber, C.; Snader, K.; Swider, D.; Ravn, H.

    2003-12-01

    This report is Deliverable 3.2 of the Wilmar project. The report describes the power markets in the Nordic countries and Germany, together with the market models to be implemented in the Wilmar Planning model-ling tool developed in the project. (au)

  16. Towards aspect-oriented functional--structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Hanan, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) are used to integrate knowledge and test hypotheses of plant behaviour, and to aid in the development of decision support systems. A significant amount of effort is being put into providing a sound methodology for building them. Standard techniques, such as procedural or object-oriented programming, are not suited for clearly separating aspects of plant function that criss-cross between different components of plant structure, which makes it difficult to reuse and share their implementations. The aim of this paper is to present an aspect-oriented programming approach that helps to overcome this difficulty. The L-system-based plant modelling language L+C was used to develop an aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling based on multi-modules. Each element of the plant structure was represented by a sequence of L-system modules (rather than a single module), with each module representing an aspect of the element's function. Separate sets of productions were used for modelling each aspect, with context-sensitive rules facilitated by local lists of modules to consider/ignore. Aspect weaving or communication between aspects was made possible through the use of pseudo-L-systems, where the strict-predecessor of a production rule was specified as a multi-module. The new approach was used to integrate previously modelled aspects of carbon dynamics, apical dominance and biomechanics with a model of a developing kiwifruit shoot. These aspects were specified independently and their implementation was based on source code provided by the original authors without major changes. This new aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling is well suited for studying complex phenomena in plant science, because it can be used to integrate separate models of individual aspects of plant development and function, both previously constructed and new, into clearly organized, comprehensive FSPMs. In a future work, this approach could be further

  17. A Description Of Space Relations In An NLP Model: The ABBYY Compreno Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Leontyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is devoted to a formal analysis of the space category and, especially, to questions bound with the presentation of space relations in a formal NLP model. The aim is to demonstrate how linguistic and cognitive problems relating to spatial categorization, definition of spatial entities, and the expression of different locative senses in natural languages can be solved in an artificial intelligence system. We offer a description of the locative groups in the ABBYY Compreno formalism – an integral NLP framework applied for machine translation, semantic search, fact extraction, and other tasks based on the semantic analysis of texts. The model is based on a universal semantic hierarchy of the thesaurus type and includes a description of all possible semantic and syntactic links every word can attach. In this work we define the set of semantic locative relations between words, suggest different tools for their syntactic presentation, give formal restrictions for the word classes that can denote spaces, and show different strategies of dealing with locative prepositions, especially as far as the problem of their machine translation is concerned.

  18. Normative and descriptive models of decision making: time discounting and risk sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacelnik, A

    1997-01-01

    The task of evolutionary psychologists is to produce precise predictions about psychological mechanisms using adaptationist thinking. This can be done combining normative models derived from evolutionary hypotheses with descriptive regularities across species found by experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists. I discuss two examples. In temporal discounting, a normative model (exponential) fails while a descriptive one (hyperbolic) fits both human and non-human data. In non-humans hyperbolic discounting coincides with rate of gain maximization in repetitive choices. Humans may discount hyperbolically in non-repetitive choices because they treat them as a repetitive rate-maximizing problem. In risk sensitivity, a theory derived from fitness considerations produces inconclusive results in non-humans, but succeeds in predicting human risk proneness and risk aversion for both the amount and delay of reward in a computer game. Strikingly, and in contrast with the existing literature, risk aversion for delay occurs as predicted. The predictions of risk aversion for delay may fail in many animal experiments because the manipulations of the utility function are not appropriate. In temporal discounting animal experiments help the interpretation of human results, while in risk sensitivity studies human results help the analysis of non-human data.

  19. Description of bipolar charge transport in polyethylene using a fluid model with a constant mobility: model prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, S; Segur, P; Teyssedre, G; Laurent, C

    2004-01-01

    We present a conduction model aimed at describing bipolar transport and space charge phenomena in low density polyethylene under dc stress. In the first part we recall the basic requirements for the description of charge transport and charge storage in disordered media with emphasis on the case of polyethylene. A quick review of available conduction models is presented and our approach is compared with these models. Then, the bases of the model are described and related assumptions are discussed. Finally, results on external current, trapped and free space charge distributions, field distribution and recombination rate are presented and discussed, considering a constant dc voltage, a step-increase of the voltage, and a polarization-depolarization protocol for the applied voltage. It is shown that the model is able to describe the general features reported for external current, electroluminescence and charge distribution in polyethylene

  20. A first proposal for a general description model of forensic traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Ina; Schäler, Martin; Vielhauer, Claus; Saake, Gunter; Hildebrandt, Mario

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the amount of digitally captured traces at crime scenes increased rapidly. There are various kinds of such traces, like pick marks on locks, latent fingerprints on various surfaces as well as different micro traces. Those traces are different from each other not only in kind but also in which information they provide. Every kind of trace has its own properties (e.g., minutiae for fingerprints, or raking traces for locks) but there are also large amounts of metadata which all traces have in common like location, time and other additional information in relation to crime scenes. For selected types of crime scene traces, type-specific databases already exist, such as the ViCLAS for sexual offences, the IBIS for ballistic forensics or the AFIS for fingerprints. These existing forensic databases strongly differ in the trace description models. For forensic experts it would be beneficial to work with only one database capable of handling all possible forensic traces acquired at a crime scene. This is especially the case when different kinds of traces are interrelated (e.g., fingerprints and ballistic marks on a bullet casing). Unfortunately, current research on interrelated traces as well as general forensic data models and structures is not mature enough to build such an encompassing forensic database. Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of contact-less scanning make it possible to acquire different kinds of traces with the same device. Therefore the data of these traces is structured similarly what simplifies the design of a general forensic data model for different kinds of traces. In this paper we introduce a first common description model for different forensic trace types. Furthermore, we apply for selected trace types from the well established database schema development process the phases of transferring expert knowledge in the corresponding forensic fields into an extendible, database-driven, generalised forensic description model. The

  1. Mouth-clicks used by blind expert human echolocators - signal description and model based signal synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Thaler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Echolocation is the ability to use sound-echoes to infer spatial information about the environment. Some blind people have developed extraordinary proficiency in echolocation using mouth-clicks. The first step of human biosonar is the transmission (mouth click and subsequent reception of the resultant sound through the ear. Existing head-related transfer function (HRTF data bases provide descriptions of reception of the resultant sound. For the current report, we collected a large database of click emissions with three blind people expertly trained in echolocation, which allowed us to perform unprecedented analyses. Specifically, the current report provides the first ever description of the spatial distribution (i.e. beam pattern of human expert echolocation transmissions, as well as spectro-temporal descriptions at a level of detail not available before. Our data show that transmission levels are fairly constant within a 60° cone emanating from the mouth, but levels drop gradually at further angles, more than for speech. In terms of spectro-temporal features, our data show that emissions are consistently very brief (~3ms duration with peak frequencies 2-4kHz, but with energy also at 10kHz. This differs from previous reports of durations 3-15ms and peak frequencies 2-8kHz, which were based on less detailed measurements. Based on our measurements we propose to model transmissions as sum of monotones modulated by a decaying exponential, with angular attenuation by a modified cardioid. We provide model parameters for each echolocator. These results are a step towards developing computational models of human biosonar. For example, in bats, spatial and spectro-temporal features of emissions have been used to derive and test model based hypotheses about behaviour. The data we present here suggest similar research opportunities within the context of human echolocation. Relatedly, the data are a basis to develop synthetic models of human echolocation

  2. International Nuclear Model. Volume 3. Program description. Appendix A-H (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.

    1985-01-01

    The International Nuclear Model (INM) is a comprehensive model of the commercial nuclear power industry. It simulates economic decisions for reactor deployment and fuel management decisions based on an input set of technical, economic and scenario parameters. The technical parameters include reactor operating characteristics, fuel cycle timing and mass loss factors, and enrichment tails assays. Economic parameters include fuel cycle costs, financial data, and tax alternatives. INM has a broad range of scenario options covering, for example, process constraints, interregional activities, reprocessing, and fuel management selection. INM reports reactor deployment schedules, electricity generation, and fuel cycle requirements and costs. It also has specialized reports for extended burnup and permanent disposal. This volume contains appendices A through H including a description of subroutines and the Fortran listing of the program

  3. Free-fermion descriptions of parafermion chains and string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichanetzidis, Konstantinos; Turner, Christopher J.; Farjami, Ashk; Papić, Zlatko; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2018-03-01

    Topological phases of matter remain a focus of interest due to their unique properties: fractionalization, ground-state degeneracy, and exotic excitations. While some of these properties can occur in systems of free fermions, their emergence is generally associated with interactions between particles. Here, we quantify the role of interactions in general classes of topological states of matter in one and two spatial dimensions, including parafermion chains and string-net models. Surprisingly, we find that certain topological states can be exactly described by free fermions, while others saturate the maximum possible distance from their optimal free-fermion description [C. J. Turner et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 14926 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms14926]. Our work opens the door to understanding the complexity of topological models by establishing new types of fermionization procedures to describe their low-energy physics, thus making them amenable to experimental realizations.

  4. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondeau Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  5. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Yahampath

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  6. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and revised users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire Interstate System, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of Interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations greater than 100,000 persons. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  7. A qualitative descriptive study of spirituality guided by the Neuman systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Lois W

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of this qualitative descriptive study were to explore the meaning of spirituality as described by aging adults in various states of health, to describe the relationship between spirituality and health, and to explain client expectations for healthcare providers related to spirituality. All identified meanings and themes were compared to the characteristics of spirituality proposed by Betty Neuman in the Neuman systems model to determine the credibility of the model for assessing and guiding holistic nursing practice. Three themes were formulated: a) Spirituality is an individual, conscious, committed connection to God, requiring a human response; b) positive spirituality contributes to personal wholeness and health; and c) spirituality sustains and comforts in times of stress.

  8. Experimental methods and modeling techniques for description of cell population heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Nierychlo, M.; Lundin, L.

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous development, in the last decades, of analytical techniques providing complex information at single cell level, the study of cell heterogeneity has been the focus of several research projects within analytical biotechnology. Nonetheless, the complex interplay between...... environmental changes and cellular responses is yet not fully understood, and the integration of this new knowledge into the strategies for design, operation and control of bioprocesses is far from being an established reality. Indeed, the impact of cell heterogeneity on productivity of large scale cultivations...... methods for monitoring cell population heterogeneity as well as model frameworks suitable for describing dynamic heterogeneous cell populations. We will furthermore underline the highly important coordination between experimental and modeling efforts necessary to attain a reliable quantitative description...

