WorldWideScience

Sample records for model packages commercial

  1. Modelling of plasma processes based on the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazhin, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional applications of the commercial CFD package FLUENT include modelling of gas and liquid flows, combustion processes, thermal radiation exchange, particle dynamics and related processes of industrial interest. Recently, however, the area of applications of this package has been extended to modelling of new processes such as CO 2 laser discharges and the solution of the Boltzmann equation. Results of this modelling were reported at XXI International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized gases in Bochum and were later published in a number of research papers. The aim of this report is to summarize some further latest developments of the FLUENT package aimed to adjust it to the needs of modelling of plasma processes including those in ionized gases. The simplest way to modify this package is to include Amper force into Navier-Stokes equation and Ohm heating term into the enthalpy equation. In most cases, however, electric currents and electric and magnetic fields used in these equations cannot be assumed to be a priori known as they depend on plasma dynamics (distribution of velocities and pressures) and thermodynamics (distribution of temperatures) which implicitly enter into Maxwell or any equivalent electromagnetic equations. This makes it necessary to include these electromagnetic equations into the general iteration loop used in FLUENT

  2. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gases. Manufacturer of a commercial packaged boiler means any person who manufactures, produces... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial...

  3. Commercial and ERDA waste packaging criteria: possible similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, B.

    1977-01-01

    The schedule calls for hot operation of two waste repositories by the end of 1985, and these facilities will have to be licensed. This licensing requirement sets the commercial program apart from the ERDA defense waste program. Packaging criteria are discussed for commercial and ERDA wastes. The different NRC, DOT, and EPA criteria are considered

  4. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.K. Knudson

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M and O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on Commercial Food Packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalar, P.J.; Abad, L.V.; Laurio, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma Radiation is a well-known technology to inactivate bacterial pathogens in food products. Currently, there is a growing interest in this technology considering its advantage of being a non-thermal process and the convenience of food being pre-packaged in its final form before treatment that prevents possible recontamination. The process of irradiating pre-packaged food requires that appropriate packaging materials are chosen as this would play a vital role in the quality assessment and safety evaluation of the irradiated products. Irradiation can cause changes to the packaging materials that might affect its integrity and functionality as a barrier e.g. to chemical or microbial contamination. Likewise, components of packaging materials that have been irradiated may migrate to food as a result of irradiation. Hence, this study was conducted to screen locally available commercial packaging films and determine its effect with radiation. Commercials packaging films made up of PET / FOIL / PE, Plain PET 12 / Foil 7 / PE 100, VMPET 12 / PE 70, OPP 20 / Foil 6.5 / PE 40, PET 12 / CPS 40, PET 12 / PE 50, Laminated PET / PE, Nylon / PE, and Nylon 15 / PE 50 were investigated for its effect with gamma radiation at 10 kGy. Their mechanical and thermal properties generally did not show any changes after irradiation except for OPP 20/ Foil 6.5 / PE 40. Gel Permeation Chromatography of leachates from water samples detected the presence of high molecular weight radiolytic products especially from laminated PET/PE films. Radiation effects were minimal for VMPET12/PE70, Nylon/PE and Nylon 15/PE 50 films. Preliminary results, using the stable isotope technique, to study the leachates in the water samples in contact with the packaging materials reveal an indicative increase in δ"1"8O"0/_0_0 and δD 0/_0_0.(author)

  6. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system

  7. Generalized waste package containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Simulation tests of plastic-packaged commercial SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, O.A.; Nikiforov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Laser and X-ray simulation test technique is developed adopted to plastic-packaged ICs. Dose rate and total dose test results are presented for two types of commercial RAMS. Dose rate and total dose test results were obtained for two types of commercial RAMS: AS7C256-20 256 K (32 K x 8) and MT5C1008W - 1 M (128 K x 8). The latch-up of AS7C256-20 was detected at dose rate 1.510 9 rad(Si)/s and of MT5C1008W - at dose rate 5.7-10 8 rad(Si)/s. The total dose failure thresholds were in the ranges of 55 to 90 krad(Si) for AS7C25620 and 40 to 328 krad for MT5C1008W depending on RAM operational mode under irradiation. The obtained simulation test results are in a good agreement with previously published for radiation installations. (authors)

  9. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  10. Image Fusion Technologies In Commercial Remote Sensing Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Kalyankar, N. V.

    2013-01-01

    Several remote sensing software packages are used to the explicit purpose of analyzing and visualizing remotely sensed data, with the developing of remote sensing sensor technologies from last ten years. Accord-ing to literature, the remote sensing is still the lack of software tools for effective information extraction from remote sensing data. So, this paper provides a state-of-art of multi-sensor image fusion technologies as well as review on the quality evaluation of the single image or f...

  11. Energy use and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of drones for commercial package delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Samaras, Constantine; O’Neill, Emma R.; Lubers, Alia; Mitchell, Alexandra S.; Ceperley, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The use of automated, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver commercial packages is poised to become a new industry, significantly shifting energy use in the freight sector. Here we find the current practical range of multi-copters to be about 4 km with current battery technology, requiring a new network of urban warehouses or waystations as support. We show that, although drones consume less energy per package-km than delivery trucks, the additional warehouse energy required and the lo...

  12. Commercial waste and spent fuel packaging program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakl, A.R.

    1981-10-01

    This document is a report of activities performed by Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division - Nevada Operations in meeting subtask objectives described in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project Plan and revised planning documentation for Fiscal Year (FY) 1981. Major activities included: completion of the first fuel exchange in the Spent Fuel Test - Climax program; plasma arc welder development; modification and qualification of a canister cutter; installation, and activation of a remote area monitor, constant air monitor and an alpha/beta/gamma counting system; qualification of grapples required to handle pressurized water reactor or boiling water reactor fuel and high level waste (HLW) logs; data acquisition from the 3 kilowatt soil temperature test, 2 kw fuel temperature test, and 2 kw drywell test; calorimetry of the fuel assembly used in the fuel temperature test; evaluation of moisture accumulation in the drywells and recommendations for proposed changes; revision of safety assessment document to include HLW log operations; preparation of quality assurance plan and procedures; development and qualification of all equipment and procedures to receive, handle and encapsulate both the HLW log and spent fuel for the basalt waste isolation program/near surface test facility program; preliminary studies of both the requirements to perform waste packaging for the test and evaluation facility and a cask storage program for the DOE Interim Spent Fuel Management program; and remote handling operations on radioactive source calibration in support of other contractors

  13. Energy use and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of drones for commercial package delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Samaras, Constantine; O'Neill, Emma R; Lubers, Alia; Mitchell, Alexandra S; Ceperley, Daniel

    2018-02-13

    The use of automated, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver commercial packages is poised to become a new industry, significantly shifting energy use in the freight sector. Here we find the current practical range of multi-copters to be about 4 km with current battery technology, requiring a new network of urban warehouses or waystations as support. We show that, although drones consume less energy per package-km than delivery trucks, the additional warehouse energy required and the longer distances traveled by drones per package greatly increase the life-cycle impacts. Still, in most cases examined, the impacts of package delivery by small drone are lower than ground-based delivery. Results suggest that, if carefully deployed, drone-based delivery could reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy use in the freight sector. To realize the environmental benefits of drone delivery, regulators and firms should focus on minimizing extra warehousing and limiting the size of drones.

  14. Semianalytic Design Sensitivity Analysis of Nonlinear Structures With a Commercial Finite Element Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Yoo, Jung Hun; Choi, Hyeong Cheol

    2002-01-01

    A finite element package is often used as a daily design tool for engineering designers in order to analyze and improve the design. The finite element analysis can provide the responses of a system for given design variables. Although finite element analysis can quite well provide the structural behaviors for given design variables, it cannot provide enough information to improve the design such as design sensitivity coefficients. Design sensitivity analysis is an essential step to predict the change in responses due to a change in design variables and to optimize a system with the aid of the gradient-based optimization techniques. To develop a numerical method of design sensitivity analysis, analytical derivatives that are based on analytical differentiation of the continuous or discrete finite element equations are effective but analytical derivatives are difficult because of the lack of internal information of the commercial finite element package such as shape functions. Therefore, design sensitivity analysis outside of the finite element package is necessary for practical application in an industrial setting. In this paper, the semi-analytic method for design sensitivity analysis is used for the development of the design sensitivity module outside of a commercial finite element package of ANSYS. The direct differentiation method is employed to compute the design derivatives of the response and the pseudo-load for design sensitivity analysis is effectively evaluated by using the design variation of the related internal nodal forces. Especially, we suggest an effective method for stress and nonlinear design sensitivity analyses that is independent of the commercial finite element package is also discussed. Numerical examples are illustrated to show the accuracy and efficiency of the developed method and to provide insights for implementation of the suggested method into other commercial finite element packages

  15. Performance analysis of commercial MOSFET packages in Class E converter operating at 2.56 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Raveendran; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    resistance and high temperature operation over Si devices have aided in the paradigm shift towards wide bandgap devices. The low gate charge requirements of SiC MOSFETs enables use of these devices in radio frequency (RF) converters using resonant topologies operating at MHz frequency range. The RF...... are not commercially available and power modules have to be custom designed for these applications. This work demonstrates performance of various commercial MOSFET packages at frequency of 2.56 MHz. Commercial SiC MOSFETs in TO-247 and D2Pak packs are tested in Class E resonant converter operating at 2.56 MHz...

  16. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  17. [Content analysis of television commercials for snacks and of snack packaging targeted at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-06-01

    To describe the marketing of snacks and beverages to children in television (TV) commercials and on food packages. Study 1: For 5 weeks from April 1 to May 7, 2007, TV commercials were recorded from one of five channels each week (Nihon, TBS, Fuji, Asahi, and Tokyo). Study 2: The energy values of the products advertised in the TV commercials analyzed in Study 1 were determined, along with whether marketing information (e.g., presents, campaigns, and URLs) was included on the packages. The data were shown in frequency tables, and a chi2 test was conducted to examine the relationship between the energy values of the products (under or over 200 kcal) and descriptions concerning consumption of the products presented in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others). Five hours and 18 minutes of food commercials and 2 hours and 57 minutes of snack commercials were obtained from the 105 hours of recordings. Of the food commercials, 55.7% were for snacks. Commercials that were repeated or that targeted adults were excluded, leaving 197 commercials for analysis. There were many beverage commercials, most often associating products with mood, such as having fun and good times. No relationship between the energy value of the products (under or over 200 kcal), and the description of consuming the product in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others) was found (chi2 (2) = 2.2, P = 0.33). A scene showing someone eating alone was the most common depiction for products with energy levels both under and over 200 kcal. The analysis of 164 snack packages showed that most gave URLs. Although the present study had several limitations, such as the relatively short research period, as the first to describe TV commercials for snacks and beverages in Japan it provides new insights. It is now necessary to understand the current state of commercials in other media, and to consider the content of nutrition education for the future, including media literacy

  18. Transportation and packaging issues involving the disposition of surplus plutonium as MOX fuel in commercial LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Welch, D.E.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    This report provides a view of anticipated transportation, packaging, and facility handling operations that are expected to occur at mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and commercial reactor facilities. This information is intended for use by prospective contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) who plan to submit proposals to DOE to manufacture and irradiate MOX fuel assemblies in domestic commercial light-water reactors. The report provides data to prospective consortia regarding packaging and pickup of MOX nuclear fuel assemblies at a MOX fuel manufacturing plant and transport and delivery of the MOX assemblies to nuclear power plants. The report also identifies areas where data are incomplete either because of the status of development or lack of sufficient information and specificity regarding the nuclear power plant(s) where deliveries will take place

  19. Safety analysis report on Model UC-609 shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, R.R.

    1977-08-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging demonstrates that model UC-609 shipping package can safely transport tritium in any of its forms. The package and its contents are described. The package when subjected to the transport conditions specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 71 is evaluated. Finally, compliance with these regulations is discussed

  20. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of... packaged boiler equipment classes. (B) On or after March 2, 2012, conduct the thermal efficiency test as...

  1. Comparison between commercial and open-source SCADA packages-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Barbato, P.; Breda, M.; Capobianco, R.; Luchetta, A.; Molon, F.; Moressa, M.; Simionato, P.; Taliercio, C.; Zampiva, E.

    2010-01-01

    SPIDER (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma) is a new experimental device under development at Consorzio RFX aimed at providing a full-scale ion source prototype for MITICA (Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advance), the experiment devoted at supplying a full-scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector (HNB). Both experimental devices will be hosted in a new facility known as PRIMA (Padova Research on Injectors Megavolt Accelerated). The correct operation of SPIDER and MITICA will be guaranteed by process automation and plant monitoring that will be implemented using suitable controllers (cycle time greater than 10 ms) in conjunction with appropriate SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) software. This paper presents the tests performed at Consorzio RFX to evaluate commercial and open-source SCADA packages and prepare a technical base for the selection of the SCADA system for SPIDER. Two commercial solutions and two open-source solutions (EPICS and TANGO) were investigated. The typical test-bed was represented by a SCADA system exchanging data with a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The case study consisted of: (a) the development of a minimal panel provided with fields for setting parameters and of a trend window; (b) the set-up of two kinds of communication, a direct connection between the SCADA and the PLC and an indirect one by means of an OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) server. The communication performance was evaluated measuring the network traffic with a fixed number of data variables exchanged and different polling cycle times. The conclusions show that the final choice of a SCADA package for SPIDER will be between one commercial SCADA and EPICS. This choice will not depend uniquely on the results of the tests, but will be also dictated by the early schedule of the SPIDER operations.

  2. Plutonium air transportable package Model PAT-1. Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The document is a Safety Analysis Report for the Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, which was developed by Sandia Laboratories under contract to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The document describes the engineering tests and evaluations that the NRC staff used as a basis to determine that the package design meets the requirements specified in the NRC ''Qualification Criteria to Certify a Package for Air Transport of Plutonium'' (NUREG-0360). By virtue of its ability to meet the NRC Qualification Criteria, the package design is capable of safely withstanding severe aircraft accidents. The document also includes engineering drawings and specifications for the package. 92 figs, 29 tables

  3. Evaluation of Solid Rocket Motor Component Data Using a Commercially Available Statistical Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available software packages today allow users to quickly perform the routine evaluations of (1) descriptive statistics to numerically and graphically summarize both sample and population data, (2) inferential statistics that draws conclusions about a given population from samples taken of it, (3) probability determinations that can be used to generate estimates of reliability allowables, and finally (4) the setup of designed experiments and analysis of their data to identify significant material and process characteristics for application in both product manufacturing and performance enhancement. This paper presents examples of analysis and experimental design work that has been conducted using Statgraphics®(Registered Trademark) statistical software to obtain useful information with regard to solid rocket motor propellants and internal insulation material. Data were obtained from a number of programs (Shuttle, Constellation, and Space Launch System) and sources that include solid propellant burn rate strands, tensile specimens, sub-scale test motors, full-scale operational motors, rubber insulation specimens, and sub-scale rubber insulation analog samples. Besides facilitating the experimental design process to yield meaningful results, statistical software has demonstrated its ability to quickly perform complex data analyses and yield significant findings that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. One caveat to these successes is that useful results not only derive from the inherent power of the software package, but also from the skill and understanding of the data analyst.

  4. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  5. Microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Richard A; Peirson, Michael D; Lam, Jocelyn; Tan, Kit Bee

    2004-12-01

    The microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees C for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and pH changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. Pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. In addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, to identify possible reasons for differences in the storage life of product from the plants. The effects of a change in sanitation procedures on the microbial populations of products stored for 25 days were also studied. With normal product, microbial growth in different packages progressed at different rates, reflecting differences in initial levels of bacterial contamination. All samples in the study reached 8 weeks without apparent organoleptic change and samples carried 5.8+/-1.2 log bacteria cm(-2) (mean+/-S.D.). The flora of loins with the odour defect were predominately lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and carnobacteria, but they contained large fractions of Enterobacteriaceae spoiled products, but species of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria could have contributed to spoilage. Comparison of microbial groups present in 16 other cuts, half from each of two commercial plants, which were stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, showed that larger fractions of Enterobacteriaceae were present in samples from the plant having difficulty achieving the desired storage life. Additional bacterial samples from 12 cuts supplied by the latter plant obtained after adoption of an acid sanitizer step in the plant cleaning regimen, and also stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, yielded few Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas or Shewanella. Use of an acid sanitizer in plant cleaning may be a means of controlling alkali-tolerant bacteria such as Aeromonas or Shewanella which can

  6. topicmodels: An R Package for Fitting Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Grun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Topic models allow the probabilistic modeling of term frequency occurrences in documents. The fitted model can be used to estimate the similarity between documents as well as between a set of specified keywords using an additional layer of latent variables which are referred to as topics. The R package topicmodels provides basic infrastructure for fitting topic models based on data structures from the text mining package tm. The package includes interfaces to two algorithms for fitting topic models: the variational expectation-maximization algorithm provided by David M. Blei and co-authors and an algorithm using Gibbs sampling by Xuan-Hieu Phan and co-authors.

  7. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  8. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  9. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  10. Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented

  11. Documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Model 9977 packages at NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.

    2009-01-01

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  12. lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2017-01-01

    One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions...... by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using...

  13. An R package for analyzing and modeling ranking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Yu, Philip L H

    2013-05-14

    In medical informatics, psychology, market research and many other fields, researchers often need to analyze and model ranking data. However, there is no statistical software that provides tools for the comprehensive analysis of ranking data. Here, we present pmr, an R package for analyzing and modeling ranking data with a bundle of tools. The pmr package enables descriptive statistics (mean rank, pairwise frequencies, and marginal matrix), Analytic Hierarchy Process models (with Saaty's and Koczkodaj's inconsistencies), probability models (Luce model, distance-based model, and rank-ordered logit model), and the visualization of ranking data with multidimensional preference analysis. Examples of the use of package pmr are given using a real ranking dataset from medical informatics, in which 566 Hong Kong physicians ranked the top five incentives (1: competitive pressures; 2: increased savings; 3: government regulation; 4: improved efficiency; 5: improved quality care; 6: patient demand; 7: financial incentives) to the computerization of clinical practice. The mean rank showed that item 4 is the most preferred item and item 3 is the least preferred item, and significance difference was found between physicians' preferences with respect to their monthly income. A multidimensional preference analysis identified two dimensions that explain 42% of the total variance. The first can be interpreted as the overall preference of the seven items (labeled as "internal/external"), and the second dimension can be interpreted as their overall variance of (labeled as "push/pull factors"). Various statistical models were fitted, and the best were found to be weighted distance-based models with Spearman's footrule distance. In this paper, we presented the R package pmr, the first package for analyzing and modeling ranking data. The package provides insight to users through descriptive statistics of ranking data. Users can also visualize ranking data by applying a thought

  14. The gRbase Package for Graphical Modelling in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Dethlefsen, Claus

    We have developed a package, called , consisting of a number of classes and associated methods to support the analysis of data using graphical models. It is developed for the open source language, R, and is available for several platforms. The package is intended to be widely extendible...... these building blocks can be combined and integrated with inference engines in the special cases of hierarchical log-linear models (undirected models). gRbase gRbase dynamicGraph...... and flexible so that package developers may implement further types of graphical models using the available methods. contains methods for representing data, specification of models using a formal language, and is linked to , an interactive graphical user interface for manipulating graphs. We show how...

  15. Mass Transfer Model for a Breached Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.; McClure, J.

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of waste packages, which are used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the repository, can result in configurations that may increase the probability of criticality. A mass transfer model is developed for a breached waste package to account for the entrainment of insoluble particles. In combination with radionuclide decay, soluble advection, and colloidal transport, a complete mass balance of nuclides in the waste package becomes available. The entrainment equations are derived from dimensionless parameters such as drag coefficient and Reynolds number and based on the assumption that insoluble particles are subjected to buoyant force, gravitational force, and drag force only. Particle size distributions are utilized to calculate entrainment concentration along with geochemistry model abstraction to calculate soluble concentration, and colloid model abstraction to calculate colloid concentration and radionuclide sorption. Results are compared with base case geochemistry model, which only considers soluble advection loss

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial multilayer coextruded flexible plastics packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Antonios E.; Riganakos, Kyriakos A.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2003-12-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (doses: 5, 10 and 30 kGy) on mechanical properties, gas and water vapour permeability and overall migration values into distilled water, 3% aqueous acetic acid and iso-octane was studied for a series of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials based on coextruded polypropylene (PP), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyamide (PA) and Ionomer. The results showed that radiation doses of 5 and 10 kGy induced no statistically significant differences ( p>0.05) in all polymer properties examined. A dose of 30 kGy induced differences ( pfilms. In addition, the same dose induced differences ( pfilms into 3% acetic acid and iso-octane and in the overall migration from PP/EVOH/LDPE-LLDPE into iso-octane. Differences recorded, are discussed in relation to food irradiation applications of respective packaging materials.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on commercial food packaging films--study of changes in UV/VIS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, E.A.B.; Ortiz, A.V.; Wiebeck, H.; Paula, A.B.A.; Silva, A.L.A.; Silva, L.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses up to 100 kGy on the optical properties of different commercial packaging films were studied in this paper. The packaging films analyzed were: polyethylene 'LDPE', amide 6-amide 6.6 copolymer 'PA6-PA6.6' and poly(ethylene terephthalate) 'PET'. An investigation on film samples before and after irradiation was performed by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The results showed that, in the absorption spectra of irradiated LDPE and PA6-PA6.6 films, a red-shift in the wavelength of the UV cutoff and a marked reduction in % transmittance (at low wavelengths) occur with increasing radiation dose. With respect to PET samples, no significant changes were observed in either light absorption or transmittance

  18. Chinshan living PRA model using NUPRA software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.-K.; Lin, T.-J.

    2004-01-01

    A living probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model has been established for Chinshan Nuclear Power Station (BWR-4, MARK-I) using NUPRA software package. The core damage frequency due to internal events, seismic events and typhoons are evaluated in this model. The methodology and results considering the recent implementation of the 5th emergency diesel generator and automatic boron injection function are presented. The dominant sequences of this PRA model are discussed, and some possible applications of this living model are proposed. (author)

  19. A Kinetic Model for Predicting the Relative Humidity in Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Application in Lentinula edodes Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xin Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjusting and controlling the relative humidity (RH inside package is crucial for ensuring the quality of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of fresh produce. In this paper, an improved kinetic model for predicting the RH in MAP was developed. The model was based on heat exchange and gases mass transport phenomena across the package, gases heat convection inside the package, and mass and heat balances accounting for the respiration and transpiration behavior of fresh produce. Then the model was applied to predict the RH in MAP of fresh Lentinula edodes (one kind of Chinese mushroom. The model equations were solved numerically using Adams-Moulton method to predict the RH in model packages. In general, the model predictions agreed well with the experimental data, except that the model predictions were slightly high in the initial period. The effect of the initial gas composition on the RH in packages was notable. In MAP of lower oxygen and higher carbon dioxide concentrations, the ascending rate of the RH was reduced, and the RH inside packages was saturated slowly during storage. The influence of the initial gas composition on the temperature inside package was not much notable.

  20. Commercialization of the modular modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartells, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Modular Modeling System (MMS) was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to provide an efficient, economical, and user-friendly computer code for use in the analysis of the dynamic performance of nuclear and fossil power plants. The MMS has been under development since 1978 and is now ready for general release to the industry. To most effectively transfer the MSS technology on a worldwide basis, EPRI has licensed the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) to act as the MMS code coordinator and commercial licensing agent. B and W is responsible for promoting the use of MMS and assisting users in the effective utilization of this new analysis tool. The history behind the commercialization of the MMS and the mechanism by which the MMS technology will be effectively transferred to provide for a self-sustaining and technically current analysis tool are outlined

  1. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  2. Linear latent variable models: the lava-package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Klaus Kähler; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2013-01-01

    are implemented including robust standard errors for clustered correlated data, multigroup analyses, non-linear parameter constraints, inference with incomplete data, maximum likelihood estimation with censored and binary observations, and instrumental variable estimators. In addition an extensive simulation......An R package for specifying and estimating linear latent variable models is presented. The philosophy of the implementation is to separate the model specification from the actual data, which leads to a dynamic and easy way of modeling complex hierarchical structures. Several advanced features...

  3. Author Correction: Energy use and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of drones for commercial package delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Samaras, Constantine; O'Neill, Emma R; Lubers, Alia; Mitchell, Alexandra S; Ceperley, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    In the original version of this Article, the first sentence of the sixth paragraph of the "Comparing emissions" section, the Results originally incorrectly read as 'In the base case, delivery of a small (0.5 kg) package with the small quadrotor drone has lower impacts than delivery by diesel truck, ranging from a 59% reduction in GHGs in California, to a 17% reduction in Missouri'. The correct version states '54%' instead of '59%' and '23%' instead of '17%'.The fourth sentence of the same paragraph originally incorrectly read as 'In the base case, delivery of a medium-sized (8 kg) package has 17% lower GHGs than delivery by truck in California, is about equivalent to delivery trucks for the U.S. average electricity mix, but has 77% higher GHGs than truck delivery in Missouri, which has a carbon-intensive electricity grid'. The correct version states 'In the base case, delivery of a medium-sized (8 kg) package has 9% lower GHGs than delivery by truck in California, is about 24% higher than delivery trucks for the U.S. average electricity mix, and has 50% higher GHGs than truck delivery in Missouri, which has a carbon-intensive electricity grid.The last sentence of the seventh paragraph of the same section originally incorrectly read as 'Because of the importance of electricity used to power the octocopter, charging with low-carbon electricity of 200 g GHG/kWh can reduce delivered package GHGs by 34% compared to diesel trucks'. The correct version states '37%' instead of '34%'.These errors have been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

  4. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O 2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The R Package bgmm : Mixture Modeling with Uncertain Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemys law Biecek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical supervised learning enjoys the luxury of accessing the true known labels for the observations in a modeled dataset. Real life, however, poses an abundance of problems, where the labels are only partially defined, i.e., are uncertain and given only for a subsetof observations. Such partial labels can occur regardless of the knowledge source. For example, an experimental assessment of labels may have limited capacity and is prone to measurement errors. Also expert knowledge is often restricted to a specialized area and is thus unlikely to provide trustworthy labels for all observations in the dataset. Partially supervised mixture modeling is able to process such sparse and imprecise input. Here, we present an R package calledbgmm, which implements two partially supervised mixture modeling methods: soft-label and belief-based modeling. For completeness, we equipped the package also with the functionality of unsupervised, semi- and fully supervised mixture modeling. On real data we present the usage of bgmm for basic model-fitting in all modeling variants. The package can be applied also to selection of the best-fitting from a set of models with different component numbers or constraints on their structures. This functionality is presented on an artificial dataset, which can be simulated in bgmm from a distribution defined by a given model.

  6. Company's Unusual Plan to Package Commercial Software with Business Textbooks Produces a Measure of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Course Technology Inc. has developed 10 products combining textbooks with commercial software for college accounting, business, computer science, and statistics courses. Five of the products use Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software. The products have been positively received by teachers and students. (DB)

  7. mixtools: An R Package for Analyzing Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benaglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The mixtools package for R provides a set of functions for analyzing a variety of finite mixture models. These functions include both traditional methods, such as EM algorithms for univariate and multivariate normal mixtures, and newer methods that reflect some recent research in finite mixture models. In the latter category, mixtools provides algorithms for estimating parameters in a wide range of different mixture-of-regression contexts, in multinomial mixtures such as those arising from discretizing continuous multivariate data, in nonparametric situations where the multivariate component densities are completely unspecified, and in semiparametric situations such as a univariate location mixture of symmetric but otherwise unspecified densities. Many of the algorithms of the mixtools package are EM algorithms or are based on EM-like ideas, so this article includes an overview of EM algorithms for finite mixture models.

  8. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  10. Discrepancy between the composition of some commercial cat foods and their package labelling and suitability for meeting nutritional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosper, E C; Raubenheimer, D; Machovsky-Capuska, G E; Chaves, A V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if the label information and nutrient composition of commercial cat foods are accurate and compliant with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) and if they meet the nutritional requirements of an adult cat. A chemical analysis of 10 wet and 10 dry commercial cat foods labelled as 'nutritionally complete' for the adult cat was performed. The results were compared with the package composition values, the Australian Standard and the unique dietary requirements of the cat. In addition, the results of the chemical analysis were compared with the nutrient requirements published by the Association of the American Feed Control Officials and the National Research Council. When compared with the Australian Standard, 9 of the 20 cat foods did not adhere to their 'guaranteed analysis' and 8 did not adhere to the standards for nutrient composition. Also, various deficiencies and excesses of crude protein, crude fat, fatty acid and amino acid were observed in the majority of the cat foods. The results of this study highlight a need for an improved method of ensuring that label information and nutrient composition are accurate and comply with the Australian Standard (AS 5812-2011) to ensure the adult cat's unique dietary requirements are being met by commercial adult cat food. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Program Package for 3d PIC Model of Plasma Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánek, Petr; Břeň, David

    2007-08-01

    A fully three dimensional Particle in Cell model of the plasma fiber had been developed. The code is written in FORTRAN 95, implementation CVF (Compaq Visual Fortran) under Microsoft Visual Studio user interface. Five particle solvers and two field solvers are included in the model. The solvers have relativistic and non-relativistic variants. The model can deal both with periodical and non-periodical boundary conditions. The mechanism of the surface turbulences generation in the plasma fiber was successfully simulated with the PIC program package.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial monolayer and multilayer semirigid plastics packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Riganakos, K.A.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile testing, overall migration tests and sensory tests were used to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (5-60 kGy) on six commercial semirigid packaging materials. The monolayer and multilayer materials in sheet or bottle form were: polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride/high-density polyethylene (PVC/HDPE), polyethylene terepthalate (PET), HDPE/polyamide (HDPE/PA) and HDPE. In terms of mechanical strength, PET was the most radiation-resistant material, while the HDPE monolayer and multilayer showed some degradation after 60 kGy. PS was slightly affected after 30 kGy, whereas PP was severely degraded and became very brittle. Generally, there was no change in overall migration at lower doses; at higher doses migration from PP tended to increase, while migration from HDPE/PVC tended to decrease. Odor and taste transfer as well as discoloration were observed with most plastics, especially at higher doses, and it is concluded that these tests are a sensitive and important quality control tool for evaluating irradiated packaging materials

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial multilayer coextruded flexible plastics packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Riganakos, K.A.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (doses: 5, 10 and 30 kGy) on mechanical properties, gas and water vapour permeability and overall migration values into distilled water, 3% aqueous acetic acid and iso-octane was studied for a series of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials based on coextruded polypropylene (PP), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyamide (PA) and Ionomer. The results showed that radiation doses of 5 and 10 kGy induced no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in all polymer properties examined. A dose of 30 kGy induced differences (p<0.05) in the mechanical properties of PA/LDPE, LDPE/EVOH/LDPE and LDPE/PA/Ionomer films. In addition, the same dose induced differences (p<0.05) in the overall migration from Ionomer/EVOH/LDPE and LDPE/PA/Ionomer films into 3% acetic acid and iso-octane and in the overall migration from PP/EVOH/LDPE-LLDPE into iso-octane. Differences recorded, are discussed in relation to food irradiation applications of respective packaging materials

  14. Mixed Frequency Data Sampling Regression Models: The R Package midasr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ghysels

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When modeling economic relationships it is increasingly common to encounter data sampled at different frequencies. We introduce the R package midasr which enables estimating regression models with variables sampled at different frequencies within a MIDAS regression framework put forward in work by Ghysels, Santa-Clara, and Valkanov (2002. In this article we define a general autoregressive MIDAS regression model with multiple variables of different frequencies and show how it can be specified using the familiar R formula interface and estimated using various optimization methods chosen by the researcher. We discuss how to check the validity of the estimated model both in terms of numerical convergence and statistical adequacy of a chosen regression specification, how to perform model selection based on a information criterion, how to assess forecasting accuracy of the MIDAS regression model and how to obtain a forecast aggregation of different MIDAS regression models. We illustrate the capabilities of the package with a simulated MIDAS regression model and give two empirical examples of application of MIDAS regression.

  15. Packaging related properties of commercially available biopolymers – An overview of the status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jost

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several commercially available thermoplastic biopolymers were processed in a continuous extrusion line. The molecular weight, crystallinity, and mechanical and permeation properties of the cast films were determined in order to evaluate the status quo of biopolymers currently commercially available. The biopolymers that were evaluated were polylactic acid (PLA, several polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs (Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate (PHBHB, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, thermoplastic starch (TPS, polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT, polybutylene succinate (PBS, polycaprolactone (PCL and biobased polyethylene (BioPE. Due to its potential for biobased production, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU was also analysed. Mechanical analysis showed the PLA and PHA films had high strength and extremely low elongation at break. These were also the materials with the highest molecular weights. Films made of TPU, PCL, TPS, PBAT and BioPE had a significantly lower Young’s modulus and significantly higher elongation at break; these films had comparatively low molecular weights. Permeation measurements showed that PHA films, and particularly PHBV, had the lowest oxygen and water vapour permeability of the biopolymers that were analysed. The biopolymers BioPE, TPS, PCL, TPU and PBAT were highly permeable to oxygen, and had comparatively low molecular weight. The biopolymers TPU, PBS, PBAT, PCL and TPS were highly permeable to water vapour.

  16. Package models and the information crisis of prebiotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Daniel A M M; Fontanari, José F

    2008-05-21

    The coexistence between different types of templates has been the choice solution to the information crisis of prebiotic evolution, triggered by the finding that a single RNA-like template cannot carry enough information to code for any useful replicase. In principle, confining d distinct templates of length L in a package or protocell, whose survival depends on the coexistence of the templates it holds in, could resolve this crisis provided that d is made sufficiently large. Here we review the prototypical package model of Niesert et al. [1981. Origin of life between Scylla and Charybdis. J. Mol. Evol. 17, 348-353] which guarantees the greatest possible region of viability of the protocell population, and show that this model, and hence the entire package approach, does not resolve the information crisis. In particular, we show that the total information stored in a viable protocell (Ld) tends to a constant value that depends only on the spontaneous error rate per nucleotide of the template replication mechanism. As a result, an increase of d must be followed by a decrease of L, so that the net information gain is null.

  17. COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF BUFFETING EFFECTS USING OPENFOAM SOFTWARE PACKAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Kalugin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the preliminary results of computational modeling of an aircraft with the airbrake deployed are presented. The calculations were performed with OpenFOAM software package. The results outlined are a part of a research project to optimise aircraft performance using a perforated airbrake. Within this stage of the project OpenFOAM software package with hybrid RANS-LES approach was tested in respect to a given configuration of the aircraft, airbrake and then has been compared with the test data. For the worst case the amplitude of the peak force acting on the tail fin can be up to 6 times higher than the average value without airbrake deployed. To reduce unsteady loads acting on the tailfin, perforation of the airbrake was proposed.

  18. Practical application of a commercial CFD package in a design/build environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkoe, J; Krag, P; Rayner, C; Imrie, W [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Some examples of how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to solve problems in the design of metallurgical plants, were presented. CFD has been used to optimize equipment for several unit operations at Bechtel Mining and Metals, and also in developing technologies to improve environmental conditions in several facilities. Some examples included mixing in a copper refining furnace, flow in copper solvent extraction settlers, the ventilation of electrowinning tank houses, and the capture of fugitive emissions from Peirce-Smith converters. Cost effective use of CFD on such projects requires substantial investment in high-end computing equipment, versatile commercial CFD software and advanced data visualization, however, in the hands of a sophisticated analyst the results are well worth the expense. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. TMAP: Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Klaus; Dreizler, Stefan; Rauch, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) is a tool to calculate stellar atmospheres in spherical or plane-parallel geometry in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium allowing departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the population of atomic levels. It is based on the Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) method and is able to account for line blanketing by metals. All elements from hydrogen to nickel may be included in the calculation with model atoms which are tailored for the aims of the user.

  20. Categorical marginal models: quite extensive package for the estimation of marginal models for categorical data

    OpenAIRE

    Wicher Bergsma; Andries van der Ark

    2015-01-01

    A package accompanying the book Marginal Models for Dependent, Clustered, and Longitudinal Categorical Data by Bergsma, Croon, & Hagenaars, 2009. It’s purpose is fitting and testing of marginal models.

  1. Nonconvex model predictive control for commercial refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gybel Hovgaard, Tobias; Boyd, Stephen; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Bagterp Jørgensen, John

    2013-08-01

    We consider the control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms. In each time period we choose cooling capacity to each unit and a common evaporation temperature. The goal is to minimise the total energy cost, using real-time electricity prices, while obeying temperature constraints on the zones. We propose a variation on model predictive control to achieve this goal. When the right variables are used, the dynamics of the system are linear, and the constraints are convex. The cost function, however, is nonconvex due to the temperature dependence of thermodynamic efficiency. To handle this nonconvexity we propose a sequential convex optimisation method, which typically converges in fewer than 5 or so iterations. We employ a fast convex quadratic programming solver to carry out the iterations, which is more than fast enough to run in real time. We demonstrate our method on a realistic model, with a full year simulation and 15-minute time periods, using historical electricity prices and weather data, as well as random variations in thermal load. These simulations show substantial cost savings, on the order of 30%, compared to a standard thermostat-based control system. Perhaps more important, we see that the method exhibits sophisticated response to real-time variations in electricity prices. This demand response is critical to help balance real-time uncertainties in generation capacity associated with large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in a future smart grid.

  2. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-06-01

    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a greater extent in food service packaging. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. DYNSTALL: Subroutine package with a dynamic stall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, Anders [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    A subroutine package, called DYNSTALL, for the calculation of 2D unsteady airfoil aerodynamics is described. The subroutines are written in FORTRAN. DYNSTALL is basically an implementation of the Beddoes-Leishman dynamic stall model. This model is a semi-empirical model for dynamic stall. It includes, however, also models for attached flow unsteady aerodynamics. It is complete in the sense that it treats attached flow as well as separated flow. Semi-empirical means that the model relies on empirically determined constants. Semi because the constants are constants in equations with some physical interpretation. It requires the input of 2D airfoil aerodynamic data via tables as function of angle of attack. The method is intended for use in an aeroelastic code with the aerodynamics solved by blade/element method. DYNSTALL was written to work for any 2D angles of attack relative to the airfoil, e.g. flow from the rear of an airfoil.

  4. SPOTting Model Parameters Using a Ready-Made Python Package.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Houska

    Full Text Available The choice for specific parameter estimation methods is often more dependent on its availability than its performance. We developed SPOTPY (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool, an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of methods typically used to calibrate, analyze and optimize parameters for a wide range of ecological models. SPOTPY currently contains eight widely used algorithms, 11 objective functions, and can sample from eight parameter distributions. SPOTPY has a model-independent structure and can be run in parallel from the workstation to large computation clusters using the Message Passing Interface (MPI. We tested SPOTPY in five different case studies to parameterize the Rosenbrock, Griewank and Ackley functions, a one-dimensional physically based soil moisture routine, where we searched for parameters of the van Genuchten-Mualem function and a calibration of a biogeochemistry model with different objective functions. The case studies reveal that the implemented SPOTPY methods can be used for any model with just a minimal amount of code for maximal power of parameter optimization. They further show the benefit of having one package at hand that includes number of well performing parameter search methods, since not every case study can be solved sufficiently with every algorithm or every objective function.

  5. Thermal modeling of nuclear waste package designs for disposal in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, J.N.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in the design and testing of high-level nuclear waste packages. Many of the aspects of waste package design and testing (e.g., corrosion and leaching) depend in part on the temperature history of the emplaced packages. This paper discusses thermal modeling and analysis of various emplaced waste package conceptual designs including the models used, the assumptions and approximations made, and the results obtained. 6 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  6. Thermal modeling of nuclear waste package designs for disposal in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, J.N.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1984-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in the design and testing of high-level nuclear waste packages. Many of the aspects of waste package design and testing (e.g., corrosion and leaching) depend in part on the temperature history of the emplaced packages. This paper discusses thermal modeling and analysis of various emplaced waste package conceptual designs including the models used, the assumptions and approximations made, and the results obtained. 6 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  7. EpiModel: An R Package for Mathematical Modeling of Infectious Disease over Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Samuel M; Goodreau, Steven M; Morris, Martina

    2018-04-01

    Package EpiModel provides tools for building, simulating, and analyzing mathematical models for the population dynamics of infectious disease transmission in R. Several classes of models are included, but the unique contribution of this software package is a general stochastic framework for modeling the spread of epidemics on networks. EpiModel integrates recent advances in statistical methods for network analysis (temporal exponential random graph models) that allow the epidemic modeling to be grounded in empirical data on contacts that can spread infection. This article provides an overview of both the modeling tools built into EpiModel , designed to facilitate learning for students new to modeling, and the application programming interface for extending package EpiModel , designed to facilitate the exploration of novel research questions for advanced modelers.

  8. Continuous Time Structural Equation Modeling with R Package ctsem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Driver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ctsem, an R package for continuous time structural equation modeling of panel (N > 1 and time series (N = 1 data, using full information maximum likelihood. Most dynamic models (e.g., cross-lagged panel models in the social and behavioural sciences are discrete time models. An assumption of discrete time models is that time intervals between measurements are equal, and that all subjects were assessed at the same intervals. Violations of this assumption are often ignored due to the difficulty of accounting for varying time intervals, therefore parameter estimates can be biased and the time course of effects becomes ambiguous. By using stochastic differential equations to estimate an underlying continuous process, continuous time models allow for any pattern of measurement occasions. By interfacing to OpenMx, ctsem combines the flexible specification of structural equation models with the enhanced data gathering opportunities and improved estimation of continuous time models. ctsem can estimate relationships over time for multiple latent processes, measured by multiple noisy indicators with varying time intervals between observations. Within and between effects are estimated simultaneously by modeling both observed covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. Exogenous shocks with different shapes, group differences, higher order diffusion effects and oscillating processes can all be simply modeled. We first introduce and define continuous time models, then show how to specify and estimate a range of continuous time models using ctsem.

  9. Technical Review Report for the Model 9975-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00003, Revision 0, January 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, Revision 0, dated January 2008 (S-SARP-G-00003, the SARP). The review includes an evaluation of the SARP, with respect to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71, and in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9975-96 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. Earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, the Model 9966, the Model 9967, and the Model 9968 Packagings, were originally designed and certified in the early 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with the then newer safety requirements were proposed. The updated package designs at the time were the Model 9972, the Model 9973, the Model 9974, and the Model 9975 Packagings, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification Program, under the Office of Safety Management and Operations. The safety analysis of the Model 9975-85 Packaging is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, B(M)F-85, Revision 0, dated December 2003. The Model 9975-85 Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) package identification number, USA/9975/B(M)F-85, for the transportation of Type B quantities of uranium metal/oxide, 238 Pu heat sources, plutonium/uranium metals, plutonium/uranium oxides, plutonium composites, plutonium/tantalum composites, 238 Pu oxide/beryllium metal.

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in Romaine lettuce packaged in a commercial polyethylene terephthalate container using atmospheric cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in Romaine lettuce packaged in a conventional commercial plastic container were evaluated during storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days. Effects ...

  11. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Y-12 National Security Complex, Model ES-3100 Package with Bulk HEU Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goins, Monty [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Pran [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, Alan [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, David [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-03

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) presents the results of the safety analysis prepared in support of the Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) request for licensing of the Model ES-3100 package with bulk highly enriched uranium (HEU) contents and issuance of a Type B(U) Fissile Material Certificate of Compliance. This SARP, published in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 7.9 and using information provided in UCID-21218 and NRC Regulatory Guide 7.10, demonstrates that the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) ES-3100 package with bulk HEU contents meets the established NRC regulations for packaging, preparation for shipment, and transportation of radioactive materials given in Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) [10 CFR 71] as well as U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for packaging and shipment of hazardous materials given in Title 49 CFR. To protect the health and safety of the public, shipments of adioactive materials are made in packaging that is designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, procured, used, maintained, and repaired in accordance with the provisions cited above. Safety requirements addressed by the regulations that must be met when transporting radioactive materials are containment of radioactive materials, radiation shielding, and assurance of nuclear subcriticality.

  12. Spent fuel characterization for the commercial waste and spent fuel packaging program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Davis, R.B.; Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R.W.