  9. Functional diversity of microbial decomposers facilitates plant coexistence in a plant-microbe-soil feedback model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takeshi; Ushio, Masayuki; Fukui, Shin; Kondoh, Michio

    2010-08-10

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that plant-soil feedback (PSF) determines the structure of a plant community and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The plant community alters the nutrient pool size in soil by affecting litter decomposition processes, which in turn shapes the plant community, forming a PSF system. However, the role of microbial decomposers in PSF function is often overlooked, and it remains unclear whether decomposers reinforce or weaken litter-mediated plant control over nutrient cycling. Here, we present a theoretical model incorporating the functional diversity of both plants and microbial decomposers. Two fundamental microbial processes are included that control nutrient mineralization from plant litter: (i) assimilation of mineralized nutrient into the microbial biomass (microbial immobilization), and (ii) release of the microbial nutrients into the inorganic nutrient pool (net mineralization). With this model, we show that microbial diversity may act as a buffer that weakens plant control over the soil nutrient pool, reversing the sign of PSF from positive to negative and facilitating plant coexistence. This is explained by the decoupling of litter decomposability and nutrient pool size arising from a flexible change in the microbial community composition and decomposition processes in response to variations in plant litter decomposability. Our results suggest that the microbial community plays a central role in PSF function and the plant community structure. Furthermore, the results strongly imply that the plant-centered view of nutrient cycling should be changed to a plant-microbe-soil feedback system, by incorporating the community ecology of microbial decomposers and their functional diversity.

  10. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: Model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F.

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to link ozone deposition with carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. - A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO 2 - transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3 model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO 2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems

  11. Venturing into SPASE; Applying the SPASE Data Model to Data Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; King, T.; Roberts, A.; King, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) Project is a NASA-funded, collaborative development effort among multi-institution, international, space physics data holding organizations intended to allow science users to interoperably locate space physics data of interest, intercompare the information about data, and retrieve selected data sets or portions of data sets. The SPASE Data Model (see http://www.igpp.ucla.edu/spase/) has been developed to provide a common metadata language for searching across the multitude of disparate space physics data archives for data of interest. The group is working to make the data set description process more automated for data providers. SPASE is intended to facilitate intercomparison of search results by displaying results using common time or location formats. The SPASE model supports data descriptions at multiple levels of detail allowing providers to describe their holdings in a way that supports access of selected parts of data sets if that is enabled for the user. We are working with the Virtual Space Physics Observatory and other Virtual Observatories and data centers relevant to space physics to provide a common approach to data searching, access, and retrieval across multiple disciplines. We will provide examples of the application of the SPASE model to data of interest and show some of the problems and practices associated with this process. Development of an effective data model and data retrieval process is challenging and requires feedback from all sectors of the community. We welcome new participants and feedback from the scientific and technical data community on the best approaches to assuring preservation and continued usage of our data repositories into the future.

  12. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  13. Model-based investigation of the electricity market. Unit commitment and power plant investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ninghong

    2013-01-01

    The German Federal Government published its energy concept in September 2010 with a description of the road into the era of renewable energies. Therefore, the future renewable energy installed in Germany is expected to consist mostly of wind and solar, which are subject to intermittency of supply and significant fluctuations. The growing portion of energy generation by fluctuating sources is turning to a big challenge for the power plant unit commitment and the investment decisions as well. In this thesis, a fundamental electricity market model with combined modeling of these two aspects is developed. This model is subsequently applied to the German electricity market to investigate what kind of power plant investments are indispensable, considering the steadily increasing portion of energy generation from fluctuating sources, to ensure a reliable energy supply in a cost-effective way in the future. In addition, current energy policy in Germany regarding the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy is analyzed.

  14. Application of 3-dimensional CAD modeling system in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Minoru; Saito, Shunji; Nobuhiro, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    Until now, the preliminary work for mutual components in nuclear plant were readied by using plastic models. Recently with the development of computer graphic techniques, we can display the components on the graphics terminal, better than with use of plastic model and actual plants. The computer model can be handled, both telescopically and microscopically. A computer technique called 3-dimensional CAD modeling system was used as the preliminary work and design system. Through application of this system, database for nuclear plants was completed in arrangement step. The data can be used for piping design, stress analysis, shop production, testing and site construction, in all steps. In addition, the data can be used for various planning works, even after starting operation of plant. This paper describes the outline of the 3-dimensional CAD modeling system. (author)

  15. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DECOMMISSIONING FINANCING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemš, J.; Knápek, J.; Králík, T.; Hejhal, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 519-522 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear power plant * methodology * future decommissioning costs Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  16. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO2-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  17. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO2- transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Description of a cost-effective integrated nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) program and its benefits to utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Significant benefits can be obtained by a utility in extending the life of its operating nuclear power plants by utilizing a systematic approach to nuclear plant life extension. As nuclear power plants age, it is expected that the plant availability/reliability will decline. This has been observed in fossil power plants and a similar trend is to be expected for nuclear plants. A systematic and well planned life extension program can be utilized to maintain and/or improve plant availability resulting in substantial continued cost savings to utilities and their customers. A planned and integrated approach for extending the license and lifetime of nuclear power plants has been developed. The following three areas must be addressed: Licensing; Technology; Economics. The result of a plant life extension study is a 10- to 20-year plan for monitoring, inspecting, upgrading, maintaining, and extending the real operating life of a utility's nuclear plant(s) at high reliability and high availability levels. This long term strategic plan for a total plant life extension program allows the utility to better plan and optimize its financial and human resources

  19. Consistent model reduction of polymer chains in solution in dissipative particle dynamics: Model description

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2015-06-30

    We introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain models for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, where the properties governing the phase equilibria such as the characteristic size of the chain, compressibility, density, and temperature are preserved. The proposed methodology reduces the number of degrees of freedom required in traditional DPD representations to model equilibrium properties of systems with complex molecules (e.g., linear polymers). Based on geometrical considerations we explicitly account for the correlation between beads in fine-grained DPD models and consistently represent the effect of these correlations in a reduced model, in a practical and simple fashion via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. In order to satisfy the geometrical constraints in the reduced model we introduce bond-angle potentials that account for the changes in the chain free energy after the model reduction. Following this coarse-graining process we represent high molecular weight DPD chains (i.e., ≥200≥200 beads per chain) with a significant reduction in the number of particles required (i.e., ≥20≥20 times the original system). We show that our methodology has potential applications modeling systems of high molecular weight molecules at large scales, such as diblock copolymer and DNA.

  20. Ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea. Part 1. Description of the ProDeMo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ProDeMo (Production and Destruction of Organic Matter Model, a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model, was formulated and applied to the whole Baltic Sea and the subregion of the Gulf of Gdansk. It describes nutrient cycles (phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon through the food web with 15 state variables, oxygen conditions and the parameterisation of water-sediment interactions. The present version of the model takes two groups of phytoplankton - diatoms and non-diatoms - as well as zooplankton into consideration. It covers the flow of matter and energy in the sea, including river discharges and atmospheric deposition. Numerical applications are embedded on a 1 NM grid for the Gulf of Gdansk and a 5 NM grid for the Baltic Sea.     Since the model results largely concur with observations, the model can be regarded as a reliable tool for analysing the behaviour of the Baltic ecosystem. Some examples of the spatial-temporal variability of the most important biological and chemical parameters are presented. The model results are compared with those of other modelling research in the Baltic Sea.     Both the ProDeMo model algorithm and its computing procedures need to be further developed. The next version should therefore enable more phytoplankton groups to be defined, for example cyanobacteria, which are able to take up molecular nitrogen from the atmosphere (nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the sediment phase should be divided into active and non-active layers.

  1. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with modeling the kinetics of essential oils extraction from plant materials by water and steam distillation. The experimental data were obtained by studying the hydrodistillation kinetics of essential oil from juniper berries. The literature data on the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation from different plant materials were also included into the modeling. A physical model based on simultaneous washing and diffusion of essential oil from plant materials were developed to describe the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation, and two other simpler models were derived from this physical model assuming either instantaneous washing followed by diffusion or diffusion with no washing (i.e. the first-order kinetics. The main goal was to compare these models and suggest the optimum ones for water and steam distillation and for different plant materials. All three models described well the experimental kinetic data on water distillation irrespective of the type of distillation equipment and its scale, the type of plant materials and the operational conditions. The most applicable one is the model involving simultaneous washing and diffusion of the essential oil. However, this model was generally inapplicable for steam distillation of essential oils, except for juniper berries. For this hydrodistillation technique, the pseudo first-order model was shown to be the best one. In a few cases, a variation of the essential oil yield with time was observed to be sigmoidal and was modeled by the Boltzmann sigmoid function.

  2. The development of Arabidopsis as a plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Meinke, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Arabidopsis thaliana emerged as the model organism of choice for research in plant biology. A consensus was reached about the need to focus on a single organism to integrate the classical disciplines of plant science with the expanding fields of genetics and molecular biology.

  3. Editorial: Plant organ abscission: from models to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shedding of plant organs is a highly coordinated process essential for both vegetative and reproductive development (Addicott, 1982; Sexton and Roberts, 1982; Roberts et al., 2002; Leslie et al., 2007; Roberts and Gonzalez-Carranza, 2007; Estornell et al., 2013). Research with model plants, name...

  4. Effective-gluon model description of inclusive meson production in π+- p and pp collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Look, G.W.; Fischbach, E.