    1980-03-01

    This document presents the rationale for spent fuel characterization and provides a detailed description of the characterization examinations. Pretest characterization examinations provide quantitative and qualitative descriptions of spent fuel assemblies and rods in their irradiated conditions prior to disposal testing. This information is essential in evaluating any subsequent changes that occur during disposal demonstration and laboratory tests. Interim examinations and post-test characterization will be used to identify fuel rod degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation kinetics. The nature and behavior of the spent fuel degradation will be defined in terms of mathematical rate equations from these and laboratory tests and incorporated into a spent fuel performance prediction model. Thus, spent fuel characterization is an essential activity in the development of a performance model to be used in evaluating the ability of spent fuel to meet specific waste acceptance criteria and in evaluating incentives for modification of the spent fuel assemblies for long-term disposal purposes

  13. Evaluation of the data available for estimating release rates from commercial low-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of our findings concerning the distribution of activity within low-level radioactive wastes will be presented. This will begin in a general fashion and consider the distribution of the total activity by each of the following: waste class, waste stream, wasteform, and waste container. A radionuclide specific breakdown by waste class and wasteform follows. The findings are reviewed in terms of performance assessment modeling needs. Finally, we present our conclusions

  14. SPOTting model parameters using a ready-made Python package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The selection and parameterization of reliable process descriptions in ecological modelling is driven by several uncertainties. The procedure is highly dependent on various criteria, like the used algorithm, the likelihood function selected and the definition of the prior parameter distributions. A wide variety of tools have been developed in the past decades to optimize parameters. Some of the tools are closed source. Due to this, the choice for a specific parameter estimation method is sometimes more dependent on its availability than the performance. A toolbox with a large set of methods can support users in deciding about the most suitable method. Further, it enables to test and compare different methods. We developed the SPOT (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of modules, to analyze and optimize parameters of (environmental) models. SPOT comes along with a selected set of algorithms for parameter optimization and uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo, MC; Latin Hypercube Sampling, LHS; Maximum Likelihood, MLE; Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC; Scuffled Complex Evolution, SCE-UA; Differential Evolution Markov Chain, DE-MCZ), together with several likelihood functions (Bias, (log-) Nash-Sutcliff model efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, Coefficient of Determination, Covariance, (Decomposed-, Relative-, Root-) Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, Agreement Index) and prior distributions (Binomial, Chi-Square, Dirichlet, Exponential, Laplace, (log-, multivariate-) Normal, Pareto, Poisson, Cauchy, Uniform, Weibull) to sample from. The model-independent structure makes it suitable to analyze a wide range of applications. We apply all algorithms of the SPOT package in three different case studies. Firstly, we investigate the response of the Rosenbrock function, where the MLE algorithm shows its strengths. Secondly, we study the Griewank function, which has a challenging response surface for

  15. Lenstronomy: Multi-purpose gravitational lens modeling software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam

    2018-04-01

    Lenstronomy is a multi-purpose open-source gravitational lens modeling python package. Lenstronomy reconstructs the lens mass and surface brightness distributions of strong lensing systems using forward modelling and supports a wide range of analytic lens and light models in arbitrary combination. The software is also able to reconstruct complex extended sources as well as point sources. Lenstronomy is flexible and numerically accurate, with a clear user interface that could be deployed across different platforms. Lenstronomy has been used to derive constraints on dark matter properties in strong lenses, measure the expansion history of the universe with time-delay cosmography, measure cosmic shear with Einstein rings, and decompose quasar and host galaxy light.

  16. Kinematic optimization of upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope through novel use of commercially available three-dimensional CAD package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeking, Gregory A.; Zierer, Joseph J.; Jackson, John R.

    2010-07-01

    The University of Texas, Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) is making a major upgrade to the robotic tracking system on the Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET) as part of theWide Field Upgrade (WFU). The upgrade focuses on a seven-fold increase in payload and necessitated a complete redesign of all tracker supporting structure and motion control systems, including the tracker bridge, ten drive systems, carriage frames, a hexapod, and many other subsystems. The cost and sensitivity of the scientific payload, coupled with the tracker system mass increase, necessitated major upgrades to personnel and hardware safety systems. To optimize kinematic design of the entire tracker, UT-CEM developed novel uses of constraints and drivers to interface with a commercially available CAD package (SolidWorks). For example, to optimize volume usage and minimize obscuration, the CAD software was exercised to accurately determine tracker/hexapod operational space needed to meet science requirements. To verify hexapod controller models, actuator travel requirements were graphically measured and compared to well defined equations of motion for Stewart platforms. To ensure critical hardware safety during various failure modes, UT-CEM engineers developed Visual Basic drivers to interface with the CAD software and quickly tabulate distance measurements between critical pieces of optical hardware and adjacent components for thousands of possible hexapod configurations. These advances and techniques, applicable to any challenging robotic system design, are documented and describe new ways to use commercially available software tools to more clearly define hardware requirements and help insure safe operation.

  17. A new vector radiative transfer model as a part of SCIATRAN 3.0 software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Burrows, John P.

    The SCIATRAN 3.0 package is a result of further development of the SCIATRAN 2.x software family which, similar to previous versions, comprises a radiative transfer model and a retrieval block. A major improvement was achieved in comparison to previous software versions by adding the vector mode to the radiative transfer model. Thus, the well-established Discrete Ordinate solver can now be run in the vector mode to calculate the scattered solar radiation including polarization, i.e., to simulate all four components of the Stockes vector. Similar to the scalar version, the simulations can be performed for any viewing geometry typical for atmospheric observations in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range (nadir, limb, off-axis, etc.) as well as for any observer position within or outside the Earth's atmosphere. Similar to the precursor version, the new model is freely available for non-commercial use via the web page of the University of Bremen. In this presentation a short description of the software package, especially of the new vector radiative transfer model will be given, including remarks on the availability for the scientific community. Furthermore, comparisons to other vector models will be shown and some example problems will be considered where the polarization of the observed radiation must be accounted for to obtain high quality results.

  18. Optimal timing of TV commercials: symmetrical model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 195 (2002), s. 1-27 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : TV commercials * behavior * TV viewer Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. Use of advanced modeling techniques to optimize thermal packaging designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M; Potami, Raffaele; Ahmed, Iftekhar

    2010-01-01

    Through a detailed case study the authors demonstrate, for the first time, the capability of using advanced modeling techniques to correctly simulate the transient temperature response of a convective flow-based thermal shipper design. The objective of this case study was to demonstrate that simulation could be utilized to design a 2-inch-wall polyurethane (PUR) shipper to hold its product box temperature between 2 and 8 °C over the prescribed 96-h summer profile (product box is the portion of the shipper that is occupied by the payload). Results obtained from numerical simulation are in excellent agreement with empirical chamber data (within ±1 °C at all times), and geometrical locations of simulation maximum and minimum temperature match well with the corresponding chamber temperature measurements. Furthermore, a control simulation test case was run (results taken from identical product box locations) to compare the coupled conduction-convection model with a conduction-only model, which to date has been the state-of-the-art method. For the conduction-only simulation, all fluid elements were replaced with "solid" elements of identical size and assigned thermal properties of air. While results from the coupled thermal/fluid model closely correlated with the empirical data (±1 °C), the conduction-only model was unable to correctly capture the payload temperature trends, showing a sizeable error compared to empirical values (ΔT > 6 °C). A modeling technique capable of correctly capturing the thermal behavior of passively refrigerated shippers can be used to quickly evaluate and optimize new packaging designs. Such a capability provides a means to reduce the cost and required design time of shippers while simultaneously improving their performance. Another advantage comes from using thermal modeling (assuming a validated model is available) to predict the temperature distribution in a shipper that is exposed to ambient temperatures which were not bracketed

  20. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses

  1. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses.

  2. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

  3. The University of Arizona Nanosat Program: Making Space accessible to scientific and commercial packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, U.; Fevig, R. A.

    2003-05-01

    For the last couple of years we have been engaged in building nanosatellites within a student-mentor framework. The satellites are 10x10x10cm cubes, have a maximum mass of 1 kg, and power of a few watts. The standardized "cube-sat" form factor was suggested by Bob Twiggs of Stanford University so that a common launch platform could be utilized and more Universities could participate. We have now built four "cube-sats': a launchable Engineering model, Rincon 1 & 2, (funded by Rincon corporation), and Alcatel funded by Alcatel Espace. The costs for the four satellites are \\250,000. Launch costs using a Russian SS-18 are typically \\10,000 per kg. The payload for Rincon 1 & 2 is a sophisticated telecommunications board using only 10 mw of transmitting power. The Alcatel payload consists of three communications IC's whose radiation exposure and annealing properties will be studied over a period of years. Future nanosatellites will have considerable value in providing low cost access to space for experiments in nanotechnology, space electronics, micropropulsion, radiation experiments, astrobionics and climate change studies. For the latter area we are considering experiments to monitor the solar constant, the solar UV spectrum, the chromospheric activity through the Mg II index, the Earth's Albedo, etc. For this purpose we are developing a slightly larger satellite, 20x20x20cm and 10 kg. We have built a C-MOS camera with a 1 ms exposure time for attitude determination, and we are working with Honeywell Industries to develop micro-reaction wheels for attitude control. We are also working on micro-propulsion units with the Air Force and several aerospace companies. Preliminary calculations show that we can develop delta-V's of 5km/s which will allow us to visit 5% (about 100) of the NEA population or possibly some comets. We firmly believe a vigorous nanosatellite program will allow useful space experiments for costs of millions of Dollars instead of the present tens of

  4. Modeling the oxygen diffusion of nanocomposite-based food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Kanishka; Dhawan, Sumeet; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-07-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have been shown to improve the gas barrier properties of food packaging polymers. This study developed a computer simulation model using the commercial software, COMSOL Multiphysics to analyze changes in oxygen barrier properties in terms of relative diffusivity, as influenced by configuration and structural parameters that include volume fraction (φ), aspect ratio (α), intercalation width (W), and orientation angle (θ) of nanoparticles. The simulation was performed at different φ (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%), α (50, 100, 500, and 1000), and W (1, 3, 5, and 7 nm). The θ value was varied from 0° to 85°. Results show that diffusivity decreases with increasing volume fraction, but beyond φ = 5% and α = 500, diffusivity remained almost constant at W values of 1 and 3 nm. Higher relative diffusivity coincided with increasing W and decreasing α value for the same volume fraction of nanoparticles. Diffusivity increased as the rotational angle increased, gradually diminishing the influence of nanoparticles. Diffusivity increased drastically as θ changed from 15° to 30° (relative increment in relative diffusivity was almost 3.5 times). Nanoparticles with exfoliation configuration exhibited better oxygen barrier properties compared to intercalation. The finite element model developed in this study provides insight into oxygen barrier properties for nanocomposite with a wide range of structural parameters. This model can be used to design and manufacture an ideal nanocomposite-based food packaging film with improved gas barrier properties for industrial applications. The model will assist in designing nanocomposite polymeric structures of desired gas barrier properties for food packaging applications. In addition, this study will be helpful in formulating a combination of nanoparticle structural parameters for designing nanocomposite membranes with selective permeability for the industrial applications including membrane

  5. Chemically Aware Model Builder (camb): an R package for property and bioactivity modelling of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Daniel S; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; van Westen, Gerard J P; Stott, Ian P; Bender, Andreas; Malliavin, Thérèse E; Glen, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    In silico predictive models have proved to be valuable for the optimisation of compound potency, selectivity and safety profiles in the drug discovery process. camb is an R package that provides an environment for the rapid generation of quantitative Structure-Property and Structure-Activity models for small molecules (including QSAR, QSPR, QSAM, PCM) and is aimed at both advanced and beginner R users. camb's capabilities include the standardisation of chemical structure representation, computation of 905 one-dimensional and 14 fingerprint type descriptors for small molecules, 8 types of amino acid descriptors, 13 whole protein sequence descriptors, filtering methods for feature selection, generation of predictive models (using an interface to the R package caret), as well as techniques to create model ensembles using techniques from the R package caretEnsemble). Results can be visualised through high-quality, customisable plots (R package ggplot2). Overall, camb constitutes an open-source framework to perform the following steps: (1) compound standardisation, (2) molecular and protein descriptor calculation, (3) descriptor pre-processing and model training, visualisation and validation, and (4) bioactivity/property prediction for new molecules. camb aims to speed model generation, in order to provide reproducibility and tests of robustness. QSPR and proteochemometric case studies are included which demonstrate camb's application.Graphical abstractFrom compounds and data to models: a complete model building workflow in one package.

  6. The R Package threg to Implement Threshold Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xiao

    2015-08-01

    This new package includes four functions: threg, and the methods hr, predict and plot for threg objects returned by threg. The threg function is the model-fitting function which is used to calculate regression coefficient estimates, asymptotic standard errors and p values. The hr method for threg objects is the hazard-ratio calculation function which provides the estimates of hazard ratios at selected time points for specified scenarios (based on given categories or value settings of covariates. The predict method for threg objects is used for prediction. And the plot method for threg objects provides plots for curves of estimated hazard functions, survival functions and probability density functions of the first-hitting-time; function curves corresponding to different scenarios can be overlaid in the same plot for comparison to give additional research insights.

  7. Accuracy evaluation of fusion of CT, MR, and SPECT images using commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongioj, Valeria; Brusa, Anna; Loi, Gianfranco; Pignoli, Emanuele; Gramaglia, Alberto; Scorsetti, Marta; Bombardieri, Emilio; Marchesini, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A problem for clinicians is to mentally integrate information from multiple diagnostic sources, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), whose images give anatomic and metabolic information. Methods and Materials: To combine this different imaging procedure information, and to overlay correspondent slices, we used commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS). The algorithms utilize a fiducial-based coordinate system (or frame) with 3 N-shaped markers, which allows coordinate transformation of a clinical examination data set (9 spots for each transaxial section) to a stereotactic coordinate system. The N-shaped markers were filled with fluids visible in each modality (gadolinium for MR, calcium chloride for CT, and 99m Tc for SPECT). The frame is relocatable, in the different acquisition modalities, by means of a head holder to which a face mask is fixed so as to immobilize the patient. Position errors due to the algorithms were obtained by evaluating the stereotactic coordinates of five sources detectable in each modality. Results: SPECT and MR position errors due to the algorithms were evaluated with respect to CT: Δx was ≤ 0.9 mm for MR and ≤ 1.4 mm for SPECT, Δy was ≤ 1 mm and ≤ 3 mm for MR and SPECT, respectively. Maximal differences in distance between estimated and actual fiducial centers (geometric mismatch) were in the order of the pixel size (0.8 mm for CT, 1.4 mm for MR, and 1.8 mm for SPECT). In an attempt to distinguish necrosis from residual disease, the image fusion protocol was studied in 35 primary or metastatic brain tumor patients. Conclusions: The image fusion technique has a good degree of accuracy as well as the potential to improve the specificity of tissue identification and the precision of the subsequent treatment planning

  8. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  9. Thermo-mechanical model optimization of HB-LED packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Erinc, M.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Waal, A. van der; Driel, W. van; Zhang, K.

    2011-01-01

    Lighting is an advancing phenomenon both on the technology and on the market level due to the rapid development of the solid state lighting technology. The efforts in improving the efficacy of high brightness LED's (HB-LED) have concentrated on the packaging architecture. Packaging plays a

  10. Thermal expansion model for multiphase electronic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, B.E.; Warren, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Control of thermal expansion is often necessary in the design and selection of electronic packages. In some instances, it is desirable to have a coefficient of thermal expansion intermediate between values readily attainable with single or two phase materials. The addition of a third phase in the form of fillers, whiskers, or fibers can be used to attain intermediate expansions. To help design the thermal expansion of multiphase materials for specific applications, a closed form model has been developed that accurately predicts the effective elastic properties of isotropic filled materials and transversely isotropic lamina. Properties of filled matrix materials are used as inputs to the lamina model to obtain the composite elastic properties as a function of the volume fraction of each phase. Hybrid composites with two or more fiber types are easily handled with this model. This paper reports that results for glass, quartz, and Kevlar fibers with beta-eucryptite filled polymer matrices show good agreement with experimental results for X, Y, and Z thermal expansion coefficients

  11. Aluminum Laminates in Beverage Packaging: Models and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bolzon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum laminates are among the main components of beverage packaging. These layered material systems are coupled to paperboard plies except in the cap opening area, where the human force limit sets a requirement on the material properties to allow open-ability and the mechanical characteristics are of particular interest. Experimental investigations have been carried out on this composite and on its components by either traditional or full-field measurement techniques. The interpretation of the collected data has been supported by the simulation of the performed tests considering either a homogenized material model or the individual laminate layers. However, different results may be recovered from similar samples due to physical factors like the material processing route and the embedded defectiveness. In turn, the conclusions may vary depending on the model assumptions. This contribution focuses on the physical effects and on the modeling of the large localized deformation induced by material singularities. This topic is discussed at the light of some experimental results.

  12. Salt Repository Project: Waste Package Program (WPP) modeling activiteis: FY 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Simonson, S.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Salt Repository Project (SRP) through its Waste Package Program (WPP). During FY 1984, the WPP continued its program of waste package component development and interactions testing and application of the resulting data base to develop predictive models describing waste package degradation and radionuclide release. Within the WPP, the Modeling Task (Task 04 during FY 1984) was conducted to interpret the tests in such a way that scientifically defensible models can be developed for use in qualification of the waste package

  13. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  14. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  15. SCIATRAN 3.1: A new radiative transfer model and retrieval package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Burrows, John P.

    The SCIATRAN 3.1 package is a result of further development of the SCIATRAN 2.X software family which, similar to previous versions, comprises a radiative transfer model and a retrieval block. After an implementation of the vector radiative transfer model in SCIATRAN 3.0 the spectral range covered by the model has been extended into the thermal infrared ranging to approximately 40 micrometers. Another major improvement has been done accounting for the underlying surface effects. Among others, a sophisticated representation of the water surface with a bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) has been implemented accounting for the Fresnel reflection of the polarized light and for the effect of foam. A newly developed representation for a snow surface allows radiative transfer calculations to be performed within an unpolluted or soiled snow layer. Furthermore, a new approach has been implemented allowing radiative transfer calculations to be performed for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. This means that, the underlying ocean is not considered as a purely reflecting surface any more. Instead, full radiative transfer calculations are performed within the water allowing the user to simulate the radiance within both the atmosphere and the ocean. Similar to previous versions, the simulations can be performed for any viewing geometry typi-cal for atmospheric observations in the UV-Vis-NIR-TIR spectral range (nadir, limb, off-axis, etc.) as well as for any observer location within or outside the Earth's atmosphere including underwater observations. Similar to the precursor version, the new model is freely available for non-commercial use via the web page of the University of Bremen. In this presentation a short description of the software package, especially of the new features of the radiative transfer model is given, including remarks on the availability for the scientific community. Furthermore, some application examples of the radiative transfer model are

  16. THERMUS—A thermal model package for ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, S.; Cleymans, J.; Hauer, M.

    2009-01-01

    THERMUS is a package of C++ classes and functions allowing statistical-thermal model analyses of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions to be performed within the ROOT framework of analysis. Calculations are possible within three statistical ensembles; a grand-canonical treatment of the conserved charges B, S and Q, a fully canonical treatment of the conserved charges, and a mixed-canonical ensemble combining a canonical treatment of strangeness with a grand-canonical treatment of baryon number and electric charge. THERMUS allows for the assignment of decay chains and detector efficiencies specific to each particle yield, which enables sensible fitting of model parameters to experimental data. Program summaryProgram title: THERMUS, version 2.1 Catalogue identifier: AEBW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 152 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 93 581 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC, Pentium 4, 1 GB RAM (not hardware dependent) Operating system: Linux: FEDORA, RedHat, etc. Classification: 17.7 External routines: Numerical Recipes in C [1], ROOT [2] Nature of problem: Statistical-thermal model analyses of heavy-ion collision data require the calculation of both primordial particle densities and contributions from resonance decay. A set of thermal parameters (the number depending on the particular model imposed) and a set of thermalized particles, with their decays specified, is required as input to these models. The output is then a complete set of primordial thermal quantities for each particle, together with the contributions to the final particle yields from resonance decay. In many applications of

  17. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  18. Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    function, however, is nonconvex due to the temperature dependence of thermodynamic efficiency. To handle this nonconvexity we propose a sequential convex optimization method, which typically converges in fewer than 5 or so iterations. We employ a fast convex quadratic programming solver to carry out...... the iterations, which is more than fast enough to run in real-time. We demonstrate our method on a realistic model, with a full year simulation and 15 minute time periods, using historical electricity prices and weather data, as well as random variations in thermal load. These simulations show substantial cost...... capacity associated with large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in a future smart grid....

  19. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  20. gamboostLSS: An R Package for Model Building and Variable Selection in the GAMLSS Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hofner, Benjamin; Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape are a flexible class of regression models that allow to model multiple parameters of a distribution function, such as the mean and the standard deviation, simultaneously. With the R package gamboostLSS, we provide a boosting method to fit these models. Variable selection and model choice are naturally available within this regularized regression framework. To introduce and illustrate the R package gamboostLSS and its infrastructure, we...

  1. Model 9975 Life Extension Package 1 - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-01-01

    Life extension package LE1 (9975-03382) was instrumented and subjected to a temperature/humidity environment that bounds KAMS package storage conditions for 92 weeks. During this time, the maximum fiberboard temperature was ∼180 F, and was established by a combination of internal heat (12 watts) and external heat (∼142 F). The relative humidity external to the package was maintained at 80 %RH. This package was removed from test in November 2010 after several degraded conditions were observed during a periodic examination. These conditions included degraded fiberboard (easily broken, bottom layer stuck to the drum), corrosion of the drum, and separation of the air shield from the upper fiberboard assembly. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard and O-ring samples. These areas of agreement include the rate of fiberboard weight loss, change in fiberboard thermal conductivity, fiberboard compression strength, and O-ring compression set. In addition, this package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within the fiberboard can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 12 watt internal heat load. Much of the moisture near the fiberboard ID surface migrated towards the OD surface, but there was not a significant axial moisture gradient during most of the test duration. Only during the last inspection period (i.e. after 92 weeks exposure during the second phase) did enough moisture migrate to the bottom fiberboard layers to cause saturation. A side effect of moisture migration is the leaching of soluble compounds from the fiberboard. In particular, the corrosion observed on the drum appears related primarily to the leaching and concentration of chlorides. In most locations, this attack appears to be general corrosion, with shallow

  2. ShapeSelectForest: a new r package for modeling landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Meyer; Xiyue Liao; Gretchen Moisen; Elizabeth Freeman

    2015-01-01

    We present a new R package called ShapeSelectForest recently posted to the Comprehensive R Archival Network. The package was developed to fit nonparametric shape-restricted regression splines to time series of Landsat imagery for the purpose of modeling, mapping, and monitoring annual forest disturbance dynamics over nearly three decades. For each pixel and spectral...