    1977-01-01

    The recently introduced effective-gluon (EG) model is applied to inclusive meson production at large transverse momentum (p/sub t)/from π +- p and pp interactions. In the EG model the dependence of the inclusive differential cross section on p/ sub t/ and center-of-momentum energy √s is characterized by a single universal constant B = 18 GeV 2 ; this constant is obtained by fitting to the inclusive data for pp → cX with c = π +- π 0 , K +- p, and p-bar. Since the EG model requires that the inclusive differential cross sections for π +- p → X/should be characterized by the same constant B, the dependence of these cross sections on p/sub t/and √s should follow from the previous analysis of pp → cX without the introduction of any additional parameters. The only new information required is the form of the momentum distribution function for partons in the incident pion. Several models for this function are considered and it it shown that all of the alternatives lead to approximately the same predictions. Comparison of theory and experiment indicates that the EG model description of the recent Fermilab data of Donaldson et al. is good to approximately 15--20 % per data point over a range of more than 10 5 in the magnitude of the inclusive cross section

  5. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  6. Models of cognitive behavior in nuclear power plant personnel. A feasibility study: main report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Hanes, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    This report contains the results of a feasibility study to determine if the current state of models human cognitive activities can serve as the basis for improved techniques for predicting human error in nuclear power plants emergency operations. Based on the answer to this questions, two subsequent phases of research are planned. Phase II is to develop a model of cognitive activities, and Phase III is to test the model. The feasibility study included an analysis of the cognitive activities that occur in emergency operations and an assessment of the modeling concepts/tools available to capture these cognitive activities. The results indicated that a symbolic processing (or artificial intelligence) model of cognitive activities in nuclear power plants is both desirable and feasible. This cognitive model can be built upon the computational framework provided by an existing artificial intelligence system for medical problem solving called Caduceus. The resulting cognitive model will increase the capability to capture the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessments studies. Volume I summarizes the major findings and conclusions of the study. Volume II provides a complete description of the methods and results, including a synthesis of the cognitive activities that occur during emergency operations, and a literature review on cognitive modeling relevant to nuclear power plants. 112 refs., 10 figs

  7. Fast Running Urban Dispersion Model for Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Releases: Model Description and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowardhan, Akshay [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Donetti, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Belles, Rich [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Eme, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Homann, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC)

    2017-05-24

    Aeolus is an efficient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code based on finite volume method developed for predicting transport and dispersion of contaminants in a complex urban area. It solves the time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on a regular Cartesian staggered grid using a fractional step method. It also solves a scalar transport equation for temperature and using the Boussinesq approximation. The model also includes a Lagrangian dispersion model for predicting the transport and dispersion of atmospheric contaminants. The model can be run in an efficient Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) mode with a run time of several minutes, or a more detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) mode with run time of hours for a typical simulation. This report describes the model components, including details on the physics models used in the code, as well as several model validation efforts. Aeolus wind and dispersion predictions are compared to field data from the Joint Urban Field Trials 2003 conducted in Oklahoma City (Allwine et al 2004) including both continuous and instantaneous releases. Newly implemented Aeolus capabilities include a decay chain model and an explosive Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) source term; these capabilities are described. Aeolus predictions using the buoyant explosive RDD source are validated against two experimental data sets: the Green Field explosive cloud rise experiments conducted in Israel (Sharon et al 2012) and the Full-Scale RDD Field Trials conducted in Canada (Green et al 2016).

  8. Optimized carbon dioxide removal model for gas fired power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arachchige, Udara Sampath P.; Mohsin, Muhammad; Melaaen, Morten Christian

    2012-01-01

    The carbon capture process model was developed for 500MW gas-fired power plant flue gas treating. Three different efficiencies, 85%, 90%, and 95%, were used to implement the model in Aspen Plus. The electrolyte NRTL rate base model was used to develop the model. The selected solvent properties were used to develop and implemented model is used for further simulations. The implemented open loop base case model of 85% removal efficiency is used to check the parameters' effect on removal efficie...

  9. Discovering subgroups using descriptive models of adverse outcomes in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglic, Gregor; Kokol, P

    2012-01-01

    Hospital discharge databases store hundreds of thousands of patients. These datasets are usually used by health insurance companies to process claims from hospitals, but they also represent a rich source of information about the patterns of medical care. The proposed subgroup discovery method aims to improve the efficiency of detecting interpretable subgroups in data. Supervised descriptive rule discovery techniques can prove inefficient in cases when target class samples represent only an extremely small amount of all available samples. Our approach aims to balance the number of samples in target and control groups prior to subgroup discovery process. Additionally, we introduce some improvements to an existing subgroup discovery algorithm enhancing the user experience and making the descriptive data mining process and visualization of rules more user friendly. Instance-based subspace subgroup discovery introduced in this paper is demonstrated on hospital discharge data with focus on medical errors. In general, the number of patients with a recorded diagnosis related to a medical error is relatively small in comparison to patients where medical errors did not occur. The ability to produce comprehensible and simple models with high degree of confidence, support, and predictive power using the proposed method is demonstrated. This paper introduces a subspace subgroup discovery process that can be applied in all settings where a large number of samples with relatively small number of target class samples are present. The proposed method is implemented in Weka machine learning environment and is available at http://ri.fzv.uni-mb.si/ssd.

  10. THE BASIS OF MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION FOR WAVE MODEL OF STRESSES PROPAGATION IN RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern scientific research has repeatedly cited practical examples of the dynamic effects of railway track operation that go beyond the static calculation schemes. For the track sections where the train speed is approaching to the velocity of wave propagation in the slab track layers such issues are of particular relevance. An adequate tool for the study of such issues can be the use of the wave theory of stress propagation. The purpose of the article is the creation of a mathematical description of the basic principles of the stress propagation wave model in the railway track, which can be used as a basis for the practical development of the relevant calculation system. Methodology. The model of stress-strain states of the railway track on the basis of the stress wave propagation theory is to bring together the equations of the geometry of the outline of the space systems that is involved in the interaction at a given time, and the dynamic equilibrium equations of deformation. The solution is based on the use of the laws of the theory of elasticity. The wave front is described by an ellipsoid equation. When determining the variation in time of the surface position of the ellipsoid a vector approach is used. Findings. The geometry equations of the wave motion determine the volumes of material layers of the slab track involved in the interaction at a given time. The dynamic equilibrium determination of the deformed condition of the space bounded by the wave front makes it possible to calculate both the stresses and strains, and their changes during the time of the load perception. Thus, mathematical descriptions of the processes that occur in the perception of the load by the elements of railway track at high speeds were obtained. Originality. The simulation tasks of the track and rolling stock interaction, in particular taking into account the dynamic deflection of slab track were further developed. For the first time the article

  11. The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK – Part 1: Model description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Winkelmann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK, developed at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research to be used for simulations of large-scale ice sheet-shelf systems. It is derived from the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (Bueler and Brown, 2009. Velocities are calculated by superposition of two shallow stress balance approximations within the entire ice covered region: the shallow ice approximation (SIA is dominant in grounded regions and accounts for shear deformation parallel to the geoid. The plug-flow type shallow shelf approximation (SSA dominates the velocity field in ice shelf regions and serves as a basal sliding velocity in grounded regions. Ice streams can be identified diagnostically as regions with a significant contribution of membrane stresses to the local momentum balance. All lateral boundaries in PISM-PIK are free to evolve, including the grounding line and ice fronts. Ice shelf margins in particular are modeled using Neumann boundary conditions for the SSA equations, reflecting a hydrostatic stress imbalance along the vertical calving face. The ice front position is modeled using a subgrid-scale representation of calving front motion (Albrecht et al., 2011 and a physically-motivated calving law based on horizontal spreading rates. The model is tested in experiments from the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (MISMIP. A dynamic equilibrium simulation of Antarctica under present-day conditions is presented in Martin et al. (2011.

  12. A regional climate model for northern Europe: model description and results from the downscaling of two GCM control simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, M.; Räisänen, J.; Bringfelt, B.; Ullerstig, A.; Omstedt, A.; Willén, U.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C.

    This work presents a regional climate model, the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA1), recently developed from the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The changes in the HIRLAM parametrizations, necessary for climate-length integrations, are described. A regional Baltic Sea ocean model and a modeling system for the Nordic inland lake systems have been coupled with RCA1. The coupled system has been used to downscale 10-year time slices from two different general circulation model (GCM) simulations to provide high-resolution regional interpretation of large-scale modeling. A selection of the results from the control runs, i.e. the present-day climate simulations, are presented: large-scale free atmospheric fields, the surface temperature and precipitation results and results for the on-line simulated regional ocean and lake surface climates. The regional model modifies the surface climate description compared to the GCM simulations, but it is also substantially affected by the biases in the GCM simulations. The regional model also improves the representation of the regional ocean and the inland lakes, compared to the GCM results.

  13. A regional climate model for northern Europe: model description and results from the downscaling of two GCM control simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M.; Raeisaenen, J.; Bringfelt, B.; Ullerstig, A.; Omstedt, A.; Willen, U.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C. [Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This work presents a regional climate model, the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA1), recently developed from the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The changes in the HIRLAM parametrizations, necessary for climate-length integrations, are described. A regional Baltic Sea ocean model and a modeling system for the Nordic inland lake systems have been coupled with RCA1. The coupled system has been used to downscale 10-year time slices from two different general circulation model (GCM) simulations to provide high-resolution regional interpretation of large-scale modeling. A selection of the results from the control runs, i.e. the present-day climate simulations, are presented: large-scale free atmospheric fields, the surface temperature and precipitation results and results for the on-line simulated regional ocean and lake surface climates. The regional model modifies the surface climate description compared to the GCM simulations, but it is also substantially affected by the biases in the GCM simulations. The regional model also improves the representation of the regional ocean and the inland lakes, compared to the GCM results. (orig.)

  14. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  15. In vivo nanotoxicity assays in plant models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Ernest, Vinita; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing application of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) in consumer products like textiles, cosmetics, washing machines and other household products increases their chance to reach the environment. Intensive research is required to assess the nanoparticles' toxicity to the environmental system. The toxicological effect of nanoparticles has been studied at the miniscule scale and requires intensive research to be conducted to assess its unknown effects. Plants are the primary target species which need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. So far, the mechanisms of toxicity of nanoparticles to the plant system remains largely unknown and little information on the potential uptake of nanoparticles by plants and their subsequent fate within the food chain is available. The phytoxicological behaviour of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa and seeds of Zea mays (maize), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) was done. The in vitro studies on A. cepa have been done to check the cytotoxicological effects including mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, vagrant chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, disturbed metaphase, breaks and formation of micronucleus. In vitro and in vivo studies on seed systems exposed to different concentration of nanoparticles dispersion to check phytotoxicity end point as root length, germination effect, adsorption and accumulation of nanoparticles (uptake studies) into the plant systems. In vivo studies in a seed system was done using phytagel medium. Biochemical studies were done to check effect on protein, DNA and thiobarbituric acid reactive species concentration. FT-IR studies were done to analyze the functional and conformational changes in the treated and untreated samples. The toxicological effects of nanoparticles had to be studied at the miniscule scale to address existing environment problems or prevent future problems. The

  16. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  17. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  18. Contested collaboration: A descriptive model of intergroup communication in information system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    support patterns of work activities, social groups, and personal beliefs. In these situations, design is fundamentally an interactive process that requires communication among users, designers, and developers. However, communication among these groups is often difficult although of paramount importance......Many information system design situations today include users, designers, and developers who, with their own unique group and individual perspectives, need to interact so that they can come to a working understanding of how the information system being developed will coexist with and ideally...... to design outcomes. Through a qualitative analysis of a house, expert system, and telecommunications network architecture and management system design situations, a descriptive model of design that characterizes communication among users, designers, and developers as they create an artifact was developed...