  3. The use of the SIWARE model package in water management scenario studies, Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Gawad, S.T.; Abdel Khalek, M.A.; Smit, M.F.R.; Abdel Dayem, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The SIWARE model package, which stands for Simulation of Water Management in the Arab Republic of Egypt, has been developed as a decision-support system for the Irrigation and Planning Sectors of the Egyptian Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources. The package was implemented within the

  4. Integrated performance assessment model for waste policy package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  5. Integrated performance assessment model for waste package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V.A.; Sabapathy, S.N.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity

  8. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Johnsy [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)]. E-mail: g.johnsy@gmail.com; Kumar, R. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sajeevkumar, V.A. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sabapathy, S.N. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Vaijapurkar, S.G. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kumar, D. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kchawahha, A. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Bawa, A.S. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)

    2007-07-15

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of {gamma}-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  9. Improvement and validation of isotopic libraries of commercial gamma spectra evaluation packages. Report on task FIN A 955 of Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.

    1997-06-01

    The Department of Safeguards at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is running gamma spectroscopy analysis with various samples taken at various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. It was found that the commercial gamma spectra analysis packages available do not include proper gamma-line libraries for the various tasks needed for the safeguards purposes because the libraries of these packages are often incomplete and outdated. New libraries were developed to satisfy the needs in the analysis tasks required for the safeguards purposes. These lines are limited by the number of gamma lines to avoid the problems with too many candidates for a single gamma peak. The work was carried out under the Task FIN A 955 Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (18 refs.).

  10. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenkai

    2012-01-01

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  11. gamboostLSS: An R Package for Model Building and Variable Selection in the GAMLSS Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hofner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape are a flexible class of regression models that allow to model multiple parameters of a distribution function, such as the mean and the standard deviation, simultaneously. With the R package gamboostLSS, we provide a boosting method to fit these models. Variable selection and model choice are naturally available within this regularized regression framework. To introduce and illustrate the R package gamboostLSS and its infrastructure, we use a data set on stunted growth in India. In addition to the specification and application of the model itself, we present a variety of convenience functions, including methods for tuning parameter selection, prediction and visualization of results. The package gamboostLSS is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gamboostLSS.

  12. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  13. Caliver: An R package for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Claudia; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    The name caliver stands for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs. This is a package developed for the R programming language and available under an APACHE-2 license from a public repository. In this paper we describe the functionalities of the package and give examples using publicly available datasets. Fire danger model outputs are taken from the modeling components of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) and observed burned areas from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). Complete documentation, including a vignette, is also available within the package.

  14. visCOS: An R-package to evaluate model performance of hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Wesemann, Johannes; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The evaluation of model performance is a central part of (hydrological) modelling. Much attention has been given to the development of evaluation criteria and diagnostic frameworks. (Klemeš, 1986; Gupta et al., 2008; among many others). Nevertheless, many applications exist for which objective functions do not yet provide satisfying summaries. Thus, the necessity to visualize results arises in order to explore a wider range of model capacities, be it strengths or deficiencies. Visualizations are usually devised for specific projects and these efforts are often not distributed to a broader community (e.g. via open source software packages). Hence, the opportunity to explicitly discuss a state-of-the-art presentation technique is often missed. We therefore present a comprehensive R-package for evaluating model performance by visualizing and exploring different aspects of hydrological time-series. The presented package comprises a set of useful plots and visualization methods, which complement existing packages, such as hydroGOF (Zambrano-Bigiarini et al., 2012). It is derived from practical applications of the hydrological models COSERO and COSEROreg (Kling et al., 2014). visCOS, providing an interface in R, represents an easy-to-use software package for visualizing and assessing model performance and can be implemented in the process of model calibration or model development. The package provides functions to load hydrological data into R, clean the data, process, visualize, explore and finally save the results in a consistent way. Together with an interactive zoom function of the time series, an online calculation of the objective functions for variable time-windows is included. Common hydrological objective functions, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency, can also be evaluated and visualized in different ways for defined sub-periods like hydrological years or seasonal sections. Many hydrologists use long-term water-balances as a

  15. lumpR 2.0.0: an R package facilitating landscape discretisation for hillslope-based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Tobias; Francke, Till; Bronstert, Axel

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of a landscape pose essential factors for hydrological processes. Therefore, an adequate representation of the landscape of a catchment in hydrological models is vital. However, many of such models exist differing, amongst others, in spatial concept and discretisation. The latter constitutes an essential pre-processing step, for which many different algorithms along with numerous software implementations exist. In that context, existing solutions are often model specific, commercial, or depend on commercial back-end software, and allow only a limited or no workflow automation at all. Consequently, a new package for the scientific software and scripting environment R, called lumpR, was developed. lumpR employs an algorithm for hillslope-based landscape discretisation directed to large-scale application via a hierarchical multi-scale approach. The package addresses existing limitations as it is free and open source, easily extendible to other hydrological models, and the workflow can be fully automated. Moreover, it is user-friendly as the direct coupling to a GIS allows for immediate visual inspection and manual adjustment. Sufficient control is furthermore retained via parameter specification and the option to include expert knowledge. Conversely, completely automatic operation also allows for extensive analysis of aspects related to landscape discretisation. In a case study, the application of the package is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the most important discretisation parameters demonstrates its efficient workflow automation. Considering multiple streamflow metrics, the employed model proved reasonably robust to the discretisation parameters. However, parameters determining the sizes of subbasins and hillslopes proved to be more important than the others, including the number of representative hillslopes, the number of attributes employed for the lumping algorithm, and the number of sub-discretisations of the representative hillslopes.

  16. Dynamic modelling and PID loop control of an oil-injected screw compressor package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, G. W.; Milligan, W. J.; McKenna, P.

    2017-08-01

    A significant amount of time is spent tuning the PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) control loops of a screw compressor package due to the unique characteristics of the system. Common mistakes incurred during the tuning of a PID control loop include improper PID algorithm selection and unsuitable tuning parameters of the system resulting in erratic and inefficient operation. This paper details the design and development of software that aims to dynamically model the operation of a single stage oil injected screw compressor package deployed in upstream oil and gas applications. The developed software will be used to assess and accurately tune PID control loops present on the screw compressor package employed in controlling the oil pressures, temperatures and gas pressures, in a bid to improve control of the operation of the screw compressor package. Other applications of the modelling software will include its use as an evaluation tool that can estimate compressor package performance during start up, shutdown and emergency shutdown processes. The paper first details the study into the fundamental operational characteristics of each of the components present on the API 619 screw compressor package and then discusses the creation of a dynamic screw compressor model within the MATLAB/Simulink software suite. The paper concludes by verifying and assessing the accuracy of the created compressor model using data collected from physical screw compressor packages.

  17. Implementation of a Unified Constitutive Model into the ABAQUS Finite Element Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wescott, R

    1999-01-01

    Unified constitutive models have previously been developed at AMRL and implemented into the PAFEC and ABAQUS Finite Element packages to predict the stress-strain response of structures that undergo...

  18. truncSP: An R Package for Estimation of Semi-Parametric Truncated Linear Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karlsson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Problems with truncated data occur in many areas, complicating estimation and inference. Regarding linear regression models, the ordinary least squares estimator is inconsistent and biased for these types of data and is therefore unsuitable for use. Alternative estimators, designed for the estimation of truncated regression models, have been developed. This paper presents the R package truncSP. The package contains functions for the estimation of semi-parametric truncated linear regression models using three different estimators: the symmetrically trimmed least squares, quadratic mode, and left truncated estimators, all of which have been shown to have good asymptotic and ?nite sample properties. The package also provides functions for the analysis of the estimated models. Data from the environmental sciences are used to illustrate the functions in the package.

  19. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of two commercially available, two-dimensional electrophoresis image analysis software packages, Z3 and Melanie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Babu; Cheung, Agnes; Marten, Mark R

    2002-07-01

    While a variety of software packages are available for analyzing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel images, no comparisons between these packages have been published, making it difficult for end users to determine which package would best meet their needs. The goal here was to develop a set of tests to quantitatively evaluate and then compare two software packages, Melanie 3.0 and Z3, in three of the fundamental steps involved in 2-DE image analysis: (i) spot detection, (ii) gel matching, and (iii) spot quantitation. To test spot detection capability, automatically detected protein spots were compared to manually counted, "real" protein spots. Spot matching efficiency was determined by comparing distorted (both geometrically and nongeometrically) gel images with undistorted original images, and quantitation tests were performed on artificial gels with spots of varying Gaussian volumes. In spot detection tests, Z3 performed better than Melanie 3.0 and required minimal user intervention to detect approximately 89% of the actual protein spots and relatively few extraneous spots. Results from gel matching tests depended on the type of image distortion used. For geometric distortions, Z3 performed better than Melanie 3.0, matching 99% of the spots, even for extreme distortions. For nongeometrical distortions, both Z3 and Melanie 3.0 required user intervention and performed comparably, matching 95% of the spots. In spot quantitation tests, both Z3 and Melanie 3.0 predicted spot volumes relatively well for spot ratios less than 1:6. For higher ratios, Melanie 3.0 did much better. In summary, results suggest Z3 requires less user intervention than Melanie 3.0, thus simplifying differential comparison of 2-DE gel images. Melanie 3.0, however, offers many more optional tools for image editing, spot detection, data reporting and statistical analysis than Z3. All image files used for these tests and updated information on the software are available on the internet

  20. Thermoeconomic model of a commercial transcritical booster refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    For cooling applications in supermarkets, booster refrigeration systems operating in both transcritical and subcritical conditions are increasingly used. A thermodynamic model of a transcritical booster refrigeration plant is tailored to match the new generation of commercial refrigeration plants...... of exergy for cooling. Second law analysis is needed to illustrate the characteristics of the plant at different load rates, according to the alternating load profile and corresponding to outdoor conditions. With the detailed model, different uses of the analysis are possible, including thermoeconomic...

  1. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  2. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  3. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  4. A simplified heat transfer model for predicting temperature change inside food package kept in cold room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, A H; Solanki, S C; Yadav, Rajvir

    2013-04-01

    A simple analytical heat flow model for a closed rectangular food package containing fruits or vegetables is proposed for predicting time temperature distribution during transient cooling in a controlled environment cold room. It is based on the assumption of only conductive heat transfer inside a closed food package with effective thermal properties, and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outside of the package. The effective thermal conductivity of the food package is determined by evaluating its effective thermal resistance to heat conduction in the packages. Food packages both as an infinite slab and a finite slab have been investigated. The finite slab solution has been obtained as the product of three infinite slab solutions describe in ASHRAE guide and data book. Time temperature variation has been determined and is presented graphically. The cooling rate and the half cooling time were also obtained. These predicted values, are compared with the experimentally measured values for both the finite and infinite closed packages containing oranges. An excellent agreement between them validated the simple proposed model.

  5. Analysis of the engine fragment threat and the crush environment for small packages carried on U.S. commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; McClure, J.D.; von Riesemann, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of two separate analyses are reported. The engine fragment analysis determined the probability of a small package being in the path of a fragment from a failure in a gas turbine engine. The calculated values show that, depending on aircraft type, the incidence rate varies by approximately an order of magnitude from a high of about once per 5 million flights to a low of nearly once every 40 million package flights for a flight of five hours' duration. The analysis of the crush environment consisted of an examination of two principal crush modes, i.e., vertical and longitudinal crush. The vertical crush mode was examined by formulating a structural model of the cargo deck beams of the aircraft. The longitudinal crush mode was studied by using dynamic models of the aircraft cargo and the radioactive material package (RAM). The results of the analysis of these crush modes provided the basis for the formulation of a 310 kN/(70,000 lb) crush test to simulate vertical crush. The longitudinal crush analysis indicated that it was possible, under infrequently occurring conditions, to produce extremely large crush forces and hence it was recommended that RAM packages be located in the aft end of aircraft cargo compartments to minimize the effects of longitudinal crush

  6. Fuzzy modeling to predict chicken egg hatchability in commercial hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzi, N J; Scala, N L; Macari, M; Furlan, R L; Meyer, A D; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Kroetz Neto, F L; Souza, F A

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown that hatching rate depends, among other factors, on the main physical characteristics of the eggs. The physical parameters used in our work were egg weight, eggshell thickness, egg sphericity, and yolk per albumen ratio. The relationships of these parameters in the incubation process were modeled by Fuzzy logic. The rules of the Fuzzy modeling were based on the analysis of the physical characteristics of the hatching eggs and the respective hatching rate using a commercial hatchery by applying a trapezoidal membership function into the modeling process. The implementations were performed in software. Aiming to compare the Fuzzy with a statistical modeling, the same data obtained in the commercial hatchery were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The estimated parameters of multiple linear regressions were based on a backward selection procedure. The results showed that the determination coefficient and the mean square error were higher using the Fuzzy method when compared with the statistical modeling. Furthermore, the predicted hatchability rates by Fuzzy Logic agreed with hatching rates obtained in the commercial hatchery.

  7. Code package {open_quotes}SVECHA{close_quotes}: Modeling of core degradation phenomena at severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshchunov, M.S.; Kisselev, A.E.; Palagin, A.V. [Nuclear Safety Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The code package SVECHA for the modeling of in-vessel core degradation (CD) phenomena in severe accidents is being developed in the Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Science (NSI RAS). The code package presents a detailed mechanistic description of the phenomenology of severe accidents in a reactor core. The modules of the package were developed and validated on separate effect test data. These modules were then successfully implemented in the ICARE2 code and validated against a wide range of integral tests. Validation results have shown good agreement with separate effect tests data and with the integral tests CORA-W1/W2, CORA-13, PHEBUS-B9+.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60 CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (M w ), melting temperature (T m ), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy. - Highlights: • The gamma irradiation effects on PLA clamshells were studied. • DSC, XRD, NMR and FTIR analysis were used for PLA clamshell characterization. • The M w , T m , strength and elongation of the irradiated PLA clamshells decreased. • The tensile modulus increased with increasing gamma doses. • The Surface of PLA clamshell showed scratches and minor cracks.

  9. PerMallows: An R Package for Mallows and Generalized Mallows Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekhine Irurozki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package PerMallows, which is a complete toolbox to work with permutations, distances and some of the most popular probability models for permutations: Mallows and the Generalized Mallows models. The Mallows model is an exponential location model, considered as analogous to the Gaussian distribution. It is based on the definition of a distance between permutations. The Generalized Mallows model is its best-known extension. The package includes functions for making inference, sampling and learning such distributions. The distances considered in PerMallows are Kendall's τ , Cayley, Hamming and Ulam.

  10. APPLYING PETRI NETS EXTENSIONS TO MODELING COMMERCIAL BANK ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor ENICOV

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the need to improve the methods of modeling andsimulating commercial bank activity, including for the purpose of calculating, controlling and managingthe risk of the bank, in the context of the transition to the application of Basel III standards. Thisimprovement becomes necessary due to a direct transition to new regulatory standards when the internalassessments of the main risks become the initial data for calculating the capital adequacy of a bank. Thepurpose of this article is to argue the opportunity to formulate a theory of the commercial bank model onthe extensions of Petri nets theory. The main methods of research were the method of scientific abstractionand method of logical analysis. The main result obtained in the study and presented in the article is theargumentation of the possibility to analyze the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of acommercial bank with the help of Petri net extensions.

  11. The Langevin Approach: An R Package for Modeling Markov Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rinn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe an 'R' package developed by the research group 'Turbulence, Wind energy' 'and Stochastics' (TWiSt at the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, which extracts the (stochastic evolution equation underlying a set of data or measurements. The method can be directly applied to data sets with one or two stochastic variables. Examples for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional cases are provided. This framework is valid under a small set of conditions which are explicitly presented and which imply simple preliminary test procedures to the data. For Markovian processes involving Gaussian white noise, a stochastic differential equation is derived straightforwardly from the time series and captures the full dynamical properties of the underlying process. Still, even in the case such conditions are not fulfilled, there are alternative versions of this method which we discuss briefly and provide the user with the necessary bibliography.

  12. A Re-Engineered Software Interface and Workflow for the Open-Source SimVascular Cardiovascular Modeling Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Updegrove, Adam; Wilson, Nathan M; Maher, Gabriel D; Shadden, Shawn C; Marsden, Alison L

    2018-02-01

    Patient-specific simulation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease research, diagnosis, surgical planning and medical device design, as well as education in cardiovascular biomechanics. simvascular is an open-source software package encompassing an entire cardiovascular modeling and simulation pipeline from image segmentation, three-dimensional (3D) solid modeling, and mesh generation, to patient-specific simulation and analysis. SimVascular is widely used for cardiovascular basic science and clinical research as well as education, following increased adoption by users and development of a GATEWAY web portal to facilitate educational access. Initial efforts of the project focused on replacing commercial packages with open-source alternatives and adding increased functionality for multiscale modeling, fluid-structure interaction (FSI), and solid modeling operations. In this paper, we introduce a major SimVascular (SV) release that includes a new graphical user interface (GUI) designed to improve user experience. Additional improvements include enhanced data/project management, interactive tools to facilitate user interaction, new boundary condition (BC) functionality, plug-in mechanism to increase modularity, a new 3D segmentation tool, and new computer-aided design (CAD)-based solid modeling capabilities. Here, we focus on major changes to the software platform and outline features added in this new release. We also briefly describe our recent experiences using SimVascular in the classroom for bioengineering education.

  13. Empirical models for end-use properties prediction of LDPE: application in the flexible plastic packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Burgos Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop empirical models to predict end use properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE resins as functions of two intrinsic properties easily measured in the polymers industry. The most important properties for application in the flexible plastic packaging industry were evaluated experimentally for seven commercial polymer grades. Statistical correlation analysis was performed for all variables and used as the basis for proper choice of inputs to each model output. Intrinsic properties selected for resin characterization are fluidity index (FI, which is essentially an indirect measurement of viscosity and weight average molecular weight (MW, and density. In general, models developed are able to reproduce and predict experimental data within experimental accuracy and show that a significant number of end use properties improve as the MW and density increase. Optical properties are mainly determined by the polymer morphology.

  14. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chengzhu [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    A Python-based metrics and diagnostics package is currently being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Infrastructure Team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to facilitate the use of long-term, high-frequency measurements from the ARM Facility in evaluating the regional climate simulation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation. This metrics and diagnostics package computes climatological means of targeted climate model simulation and generates tables and plots for comparing the model simulation with ARM observational data. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) model data sets are also included in the package to enable model intercomparison as demonstrated in Zhang et al. (2017). The mean of the CMIP model can serve as a reference for individual models. Basic performance metrics are computed to measure the accuracy of mean state and variability of climate models. The evaluated physical quantities include cloud fraction, temperature, relative humidity, cloud liquid water path, total column water vapor, precipitation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and radiative fluxes, with plan to extend to more fields, such as aerosol and microphysics properties. Process-oriented diagnostics focusing on individual cloud- and precipitation-related phenomena are also being developed for the evaluation and development of specific model physical parameterizations. The version 1.0 package is designed based on data collected at ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Research Facility, with the plan to extend to other ARM sites. The metrics and diagnostics package is currently built upon standard Python libraries and additional Python packages developed by DOE (such as CDMS and CDAT). The ARM metrics and diagnostic package is available publicly with the hope that it can serve as an easy entry point for climate modelers to compare their models with ARM data. In this report, we first present the input data, which

  15. Static Modeling for Commercial Braided Pneumatic Muscle Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced model is proposed to describe static property of commercial braided pneumatic muscle actuators by including several important influencing factors. Elasticity of elastomer tube is considered and Ogden strain energy function is employed to describe its strain energy density. During pressurized process, small deformation of fiber occurs and is calculated using force balancing principle. Frictional forces within muscles are studied, which consist of friction within braid and that between bladder and braid. Isobaric experiments are performed and results verify the validity of the model.

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, model DC-1 package with HEU oxide contents. Change pages for Rev.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the Model DC-1 package with highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide contents has been prepared in accordance with governing regulations form the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Transportation and orders from the Department of energy. The fundamental safety requirements addressed by these regulations and orders pertain to the containment of radioactive material, radiation shielding, and nuclear subcriticality. This report demonstrates how these requirements are met.

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, model DC-1 package with HEU oxide contents. Change pages for Rev.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the Model DC-1 package with highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide contents has been prepared in accordance with governing regulations form the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Transportation and orders from the Department of energy. The fundamental safety requirements addressed by these regulations and orders pertain to the containment of radioactive material, radiation shielding, and nuclear subcriticality. This report demonstrates how these requirements are met

  18. FIRE BEHAVIOR PREDICTING MODELS EFFICIENCY IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCIAL EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Leonardo Alves White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how a wildfire will behave is extremely important in order to assist in fire suppression and prevention operations. Since the 1940’s mathematical models to estimate how the fire will behave have been developed worldwide, however, none of them, until now, had their efficiency tested in Brazilian commercial eucalypt plantations nor in other vegetation types in the country. This study aims to verify the accuracy of the Rothermel (1972 fire spread model, the Byram (1959 flame length model, and the fire spread and length equations derived from the McArthur (1962 control burn meters. To meet these objectives, 105 experimental laboratory fires were done and their results compared with the predicted values from the models tested. The Rothermel and Byram models predicted better than McArthur’s, nevertheless, all of them underestimated the fire behavior aspects evaluated and were statistically different from the experimental data.

  19. The influence of electron-beam irradiation on some mechanical properties of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials (PET MET/LDPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Oliveira, Vitor M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Ortiz, Angel V.

    2009-01-01

    The treatment with electron-beam radiation is a promising approach to the controllable modification of the properties of the polymeric flexible packaging materials, in order to adjust their properties. In recent years electron-beam irradiation have been efficiently applied in the flexible packaging industry to promote crosslinking and scission of the polymeric chains in order to improve material mechanical properties. On the other hand, ionizing irradiation can also affect the polymeric materials itself leading to a production of free radicals. These free radicals can in turn lead to degradation and or cross-linking phenomena. The influence of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials based on laminated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and metallized poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was studied. The PETmet/LDPE structure was irradiated with doses up to 120 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, dose rate 11.22kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air. The results showed that penetration resistance of the irradiated PETmet/LDPE film increase up to 10 %, except for radiation dose of 30 kGy that resulted in a slight decrease of ca. 3%, while the sealing resistance decreased ca. 8-26% in all doses (p < 0.05). In addition, the samples of PETmet/LDPE film at 45, 60, 75 and 105 kGy presented a gain up to 18 % in their original tensile strength at break, a gain of ca. 38% in their original elongation at break for radiation dose of 45 kGy and ca. 17% for radiation doses of 60, 75 and 120 kGy. (author)

  20. A MATLAB Package for Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a Multi-Unidimensional IRT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unidimensional item response theory (IRT models are useful when each item is designed to measure some facet of a unified latent trait. In practical applications, items are not necessarily measuring the same underlying trait, and hence the more general multi-unidimensional model should be considered. This paper provides the requisite information and description of software that implements the Gibbs sampler for such models with two item parameters and a normal ogive form. The software developed is written in the MATLAB package IRTmu2no. The package is flexible enough to allow a user the choice to simulate binary response data with multiple dimensions, set the number of total or burn-in iterations, specify starting values or prior distributions for model parameters, check convergence of the Markov chain, as well as obtain Bayesian fit statistics. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate and validate the use of the software package.

  1. Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. J.; Van, S. H.; Kim, D. H.

    To document the details of flow characteristics around modern commercial ships, global force, wave pattern, and local mean velocity components were measured in the towing tank. Three modern commercial hull models of a container ship (KRISO container ship = KCS) and of two very large crude-oil carriers (VLCCs) with the same forebody and slightly different afterbody (KVLCC and KVLCC2) having bow and stern bulbs were selected for the test. Uncertainty analysis was performed for the measured data using the procedure recommended by the ITTC. Obtained experimental data will provide a good opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around practical hull forms of today. Those can be also used as the validation data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of both inviscid and viscous flow calculations.

  2. Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W J; Van, S H; Kim, D H [Korea Research Inst. of Ships and Ocean Engineering, KORDI, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    To document the details of flow characteristics around modern commercial ships, global force, wave pattern, and local mean velocity components were measured in the towing tank. Three modern commercial hull models of a container ship (KRISO container ship = KCS) and of two very large crude-oil carriers (VLCCs) with the same forebody and slightly different afterbody (KVLCC and KVLCC2) having bow and stern bulbs were selected for the test. Uncertainty analysis was performed for the measured data using the procedure recommended by the ITTC. Obtained experimental data will provide a good opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around practical hull forms of today. Those can be also used as the validation data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of both inviscid and viscous flow calculations. (orig.)

  3. Finite-difference modeling of commercial aircraft using TSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.

    1994-11-15

    Future aircraft may have systems controlled by fiber optic cables, to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. However, the digital systems associated with the fiber optic network could still experience upset due to powerful radio stations, radars, and other electromagnetic sources, with potentially serious consequences. We are modeling the electromagnetic behavior of commercial transport aircraft in support of the NASA Fly-by-Light/Power-by-Wire program, using the TSAR finite-difference time-domain code initially developed for the military. By comparing results obtained from TSAR with data taken on a Boeing 757 at the Air Force Phillips Lab., we hope to show that FDTD codes can serve as an important tool in the design and certification of U.S. commercial aircraft, helping American companies to produce safe, reliable air transportation.

  4. CT and MR perfusion can discriminate severe cerebral hypoperfusion from perfusion absence: evaluation of different commercial software packages by using digital phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwano, Ikuko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Christensen, Soren [University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Departments of Neurology and Radiology, Victoria (Australia); Oestergaard, Leif [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, DK, Aarhus C (Denmark); Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) are expected to be usable for ancillary tests of brain death by detection of complete absence of cerebral perfusion; however, the detection limit of hypoperfusion has not been determined. Hence, we examined whether commercial software can visualize very low cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) by creating and using digital phantoms. Digital phantoms simulating 0-4% of normal CBF (60 mL/100 g/min) and CBV (4 mL/100 g/min) were analyzed by ten software packages of CT and MRI manufacturers. Region-of-interest measurements were performed to determine whether there was a significant difference between areas of 0% and areas of 1-4% of normal flow. The CTP software detected hypoperfusion down to 2-3% in CBF and 2% in CBV, while the MRP software detected that of 1-3% in CBF and 1-4% in CBV, although the lower limits varied among software packages. CTP and MRP can detect the difference between profound hypoperfusion of <5% from that of 0% in digital phantoms, suggesting their potential efficacy for assessing brain death. (orig.)

  5. Modeling and simulation for microelectronic packaging assembly manufacturing, reliability and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing need for modeling and simulation in the IC package design phase, most assembly processes and various reliability tests are still based on the time consuming ""test and try out"" method to obtain the best solution. Modeling and simulation can easily ensure virtual Design of Experiments (DoE) to achieve the optimal solution. This has greatly reduced the cost and production time, especially for new product development. Using modeling and simulation will become increasingly necessary for future advances in 3D package development.  In this book, Liu and Liu allow people

  6. ltm: An R Package for Latent Variable Modeling and Item Response Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Rizopoulos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The R package ltm has been developed for the analysis of multivariate dichotomous and polytomous data using latent variable models, under the Item Response Theory approach. For dichotomous data the Rasch, the Two-Parameter Logistic, and Birnbaum's Three-Parameter models have been implemented, whereas for polytomous data Semejima's Graded Response model is available. Parameter estimates are obtained under marginal maximum likelihood using the Gauss-Hermite quadrature rule. The capabilities and features of the package are illustrated using two real data examples.

  7. GillesPy: A Python Package for Stochastic Model Building and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, John H; Drawert, Brian; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we describe the components of this package and provide a detailed example relevant to the computational biology community.

  8. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  9. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  10. Evaluation of Different Software Packages in Flow Modeling under Bridge Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Dastorani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an independent and a comparative research concerning the accuracy, capability and suitability of three well-known packages ofISIS, MIKE11 and HEC-RAS as hydraulic river modeling software packages for modeling the flow through bridges. The research project was designed to assess the ability of each software package to model the flow through bridge structures. It was carried out using the data taken from experiments completed by a 22-meter laboratory flume at theUniversityofBirmingham. The flume has a compound cross section containing a main channel and two flood plains on either side. For this study a smooth main channel and a smooth floodplain have been assumed. Two types of bridges are modeled in this research; a multiple opening semi-circular arch bridge and a single opening straight deck bridge. For each bridge, two different simulations were carried out using two different upstream boundaries as low flow and high flow simulations. According to the results, all three packages were able to model arch and US BPR bridges but in some cases they presented different results. The highest water elevation upstream the bridge (maximum afflux was the main parameter to be compared to the measured values.ISISand HEC-RAS (especially HEC-RAS seem to be more efficient to model arch bridge. However, in some cases, MIKE 11 produced considerably higher results than those of the other two packages. To model USBPR bridge, all three packages produced reasonable results. However, the results by HEC-RAS are the best when the outputs are compared to the experimental data.

  11. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  12. Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. BDgraph: An R Package for Bayesian Structure Learning in Graphical Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, A.; Wit, E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical models provide powerful tools to uncover complicated patterns in multivariate data and are commonly used in Bayesian statistics and machine learning. In this paper, we introduce an R package BDgraph which performs Bayesian structure learning for general undirected graphical models with

  14. Independencies Induced from a Graphical Markov Model After Marginalization and Conditioning: The R Package ggm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Marchetti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe some functions in the R package ggm to derive from a given Markov model, represented by a directed acyclic graph, different types of graphs induced after marginalizing over and conditioning on some of the variables. The package has a few basic functions that find the essential graph, the induced concentration and covariance graphs, and several types of chain graphs implied by the directed acyclic graph (DAG after grouping and reordering the variables. These functions can be useful to explore the impact of latent variables or of selection effects on a chosen data generating model.

  15. An R package for fitting age, period and cohort models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Decarli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R implementation of a GLIM macro which fits age-period-cohort model following Osmond and Gardner. In addition to the estimates of the corresponding model, owing to the programming capability of R as an object oriented language, methods for printing, plotting and summarizing the results are provided. Furthermore, the researcher has fully access to the output of the main function (apc which returns all the models fitted within the function. It is so possible to critically evaluate the goodness of fit of the resulting model.

  16. Application of in silico modelling to estimate toxicity of migrating substances from food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas; Chaudhry, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    This study derived toxicity estimates for a set of 136 chemical migrants from food packaging materials using in silico (computational) modelling and read across approaches. Where available, the predicted results for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity were compared with published experimental data. As the packaging compounds are subject to safety assessment, the migrating substances were more likely to be negative for both the endpoints. A set of structural analogues with positive experimental data for carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity was therefore used as a positive comparator. The results showed that a weight of evidence assembled from different in silico models and read-across from already-tested structurally similar compounds can provide a rapid and reliable means for rapid screening of new yet-untested intentional or unintentional chemical compounds that may migrate to packaged foodstuffs. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F.; Oyen, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  18. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, X. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Oyen, R. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  19. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    gross lack of understanding between the package materials, induced stress, and the device performance. The material properties of these packaging materials are not well defined or understood. Modeling of these materials and processes is far from maturity. Current post-package yields are too low for commercial feasibility, and consumer operating environment reliability and compatibility are often difficult to simulate. With further understanding of the materials properties and behavior of the packaging materials, MEMS applications can be fully realized and integrated into countless commercial and military applications.

  20. Release Mathematical Model of Active Agent from Packaging Material into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is an innovative packaging technology by which active compounds are released from the package to enhance the quality and microbial safety for a wide range of foods. The problem of active ingredient release through the bilayer packaging food system is studied from a theoretical viewpoint. A release model is built to provide predictions of concentration and amount of active ingredient. The equations are built based on Fickian diffusion, and numerical solutions are obtained through finite difference. Different diffusion coefficients DP and DC of active ingredient in different packaging layers, partition coefficient kCP at the interface of outer layer and inner layer, partition coefficient kFC at the interface of inner layer and food, and mass transfer coefficient hm at the interface of inner layer and food are considered in the model. The effects of kCP, thicknesses of outer layer and inner layer, CP0, DP, DC, kFC, and hm on the release are discussed. Corresponding conclusions and analysis are given.

  1. An open-source software package for multivariate modeling and clustering: applications to air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Guo, Junhong

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an open-source software package, rSCA, which is developed based upon a stepwise cluster analysis method and serves as a statistical tool for modeling the relationships between multiple dependent and independent variables. The rSCA package is efficient in dealing with both continuous and discrete variables, as well as nonlinear relationships between the variables. It divides the sample sets of dependent variables into different subsets (or subclusters) through a series of cutting and merging operations based upon the theory of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The modeling results are given by a cluster tree, which includes both intermediate and leaf subclusters as well as the flow paths from the root of the tree to each leaf subcluster specified by a series of cutting and merging actions. The rSCA package is a handy and easy-to-use tool and is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/package=rSCA . By applying the developed package to air quality management in an urban environment, we demonstrate its effectiveness in dealing with the complicated relationships among multiple variables in real-world problems.

  2. Model 9975 Life Extension Test Package 3 - Interim Report - January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-31

    Life extension package LE3 (9975-03203) has been instrumented and subjected to an elevated temperature environment for approximately 8 years. During this time, the cane fiberboard has been maintained at a maximum temperature of ~160 - 165 °F, which was established by a combination of internal (19 watts) and external heat sources. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard samples, including the degradation models based on the laboratory tests. These areas of agreement include the rate of change of fiberboard weight, dimensions and density, and change in fiberboard thermal conductivity. Corrosion of the lead shield occurred at a high rate during the first several weeks of aging, but dropped significantly after most of the moisture in the fiberboard migrated away from the lead shield. Dimensional measurements of the lead shield indicate that no significant creep deformation has occurred. This is consistent with literature data that predict a very small creep deformation for the time at temperature experienced by this package. The SCV O-rings were verified to remain leak-tight after ~5 years aging at an average temperature of ~170 °F. This package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within a typical fiberboard assembly can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 19 watt internal heat load. The majority of water within the fiberboard migrated to the bottom layers of fiberboard, with approximately 2 kg of water (2 liters) eventually escaping from the package. Two conditions have developed that are not consistent with package certification requirements. The axial gap at the top of the package increased to a maximum value of 1.549 inches, exceeding the 1 inch criterion. In addition, staining and/or corrosion have formed in a few spots

  3. pyBSM: A Python package for modeling imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2017-05-01

    There are components that are common to all electro-optical and infrared imaging system performance models. The purpose of the Python Based Sensor Model (pyBSM) is to provide open source access to these functions for other researchers to build upon. Specifically, pyBSM implements much of the capability found in the ERIM Image Based Sensor Model (IBSM) V2.0 along with some improvements. The paper also includes two use-case examples. First, performance of an airborne imaging system is modeled using the General Image Quality Equation (GIQE). The results are then decomposed into factors affecting noise and resolution. Second, pyBSM is paired with openCV to evaluate performance of an algorithm used to detect objects in an image.

  4. VHDL Models with Usage of the LFSR_PCKG Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitrych

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available LFSRs (Linear Feedback Shift Registers are very often used in theBIST (Built-In Self-Test methodology. Implementation of the LFSRs tothe design or application of digital system, which supports BISTtechniques or which only uses these LFSRs, can be done by VHDLlanguage. This paper presents VHDL models of the devices andsubroutines (e.g. test pattern generators, signature analysers. Modelsare based on LFSR structures with usage of the LFSR_PCKG packagedescribed in the (Kovalsky and Vlcek, 2001, which can be usedin the applications supporting BIST techniques. Devices are describedas behavioural and structural models. These models and descriptions canbe used e.g. in the (Kovalsky, 2001. The LFSR_PCKG was modifiedand new approach is presented. Naturally, there are presented somesynthesis conclusions of the VHDL models and applications in thispaper.

  5. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  6. airGRteaching: an R-package designed for teaching hydrology with lumped hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Delaigue, Olivier; Coron, Laurent; Andréassian, Vazken; Brigode, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2016), called airGR (Coron et al., 2016, 2017), to make these models widely available. Although its initial target public was hydrological modellers, the package is already used for educational purposes. Indeed, simple models allow for rapidly visualising the effects of parameterizations and model components on flows hydrographs. In order to avoid the difficulties that students may have when manipulating R and datasets, we developed (Delaigue and Coron, 2016): - Three simplified functions to prepare data, calibrate a model and run a simulation - Simplified and dynamic plot functions - A shiny (Chang et al., 2016) interface that connects this R-package to a browser-based visualisation tool. On this interface, the students can use different hydrological models (including the possibility to use a snow-accounting model), manually modify their parameters and automatically calibrate their parameters with diverse objective functions. One of the visualisation tabs of the interface includes observed precipitation and temperature, simulated snowpack (if any), observed and simulated

  7. Creating a simulation model of software testing using Simulink package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Dubovoi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the solution model of software testing that allows prediction both the whole process and its specific stages is actual for IT-industry. The article focuses on solving this problem. The aim of the article is prediction the time and improvement the quality of software testing. The analysis of the software testing process shows that it can be attributed to the branched cyclic technological processes because it is cyclical with decision-making on control operations. The investigation uses authors' previous works andsoftware testing process method based on Markov model. The proposed method enables execution the prediction for each software module, which leads to better decision-making of each controlled suboperation of all processes. Simulink simulation model shows implementation and verification of results of proposed technique. Results of the research have practically implemented in the IT-industry.

  8. Predictive modelling of migration from packaging materials into food products for regulatory purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, E.; Rijk, R.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.

    2002-01-01

    Migration of low-molecular weight compounds is one of the most important problems of packaging plastics and other plastics intended to come into contact with food products. Since migration experiments are time consuming and expensive, predictive modelling has been introduced as a promising

  9. Certified reference materials for food packaging specific migration tests: development, validation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:certified reference materials; diffusion; food contact materials; food packaging; laurolactam; migration modelling; nylon; specific migration This thesis compiles several research topics

  10. AMModels: An R package for storing models, data, and metadata to facilitate adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M.; Katz, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Agencies are increasingly called upon to implement their natural resource management programs within an adaptive management (AM) framework. This article provides the background and motivation for the R package, AMModels. AMModels was developed under R version 3.2.2. The overall goal of AMModels is simple: To codify knowledge in the form of models and to store it, along with models generated from numerous analyses and datasets that may come our way, so that it can be used or recalled in the future. AMModels facilitates this process by storing all models and datasets in a single object that can be saved to an .RData file and routinely augmented to track changes in knowledge through time. Through this process, AMModels allows the capture, development, sharing, and use of knowledge that may help organizations achieve their mission. While AMModels was designed to facilitate adaptive management, its utility is far more general. Many R packages exist for creating and summarizing models, but to our knowledge, AMModels is the only package dedicated not to the mechanics of analysis but to organizing analysis inputs, analysis outputs, and preserving descriptive metadata. We anticipate that this package will assist users hoping to preserve the key elements of an analysis so they may be more confidently revisited at a later date.

  11. An analytical one-dimensional model for predicting waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Wood, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A method for allocating waste package performance requirements among waste package components with regard to radionuclide isolation has been developed. Modification or change in this approach can be expected as the understanding of radionuclide behavior in the waste package improves. Thus, the performance requirements derived in this document are preliminary and subject to change. However, this kind of analysis is a useful starting point. It has also proved useful for identifying a small group of radionuclides which should be emphasized in a laboratory experimental program designed to characterize the behavior of specific radionuclides in the waste package environment. A simple one-dimensional, two media transport model has been derived and used to calculate radionuclide transport from the waste form-packing material interface of the waste package into the host rock. Cumulative release over 10,000 years, maximum yearly releases and release rates at the packing material-host rock interface were evaluated on a radionuclide-by radionuclide basis. The major parameters controlling radionuclide release were found to be: radionuclide solubility, porosity of the rock, isotopic ratio of the radionuclide and surface area of the waste form-packing material interface. 15 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Development of a new modelling tool (FACET) to assess exposure to chemical migrants from food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldring, P K T; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J; Vints, M; Mehegan, J; Dequatre, C; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The approach used to obtain European Union-wide data on the usage and concentration of substances in different food packaging materials is described. Statistics were collected on pack sizes and market shares for the different materials used to package different food groups. The packaging materials covered were plastics (both flexible and rigid), metal containers, light metal packaging, paper and board, as well as the adhesives and inks used on them. An explanation as to how these data are linked in various ways in the FACET exposure modelling tool is given as well as an overview of the software along with examples of the intermediate tables of data. The example of bisphenol A (BPA), used in resins that may be incorporated into some coatings for canned foodstuffs, is used to illustrate how the data in FACET are combined to produce concentration distributions. Such concentration distributions are then linked probabilistically to the amounts of each food item consumed, as recorded in national food consumption survey diaries, in order to estimate exposure to packaging migrants. Estimates of exposure are at the level of the individual consumer and thus can be expressed for various percentiles of different populations and subpopulations covered by the national dietary surveys.

  13. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  14. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  15. GillesPy: A Python Package for Stochastic Model Building and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, John H.; Drawert, Brian; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we descr...

  16. Accessing National Water Model Output for Research and Application: An R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Coll, J.

    2017-12-01

    With the National Water Model becoming operational in August of 2016, the need for a open source way to translate a huge amount of data into actionable intelligence and innovative research is apparent. The first step in doing this is to provide a package for accessing, managing, and writing data in a way that is both interpretable, portable, and useful to the end user in both the R environment, and other applications. This can be as simple as subsetting the outputs and writing to a CSV, but can also include converting discharge output to more meaningful statistics and measurements, and methods to visualize data in ways that are meaningful to a wider audience. The NWM R package presented here aims to serve this need through a suite of functions fit for researchers, first responders, and average citizens. A vignette of how this package can be applied to real-time flood mapping will be demonstrated.

  17. Software package for modeling spin-orbit motion in storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A software package providing a graphical user interface for computer experiments on the motion of charged particle beams in accelerators, as well as analysis of obtained data, is presented. The software package was tested in the framework of the international project on electric dipole moment measurement JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations). The specific features of particle spin motion imply the requirement to use a cyclic accelerator (storage ring) consisting of electrostatic elements, which makes it possible to preserve horizontal polarization for a long time. Computer experiments study the dynamics of 106-109 particles in a beam during 109 turns in an accelerator (about 1012-1015 integration steps for the equations of motion). For designing an optimal accelerator structure, a large number of computer experiments on polarized beam dynamics are required. The numerical core of the package is COSY Infinity, a program for modeling spin-orbit dynamics.

  18. Software package for modeling spin–orbit motion in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyuzin, D. V., E-mail: d.zyuzin@fz-juelich.de [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A software package providing a graphical user interface for computer experiments on the motion of charged particle beams in accelerators, as well as analysis of obtained data, is presented. The software package was tested in the framework of the international project on electric dipole moment measurement JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations). The specific features of particle spin motion imply the requirement to use a cyclic accelerator (storage ring) consisting of electrostatic elements, which makes it possible to preserve horizontal polarization for a long time. Computer experiments study the dynamics of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 9} particles in a beam during 10{sup 9} turns in an accelerator (about 10{sup 12}–10{sup 15} integration steps for the equations of motion). For designing an optimal accelerator structure, a large number of computer experiments on polarized beam dynamics are required. The numerical core of the package is COSY Infinity, a program for modeling spin–orbit dynamics.

  19. bspmma: An R Package for Bayesian Semiparametric Models for Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Burr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an R package, bspmma, which implements a Dirichlet-based random effects model specific to meta-analysis. In meta-analysis, when combining effect estimates from several heterogeneous studies, it is common to use a random-effects model. The usual frequentist or Bayesian models specify a normal distribution for the true effects. However, in many situations, the effect distribution is not normal, e.g., it can have thick tails, be skewed, or be multi-modal. A Bayesian nonparametric model based on mixtures of Dirichlet process priors has been proposed in the literature, for the purpose of accommodating the non-normality. We review this model and then describe a competitor, a semiparametric version which has the feature that it allows for a well-defined centrality parameter convenient for determining whether the overall effect is significant. This second Bayesian model is based on a different version of the Dirichlet process prior, and we call it the "conditional Dirichlet model". The package contains functions to carry out analyses based on either the ordinary or the conditional Dirichlet model, functions for calculating certain Bayes factors that provide a check on the appropriateness of the conditional Dirichlet model, and functions that enable an empirical Bayes selection of the precision parameter of the Dirichlet process. We illustrate the use of the package on two examples, and give an interpretation of the results in these two different scenarios.