  19. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  20. Design of XML-based plant data model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preetha M.; Padmini, S.; Gaur, Swati; Diwakar, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    XML has emerged as an open standard for exchanging structured data on various platforms to handle rich, nested, complex data structures. XML with its flexible tree-like data structure allows a more natural representation as compared to traditional databases. In this paper we present data model for plant data acquisition systems captured using XML technologies. Plant data acquisition systems in a typical Nuclear Power Plant consists of embedded nodes at the first tier and operator consoles at the second tier for operator operation, interaction and display of Plant parameters. This paper discusses a generic data model that was designed to capture process, network architecture, communication/interface protocol and diagnostics aspects required for a Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  1. SHERMAN, a shape-based thermophysical model. I. Model description and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Christopher; Howell, Ellen S.; Vervack, Ronald J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Marshall, Sean E.; Crowell, Jenna L.

    2018-03-01

    SHERMAN, a new thermophysical modeling package designed for analyzing near-infrared spectra of asteroids and other solid bodies, is presented. The model's features, the methods it uses to solve for surface and subsurface temperatures, and the synthetic data it outputs are described. A set of validation tests demonstrates that SHERMAN produces accurate output in a variety of special cases for which correct results can be derived from theory. These cases include a family of solutions to the heat equation for which thermal inertia can have any value and thermophysical properties can vary with depth and with temperature. An appendix describes a new approximation method for estimating surface temperatures within spherical-section craters, more suitable for modeling infrared beaming at short wavelengths than the standard method.

  2. Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi

    2010-10-28

    Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise.

  3. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-01-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential φ is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+φ=O(φ 2 )—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+φ= [O(φ 2 ),O(c s 2φ  δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to −1, where w and c s are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+φ=O(φ 2 ) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to −1

  4. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  5. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2004-12-01

    to Type C groundwaters. Main reactions involve water/rock interaction for long residence non-marine brines driven by diffusion. A modelling approach was used to simulate the composition of the highly saline or brine groundwaters and, in the Simpevarp area, concluded that mixing is the main irreversible process. It controls chloride concentration that, in turn, determines the re-equilibrium path (water-rock interaction) triggered by mixing. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the groundwater age, tritium content and calcite dissolution/precipitation processes at shallow groundwater depths at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. The modelled results provide additional support to hydrogeological models by using independent hydrochemical information and added support to the general hydrogeochemical understanding of the site. In this evaluation the groundwater model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided additional possibilities to address independently the various processes in question

  6. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  7. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  8. Description of proton radioactivity using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Sukumaran, Indu

    2017-09-01

    Half-life predictions have been performed for the proton emitters with Z >50 in the ground state and isomeric state using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). The agreement of the calculated values with the experimental data made it possible to predict some proton emissions that are not verified experimentally yet. For a comparison, the calculations also are performed using other theoretical models, such as the Gamow-like model of Zdeb et al. [Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 323 (2016), 10.1140/epja/i2016-16323-7], the semiempirical relation of Hatsukawa et al. [Phys. Rev. C 42, 674 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevC.42.674], and the CPPM of Santhosh et al. [Pramana 58, 611 (2002)], 10.1007/s12043-002-0019-2. The Geiger-Nuttall law, originally observed for α decay, studied for proton radioactivity is found to work well provided it is plotted for the isotopes of a given proton emitter nuclide with the same ℓ value. The universal curve is found to be valid for proton radioactivity also as we obtained a single straight line for all proton emissions irrespective of the parents. Through the analysis of the experimentally measured half-lives of 44 proton emitters, the study revealed that the present systematic study lends support to a unified description for studying α decay, cluster radioactivity, and proton radioactivity.

  9. MELMRK 2. 0: A description of computer models and results of code testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittman, R.S. (ed.) (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Denny, V.; Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Atlos, CA (United States))

    1992-05-31

    An advanced version of the MELMRK computer code has been developed that provides detailed models for conservation of mass, momentum, and thermal energy within relocating streams of molten metallics during meltdown of Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor assemblies. In addition to a mechanistic treatment of transport phenomena within a relocating stream, MELMRK 2.0 retains the MOD1 capability for real-time coupling of the in-depth thermal response of participating assembly heat structure and, further, augments this capability with models for self-heating of relocating melt owing to steam oxidation of metallics and fission product decay power. As was the case for MELMRK 1.0, the MOD2 version offers state-of-the-art numerics for solving coupled sets of nonlinear differential equations. Principal features include application of multi-dimensional Newton-Raphson techniques to accelerate convergence behavior and direct matrix inversion to advance primitive variables from one iterate to the next. Additionally, MELMRK 2.0 provides logical event flags for managing the broad range of code options available for treating such features as (1) coexisting flow regimes, (2) dynamic transitions between flow regimes, and (3) linkages between heatup and relocation code modules. The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed description of the MELMRK 2.0 computer models for melt relocation. Also included are illustrative results for code testing, as well as an integrated calculation for meltdown of a Mark 31a assembly.

  10. MELMRK 2.0: A description of computer models and results of code testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittman, R.S. [ed.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Denny, V.; Mertol, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Atlos, CA (United States)

    1992-05-31

    An advanced version of the MELMRK computer code has been developed that provides detailed models for conservation of mass, momentum, and thermal energy within relocating streams of molten metallics during meltdown of Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor assemblies. In addition to a mechanistic treatment of transport phenomena within a relocating stream, MELMRK 2.0 retains the MOD1 capability for real-time coupling of the in-depth thermal response of participating assembly heat structure and, further, augments this capability with models for self-heating of relocating melt owing to steam oxidation of metallics and fission product decay power. As was the case for MELMRK 1.0, the MOD2 version offers state-of-the-art numerics for solving coupled sets of nonlinear differential equations. Principal features include application of multi-dimensional Newton-Raphson techniques to accelerate convergence behavior and direct matrix inversion to advance primitive variables from one iterate to the next. Additionally, MELMRK 2.0 provides logical event flags for managing the broad range of code options available for treating such features as (1) coexisting flow regimes, (2) dynamic transitions between flow regimes, and (3) linkages between heatup and relocation code modules. The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed description of the MELMRK 2.0 computer models for melt relocation. Also included are illustrative results for code testing, as well as an integrated calculation for meltdown of a Mark 31a assembly.

  11. A computational model for estimating the mechanics of horizontal flapping flight in bats: model description and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, P; Mitchell, E J; Swartz, S M

    2001-08-01

    We combine three-dimensional descriptions of the movement patterns of the shoulder, elbow, carpus, third metacarpophalangeal joint and wingtip with a constant-circulation estimation of aerodynamic force to model the wing mechanics of the grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) in level flight. Once rigorously validated, this computer model can be used to study diverse aspects of flight. In the model, we partitioned the wing into a series of chordwise segments and calculated the magnitude of segmental aerodynamic forces assuming an elliptical, spanwise distribution of circulation at the middle of the downstroke. The lift component of the aerodynamic force is typically an order of magnitude greater than the thrust component. The largest source of drag is induced drag, which is approximately an order of magnitude greater than body form and skin friction drag. Using this model and standard engineering beam theory, we calculate internal reaction forces, moments and stresses at the humeral and radial midshaft during flight. To assess the validity of our model, we compare the model-derived stresses with our previous in vivo empirical measurements of bone strain from P. poliocephalus in free flapping flight. Agreement between bone stresses from the simulation and those calculated from empirical strain measurements is excellent and suggests that the computer model captures a significant portion of the mechanics and aerodynamics of flight in this species.

  12. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in plants and different harvestable parts: A soil-plant equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guala, Sebastian D. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Gutierrez 1150, Los Polvorines, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vega, Flora A. [Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Covelo, Emma F., E-mail: emmaf@uvigo.e [Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    A mathematical interaction model, validated by experimental results, was developed to modeling the metal uptake by plants and induced growth decrease, by knowing metal in soils. The model relates the dynamics of the uptake of metals from soil to plants. Also, two types of relationships are tested: total and available metal content. The model successfully fitted the experimental data and made it possible to predict the threshold values of total mortality with a satisfactory approach. Data are taken from soils treated with Cd and Ni for ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), respectively. Concentrations are measured in the aboveground biomass of plants. In the latter case, the concentration of metals in different parts of the plants (tillering, shooting and earing) is also modeled. At low concentrations, the effects of metals are moderate, and the dynamics appear to be linear. However, increasing concentrations show nonlinear behaviors. - The model proposed in this study makes possible to characterize the nonlinear behavior of the soil-plant interaction with metal pollution.

  14. Power system models - A description of power markets and outline of market modelling in Wilmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the Wilmar project is to investigate technical and economical problems related to large-scale deployment of renewable sources and to develop a modelling tool that can handle system simulations for a larger geographical region with anInternational power exchange. Wilmar is an abbreviation...... of “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets”. The project was started in 2002 and is funded by the EU’s 5th Research programme on energy and environment. Risø National Laboratory isco-ordinator of the project and partners include SINTEF, Kungliga Tekniska Högskola, University of Stuttgart...

  15. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, C.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Marrocchelli, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Troiani, F.

    1989-11-01

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  16. Analytical modeling of leak induced sound wave in a power plant boiler room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badsar, A.; Khosravi, F.

    2005-01-01

    An exact analysis for Sound propagation by a leak situated in a power plant boiler room is outlined. The Light hill model for description of free jet behavior along with the appropriate wave field expansions, the Neumann boundary conditions for boiler walls, and the classical theory of images are employed to develop a closed-form solution in form of infinite series. The analytical results are illustrated with numerical examples in which a leak in the boiler room produces spherical sound waves. The acoustic field pressure distribution is evaluated and discussed for representative values of the parameters characterizing the system. Limiting cases involving symmetric conditions of the problem are considered

  17. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Muhammad Mohsin, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler dut...

  18. Modelling of thermal processes and optimization of energy-ecology characteristics of the modern boiler plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkoski, Risto V.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation accomplished in the framework of this work is concerned with the thermal processes in the furnaces of modern steam and hot-water boilers on fossil fuels. Aerodynamic and thermal conditions in the furnaces are described and models for separate processes and phenomena that occur there are presented. By using proper CFD technique, three-dimensional models of furnaces of coal-fired power boiler, hot-water boiler with circulating fluidized bed combustion and steam boiler on liquid/gaseous fuel are created. Graphical pre-processor is used for geometry creation and mesh generation of the investigated boiler plants. Mathematical model for the gas-solids mixture flow is based on Lagrange approach for the discrete phase simulations, in addition to the transport equations for the gas phase. A standard steady semi-empirical k-E model is employed for description of the turbulent flow. Coupling of velocity and pressure is achieved by the SIMPLEC method. Coal combustion is modelled as non-premixed kinetics/diffusion-limited process by the mixture fraction/probability density function approach for the reaction chemistry, with equilibrium assumption applied for description of the system chemistry. Radiation heat transfer is computed by means of the P-1 model, which is simplified variance of the P-N model, based on the expansion of the radiation intensity into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics. Presence of discrete solid phase in the main gas stream is effectively taken into consideration through additional terms in the radiation energy transfer equation and in other model equations. Variable emissivity coefficient of the combustion products is modelled with the weighted-sum-of-grey gases-model. A model for NO x formation and reduction is included in the computations. Numerical simulations provide results concerning the boilers operation in several regimes. A methodology for optimisation of energetic-ecological characteristics of boiler plants is proposed

  19. The use of plant models in deep learning: an application to leaf counting in rosette plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbens, Jordan; Cieslak, Mikolaj; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Stavness, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning presents many opportunities for image-based plant phenotyping. Here we consider the capability of deep convolutional neural networks to perform the leaf counting task. Deep learning techniques typically require large and diverse datasets to learn generalizable models without providing a priori an engineered algorithm for performing the task. This requirement is challenging, however, for applications in the plant phenotyping field, where available datasets are often small and the...

  20. Thermodynamic stabilities of linear and crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes in melamine-cyanurate assemblies: a model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielejewska, A.G.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Prins, L.J.; Timmerman, P.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe model calculations for the self-assembly of N,N-disubstituted melamines 1 and N-substituted cyanuric acid or 5,5-disubstituted barbituric acid derivatives 2 into linear or crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes via cooperative hydrogen bond formation. The model description

  1. Parameter-free one-center model potential for an effective one-electron description of molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Vanne, Yulian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    For the description of an H2 molecule, an effective one-electron model potential is proposed which is fully determined by the exact ionization potential of the H2 molecule. In order to test the model potential and examine its properties, it is employed to determine excitation energies, transition...

  2. One of Us: Multilevel Models Examining the Impact of Descriptive Representation on Civic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Pippa; Krook, Mona Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of descriptive representation in comparative perspective. The goals are to establish (1) whether descriptive representation mobilizes attitudinal and behavioral indicators of civic engagement; (2) whether the strength of any such relationship differs for women and young people; and (3) whether this relationship is evident cross-nationally. The first section provides an overview of existing research on descriptive representation and the civic engagement of women ...

  3. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover.

  4. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  5. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups

  6. TogoTable: cross-database annotation system using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Shin; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Mizuguchi, Sohei; Araki, Norie; Katayama, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2014-07-01

    TogoTable (http://togotable.dbcls.jp/) is a web tool that adds user-specified annotations to a table that a user uploads. Annotations are drawn from several biological databases that use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model. TogoTable uses database identifiers (IDs) in the table as a query key for searching. RDF data, which form a network called Linked Open Data (LOD), can be searched from SPARQL endpoints using a SPARQL query language. Because TogoTable uses RDF, it can integrate annotations from not only the reference database to which the IDs originally belong, but also externally linked databases via the LOD network. For example, annotations in the Protein Data Bank can be retrieved using GeneID through links provided by the UniProt RDF. Because RDF has been standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium, any database with annotations based on the RDF data model can be easily incorporated into this tool. We believe that TogoTable is a valuable Web tool, particularly for experimental biologists who need to process huge amounts of data such as high-throughput experimental output. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Improving the description of collective effects within the combinatorial model of nuclear level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Girod, M.; Goriely, S.

    2011-01-01

    The combinatorial model of nuclear level densities has now reached a level of accuracy comparable to that of the best global analytical expressions without suffering from the limits imposed by the statistical hypothesis on which the latter expressions rely. In particular, it provides naturally, non Gaussian spin distribution as well as non equipartition of parities which are known to have a significant impact on cross section predictions at low energies. Our first global model developed in Ref. 1 suffered from deficiencies, in particular in the way the collective effects - both vibrational and rotational - were treated. We have recently improved this treatment using simultaneously the single particle levels and collective properties predicted by a newly derived Gogny interaction, therefore enabling a microscopic description of energy-dependent shell, pairing and deformation effects. In addition, for deformed nuclei, the transition to sphericity is coherently taken into account on the basis of a temperature-dependent Hartree-Fock calculation which provides at each temperature the structure properties needed to build the level densities. This new method is described and shown to give promising preliminary results with respect to available experimental data. (authors)

  8. A quasi-particle description of the M(3,p) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Mathieu, P.

    2006-01-01

    The M(3,p) minimal models are reconsidered from the point of view of the extended algebra whose generators are the energy-momentum tensor and the primary field φ 2,1 of dimension (p-2)/4. Within this framework, we provide a quasi-particle description of these models, in which all states are expressed solely in terms of the φ 2,1 -modes. More precisely, we show that all the states can be written in terms of φ 2,1 -type highest-weight states and their φ 2,1 -descendants. We further demonstrate that the conformal dimension of these highest-weight states can be calculated from the φ 2,1 commutation relations, the highest-weight conditions and associativity. For the simplest models (p=5,7), the full spectrum is explicitly reconstructed along these lines. For p odd, the commutation relations between the φ 2,1 modes take the form of infinite sums, i.e., of generalized commutation relations akin to parafermionic models. In that case, an unexpected operator, generalizing the Witten index, is unraveled in the OPE of φ 2,1 with itself. A quasi-particle basis formulated in terms of the sole φ 2,1 modes is studied for all allowed values of p. We argue that it is governed by jagged-type partitions further subject a difference 2 condition at distance 2. We demonstrate the correctness of this basis by constructing its generating function, from which the proper fermionic expression of the combination of the Virasoro irreducible characters χ 1,s and χ 1,p-s (for 1=

  9. Commercial second-generation PFBC plant transient model: Task 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.S.; Getty, R.T.; Torpey, M.R.

    1995-04-01

    The advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor (APFBC) power plant combines an efficient gas-fired combined cycle, a low-emission PFB combustor, and a coal pyrolysis unit (carbonizer) that converts coal, America`s most plentiful fuel, into the gas turbine fuel. From an operation standpoint, the APFBC plant is similar to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, except that the PFBC and fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) allow a considerable fraction of coal energy to be shunted around the gas turbine and sent directly to the steam turbine. By contrast, the fuel energy in IGCC plants and most other combined cycles is primarily delivered to the gas turbine and then to the steam turbine. Another characteristic of the APFBC plant is the interaction among three large thermal inertias--carbonizer, PFBC, and FBHE--that presents unique operational challenges for modeling and operation of this type of plant. This report describes the operating characteristics and dynamic responses of the APFBC plant and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several alternative control strategies for the plant. In particular, interactions between PFBC, FBHE, and steam bottoming cycle are analyzed and the effect of their interactions on plant operation is discussed. The technical approach used in the study is described in Section 2. The dynamic model is introduced in Section 3 and described is detail in the appendices. Steady-state calibration and transient simulations are presented in Sections 4 and 5. The development of the operating philosophy is discussed in Section 6. Potential design changes to the dynamic model and trial control schemes are listed in Sections 7 and 8. Conclusions derived from the study are presented in Section 9.

  10. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  11. Public lakes, private lakeshore: Modeling protection of native aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221–279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners’ behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  12. Modelling of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón Pardo, A L; Brdjanovic, D; Moussa, M S; López-Vázquez, C M; Meijer, S C F; Van Straten, H H A; Janssen, A J H; Amy, G; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2007-11-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and Dutch calibration guidelines (STOWA) were evaluated in the modelling of an activated sludge system treating effluents from a large oil refinery. The plant was designed to remove suspended solids, organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater at an average water temperature of 34 degrees C. The plant consists of three tanks in series; the first two tanks operate in on-off aeration mode with pure oxygen for N-removal, whilst extra methanol is added for the denitrification, and the third tank is maintained as constantly aerobic. Calibration was performed based on a simplified influent characterisation and extra batch experiments (nitrification and denitrification). With the adjustment of only four parameters the model proved capable of describing the performance of the plant concerning both the liquid phase and the biomass. The model was further used to analyse possible modifications in the plant layout and optimize operational conditions in order to reduce operating costs. Modelling results indicated reduction in methanol dosage by implementing an idle time between aerobic and anoxic phases. In this way, surplus methanol was prevented from entering during the aerobic period. Moreover, simulations showed that the most cost-effective option regarding the denitrification process was a combined pre-post-denitrification scheme, without the need for enlarging existing basins. It can be concluded that although ASM3 and STOWA guidelines were originally developed for domestic wastewater application at a temperature range of 10 to 20 degrees C, they proved well capable of describing the performance of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant operating at 34 degrees C. Moreover, the plant model proved useful for optimization of the plant performance regarding operational costs.

  13. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  14. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging......BACKGROUND: Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip....... CONCLUSION: Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between...

  17. Dynamic Models of Vacuum-Evaporator Plants for Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Airapetiants

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies problems of linearized dynamic models intended for synthesis of automatic temperature control systems and vacuum depth in vacuum evaporators. А single-casing vacuum evaporator plant is considered as an object of automatic control. Disturbance input channels are discerned and transfer functions permitting to determine laws of temperature and vacuum regulation and optimum parameters for setting automatic regulators used for various operational modes of vacuum-evaporator plants are obtained on the basis of the executed analysis.

  18. Multiparticle model for the description of the neutron-production in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhs, N.

    Following a comparison of the various numerical methods the experimental set-up is described. This is followed by a brief description of the MHD computation on which the particle computation is to be based. A description is given of the methods applied for the particle computation

  19. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  20. Steady-State Plant Model to Predict Hydroden Levels in Power Plant Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  1. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legind, Charlotte N; Kennedy, Coleen M; Rein, Arno; Snyder, Nathan; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw(-1). Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw(-1). Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates. Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between applications and before harvest, through the integrated accounting of soil, plant and environmental influences. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  3. GELCOM: a geothermal levelized busbar cost model. Description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.N.; Leigh, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The model described is designed to project the costs of electricity generated from liquid dominated hydrothermal resources. It is presented in the form of an interactive computer program called GELCOM, written in Fortran IV, together with an analytic explanation of the methodology. GELCOM starts from resource data and estimates the capital and operating costs for the production field and electrical generating plant. The methodology implemented in GELCOM to determine the engineering cost, operating parameter estimates, and the levelized busbar cost is described. The output displayed by GELCOM for one prospect is explained. The input data files maintained in the computer system and the input data card formats are included. A sample session with GELCOM and the economic reports which may be generated from the GELCOM are illustrated. A completed listing of the computer program is given in an appendix. (MHR)

  4. The use of plant models in deep learning: an application to leaf counting in rosette plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbens, Jordan; Cieslak, Mikolaj; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Stavness, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning presents many opportunities for image-based plant phenotyping. Here we consider the capability of deep convolutional neural networks to perform the leaf counting task. Deep learning techniques typically require large and diverse datasets to learn generalizable models without providing a priori an engineered algorithm for performing the task. This requirement is challenging, however, for applications in the plant phenotyping field, where available datasets are often small and the costs associated with generating new data are high. In this work we propose a new method for augmenting plant phenotyping datasets using rendered images of synthetic plants. We demonstrate that the use of high-quality 3D synthetic plants to augment a dataset can improve performance on the leaf counting task. We also show that the ability of the model to generate an arbitrary distribution of phenotypes mitigates the problem of dataset shift when training and testing on different datasets. Finally, we show that real and synthetic plants are significantly interchangeable when training a neural network on the leaf counting task.