  20. Estimating the Multilevel Rasch Model: With the lme4 Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Doran

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Rasch estimation of the item and student parameters via marginal maximum likelihood, joint maximum likelihood or conditional maximum likelihood, assume individuals in clustered settings are uncorrelated and items within a test that share a grouping structure are also uncorrelated. These assumptions are often violated, particularly in educational testing situations, in which students are grouped into classrooms and many test items share a common grouping structure, such as a content strand or a reading passage. Consequently, one possible approach is to explicitly recognize the clustered nature of the data and directly incorporate random effects to account for the various dependencies. This article demonstrates how the multilevel Rasch model can be estimated using the functions in R for mixed-effects models with crossed or partially crossed random effects. We demonstrate how to model the following hierarchical data structures: a individuals clustered in similar settings (e.g., classrooms, schools, b items nested within a particular group (such as a content strand or a reading passage, and c how to estimate a teacher × content strand interaction.

  1. Characterisation of a phenomenological model for commercial pneumatic muscle actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, J L; Reynolds, D B; Phillips, C A; Gerschutz, M J; Repperger, D W

    2009-08-01

    This study focuses on the parameter characterisation of a three-element phenomenological model for commercially available pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). This model consists of a spring, damping and contractile element arranged in parallel. Data collected from static loading, contraction and relaxation experiments were fitted to theoretical solutions of the governing equation for the three-element model resulting in prediction profiles for the spring, damping and contractile force coefficient. For the spring coefficient, K N/mm, the following relationships were found: K = 32.7 - 0.0321P for 150 < or = P < or = 314 kPa and K = 17 + 0.0179P for 314 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. For the damping coefficient, B Ns/mm, the following relationship was found during contraction: B = 2.90 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. During relaxation, B = 1.57 for 150 < or = P < or = 372 kPa and B = 0.311 + 0.00338P for 372 < or = P < or = 550. The following relationship for the contractile force coefficient, F(ce) N, was also determined: F(ce) = 2.91P+44.6 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. The model was then validated by reasonably predicting the response of the PMA to a triangular wave input in pressure under a constant load on a dynamic test station.

  2. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  3. Documentation pckage for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Of Model 9977 packages at NTS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-02-20

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  4. Synergia CUDA: GPU-accelerated accelerator modeling package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Q; Amundson, J

    2014-01-01

    Synergia is a parallel, 3-dimensional space-charge particle-in-cell accelerator modeling code. We present our work porting the purely MPI-based version of the code to a hybrid of CPU and GPU computing kernels. The hybrid code uses the CUDA platform in the same framework as the pure MPI solution. We have implemented a lock-free collaborative charge-deposition algorithm for the GPU, as well as other optimizations, including local communication avoidance for GPUs, a customized FFT, and fine-tuned memory access patterns. On a small GPU cluster (up to 4 Tesla C1070 GPUs), our benchmarks exhibit both superior peak performance and better scaling than a CPU cluster with 16 nodes and 128 cores. We also compare the code performance on different GPU architectures, including C1070 Tesla and K20 Kepler.

  5. The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, Dustin J.; Pincus, Robert; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package (COSP) gathers together a collection of observation proxies or satellite simulators that translate model-simulated cloud properties to synthetic observations as would be obtained by a range of satellite observing systems. This paper introduces COSP2, an evolution focusing on more explicit and consistent separation between host model, coupling infrastructure, and individual observing proxies. Revisions also enhance flexibility by allowing for model-specific representation of sub-grid-scale cloudiness, provide greater clarity by clearly separating tasks, support greater use of shared code and data including shared inputs across simulators, and follow more uniform software standards to simplify implementation across a wide range of platforms. The complete package including a testing suite is freely available.

  6. The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Swales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package (COSP gathers together a collection of observation proxies or satellite simulators that translate model-simulated cloud properties to synthetic observations as would be obtained by a range of satellite observing systems. This paper introduces COSP2, an evolution focusing on more explicit and consistent separation between host model, coupling infrastructure, and individual observing proxies. Revisions also enhance flexibility by allowing for model-specific representation of sub-grid-scale cloudiness, provide greater clarity by clearly separating tasks, support greater use of shared code and data including shared inputs across simulators, and follow more uniform software standards to simplify implementation across a wide range of platforms. The complete package including a testing suite is freely available.

  7. A new model for predicting moisture uptake by packaged solid pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Li, Y

    2003-04-14

    A novel mathematical model has been developed for predicting moisture uptake by packaged solid pharmaceutical products during storage. High density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles containing the tablet products of two new chemical entities and desiccants are investigated. Permeability of the bottles is determined at different temperatures using steady-state data. Moisture sorption isotherms of the two model drug products and desiccants at the same temperatures are determined and expressed in polynomial equations. The isotherms are used for modeling the time-humidity profile in the container, which enables the prediction of the moisture content of individual component during storage. Predicted moisture contents agree well with real time stability data. The current model could serve as a guide during packaging selection for moisture protection, so as to reduce the cost and cycle time of screening study.

  8. An open and extensible framework for spatially explicit land use change modelling: the lulcc R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present the lulcc software package, an object-oriented framework for land use change modelling written in the R programming language. The contribution of the work is to resolve the following limitations associated with the current land use change modelling paradigm: (1) the source code for model implementations is frequently unavailable, severely compromising the reproducibility of scientific results and making it impossible for members of the community to improve or adapt models for their own purposes; (2) ensemble experiments to capture model structural uncertainty are difficult because of fundamental differences between implementations of alternative models; and (3) additional software is required because existing applications frequently perform only the spatial allocation of change. The package includes a stochastic ordered allocation procedure as well as an implementation of the CLUE-S algorithm. We demonstrate its functionality by simulating land use change at the Plum Island Ecosystems site, using a data set included with the package. It is envisaged that lulcc will enable future model development and comparison within an open environment.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  10. A bunswik lens model of consumer health judgments of packaged foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    2014-01-01

    Consumer health judgments of packaged food were compared with an objective healthfulness criterion using a Brunswik lens model. Consumer judgments were obtained from a representative consumer sample (N= 1329) who evaluated the healthfulness of 198 packaged food products. The objective healthfulne...... on the food category and to a lesser extent on the brand and consumer familiarity with the product. The results are in conflict with consumers’ self-reported use of nutrition information but are in accordance with findings from studies using implicit methods.......Consumer health judgments of packaged food were compared with an objective healthfulness criterion using a Brunswik lens model. Consumer judgments were obtained from a representative consumer sample (N= 1329) who evaluated the healthfulness of 198 packaged food products. The objective healthfulness...... representativeness. The study revealed that the objective healthfulness criterion is highly predictable on the basis of cues such as the food category, brand, carbohydrate content, and whether the food is a typical “light” product. However, consumer judgments of food healthfulness are based almost entirely...

  11. A two-dimensional simulation model for the molded underfill process in flip chip packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xue Ru; Young, Wen Bin [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The flip chip process involves the deposition of solder bumps on the chip surface and their subsequent direct attachment and connection to a substrate. Underfilling traditional flip chip packaging is typically performed following a two-step approach. The first step uses capillary force to fill the gap between the chip and the substrate, and the second step uses epoxy molding compound (EMC) to overmold the package. Unlike traditional flip chip packaging, the molded underfill (MUF) concept uses a single-step approach to simultaneously achieve both underfill and overmold. MUF is a simpler and faster process. In this study, a 2D numerical model is developed to simulate the front movement of EMC flow and the void formation for different geometric parameters. The 2D model simplifies the procedures of geometric modeling and reduces the modeling time for the MUF simulation. Experiments are conducted to verify the prediction results of the model. The effect on void formation for different geometric parameters is investigated using a 2D model.

  12. The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G.; Delany, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300 degree C. 60 refs., 2 figs

  13. blockcluster: An R Package for Model-Based Co-Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeet Singh Bhatia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous clustering of rows and columns, usually designated by bi-clustering, coclustering or block clustering, is an important technique in two way data analysis. A new standard and efficient approach has been recently proposed based on the latent block model (Govaert and Nadif 2003 which takes into account the block clustering problem on both the individual and variable sets. This article presents our R package blockcluster for co-clustering of binary, contingency and continuous data based on these very models. In this document, we will give a brief review of the model-based block clustering methods, and we will show how the R package blockcluster can be used for co-clustering.

  14. The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G.; Delany, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300{degree}C. 60 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Civilian use transport of radioactive substances on public road. Volume 1: Shipment accreditation and approval requests. Guide Nr 7, Revision 2 of 15 February 2016. Volume 2: safety file of package models, European guide 'Package Design Safety Report'. Civilian use transport of radioactive packages or substances on public road. Volume 3: Compliance of package models not subject to accreditation. Guide Nr 7, Revision 7 of the 2015/11/13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled the regulatory context and sanctions susceptible to be applied, the first volume presents the accreditation process for a package model: file content, tests programme, safety file, certification studies, documents to be produced, accreditation prorogation request, accreditation extension or package model modifications, instruction delays. Some peculiar cases are described. Models of accreditation certificate are provided, and obligations concerning packaging design, fabrication, use and maintenance are briefly discussed. The second volume is a European technical guide which is intended to assist in the preparation of the Package Design Safety Report (PDSR) to demonstrate compliance of a package design for the transport of radioactive material with the regulatory requirements. It covers package designs requiring competent authority approval, and also covers package designs not requiring competent authority approval. In its first two chapters, this document provides a generic structure and contents of a PDSR which applies to all package types. The contents are described in a comprehensive way to cover all important aspects. Some of these aspects may not be applicable to specific package type and details can be found in the annexes which provide further guidance for the scope of the contents of a PDSR, specifically for each package type. The third volume presents recommendations made by the ASN for all stakeholders to guarantee the compliance to regulation of package models which are 'not submitted to competent authority approval'. After an indication and a comment of the regulatory context, it presents requirements to be applied for the design of those package models, and then describes and comments the structure and content of a safety file for such package models (generalities, authorised contents, packaging description, safety demonstration, receipt, use and maintenance instruction, management system). The last part presents the

  16. PACCOM: A nuclear waste packaging facility cost model: Draft technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dippold, D.G.; Tzemos, S.; Smith, D.J.

    1985-05-01

    PACCOM is a computerized, parametric model used to estimate the capital, operating, and decommissioning costs of a variety of nuclear waste packaging facility configurations. The model is based upon a modular waste packaging facility concept from which functional components of the overall facility have been identified and their design and costs related to various parameters such as waste type, waste throughput, and the number of operational shifts employed. The model may be used to either estimate the cost of a particular waste packaging facility configuration or to explore the cost tradeoff between plant capital and labor. That is, one may use the model to search for the particular facility sizes and associated cost which when coupled with a particular number of shifts, and thus staffing level, leads to the lowest overall total cost. The functional components which the model considers include hot cells and their supporting facilities, transportation, cask handling facilities, transuranic waste handling facilities, and administrative facilities such as warehouses, security buildings, maintenance buildings, etc. The cost of each of these functional components is related either directly or indirectly to the various independent design parameters. Staffing by shift is reported into direct and indirect support labor. These staffing levels are in turn related to the waste type, waste throughput, etc. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Abstraction of Models for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, K.

    2001-01-01

    This analyses and models report (AMR) was conducted in response to written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). The purpose and scope of this AMR is to review and analyze upstream process-level models (CRWMS M and O 2000a and CRWMS M and O 2000b) and information relevant to pitting and crevice corrosion degradation of waste package outer barrier (Alloy 22) and drip shield (Titanium Grade 7) materials, and to develop abstractions of the important processes in a form that is suitable for input to the WAPDEG analysis for long-term degradation of waste package outer barrier and drip shield in the repository. The abstraction is developed in a manner that ensures consistency with the process-level models and information and captures the essential behavior of the processes represented. Also considered in the model abstraction are the probably range of exposure conditions in emplacement drifts and local exposure conditions on drip shield and waste package surfaces. The approach, method, and assumptions that are employed in the model abstraction are documented and justified

  18. Abstraction of Models for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2001-08-29

    This analyses and models report (AMR) was conducted in response to written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). The purpose and scope of this AMR is to review and analyze upstream process-level models (CRWMS M and O 2000a and CRWMS M and O 2000b) and information relevant to pitting and crevice corrosion degradation of waste package outer barrier (Alloy 22) and drip shield (Titanium Grade 7) materials, and to develop abstractions of the important processes in a form that is suitable for input to the WAPDEG analysis for long-term degradation of waste package outer barrier and drip shield in the repository. The abstraction is developed in a manner that ensures consistency with the process-level models and information and captures the essential behavior of the processes represented. Also considered in the model abstraction are the probably range of exposure conditions in emplacement drifts and local exposure conditions on drip shield and waste package surfaces. The approach, method, and assumptions that are employed in the model abstraction are documented and justified.

  19. Conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, Karin; Fontaine, Pierre; Mayer, Joerg; Jimenez, Julien; Richard, Pascal; Vogtmann, Michael; Schaefer, Felix; Martin, Nicolas; Buis, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the new economic models for solar energy producers while the photovoltaic industry has to face a progressive reduction of feed-in tariffs and of other incentive mechanisms. Beside the legal and economic aspects, technical questions around energy storage and integration of photovoltaic production to the grid were also addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Stimulating self-consumption and direct selling within the EEG (Karin Freier); 2 - Development of PV self-consumption in France (Pierre Fontaine); 3 - experience from applying the new support program for solar energy storage systems (Joerg Mayer); 4 - Call for solar photovoltaic projects for own consumption in Aquitaine region (Julien Jimenez); 5 - SMA Flexible Storage System - New version of the Sunny Island inverter for smart photovoltaic energy storage (Pascal Richard); 6 - PV Own Consumption in industry and commerce - examples und Operating Concepts (Michael Vogtmann); 7 - Supplying tenants in multiple-family housing with solar power in the 'Neue Heimat' project (Felix Schaefer); 8 - How to manage PV-storage self-consumption from a grid point of view? (Nicolas Martin); 9 - Closing talk (Sabine Buis)

  20. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the interface delamination. To this end, a computational model with variable boundary conditions is developed based on the different combination state of water in IC packages. The distribution characteristics and mechanism of moisture diffusion behavior are analyzed including the humidity distribution field and the relation among baking temperature, water loss rate, and baking time during baking process, and then the results are validated by FEA simulation based on the improved definition of relative moisture concentration. Baking under variable temperature is proposed and compared with the baking process and baking efficiency under constant temperature to find out the optimized baking parameters. Finally, a set of curves which indicate the relation between baking energy consumption and temperature are determined under actual industrial baking experiments, which could be used as references to develop industrial standards for PCB disassembling process.

  1. Estimating animal abundance with N-mixture models using the R-INLA package for R

    KAUST Repository

    Meehan, Timothy D.

    2017-05-03

    Successful management of wildlife populations requires accurate estimates of abundance. Abundance estimates can be confounded by imperfect detection during wildlife surveys. N-mixture models enable quantification of detection probability and often produce abundance estimates that are less biased. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of the R-INLA package to analyze N-mixture models and to compare performance of R-INLA to two other common approaches -- JAGS (via the runjags package), which uses Markov chain Monte Carlo and allows Bayesian inference, and unmarked, which uses Maximum Likelihood and allows frequentist inference. We show that R-INLA is an attractive option for analyzing N-mixture models when (1) familiar model syntax and data format (relative to other R packages) are desired, (2) survey level covariates of detection are not essential, (3) fast computing times are necessary (R-INLA is 10 times faster than unmarked, 300 times faster than JAGS), and (4) Bayesian inference is preferred.

  2. Recent developments on PLASMAKIN - a software package to model the kinetics in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinhao, N R

    2009-01-01

    PLASMAKIN is a user-friendly software package to handle physical and chemical data used in plasma physics modeling and to compute the production and destruction terms in fluid models equations. These terms account for the particle or energy production and loss rates due to gas-phase and gas-surface reactions. The package has been restructured and expanded to (a) allow the simulation of atomic emission spectra taking into account line broadening processes and radiation trapping; (b) include a library to compute the electron kinetics; (c) include a database of species properties and reactions and, (d) include a Python interface to allow access from scripts and integration with other scientific software tools.

  3. Inventory of data bases, graphics packages, and models in Department of Energy laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, C.R.; Peck, L.J.

    1978-11-01

    A central inventory of energy-related environmental bibliographic and numeric data bases, graphics packages, integrated hardware/software systems, and models was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to make these resources at Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories better known and available to researchers and managers. This inventory will also serve to identify and avoid duplication among laboratories. The data were collected at each DOE laboratory, then sent to ORNL and merged into a single file. This document contains the data from the merged file. The data descriptions are organized under major data types: data bases, graphics packages, integrated hardware/software systems, and models. The data include descriptions of subject content, documentation, and contact persons. Also provided are computer data such as media on which the item is available, size of the item, computer on which the item executes, minimum hardware configuration necessary to execute the item, software language(s) and/or data base management system utilized, and character set used. For the models, additional data are provided to define the model more accurately. These data include a general statement of algorithms, computational methods, and theories used by the model; organizations currently using the model; the general application area of the model; sources of data utilized by the model; model validation methods, sensitivity analysis, and procedures; and general model classification. Data in this inventory will be available for on-line data retrieval on the DOE/RECON system

  4. Innovation ecosystem model for commercialization of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlăduţ Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovation means Creativity and Added value recognise by the market. The first step in creating a sustainable commercialization of research results, Technological Transfer – TT mechanism, on one hand is to define the “technology” which will be transferred and on other hand to define the context in which the TT mechanism work, the ecosystem. The focus must be set on technology as an entity, not as a science or a study of the practical industrial arts and certainly not any specific applied science. The transfer object, the technology, must rely on a subjectively determined but specifiable set of processes and products. Focusing on the product is not sufficient to the transfer and diffusion of technology. It is not merely the product that is transferred but also knowledge of its use and application. The innovation ecosystem model brings together new companies, experienced business leaders, researchers, government officials, established technology companies, and investors. This environment provides those new companies with a wealth of technical expertise, business experience, and access to capital that supports innovation in the early stages of growth.

  5. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  6. CASE ANALYSIS OF INNOVATION IN THE PACKAGING INDUSTRY USING THE CYCLIC INNOVATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    NICHOLAS FORD; PAUL TROTT; CHRIS SIMMS; DAP HARTMANN

    2014-01-01

    This paper builds upon Berkhout et al.’s (2010) cyclic innovation model (CIM). This model was shown to provide an effective framework for understanding and managing the innovation process and to address many of the shortcomings of previous models. Building on that article we have applied CIM to an in-depth case study featuring a formable paperboard technology within the packaging industry. Using data gathered from 28 interviews conducted over a three year period, CIM, for the first time, is a...

  7. An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, Bryan [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component Science and Mechanics; Lechman, Jeremy B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanoscale and Reactive Processes

    2015-03-01

    The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.

  8. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  9. Fitting Diffusion Item Response Theory Models for Responses and Response Times Using the R Package diffIRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Molenaar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the psychometric literature, item response theory models have been proposed that explicitly take the decision process underlying the responses of subjects to psychometric test items into account. Application of these models is however hampered by the absence of general and flexible software to fit these models. In this paper, we present diffIRT, an R package that can be used to fit item response theory models that are based on a diffusion process. We discuss parameter estimation and model fit assessment, show the viability of the package in a simulation study, and illustrate the use of the package with two datasets pertaining to extraversion and mental rotation. In addition, we illustrate how the package can be used to fit the traditional diffusion model (as it has been originally developed in experimental psychology to data.

  10. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A.V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18–40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean–atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean–atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: (http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de). - Highlights: • A new version of the software package SCIATRAN is presented. • Inelastic scattering in water and atmosphere is implemented in SCIATRAN. • Raman scattering and fluorescence can be included in radiative transfer calculations. • Comparisons to other radiative transfer models show excellent agreement. • Comparisons to observations show consistent results.

  11. tgp: An R Package for Bayesian Nonstationary, Semiparametric Nonlinear Regression and Design by Treed Gaussian Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Gramacy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The tgp package for R is a tool for fully Bayesian nonstationary, semiparametric nonlinear regression and design by treed Gaussian processes with jumps to the limiting linear model. Special cases also implemented include Bayesian linear models, linear CART, stationary separable and isotropic Gaussian processes. In addition to inference and posterior prediction, the package supports the (sequential design of experiments under these models paired with several objective criteria. 1-d and 2-d plotting, with higher dimension projection and slice capabilities, and tree drawing functions (requiring maptree and combinat packages, are also provided for visualization of tgp objects.

  12. Packagings in the silicon era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Mione, A.; Orsini, A.; Forasassi, G.

    1993-01-01

    ENEA is studying, with the collaboration of the DCMN of the Pisa University, a new packaging to collect wastes in various facilities while proceeding to find a final disposal. Following a survey on the wastes that could be transported in the future, it was agreed to design a packaging able to contain an industrial drum, with a maximum capacity of 220 litres and a total weight less than 4000 N, previously filled with solid wastes in bulk or in a solid binding material. The packaging, to be approved as a Type B in agreement with the IAEA Regulations, will be useful to transport not only radioactive wastes but any kind of dangerous goods and also those not in agreement with the UNO Regulations. The 1/2 scale model of the packaging is formed by two concentric vessels of mild steel obtained by welding commercial shells to cylindrical walls and joined through a flange. The new packaging under development presents features that seem to be proper for its envisaged waste collection main use such as construction simplicity, relatively low cost, time and use endurance, low maintenance requirements. The design analysis and testing program ongoing at present allowed for the preliminary definition of the packaging geometry and confirmed the necessity of further investigations in some key areas as the determination of actual behaviour of the silicon foam, used as energy absorbing/thermal insulating material, in the specific conditions of interest. (J.P.N.)

  13. GEMSFITS: Code package for optimization of geochemical model parameters and inverse modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miron, George D.; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Dmytrieva, Svitlana V.; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tool for generating consistent parameters against various types of experiments. • Handles a large number of experimental data and parameters (is parallelized). • Has a graphical interface and can perform statistical analysis on the parameters. • Tested on fitting the standard state Gibbs free energies of aqueous Al species. • Example on fitting interaction parameters of mixing models and thermobarometry. - Abstract: GEMSFITS is a new code package for fitting internally consistent input parameters of GEM (Gibbs Energy Minimization) geochemical–thermodynamic models against various types of experimental or geochemical data, and for performing inverse modeling tasks. It consists of the gemsfit2 (parameter optimizer) and gfshell2 (graphical user interface) programs both accessing a NoSQL database, all developed with flexibility, generality, efficiency, and user friendliness in mind. The parameter optimizer gemsfit2 includes the GEMS3K chemical speciation solver ( (http://gems.web.psi.ch/GEMS3K)), which features a comprehensive suite of non-ideal activity- and equation-of-state models of solution phases (aqueous electrolyte, gas and fluid mixtures, solid solutions, (ad)sorption. The gemsfit2 code uses the robust open-source NLopt library for parameter fitting, which provides a selection between several nonlinear optimization algorithms (global, local, gradient-based), and supports large-scale parallelization. The gemsfit2 code can also perform comprehensive statistical analysis of the fitted parameters (basic statistics, sensitivity, Monte Carlo confidence intervals), thus supporting the user with powerful tools for evaluating the quality of the fits and the physical significance of the model parameters. The gfshell2 code provides menu-driven setup of optimization options (data selection, properties to fit and their constraints, measured properties to compare with computed counterparts, and statistics). The practical utility, efficiency, and

  14. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, V. V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A. V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18-40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean-atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. [61] we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de.

  15. Mathematical models for diffusive mass transfer from waste package container with multiple perforations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.; Chambre, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    A robust engineered barrier system (EBS) is employed in the current design concept for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, US. The primary component of the EBS is a multi-barrier waste package container. Simplifying the geometry of the cylindrical waste package container and the underlying invert into the equivalent spherical configuration, mathematical models are developed for steady-state and transient diffusive releases from the failed waste container with multiple perforations (or pit penetrations) at the boundary of the invert. Using the models the steady-state and transient diffusive release behaviors form the failed waste container are studied. The analyses show that the number of perforations, the size of perforation, the container wall thickness, the geometry of the waste container and invert, and the adsorption of radionuclide in the invert are the important parameters that control the diffusive release rate. It is emphasized that the failed (or perforated) waste package container can still perform as a potentially important barrier (or diffusion barrier) to radionuclide release

  16. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  17. Opportunities for Improving Army Modeling and Simulation Development: Making Fundamental Adjustments and Borrowing Commercial Business Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper briefly explores project management principles, leadership theory, and commercial business practices, suggesting improvements to the Army's modeling and simulation development process...

  18. Predictive model for the Dutch post-consumer plastic packaging recycling system and implications for the circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marieke T; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U; Augustinus, Antje; Soethoudt, Han; De Meester, Steven; Ragaert, Kim

    2018-01-01

    The Dutch post-consumer plastic packaging recycling network has been described in detail (both on the level of packaging types and of materials) from the household potential to the polymeric composition of the recycled milled goods. The compositional analyses of 173 different samples of post-consumer plastic packaging from different locations in the network were combined to indicatively describe the complete network with material flow analysis, data reconciliation techniques and process technological parameters. The derived potential of post-consumer plastic packages in the Netherlands in 2014 amounted to 341 Gg net (or 20.2 kg net.cap -1 .a -1 ). The complete recycling network produced 75.2 Gg milled goods, 28.1 Gg side products and 16.7 Gg process waste. Hence the net recycling chain yield for post-consumer plastic packages equalled 30%. The end-of-life fates for 35 different plastic packaging types were resolved. Additionally, the polymeric compositions of the milled goods and the recovered masses were derived with this model. These compositions were compared with experimentally determined polymeric compositions of recycled milled goods, which confirmed that the model predicts these compositions reasonably well. Also the modelled recovered masses corresponded reasonably well with those measured experimentally. The model clarified the origin of polymeric contaminants in recycled plastics, either sorting faults or packaging components, which gives directions for future improvement measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  20. Presentation of a Novel Model for Evaluation of Commercialization of Research and Development: Case Study of the Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Hassan; Radfar, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The current situation in Iran suggests an appropriate basis for developing biotechnology industries, because the patents for the majority of hi-tech medicines registered in developed countries are ending. Biosimilar and technology-oriented companies which do not have patents will have the opportunity to enter the biosimilar market and move toward innovative initiatives. The present research proposed a model by which one can evaluate commercialization of achievements obtained from research with a focus on the pharmaceutical biotechnology industry. This is a descriptive-analytic study where mixed methodology is followed by a heuristic approach. The statistical population was pharmaceutical biotechnology experts at universities and research centers in Iran. Structural equations were employed in this research. The results indicate that there are three effective layers within commercialization in the proposed model. These are a general layer (factors associated with management, human capital, legal infrastructure, communication infrastructure, a technical and executive infrastructures, and financial factors), industrial layer (internal industrial factors and pharmaceutical industry factors), and a third layer that included national and international aspects. These layers comprise 6 domains, 21 indices, 41 dimensions, and 126 components. Compilation of these layers (general layer, industrial layer, and national and international aspects) can serve commercialization of research and development as an effective evaluation package.

  1. A mathematical model, algorithm, and package of programs for simulation and prompt estimation of the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V.I.; Yatsko, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model and a package of programs are presented for simulating the atmospheric turbulent diffusion of contaminating impurities from land based and other sources. Test calculations and investigations of the effect of various factors are carried out

  2. A mechanistic model for leaching from low-level radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a waste leaching model to predict radionuclide releases from porous wastes in corrodible outer containers in unsaturated conditions and/or conditions of intermittent water flow is summarized in this paper. Three major processes have been conceptualized as necessarily participating in waste leaching: infiltration of water to the waste package; interaction of this water with the waste; and exit of radionuclide-laden water from the waste package. Through the exit point, the main features of the whole leaching process ware held in common. The departure occurs in two main ways: 1) the method of entrance of the radionuclides to leachant (i.e. part of the waste-water interaction phase outlined earlier); and 2) the mode of exit from waste form/waste package (i.e., the exit of radionuclide-laden water phase). The first branching point, which occurs in relation to 1), leads to either readily soluble species directly entering leachant on contact, or to other processes - mainly expected to be diffusion, dissolution or ion exchange, or some combination thereof

  3. The model of asset management of commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Shaymardanov, Shakhzod; Nuriddinov, Sadriddin; Mamadaliev, Donierbek; Murodkhonov, Mukhammad

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the commercial bank's policy in the sphere of asset and liability management is to maintain the optimal structure of assets and liabilities, ensure the compliance of amounts, terms and currency of attracting and allocating resources. The objectives and principles of asset and liability management are based on the bank's strategy and the fundamental principles of the risk management policy.

  4. GRAVTool, a Package to Compute Geoid Model by Remove-Compute-Restore Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, G. S.; Blitzkow, D.; Vidotti, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, there are several methods to determine geoid models. They can be based on terrestrial gravity data, geopotential coefficients, astro-geodetic data or a combination of them. Among the techniques to compute a precise geoid model, the Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR) has been widely applied. It considers short, medium and long wavelengths derived from altitude data provided by Digital Terrain Models (DTM), terrestrial gravity data and global geopotential coefficients, respectively. In order to apply this technique, it is necessary to create procedures that compute gravity anomalies and geoid models, by the integration of different wavelengths, and that adjust these models to one local vertical datum. This research presents a developed package called GRAVTool based on MATLAB software to compute local geoid models by RCR technique and its application in a study area. The studied area comprehends the federal district of Brazil, with ~6000 km², wavy relief, heights varying from 600 m to 1340 m, located between the coordinates 48.25ºW, 15.45ºS and 47.33ºW, 16.06ºS. The results of the numerical example on the studied area show the local geoid model computed by the GRAVTool package (Figure), using 1377 terrestrial gravity data, SRTM data with 3 arc second of resolution, and geopotential coefficients of the EIGEN-6C4 model to degree 360. The accuracy of the computed model (σ = ± 0.071 m, RMS = 0.069 m, maximum = 0.178 m and minimum = -0.123 m) matches the uncertainty (σ =± 0.073) of 21 points randomly spaced where the geoid was computed by geometrical leveling technique supported by positioning GNSS. The results were also better than those achieved by Brazilian official regional geoid model (σ = ± 0.099 m, RMS = 0.208 m, maximum = 0.419 m and minimum = -0.040 m).

  5. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  6. Highly-optimized TWSM software package for seismic diffraction modeling adapted for GPU-cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, Nikolay; Ayzenberg, Alena; Aizenberg, Arkady

    2015-04-01

    Oil producing companies concern to increase resolution capability of seismic data for complex oil-and-gas bearing deposits connected with salt domes, basalt traps, reefs, lenses, etc. Known methods of seismic wave theory define shape of hydrocarbon accumulation with nonsufficient resolution, since they do not account for multiple diffractions explicitly. We elaborate alternative seismic wave theory in terms of operators of propagation in layers and reflection-transmission at curved interfaces. Approximation of this theory is realized in the seismic frequency range as the Tip-Wave Superposition Method (TWSM). TWSM based on the operator theory allows to evaluate of wavefield in bounded domains/layers with geometrical shadow zones (in nature it can be: salt domes, basalt traps, reefs, lenses, etc.) accounting for so-called cascade diffraction. Cascade diffraction includes edge waves from sharp edges, creeping waves near concave parts of interfaces, waves of the whispering galleries near convex parts of interfaces, etc. The basic algorithm of TWSM package is based on multiplication of large-size matrices (make hundreds of terabytes in size). We use advanced information technologies for effective realization of numerical procedures of the TWSM. In particular, we actively use NVIDIA CUDA technology and GPU accelerators allowing to significantly improve the performance of the TWSM software package, that is important in using it for direct and inverse problems. The accuracy, stability and efficiency of the algorithm are justified by numerical examples with curved interfaces. TWSM package and its separate components can be used in different modeling tasks such as planning of acquisition systems, physical interpretation of laboratory modeling, modeling of individual waves of different types and in some inverse tasks such as imaging in case of laterally inhomogeneous overburden, AVO inversion.

  7. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource: UK wind speed data package and user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Ravenscroft, F

    1993-12-31

    A software package has been developed for IBM-PC or true compatibles. It is designed to provide easy access to the results of a programme of work to estimate the UK wind energy resource. Mean wind speed maps and quantitative resource estimates were obtained using the NOABL mesoscale (1 km resolution) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain. NOABL was used in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations for a ten year period (1975-1984) to provide digital UK maps of mean wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level. Also included in the derivation of these maps was the use of the Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) method to model the effect on wind speed of the abrupt change in surface roughness that occurs at the coast. With the wind speed software package, the user is able to obtain a display of the modelled wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level for any location in the UK. The required co-ordinates are simply supplied by the user, and the package displays the selected wind speed. This user manual summarises the methodology used in the generation of these UK maps and shows computer generated plots of the 25m wind speeds in 200 x 200 km regions covering the whole UK. The uncertainties inherent in the derivation of these maps are also described, and notes given on their practical usage. The present study indicated that 23% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. (18 figures, 3 tables, 6 references). (author)

  8. Computer aided system engineering and analysis (CASE/A) modeling package for ECLS systems - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Robert C.; Bacskay, Allen S.; Knox, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the CASE/A-ECLSS series modeling package is presented. CASE/A is an analytical tool that has supplied engineering productivity accomplishments during ECLSS design activities. A components verification program was performed to assure component modeling validity based on test data from the Phase II comparative test program completed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An integrated plotting feature has been added to the program which allows the operator to analyze on-screen data trends or get hard copy plots from within the CASE/A operating environment. New command features in the areas of schematic, output, and model management, and component data editing have been incorporated to enhance the engineer's productivity during a modeling program.

  9. SMOG 2: A Versatile Software Package for Generating Structure-Based Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jeffrey K; Levi, Mariana; Raghunathan, Mohit; Lammert, Heiko; Hayes, Ryan L; Onuchic, José N; Whitford, Paul C

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained or simplified Hamiltonians have proven to be an effective means of capturing the functionally important long-time and large-length scale motions of proteins and RNAs. Originally developed in the context of protein folding, structure-based models (SBMs) have since been extended to probe a diverse range of biomolecular processes, spanning from protein and RNA folding to functional transitions in molecular machines. The hallmark feature of a structure-based model is that part, or all, of the potential energy function is defined by a known structure. Within this general class of models, there exist many possible variations in resolution and energetic composition. SMOG 2 is a downloadable software package that reads user-designated structural information and user-defined energy definitions, in order to produce the files necessary to use SBMs with high performance molecular dynamics packages: GROMACS and NAMD. SMOG 2 is bundled with XML-formatted template files that define commonly used SBMs, and it can process template files that are altered according to the needs of each user. This computational infrastructure also allows for experimental or bioinformatics-derived restraints or novel structural features to be included, e.g. novel ligands, prosthetic groups and post-translational/transcriptional modifications. The code and user guide can be downloaded at http://smog-server.org/smog2.

  10. Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called high energy interaction with general heterogeneous target systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed. (orig.)

  11. SMOG 2: A Versatile Software Package for Generating Structure-Based Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K Noel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained or simplified Hamiltonians have proven to be an effective means of capturing the functionally important long-time and large-length scale motions of proteins and RNAs. Originally developed in the context of protein folding, structure-based models (SBMs have since been extended to probe a diverse range of biomolecular processes, spanning from protein and RNA folding to functional transitions in molecular machines. The hallmark feature of a structure-based model is that part, or all, of the potential energy function is defined by a known structure. Within this general class of models, there exist many possible variations in resolution and energetic composition. SMOG 2 is a downloadable software package that reads user-designated structural information and user-defined energy definitions, in order to produce the files necessary to use SBMs with high performance molecular dynamics packages: GROMACS and NAMD. SMOG 2 is bundled with XML-formatted template files that define commonly used SBMs, and it can process template files that are altered according to the needs of each user. This computational infrastructure also allows for experimental or bioinformatics-derived restraints or novel structural features to be included, e.g. novel ligands, prosthetic groups and post-translational/transcriptional modifications. The code and user guide can be downloaded at http://smog-server.org/smog2.

  12. An ARM data-oriented diagnostics package to evaluate the climate model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Xie, S.

    2016-12-01

    A set of diagnostics that utilize long-term high frequency measurements from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is developed for evaluating the regional simulation of clouds, radiation and precipitation in climate models. The diagnostics results are computed and visualized automatically in a python-based package that aims to serve as an easy entry point for evaluating climate simulations using the ARM data, as well as the CMIP5 multi-model simulations. Basic performance metrics are computed to measure the accuracy of mean state and variability of simulated regional climate. The evaluated physical quantities include vertical profiles of clouds, temperature, relative humidity, cloud liquid water path, total column water vapor, precipitation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, radiative fluxes, aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Process-oriented diagnostics focusing on individual cloud and precipitation-related phenomena are developed for the evaluation and development of specific model physical parameterizations. Application of the ARM diagnostics package will be presented in the AGU session. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, IM release number is: LLNL-ABS-698645.

  13. Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCS) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor-cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed

  14. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  15. Utilizing an Adaptive Grey Model for Short-Term Time Series Forecasting: A Case Study of Wafer-Level Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Jung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wafer-level packaging process is an important technology used in semiconductor manufacturing, and how to effectively control this manufacturing system is thus an important issue for packaging firms. One way to aid in this process is to use a forecasting tool. However, the number of observations collected in the early stages of this process is usually too few to use with traditional forecasting techniques, and thus inaccurate results are obtained. One potential solution to this problem is the use of grey system theory, with its feature of small dataset modeling. This study thus uses the AGM(1,1 grey model to solve the problem of forecasting in the pilot run stage of the packaging process. The experimental results show that the grey approach is an appropriate and effective forecasting tool for use with small datasets and that it can be applied to improve the wafer-level packaging process.

  16. Quantum lattice model solver package HΦ. Applications to thermal and spin excitations in proximity of spin liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Youhei; Misawa, Takahiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Kawashima, Naoki; Todo, Synge

    2017-01-01

    HΦ is a program package based on the Lanczos-type method applicable to a broad range of quantum lattice models. HΦ has a flexible and simple-to-use interface, and runs efficiently on massively parallel computers. Unlike most existing packages, HΦ supports finite-temperature calculations. In this article, we apply HΦ to typical strongly correlated electron systems in proximity to quantum spin liquids. (author)

  17. Application of Thermal Network Model to Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronic Package Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ishizuka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing demand to have smaller and lighter electronic circuits which have greater complexity, multifunctionality, and reliability. High-density multichip packaging technology has been used in order to meet these requirements. The higher the density scale is, the larger the power dissipation per unit area becomes. Therefore, in the designing process, it has become very important to carry out the thermal analysis. However, the heat transport model in multichip modules is very complex, and its treatment is tedious and time consuming. This paper describes an application of the thermal network method to the transient thermal analysis of multichip modules and proposes a simple model for the thermal analysis of multichip modules as a preliminary thermal design tool. On the basis of the result of transient thermal analysis, the validity of the thermal network method and the simple thermal analysis model is confirmed.

  18. Package Flow Model and its fuzzy implementation for simulating nuclear reactor system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Misako.

    1996-01-01

    A simple intuitive simulation model, which we call 'Package Flow Model', has been developed to evaluate physical processes in nuclear reactor system from a macroscopic point of view. In the previous paper, we showed the physical process of each energy generation and transfer stage in a PWR could be modeled by PFM, and its dynamics could be approximately simulated by fuzzy implementation. In this paper, a PFMs network approach for a total PWR system simulation is proposed and some transients of nuclear ship 'MUTSU' reactor system are evaluated. The simulated results are consistent with those from Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System developed by JAERI. Furthermore, a visual representation method is proposed to intuitively capture the profile of fuel safety transient. Using the PFMs network, we can handily calculate the transient phenomena of the system even by a notebook-type personal computer. In addition, we can easily interpret the results of calculation surveying a small number of parameters. (author)

  19. Implementation of New Process Models for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures into Processing Software Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin; Phelps, Jay; Tucker, Charles L. III; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Smith, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the work conducted under the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) (Nr. 260) between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Autodesk, Inc. to develop and implement process models for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) in processing software packages. The structure of this report is organized as follows. After the Introduction Section (Section 1), Section 2 summarizes the current fiber orientation models developed for injection-molded short-fiber thermoplastics (SFTs). Section 3 provides an assessment of these models to determine their capabilities and limitations, and the developments needed for injection-molded LFTs. Section 4 then focuses on the development of a new fiber orientation model for LFTs. This model is termed the anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model as it explores the concept of anisotropic rotary diffusion to capture the fiber-fiber interaction in long-fiber suspensions and uses the reduced strain closure method of Wang et al. to slow down the orientation kinetics in concentrated suspensions. In contrast to fiber orientation modeling, before this project, no standard model was developed to predict the fiber length distribution in molded fiber composites. Section 5 is therefore devoted to the development of a fiber length attrition model in the mold. Sections 6 and 7 address the implementations of the models in AMI, and the conclusions drawn from this work is presented in Section 8.

  20. GGRaSP: A R-package for selecting representative genomes using Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas H; Brinkac, Lauren M; Sutton, Granger; Fouts, Derrick E

    2018-04-14

    The vast number of available sequenced bacterial genomes occasionally exceeds the facilities of comparative genomic methods or is dominated by a single outbreak strain, and thus a diverse and representative subset is required. Generation of the reduced subset currently requires a priori supervised clustering and sequence-only selection of medoid genomic sequences, independent of any additional genome metrics or strain attributes. The GGRaSP R-package described below generates a reduced subset of genomes that prioritizes maintaining genomes of interest to the user as well as minimizing the loss of genetic variation. The package also allows for unsupervised clustering by modeling the genomic relationships using a Gaussian Mixture Model to select an appropriate cluster threshold. We demonstrate the capabilities of GGRaSP by generating a reduced list of 315 genomes from a genomic dataset of 4600 Escherichia coli genomes, prioritizing selection by type strain and by genome completeness. GGRaSP is available at https://github.com/JCVenterInstitute/ggrasp/. tclarke@jcvi.org. Supplementary data are available at the GitHub site.

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Television Commercial Ratings in Alternative Competitive Environments Using Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTAŞ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Watching the commercials depends on the choice of the viewer. Most of the television viewing takes place during “Prime-Time” unfortunately; many viewers opt to zap to other channels when commercials start. The television viewers’ demographic characteristics may indicate the likelihood of the zapping frequency. Analysis made by using Multinomial Logit Model indicates how effective the demographic variables are in the watching rate of the first minute of the television commercials.

  2. Commercial demand for energy: a disaggregated approach. [Model validation for 1970-1975; forecasting to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J.R.; Cohn, S.; Cope, J.; Johnson, W.S.

    1978-04-01

    This report describes the structure and forecasting accuracy of a disaggregated model of commercial energy use recently developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model forecasts annual commercial energy use by ten building types, five end uses, and four fuel types. Both economic (utilization rate, fuel choice, capital-energy substitution) and technological factors (equipment efficiency, thermal characteristics of buildings) are explicitly represented in the model. Model parameters are derived from engineering and econometric analysis. The model is then validated by simulating commercial energy use over the 1970--1975 time period. The model performs well both with respect to size of forecast error and ability to predict turning points. The model is then used to evaluate the energy-use implications of national commercial buildings standards based on the ASHRAE 90-75 recommendations. 10 figs., 12 tables, 14 refs.

  3. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioriti...... to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R2 = 0.4, Se = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches....

  4. Nonlinearities and transit times in soil organic matter models: new developments in the SoilR package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    SoilR is an R package for implementing diverse models representing soil organic matter dynamics. In previous releases of this package, we presented the implementation of linear first-order models with any number of pools as well as radiocarbon dynamics. We present here new improvements of the package regarding the possibility to implement models with nonlinear interactions among state variables and the possibility to calculate ages and transit times for nonlinear models with time dependencies. We show here examples on how to implement model structures with Michaelis-Menten terms for explicit microbial growth and resource use efficiency, and Langmuir isotherms for representing adsorption of organic matter to mineral surfaces. These nonlinear terms can be implemented for any number of organic matter pools, microbial functional groups, or mineralogy, depending on user's requirements. Through a simple example, we also show how transit times of organic matter in soils are controlled by the time-dependencies of the input terms.