  5. DNA damage and repair in plants – from models to crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilissa eManova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic integrity of every organism is constantly challenged by endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors. Mutagenic agents cause reduced stability of plant genome and have a deleterious effect on development, and in the case of crop species lead to yield reduction. It is crucial for all organisms, including plants, to develop efficient mechanisms for maintenance of the genome integrity. DNA repair processes have been characterized in bacterial, fungal and mammalian model systems. The description of these processes in plants, in contrast, was initiated relatively recently and has been focused largely on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Consequently, our knowledge about DNA repair in plant genomes- particularly in the genomes of crops plants- is by far more limited. However, the relatively small size of the Arabidopsis genome, its rapid life cycle and availability of various transformation methods make this species an attractive model for the study of eukaryotic DNA repair mechanisms and mutagenesis. Moreover, abnormalities in DNA repair which proved to be lethal for animal models are tolerated in plant genomes, although sensitivity to DNA damaging agents is retained. Due to the high conservation of DNA repair processes and factors mediating them among eukaryotes, genes and proteins that have been identified in model species may serve to identify homologous sequences in other species, including crop plants, in which these mechanisms are poorly understood. Crop breeding programs have provided remarkable advances in food quality and yield over the last century. Although the human population is predicted to peak by 2050, further advances in yield will be required to feed this population. Breeding requires genetic diversity. The biological impact of any mutagenic agent used for the creation of genetic diversity depends on the chemical nature of the induced lesions and on the efficiency and accuracy of their repair. More recent targeted

  6. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkit Shamshery

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  7. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V; Winter V, Amos G

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  8. Description of the Process Model for the Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Stack Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dale A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-08

    This model description is supplemental to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) report LLNL-TR-642494, Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for CO2 Removal at Near- Commercial Scale at Duke Energy Gibson 3 Plant. We describe the assumptions and methodology used in the Laboratory’s simulation of its understanding of Huaneng’s novel amine solvent for CO2 capture with 35% mixed amine. The results of that simulation have been described in LLNL-TR-642494. The simulation was performed using ASPEN 7.0. The composition of the Huaneng’s novel amine solvent was estimated based on information gleaned from Huaneng patents. The chemistry of the process was described using nine equations, representing reactions within the absorber and stripper columns using the ELECTNRTL property method. As a rate-based ASPEN simulation model was not available to Lawrence Livermore at the time of writing, the height of a theoretical plate was estimated using open literature for similar processes. Composition of the flue gas was estimated based on information supplied by Duke Energy for Unit 3 of the Gibson plant. The simulation was scaled at one million short tons of CO2 absorbed per year. To aid stability of the model, convergence of the main solvent recycle loop was implemented manually, as described in the Blocks section below. Automatic convergence of this loop led to instability during the model iterations. Manual convergence of the loop enabled accurate representation and maintenance of model stability.

  9. Plant physiology in theory and practice: an analysis of the WBE model for vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2009-07-07

    The theoretical model of West, Brown and Enquist (hereafter WBE) proposed the fractal geometry of the transport system as the origin of the allometric scaling laws observed in nature. The WBE model has either been criticized for some restrictive and biologically unrealistic constraints or its reliability debated on the evidence of empirical tests. In this work, we revised the structure of the WBE model for vascular plants, highlighting some critical assumptions and simplifications and discuss them with regard to empirical evidence from plant anatomy and physiology. We conclude that the WBE model had the distinct merit of shedding light on some important features such as conduit tapering. Nonetheless, it is over-simplistic and a revised model would be desirable with an ontogenetic perspective that takes some important phenomena into account, such as the transformation of the inner sapwood into heartwood and the effect of hydraulic constraints in limiting the growth in height.

  10. Self-consistent model of a solid for the description of lattice and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.; Jaščur, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper a self-consistent theoretical description of the lattice and magnetic properties of a model system with magnetoelastic interaction is presented. The dependence of magnetic exchange integrals on the distance between interacting spins is assumed, which couples the magnetic and the lattice subsystem. The framework is based on summation of the Gibbs free energies for the lattice subsystem and magnetic subsystem. On the basis of minimization principle for the Gibbs energy, a set of equations of state for the system is derived. These equations of state combine the parameters describing the elastic properties (relative volume deformation) and the magnetic properties (magnetization changes). The formalism is extensively illustrated with the numerical calculations performed for a system of ferromagnetically coupled spins S=1/2 localized at the sites of simple cubic lattice. In particular, the significant influence of the magnetic subsystem on the elastic properties is demonstrated. It manifests itself in significant modification of such quantities as the relative volume deformation, thermal expansion coefficient or isothermal compressibility, in particular, in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. On the other hand, the influence of lattice subsystem on the magnetic one is also evident. It takes, for example, the form of dependence of the critical (Curie) temperature and magnetization itself on the external pressure, which is thoroughly investigated.

  11. Model-Based Referenceless Quality Metric of 3D Synthesized Images Using Local Image Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ke; Jakhetiya, Vinit; Qiao, Jun-Fei; Li, Xiaoli; Lin, Weisi; Thalmann, Daniel

    2017-07-28

    New challenges have been brought out along with the emerging of 3D-related technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR). Free viewpoint video (FVV), due to its applications in remote surveillance, remote education, etc, based on the flexible selection of direction and viewpoint, has been perceived as the development direction of next-generation video technologies and has drawn a wide range of researchers' attention. Since FVV images are synthesized via a depth image-based rendering (DIBR) procedure in the "blind" environment (without reference images), a reliable real-time blind quality evaluation and monitoring system is urgently required. But existing assessment metrics do not render human judgments faithfully mainly because geometric distortions are generated by DIBR. To this end, this paper proposes a novel referenceless quality metric of DIBR-synthesized images using the autoregression (AR)-based local image description. It was found that, after the AR prediction, the reconstructed error between a DIBR-synthesized image and its AR-predicted image can accurately capture the geometry distortion. The visual saliency is then leveraged to modify the proposed blind quality metric to a sizable margin. Experiments validate the superiority of our no-reference quality method as compared with prevailing full-, reduced- and no-reference models.

  12. Generalized Selectivity Description for Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on the Phase Boundary Potential Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Eric

    2010-02-15

    A generalized description of the response behavior of potentiometric polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes is presented on the basis of ion-exchange equilibrium considerations at the sample-membrane interface. This paper includes and extends on previously reported theoretical advances in a more compact yet more comprehensive form. Specifically, the phase boundary potential model is used to derive the origin of the Nernstian response behavior in a single expression, which is valid for a membrane containing any charge type and complex stoichiometry of ionophore and ion-exchanger. This forms the basis for a generalized expression of the selectivity coefficient, which may be used for the selectivity optimization of ion-selective membranes containing electrically charged and neutral ionophores of any desired stoichiometry. It is shown to reduce to expressions published previously for specialized cases, and may be effectively applied to problems relevant in modern potentiometry. The treatment is extended to mixed ion solutions, offering a comprehensive yet formally compact derivation of the response behavior of ion-selective electrodes to a mixture of ions of any desired charge. It is compared to predictions by the less accurate Nicolsky-Eisenman equation. The influence of ion fluxes or any form of electrochemical excitation is not considered here, but may be readily incorporated if an ion-exchange equilibrium at the interface may be assumed in these cases.

  13. Self-consistent model of a solid for the description of lattice and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, T., E-mail: t_balcerzak@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ulica Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Szałowski, K., E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ulica Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Jaščur, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šáfárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-03-15

    In the paper a self-consistent theoretical description of the lattice and magnetic properties of a model system with magnetoelastic interaction is presented. The dependence of magnetic exchange integrals on the distance between interacting spins is assumed, which couples the magnetic and the lattice subsystem. The framework is based on summation of the Gibbs free energies for the lattice subsystem and magnetic subsystem. On the basis of minimization principle for the Gibbs energy, a set of equations of state for the system is derived. These equations of state combine the parameters describing the elastic properties (relative volume deformation) and the magnetic properties (magnetization changes). The formalism is extensively illustrated with the numerical calculations performed for a system of ferromagnetically coupled spins S=1/2 localized at the sites of simple cubic lattice. In particular, the significant influence of the magnetic subsystem on the elastic properties is demonstrated. It manifests itself in significant modification of such quantities as the relative volume deformation, thermal expansion coefficient or isothermal compressibility, in particular, in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. On the other hand, the influence of lattice subsystem on the magnetic one is also evident. It takes, for example, the form of dependence of the critical (Curie) temperature and magnetization itself on the external pressure, which is thoroughly investigated.

  14. Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter using the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The chiral bag (cloudy bag) model, which contains an essentially nonlinear interaction of quarks with both the classical and quantum pion field, is extended for description of a nucleon in nuclear matter. The dependence on the density and temperature of the medium is studied. The pion field in nuclear matter differs considerably from the free field, and this leads to a modification of the nucleon bag. Increase of the density ρ and temperature T causes strengthening of the pion field and growth of its thermodynamic fluctuations. At sufficiently high densities ρ approx-gt ρ CB and temperatures T≥T cr this leads to instability of the three-quark nucleon bag. Under such conditions nuclear matter cannot be composed only of nucleons, and one should expect the appearance of a different, non-nucleon, phase. Estimates of the critical density and temperature are obtained: ρ CB ∼ (1.5-2)ρ 0 and T cr ∼ 200 MeV (where ρ 0 is the conventional nuclear density)

  15. Incorporating Plant Phenology Dynamics in a Biophysical Canopy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Raquel A.; Drewry, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Layer Canopy Model (MLCan) is a vegetation model created to capture plant responses to environmental change. Themodel vertically resolves carbon uptake, water vapor and energy exchange at each canopy level by coupling photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance. The model is forced by incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, as well as near-surface meteorological conditions. The original formulation of MLCan utilized canopy structural traits derived from observations. This project aims to incorporate a plant phenology scheme within MLCan allowing these structural traits to vary dynamically. In the plant phenology scheme implemented here, plant growth is dependent on environmental conditions such as air temperature and soil moisture. The scheme includes functionality that models plant germination, growth, and senescence. These growth stages dictate the variation in six different vegetative carbon pools: storage, leaves, stem, coarse roots, fine roots, and reproductive. The magnitudes of these carbon pools determine land surface parameters such as leaf area index, canopy height, rooting depth and root water uptake capacity. Coupling this phenology scheme with MLCan allows for a more flexible representation of the structure and function of vegetation as it responds to changing environmental conditions.

  16. The Application of Cyber Physical System for Thermal Power Plants: Data-Driven Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of energy systems plays an important role to enhance their lifetime security and efficiency. The determination of optimal operating strategies requires intelligent utilization of massive data accumulated during operation or prediction. The investigation of these data solely without combining physical models may run the risk that the established relationships between inputs and outputs, the models which reproduce the behavior of the considered system/component in a wide range of boundary conditions, are invalid for certain boundary conditions, which never occur in the database employed. Therefore, combining big data with physical models via cyber physical systems (CPS is of great importance to derive highly-reliable and -accurate models and becomes more and more popular in practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the description of a systematic method to apply CPS to the performance analysis and decision making of thermal power plants. We proposed a general procedure of CPS with both offline and online phases for its application to thermal power plants and discussed the corresponding methods employed to support each sub-procedure. As an example, a data-driven model of turbine island of an existing air-cooling based thermal power plant is established with the proposed procedure and demonstrates its practicality, validity and flexibility. To establish such model, the historical operating data are employed in the cyber layer for modeling and linking each physical component. The decision-making procedure of optimal frequency of air-cooling condenser is also illustrated to show its applicability of online use. It is concluded that the cyber physical system with the data mining technique is effective and promising to facilitate the real-time analysis and control of thermal power plants.

  17. The descriptive representation in the perspectives of the XXI century: an evolutionary study of the conceptual models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Cristina Aganette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The descriptive representation or cataloging is seen as a multidimensional decision process that structures and standardizes the different aspects of an information item, making it unique and subject to recovery and use. This article emphasizes the study of descriptive representation where the main objective is to analyze some conceptual models and their evolution with respect to representation of information. It also presents its features in dealing with current proposals and trends in the twenty-first century, showing the importance of each conceptual model and its possibilities of integration into virtual environments. The aim is to survey and analyze the main conceptual models used by the Library and Information Science. The results allow a broad view about the development of conceptual models and an understanding of descriptive representation in the current context of network technologies, which presents agile, simple and constantly updatable. Other contributions can be identified, such as improving the understanding of descriptive representation area, their relationships and models and provide subsidies to assist the information scientist in the representation of reality

  18. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  19. A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. CONCLUSION: This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there

  20. A Descriptive Model of Patient Readiness, Motivators, and Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Australian Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%–3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. Method and Findings We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. Conclusion This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for

  1. Design of nuclear power generation plants adopting model engineering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Masato

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of model engineering as the method of design has begun about ten years ago in nuclear power generation plants. By this method, the result of design can be confirmed three-dimensionally before actual production, and it is the quick and sure method to meet the various needs in design promptly. The adoption of models aims mainly at the improvement of the quality of design since the high safety is required for nuclear power plants in spite of the complex structure. The layout of nuclear power plants and piping design require the model engineering to arrange rationally enormous quantity of things in a limited period. As the method of model engineering, there are the use of check models and of design models, and recently, the latter method has been mainly taken. The procedure of manufacturing models and engineering is explained. After model engineering has been completed, the model information must be expressed in drawings, and the automation of this process has been attempted by various methods. The computer processing of design is in progress, and its role is explained (CAD system). (Kako, I.)

  2. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  3. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, Emma; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona

    2008-09-01

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was reduced in order to reach

  4. Tecnomatix Plant Simulation modeling and programming by means of examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bangsow, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the development of simulation models as well as the implementation and evaluation of simulation experiments with Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. It deals with all users of Plant Simulation, who have more complex tasks to handle. It also looks for an easy entry into the program. Particular attention has been paid to introduce the simulation flow language SimTalk and its use in various areas of the simulation. The author demonstrates with over 200 examples how to combine the blocks for simulation models and how to deal with SimTalk for complex control and analys

  5. Model-based reasoning and the control of process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, Heikki

    1993-02-01

    In addition to feedback control, safe and economic operation of industrial process plants requires discrete-event type logic control like for example automatic control sequences, interlocks, etc. A lot of complex routine reasoning is involved in the design and verification and validation (VandV) of such automatics. Similar reasoning tasks are encountered during plant operation in action planning and fault diagnosis. The low-level part of the required problem solving is so straightforward that it could be accomplished by a computer if only there were plant models which allow versatile mechanised reasoning. Such plant models and corresponding inference algorithms are the main subject of this report. Deep knowledge and qualitative modelling play an essential role in this work. Deep knowledge refers to mechanised reasoning based on the first principles of the phenomena in the problem domain. Qualitative modelling refers to knowledge representation formalism and related reasoning methods which allow solving problems on an abstraction level higher than for example traditional simulation and optimisation. Prolog is a commonly used platform for artificial intelligence (Al) applications. Constraint logic languages like CLP(R) and Prolog-III extend the scope of logic programming to numeric problem solving. In addition they allow a programming style which often reduces the computational complexity significantly. An approach to model-based reasoning implemented in constraint logic programming language CLP(R) is presented. The approach is based on some of the principles of QSIM, an algorithm for qualitative simulation. It is discussed how model-based reasoning can be applied in the design and VandV of plant automatics and in action planning during plant operation. A prototype tool called ISIR is discussed and some initial results obtained during the development of the tool are presented. The results presented originate from preliminary test results of the prototype obtained

  6. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    process. It controls chloride concentration that, in turn, determines the re-equilibrium path (water-rock interaction) triggered by mixing. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the groundwater age, tritium content and calcite dissolution/precipitation processes at shallow groundwater depths at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. The modelled results provide additional support to hydrogeological models by using independent hydrochemical information and added support to the general hydrogeochemical understanding of the site. In this evaluation the groundwater model has been updated, the salinity distribution, mixing processes and the major reactions altering the groundwaters have been modelled down to a depth of 1000 m, and an updated Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model version 1.2 has been produced. More groundwater and isotopic data, together with microbial information, colloids and gases, provided additional site descriptive information. Finally, the introduction of coupled modelling provided additional possibilities to address independently the various processes in question.

  7. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  8. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  9. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a unifying model for the conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    An important basis for the successful development of rehabilitation practice and research is a conceptually sound description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy based on a universally accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. With the approval of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and the reference to the ICF in the World Health Assembly's resolution on "Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation" in 2005, we can now rely on a universally accepted conceptual model. It is thus time to initiate the process of evolving an ICF-based conceptual description that can serve as a basis for similar conceptual descriptions and according definitions of the professions applying the rehabilitation strategy and of distinct scientific fields of human functioning and rehabilitation research. In co-operation with the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and its professional practice committee, we present a first tentative version of an ICF-based conceptual description in this paper. A brief definition describes rehabilitation as the health strategy applied by PRM and professionals in the health sector and across other sectors that aims to enable people with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with the environment. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute towards achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  10. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail.

  11. Use of linear programming models in experimentation with plant nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brino Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important issue of plant cultivation and experimentation with plant nutrients is a supporting tool for agriculture. However, use of high purity grade reagents as nutrient sources can be expensive and increases the cost of an experiment. The objective of this study was to minimize the acquisition cost of high purity grade reagents in experiments on plant nutrient deficiency by using the missing element technique through linear programming models, and to generate recommendation tables for preparation of culture solutions, as well as to quantify gains through a simulated experiment. Two linear programming models were formulated containing concentration constraints for each nutrient in the culture solution. Model A was based on 16 reagents for preparation of the culture solution, while model B was based on 27 reagents, looking to increase choice options. Results showed that both models minimized the acquisition cost of reagents, allowing a 9.03% reduction in model A and a 25.98% reduction in model B. The missing sulfur treatment proved the most costly for reagent acquisition while the missing nitrogen treatment proved the least costly. It was concluded that the formulated models were capable of reducing acquisition costs of reagents, yet the recommendations generated by them should be tested and checked for practical viability.

  12. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites

  13. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  14. The Purlex process - a description of the pilot plant leading to the use of the process in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunley, T.H.; Faure, A.

    1969-01-01

    This report briefly describes the pilot plant and highlights the important findings of the testwork. Particular attention is paid to the problems which arose during the two-year period of operation and the steps taken to solve these problems. Average values are given for the important parameters for the various test periods

  15. The influence of visual experience on the ability to form spatial mental models based on route and survey descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences

  16. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  17. [Evaluation of Fusarium spp. pathogenicity in plant and murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X

    The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model, which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site and using greater grid resolution. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Forsmark area on a regional-scale based on the available data of 30 June 2004 and the previous Site Description. A more specific

  19. Mise au point d' un modele cartographique pour la description des stations forestieres en Ardenne belge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a cartographic mdel for the forest site types delineation in the Belgian Ardenne. The paper presents an original method dealing with the forest site types delineation. The suggested method consists in integrating a typological key in a GIS aiming at producing a thematic map that describes forest site types. Data used are the soil map of Belgium (digitized at the scale 1:20,000 and a digital elevation model built from a topographic map (scale 1:10,000. The typological key is mainly based on the methodology used by Thill et al. (1988 in the site types system for central Ardenne, the potential vegetation map of Sougnez and Dethioux (1975 and the ecoregion map of Delvaux and Galoux (1962. In that respect, site types are closely linked to the soil map and the phytosociological classification. So, they can be connected to the afforestation guide and different phytosociological and autecological studies concerning forest species. It is then possible to map the potential habitats or the site potentialities related to tree species. The key is valid for the Ardenne ecoregion located in Southern Belgium (elevation higher than 300 m. It has to be validated through an intensive use in the field, taking into account its imprecision linked to the types of collected data, chieffly those being digitized. The integration of such a tool in a SIG can be considered as an original way in terms of integrated forest management or forest sites description in the context of the project ""Natura 2000"" launched by the European Union. The study has been carried out within the framework of an experimental integrated management project concerning the Saint-Hubert forest (17,000 ha.

  20. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...

  1. Gene Discovery and Functional Analyses in the Model Plant Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Cai-ping; Mundy, J.

    2006-01-01

    The present mini-review describes newer methods and strategies, including transposon and T-DNA insertions, TILLING, Deleteagene, and RNA interference, to functionally analyze genes of interest in the model plant Arabidopsis. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the systems are also...

  2. A multiple-compartment model for biokinetics studies in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Fermin; Pietrobron, Flavio; Fonseca, Agnes M.F.; Mol, Anderson W.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Guzman, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    In the present work is used the system of linear equations based in the general Assimakopoulos's GMCM model , for the development of a new method that will determine the flow's parameters and transfer coefficients in plants. The need of mathematical models to quantify the penetration of a trace substance in animals and plants, has often been stressed in the literature. Usually, in radiological environment studies, it is used the mean value of contaminant concentrations on whole or edible part plant body, without taking in account vegetable physiology regularities. In this work concepts and mathematical formulation of a Vegetable Multi-compartment Model (VMCM), taking into account the plant's physiology regularities is presented. The model based in general ideas of the GMCM , and statistical Square Minimum Method STATFLUX is proposed to use in inverse sense: the experimental time dependence of concentration in each compartment, should be input, and the parameters should be determined from this data in a statistical approach. The case of Uranium metabolism is discussed. (author)

  3. Classroom: Models Made from Local Materials for Teaching Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to find out if simulated teaching-learning materials could effectively fill in the gap for expensively imported science teaching-learning resources, models for teaching plant and animal cells and the solar system were made and tested. The results showed that between 13.33 -50 % of the students obtained ...

  4. Grass plants crop water consumption model in urban parks located ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Grass plants crop water consumption model in urban parks located in three different ... The result of calculations, using the climate data of July, value of the province of Antalya were. ETo=7,10464 mm/day, for Ankara .... method is recommended by Food and Agriculture. Organisation (FAO) (Allen et al., ...

  5. OCAM - A CELSS modeling tool: Description and results. [Object-oriented Controlled Ecological Life Support System Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is critical to the Space Exploration Initiative. NASA's Kennedy Space Center has been performing CELSS research for several years, developing data related to CELSS design. We have developed OCAM (Object-oriented CELSS Analysis and Modeling), a CELSS modeling tool, and have used this tool to evaluate CELSS concepts, using this data. In using OCAM, a CELSS is broken down into components, and each component is modeled as a combination of containers, converters, and gates which store, process, and exchange carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen on a daily basis. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options modeled include combustion, leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic or anaerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. Results include printouts and time-history graphs of total system mass, biomass, carbon dioxide, and oxygen quantities; energy consumption; and manpower requirements. The contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost have been analyzed to compare configurations and determine appropriate research directions.

  6. New model concepts for dynamic plant uptake and mass flux estimates in the soil-plant-air system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances...... in environmental systems at different scales. Feedback mechanisms between plants and hydrological systems can play an important role. However, they have received little attention to date. Here, a new model concept for dynamic plant uptake models applying analytical matrix solutions is presented, which can...... be coupled to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out in order to estimate chemical concentrations in the soil-plant-air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater....

  7. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases together with microbial modelling. Site description model SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten

    2008-08-01

    The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Laxemar site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on available primary data from the extended data freeze L2.3 (Nov 2007). This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases. Several methods must be used to characterise active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of

  8. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases together with microbial modelling. Site description model SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Laxemar site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on available primary data from the extended data freeze L2.3 (Nov 2007). This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases. Several methods must be used to characterise active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of

  9. Plant Information Models: Supporting the Management of Design Knowledge throughout the Nuclear Power Plant Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.; Grosbois, J. de; Gladyshev, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In 2014, the IAEA’s Department of Nuclear Energy launched a new initiative aimed at strengthening design knowledge management throughout the life cycle of nuclear facilities, and as a part of this initiative, set out to publish a series of IAEA technical reports and guidance on information modelling of nuclear facilities, and to develop a generic prototype plant information model (PIM) for demonstration purposes. New nuclear facilities are being designed and constructed using modern computer-aided design and engineering systems, multidimensional modelling and design information sources such as data, databases, and electronic documents. As a result, new facilities can be delivered with a computer-based information environment that is able to be transferred, integrated and interoperable with the computer-based information environments of the organizations that own and operate them. The opportunity exists to radically improve knowledge capture, integration and transfer between stakeholders, however, these computer-based information environments typically consist of one or more plant information models with minimal standardization and information interoperability between them. A Knowledge-centric plant information model could be developed and leveraged to better support, manage and enable seamless exchange and transfer of sustainable design and design knowledge information throughout the nuclear facility life cycle. (author

  10. A land surface model combined with a crop growth model for paddy rice (MATCRO-Rice v. 1 – Part 1: Model description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Masutomi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth and agricultural management can affect climate at various spatial and temporal scales through the exchange of heat, water, and gases between land and atmosphere. Therefore, simulation of fluxes for heat, water, and gases from agricultural land is important for climate simulations. A land surface model (LSM combined with a crop growth model (CGM, called an LSM-CGM combined model, is a useful tool for simulating these fluxes from agricultural land. Therefore, we developed a new LSM-CGM combined model for paddy rice fields, the MATCRO-Rice model. The main objective of this paper is to present the full description of MATCRO-Rice. The most important feature of MATCRO-Rice is that it can consistently simulate latent and sensible heat fluxes, net carbon uptake by crop, and crop yield by exchanging variables between the LSM and CGM. This feature enables us to apply the model to a wide range of integrated issues.

  11. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  12. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  13. Detailed modelling of a flue-gas desulfurisation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, A.; Fueyo, N.; Tomas, A. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a CFD model for a flue-gas desulfurisation plant, and its application to an operating plant. The FGD plant is of the wet-scrubber type, with co-current and counter-current sections. The sorbent used is limestone, and, after cleaning the flue gases, the limestone slurry is collected in an oxidation tank for the production of gypsum. The model uses an Eulerian-Eulerian treatment of the multiphase flow in the absorber and the tank. The essential mass-transfer mechanisms (such as SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} absorption and CO{sub 2} desorption) are accounted for, as are also the main chemical kinetics leading to the formation of gypsum. Given the different nature of the flow in the absorber and tank, two separate simulations are conducted for each of these domains, and the solutions are iteratively coupled through boundary conditions during the calculations. The model is applied to the FGD plant of the Teruel powerstation located in Andorra (Teruel, Spain). The powerstation is fired with a high-sulfur coal (up to 4.5 percent), and the FGD system has been designed for a desulfurisation capacity of 1.4 million N m{sup 3}/hr for a desulfurisation efficiency in excess of 90 percent. Validation of the model is conducted by comparison with available plant data for two design coals and two desulfurisation efficiencies. The model accuracy is reasonable, given the complexity of the aero/hydrodynamical and thermo-chemical phenomena involved.

  14. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2008-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  15. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern (ed.)

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  16. Special feature: a multifacet circumplex model of personality as a basis for the description and therapy of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P

    1998-01-01

    A new circumplex model of personality, based upon two higher order personality factors, mental health and behavior control, is presented. This eight-octant model, which also includes the two multifacet dimensions of "social adaptation vs. unrestraint" and "self-actualization vs. inhibition," should not be confused with two other well-known circumplex models: the interpersonal model and the Eysenck model. Mental health, a multifacet construct, is defined as the ability to cope with external and internal demands. Behavior control, also a multifacet construct, is characterized by self-control (norm-, future-, work-, and reason-orientation; orderliness) vs. spontaneity (hedonism, excitement seeking, feeling orientation, liveliness). The theoretical background and facets of these constructs are presented. The model is useful for the description of personality disorders, and etiological hypotheses are formulated from the combination of this model with a circumplex model of interpersonal behavior. Finally, some therapeutic implications of the model are discussed.

  17. ORCHIDEE-MICT (v8.4.1), a land surface model for the high latitudes: model description and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu; Zhu, Dan; Maignan, Fabienne; Huang, Ye; Yue, Chao; Dantec-Nédélec, Sarah; Ottlé, Catherine; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Bastos, Ana; Laurent, Pierre; Goll, Daniel; Bowring, Simon; Chang, Jinfeng; Guenet, Bertrand; Tifafi, Marwa; Peng, Shushi; Krinner, Gerhard; Ducharne, Agnès; Wang, Fuxing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yilong; Yin, Zun; Lauerwald, Ronny; Joetzjer, Emilie; Qiu, Chunjing; Kim, Hyungjun; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are a nexus for the interaction between land surface physical properties and their exchange of carbon and energy with the atmosphere. At these latitudes, two carbon pools of planetary significance - those of the permanently frozen soils (permafrost), and of the great expanse of boreal forest - are vulnerable to destabilization in the face of currently observed climatic warming, the speed and intensity of which are expected to increase with time. Improved projections of future Arctic and boreal ecosystem transformation require improved land surface models that integrate processes specific to these cold biomes. To this end, this study lays out relevant new parameterizations in the ORCHIDEE-MICT land surface model. These describe the interactions between soil carbon, soil temperature and hydrology, and their resulting feedbacks on water and CO2 fluxes, in addition to a recently developed fire module. Outputs from ORCHIDEE-MICT, when forced by two climate input datasets, are extensively evaluated against (i) temperature gradients between the atmosphere and deep soils, (ii) the hydrological components comprising the water balance of the largest high-latitude basins, and (iii) CO2 flux and carbon stock observations. The model performance is good with respect to empirical data, despite a simulated excessive plant water stress and a positive land surface temperature bias. In addition, acute model sensitivity to the choice of input forcing data suggests that the calibration of model parameters is strongly forcing-dependent. Overall, we suggest that this new model design is at the forefront of current efforts to reliably estimate future perturbations to the high-latitude terrestrial environment.

  18. Plant model of KIPT neutron source facility simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, Thomas Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grelle, Austin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine are collaborating on constructing a neutron source facility at KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility has 100-kW electron beam driving a subcritical assembly (SCA). The electron beam interacts with a natural uranium target or a tungsten target to generate neutrons, and deposits its power in the target zone. The total fission power generated in SCA is about 300 kW. Two primary cooling loops are designed to remove 100-kW and 300-kW from the target zone and the SCA, respectively. A secondary cooling system is coupled with the primary cooling system to dispose of the generated heat outside the facility buildings to the atmosphere. In addition, the electron accelerator has a low efficiency for generating the electron beam, which uses another secondary cooling loop to remove the generated heat from the accelerator primary cooling loop. One of the main functions the KIPT neutron source facility is to train young nuclear specialists; therefore, ANL has developed the KIPT Neutron Source Facility Simulator for this function. In this simulator, a Plant Control System and a