  5. A day in the city : using conjoint choice experiments to model urban tourists' choice of activity packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces and tests a conjoint choice experiment approach to modeling urban tourists' choice of activity packages. The joint logit model is introduced as a tool to model choices between combinations of activities and an experimental design approach is proposed that includes attributes

  6. The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) Modeling Package for Space Vehicle Flow System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jason; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) is a modeling software package that combines nodal analysis and the hydraulic-electric analogy to simulate fluid, electrical, and thermal flow systems. GUNNS is developed by L-3 Communications under the TS21 (Training Systems for the 21st Century) project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), primarily for use in space vehicle training simulators at JSC. It has sufficient compactness and fidelity to model the fluid, electrical, and thermal aspects of space vehicles in real-time simulations running on commodity workstations, for vehicle crew and flight controller training. It has a reusable and flexible component and system design, and a Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing capability for rapid GUI-based simulator development, ease of maintenance, and associated cost savings. GUNNS is optimized for NASA's Trick simulation environment, but can be run independently of Trick.

  7. Danish wind turbines: Technical-economic feasibility of commercial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchetta, M.

    1992-01-01

    This feasibility study examines the principal technical and economic (investment-manufacturing-installation-operation unit costs, supply and demand) characteristics of wind turbines being commercialized in Denmark. The general configuration of the 150 to 450 kW range machines currently being manufactured can be described as that of a three bladed fibreglass rotor, of from 24 to 35 meters in diameter, and mounted on a tower of from 29 to 41 meters in height. The electrical system consists of one asynchronous generator or a two generator system with a power ratio of 1 to 5 between the two generators. The cost analysis reveals that the Danish wind turbines are competitively priced, with per kWh costs varying from $0. 0675 to $0. 040 for operating wind speeds ranging from 5 to 7 m/sec, and that their overall design and performance characteristics make them suitable for Italian site conditions

  8. Model for the separate collection of packaging waste in Portuguese low-performing recycling regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V; Sousa, V; Vaz, J M; Dias-Ferreira, C

    2018-06-15

    Separate collection of packaging waste (glass; plastic/metals; paper/cardboard), is currently a widespread practice throughout Europe. It enables the recovery of good quality recyclable materials. However, separate collection performance are quite heterogeneous, with some countries reaching higher levels than others. In the present work, separate collection of packaging waste has been evaluated in a low-performance recycling region in Portugal in order to investigate which factors are most affecting the performance in bring-bank collection system. The variability of separate collection yields (kg per inhabitant per year) among 42 municipalities was scrutinized for the year 2015 against possible explanatory factors. A total of 14 possible explanatory factors were analysed, falling into two groups: socio-economic/demographic and waste collection service related. Regression models were built in an attempt to evaluate the individual effect of each factor on separate collection yields and predict changes on the collection yields by acting on those factors. The best model obtained is capable to explain 73% of the variation found in the separate collection yields. The model includes the following statistically significant indicators affecting the success of separate collection yields: i) inhabitants per bring-bank; ii) relative accessibility to bring-banks; iii) degree of urbanization; iv) number of school years attended; and v) area. The model presented in this work was developed specifically for the bring-bank system, has an explanatory power and quantifies the impact of each factor on separate collection yields. It can therefore be used as a support tool by local and regional waste management authorities in the definition of future strategies to increase collection of recyclables of good quality and to achieve national and regional targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A PC-based software package for modeling DOE mixed-waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, M.S.; Carney, C.; Schum, K.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters and associated contractors have developed an IBM PC-based software package that estimates costs, schedules, and public and occupational health risks for a range of mixed-waste management options. A key application of the software package is the comparison of various waste-treatment options documented in the draft Site Treatment Plans prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. This automated Systems Analysis Methodology consists of a user interface for configuring complexwide or site-specific waste-management options; calculational algorithms for cost, schedule and risk; and user-selected graphical or tabular output of results. The mixed-waste management activities modeled in the automated Systems Analysis Methodology include waste storage, characterization, handling, transportation, treatment, and disposal. Analyses of treatment options identified in the draft Site Treatment Plans suggest potential cost and schedule savings from consolidation of proposed treatment facilities. This paper presents an overview of the automated Systems Analysis Methodology

  10. STRUCTURE OF MODELS FOR AGGREGATE ASSESSMENT OF FINANCIAL RISK COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kryshtal

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual approaches use a structural model for assessment of financial risk commercial banks, namely the risk measurement in combination: a comparison of its capital, calculated based on the standard approach of Basel II advanced approaches of Basel II and the structural model. Analysis of the application of the model in a economics crisis situation, such as the capital adequacy of the commercial banks. Deals with a unified approach to the choice of measure and its risk parameters to measur...

  11. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioritization, which require rapid computation of accurate estimates for diverse scenarios. To fulfil this need, we develop an accurate and rapid (high-throughput) model that estimates the fraction of organic chemicals migrating from polymeric packaging materials into foods. Several hundred step-wise simulations optimised the model coefficients to cover a range of user-defined scenarios (e.g. temperature). The developed model, operationalised in a spreadsheet for future dissemination, nearly instantaneously estimates chemical migration, and has improved performance over commonly used model simplifications. When using measured diffusion coefficients the model accurately predicted (R 2  = 0.9, standard error (S e ) = 0.5) hundreds of empirical data points for various scenarios. Diffusion coefficient modelling, which determines the speed of chemical transfer from package to food, was a major contributor to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R 2  = 0.4, S e  = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategic planning model for Startups: A case study of Iranian packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s turbulent and competitive world, strategic planning plays an important role for the success of firms. Despite the fact that there are literally numerous models proposed for different companies in various states and structures, the possibility of using strategic planning for startups has never been seriously considered. In this paper, we present a survey by asking experts to find out whether strategic planning is suitable for startups. We also propose a model for strategic planning in startups based on the strategic planning models for small businesses and entrepreneurship concepts. The model is similar to other models and what differentiates this models form other approaches is the methodology used for internal and external analysis and the parameters taken into consideration. The proposed model is examined on an Iranian food packaging industry for validation. The preliminary results indicate that the success of startups depends on two sets of parameters: “entrepreneurial opportunities” and “competitive advantages and entrepreneurial characteristics”.

  13. The last developments of the airGR R-package, an open source software for rainfall-runoff modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Delaigue, Olivier; Coron, Laurent; Perrin, Charles; Andréassian, Vazken

    2017-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2016), called airGR (Coron et al., 2016, 2017), to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A model, - the monthly GR2M model, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J, GR5J and GR6J, - the hourly GR4H model, - a degree-day snow model CemaNeige. The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithm selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is also used for educational purposes. It allows for convenient implementation of model inter-comparisons and large sample hydrology experiments. The airGR package undergoes continuous developments for improving the efficiency, computational time

  14. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  15. The effect of nano-silver packaging in increasing the shelf life of nuts: An in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Hamidreza; Rastegar, Hossein; Taherian, Mahdi; Samadi, Mohammad; Rostami, Hossein

    2017-10-20

    Nano packaging is currently one of the most important topics in food packaging technologies. The aim of the application of this technology in food packaging is increasing shelf life of foods by preventing internal and external corruption and microbial contaminations. Use of silver nanoparticles in food packaging has recently attracted much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-silver packaging in increasing the shelf life packages of nuts in an In vitro model. In this experimental study, the effects of different nano-silver concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 3 percent) on biological and chemical properties of 432 samples of nuts including walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds and pistachios were evaluated during 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months. In most samples, different concentrations of nano-silver (1, 2 and 3 %) significantly reduced total microbial count, mold and coliform counts compared to control group and the 3% nano-silver concentration was more effective than other concentrations (Pnano-silver concentrations were used. Nano-silver also prevented growth of mold and so prevented aflatoxin production in all treatment groups. Results of chemical and biological tests showed that the silver nanoparticles had a significant effect on increasing the shelf life of nuts. The highest shelf life belonged to pistachios, almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts with 20, 19, 18 and 18 months, respectively. The shelf life was associated with amount of silver nanoparticles. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed when 3% nano-silver concentration was used in pistachios. The shelf life of control groups in similar storage conditions were calculated for an average of 13 months. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of nano-silver packing in increasing shelf life of nuts. Hence, use of nano-silver packaging in food industry, especially in food packaging is recommended.

  16. Application of the Finite Elemental Analysis to Modeling Temperature Change of the Vaccine in an Insulated Packaging Container during Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Changfeng; Cheng, Yujie; Shen, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrated an attempt to predict temperatures of a perishable product such as vaccine inside an insulated packaging container during transport through finite element analysis (FEA) modeling. In order to use the standard FEA software for simulation, an equivalent heat conduction coefficient is proposed and calculated to describe the heat transfer of the air trapped inside the insulated packaging container. The three-dimensional, insulated packaging container is regarded as a combination of six panels, and the heat flow at each side panel is a one-dimension diffusion process. The transit-thermal analysis was applied to simulate the heat transition process from ambient environment to inside the container. Field measurements were carried out to collect the temperature during transport, and the collected data were compared to the FEA simulation results. Insulated packaging containers are used to transport temperature-sensitive products such as vaccine and other pharmaceutical products. The container is usually made of an extruded polystyrene foam filled with gel packs. World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all vaccines except oral polio vaccine be distributed in an environment where the temperature ranges between +2 to +8 °C. The primary areas of concern in designing the packaging for vaccine are how much of the foam thickness and gel packs should be used in order to keep the temperature in a desired range, and how to prevent the vaccine from exposure to freezing temperatures. This study uses numerical simulation to predict temperature change within an insulated packaging container in vaccine cold chain. It is our hope that this simulation will provide the vaccine industries with an alternative engineering tool to validate vaccine packaging and project thermal equilibrium within the insulated packaging container.

  17. airGR: a suite of lumped hydrological models in an R-package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Laurent; Perrin, Charles; Delaigue, Olivier; Andréassian, Vazken; Thirel, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2015), called airGR, to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A (Mouehli et al., 2006), - the monthly GR2M (Mouehli, 2003) models, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), GR5J (Le Moine, 2008) and GR6J (Pushpalatha et al., 2011), - the hourly GR4H model (Mathevet, 2005), - a degree-day snow module CemaNeige (Valéry et al., 2014). The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithms selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is already used for educational purposes. The presentation will detail the main functionalities of the package and present a case

  18. Business models in open innovation and commercialization - a dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Picot, A; Doeblin, S.

    2009-01-01

    This afternoon I will talk about business models because in open innovation they play a crucial role. If you have read the books of Henry Chesbrough or other authors on open innovation, you know that business models are important in explaining the phenomenon of open innovation. Moreover, they are

  19. runjags: An R Package Providing Interface Utilities, Model Templates, Parallel Computing Methods and Additional Distributions for MCMC Models in JAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Denwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The runjags package provides a set of interface functions to facilitate running Markov chain Monte Carlo models in JAGS from within R. Automated calculation of appropriate convergence and sample length diagnostics, user-friendly access to commonly used graphical outputs and summary statistics, and parallelized methods of running JAGS are provided. Template model specifications can be generated using a standard lme4-style formula interface to assist users less familiar with the BUGS syntax. Automated simulation study functions are implemented to facilitate model performance assessment, as well as drop-k type cross-validation studies, using high performance computing clusters such as those provided by parallel. A module extension for JAGS is also included within runjags, providing the Pareto family of distributions and a series of minimally-informative priors including the DuMouchel and half-Cauchy priors. This paper outlines the primary functions of this package, and gives an illustration of a simulation study to assess the sensitivity of two equivalent model formulations to different prior distributions.

  20. Geochemistry Model Abstraction and Sensitivity Studies for the 21 PWR CSNF Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, P.; LeStrange, S.; Thomas, E.; Zarrabi, K.; Arthur, S.

    2002-01-01

    The CSNF geochemistry model abstraction, as directed by the TWP (BSC 2002b), was developed to provide regression analysis of EQ6 cases to obtain abstracted values of pH (and in some cases HCO 3 - concentration) for use in the Configuration Generator Model. The pH of the system is the controlling factor over U mineralization, CSNF degradation rate, and HCO 3 - concentration in solution. The abstraction encompasses a large variety of combinations for the degradation rates of materials. The ''base case'' used EQ6 simulations looking at differing steel/alloy corrosion rates, drip rates, and percent fuel exposure. Other values such as the pH/HCO 3 - dependent fuel corrosion rate and the corrosion rate of A516 were kept constant. Relationships were developed for pH as a function of these differing rates to be used in the calculation of total C and subsequently, the fuel rate. An additional refinement to the abstraction was the addition of abstracted pH values for cases where there was limited O 2 for waste package corrosion and a flushing fluid other than J-13, which has been used in all EQ6 calculation up to this point. These abstractions also used EQ6 simulations with varying combinations of corrosion rates of materials to abstract the pH (and HCO 3 - in the case of the limiting O 2 cases) as a function of WP materials corrosion rates. The goodness of fit for most of the abstracted values was above an R 2 of 0.9. Those below this value occurred during the time at the very beginning of WP corrosion when large variations in the system pH are observed. However, the significance of F-statistic for all the abstractions showed that the variable relationships are significant. For the abstraction, an analysis of the minerals that may form the ''sludge'' in the waste package was also presented. This analysis indicates that a number a different iron and aluminum minerals may form in the waste package other than those described in the EQ6 output files which are based on the use

  1. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  2. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  3. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  4. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  5. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  6. EQ3/6, a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems: Package overview and installation guide (Version 7.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This report describes version 7.0. The major components of the package include: EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code; EQ6, a reaction path code which models water/rock interaction or fluid mixing in either a pure reaction progress mode or a time mode; EQPT, a data file preprocessor, EQLIB, a supporting software library; and five supporting thermodynamic data files. The software deals with the concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic disequilibrium, and reaction kinetics. The five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer's equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25 degree C only to 0--300 degree C. EQPT takes a formatted data file (a data0 file) and writes an unformatted near-equivalent called a datal file, which is actually the form read by EQ3NR and EQ6. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of partial equilibrium or disequilibrium. It is also required to initialize an EQ6 calculation. EQ6 models the consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a set of reactants which react irreversibly. It can also model fluid mixing and the consequences of changes in temperature. This code operates both in a pure reaction progress frame and in a time frame

  7. EQ3/6, a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems: Package overview and installation guide (Version 7.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-09-14

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This report describes version 7.0. The major components of the package include: EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code; EQ6, a reaction path code which models water/rock interaction or fluid mixing in either a pure reaction progress mode or a time mode; EQPT, a data file preprocessor, EQLIB, a supporting software library; and five supporting thermodynamic data files. The software deals with the concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic disequilibrium, and reaction kinetics. The five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer`s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25{degree}C only to 0--300{degree}C. EQPT takes a formatted data file (a data0 file) and writes an unformatted near-equivalent called a datal file, which is actually the form read by EQ3NR and EQ6. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of partial equilibrium or disequilibrium. It is also required to initialize an EQ6 calculation. EQ6 models the consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a set of reactants which react irreversibly. It can also model fluid mixing and the consequences of changes in temperature. This code operates both in a pure reaction progress frame and in a time frame.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  9. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Mou; Dong Xiang; Guanghong Duan

    2013-01-01

    Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the ...

  10. Report on geotechnical tests with model structures Work Package - Deliverable number: WP 7.2 – D72.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    This report aims to give a comprehensive summary of the geotechnical tests with model structures that have been performed in work package 7.2 task 7.2.2 within the IRPWIND project. The large-scale tests are intended to determine soil-structure interaction effects in order to support probabilistic...... calculations of the reliability of offshore wind turbine support structures. These calculations are mainly performed in work package 7.4 of the IRPWIND project. However, this report already includes the development of a probabilistic model for the axial bearing capacity / resistance that is obtained using...

  11. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  12. A model to determine the radiological implications of non-fixed radioactive contamination on the surfaces of packages and conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Warner Jones, S.M.; Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Thierfeld, S.; Schroedl, E.; Schwarz, G.; Rawl, R.; Munakata, M.; Hirose, M.

    2004-01-01

    The surfaces of packages and conveyances used to transport radioactive materials can sometimes become contaminated with radioactive material. This usually occurs as a result of the transfer of radioactive material from areas in which these packages and conveyances are handled. This contamination may subsequently be transferred to transport equipment, workers and to areas accessible to the public. This can represent a significant radiation safety issue that requires careful management. The current regulatory limits for non-fixed contamination on packages and conveyances have been in use for over 40 years, and are based on a simple exposure model. However, the bases on which these limits were derived have been subject to changes, as a result of successive revisions of international recommendations. In recognition of this need for a review and analysis of the current contamination limits an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the ''Radiological Aspects of Package and Conveyance Non-Fixed Contamination'' was initiated to review the scientific basis for the current regulatory limits for surface contamination. The CRP was also to develop guidance material for evaluating the radiological significance of surface contamination to workers and the public in light of state-of-the-art research, technical developments and current transport practices. The specific objectives of the work undertaken within this multi-national CRP were, in accordance with the terms of reference: To ensure that appropriate models exist for all package types including consideration of the aspects pertinent for assessing and revising a surface contamination model for transport. To collect - where possible - contamination, operational and dosimetric data to ensure modelling consistency. To use models for assessing the limitations and optimisation of radiation doses incurred in transport operations, and to consider preventive methods for package and conveyance contamination

  13. A Mathematical Model of the Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP System for the Gas Transmission Rate of Fruit Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to predict oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour exchanges in non-perforated and micro-perforated modified atmosphere packaging films has successfully been proposed. The transmission rate of gases was measured for films with thickness of 0.03 and 0.05 mm, perforation diameters of 0.5 and 2.0 mm, and temperatures of 0, 10 and 20 °C. Under most conditions, the increase in temperature and perforation diameter increased the transmission rate of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour, whereas the increase in film thickness decreased the transmission rate of the various gases. Validation of the proposed modified atmosphere packaging model was found to yield good prediction for gas concentrations and percentage losses in the mass of the produce after comparison with the experimental results of modified atmosphere packaging for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum.

  14. Using ProModel as a simulation tools to assist plant layout design and planning: Case study plastic packaging factory

    OpenAIRE

    Pochamarn Tearwattanarattikal; Suwadee Namphacharoen; Chonthicha Chamrasporn

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the application of a Simulation Model to assist decision making on expanding capacity and plant layout design and planning. The plant layout design concept is performed first to create the physical layouts then the simulation model used to test the capability of plant to meet various demand forecast scena. The study employed ProModel package as a tool, using the model to compare the performances in term of % utilization, characteristics of WIP and ability to meet due date....

  15. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  16. Modelling and simulating the transitory regimes in NPP using the MMS package programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, Daniel; Constantinescu, Adrian Cornel

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a brief presentation of the preoccupation of modelling and simulating group at the Nuclear Power Plant Department of the Faculty of Power Plant Engineering in 'Politehnica' University of Bucharest in using the Modular Modeling System, MMS, package programs for the simulation of NPP transitory regimes. Nuclear power plants are large, non-linear systems with numerous interactions between its components. In the analysis of such complex systems, dynamic simulation is recognized as a powerful method of keeping track of the myriad of interactions. The MMS is a simulation tool that has built in models for plant components using a modular approach to dynamic simulation. The MMS software modules were developed to correspond to plant components that are familiar to power plant engineers. The interface specifications of the modules were defined so that the modules can be interconnected analogously to components in the actual plant. For some components, several modules of differing complexity are available. These alternative modules allow the user to choose the module appropriate to his application, i.e. a detailed model or a more economical model with less detail. The modular nature of the MMS allows the user to tailor the goal of his simulation to the complexity of the application and allows the user to develop independent subsystems that can be integrated into a larger simulation. The MMS module library contains modules for components for fossil and nuclear power plants. Each module is a mathematical model of a type of plant component formulated from first principles. The MMS uses a simulation language that provides features to simplify the development of simulations. Features important to the development of the MMS are the macro capability, automatic sorting of modeling equations, and integration algorithms. The macro capability is used to express the modeling equations for an MMS module. Since modules may be used more than once in the same simulation

  17. Lost opportunities: Modeling commercial building energy code adoption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Hal T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper models the adoption of commercial building energy codes in the US between 1977 and 2006. Energy code adoption typically results in an increase in aggregate social welfare by cost effectively reducing energy expenditures. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, I test if relative state funding, a new, objective, multivariate regression-derived measure of government capacity, as well as a vector of control variables commonly used in comparative state research, predict commercial building energy code adoption. The research shows little political influence over historical commercial building energy code adoption in the sample. Colder climates and higher electricity prices also do not predict more frequent code adoptions. I do find evidence of high government capacity states being 60 percent more likely than low capacity states to adopt commercial building energy codes in the following year. Wealthier states are also more likely to adopt commercial codes. Policy recommendations to increase building code adoption include increasing access to low cost capital for the private sector and providing noncompetitive block grants to the states from the federal government. - Highlights: ► Model the adoption of commercial building energy codes from 1977–2006 in the US. ► Little political influence over historical building energy code adoption. ► High capacity states are over 60 percent more likely than low capacity states to adopt codes. ► Wealthier states are more likely to adopt commercial codes. ► Access to capital and technical assistance is critical to increase code adoption.

  18. Business models in commercial media markets: Bargaining, advertising, and mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Thöne, Miriam; Rasch, Alexander; Wenzel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We consider a product and a media market and show how a change in the business model employed by the media platforms affects consumers, producers (or advertisers), and price negotiations for advertisements. On both markets, two firms differentiated á la Hotelling compete for consumers. On the media market, consumers can mix between the two outlets whereas on the product market, consumers have to decide for one supplier. With pay-tv, as opposed to free-to-air, mixing by consumers disappears, p...

  19. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)-An R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode

    2009-01-01

    are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE1 approximation......The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model...... development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(l)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornoe, R.V Overgaard, H. Agerso, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8...

  20. LakeMetabolizer: An R package for estimating lake metabolism from free-water oxygen using diverse statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Luke; Zwart, Jacob A.; Batt, Ryan D.; Dugan, Hilary; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Corman, Jessica; Hanson, Paul C.; Read, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism is a fundamental process in ecosystems that crosses multiple scales of organization from individual organisms to whole ecosystems. To improve sharing and reuse of published metabolism models, we developed LakeMetabolizer, an R package for estimating lake metabolism from in situ time series of dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and, optionally, additional environmental variables. LakeMetabolizer implements 5 different metabolism models with diverse statistical underpinnings: bookkeeping, ordinary least squares, maximum likelihood, Kalman filter, and Bayesian. Each of these 5 metabolism models can be combined with 1 of 7 models for computing the coefficient of gas exchange across the air–water interface (k). LakeMetabolizer also features a variety of supporting functions that compute conversions and implement calculations commonly applied to raw data prior to estimating metabolism (e.g., oxygen saturation and optical conversion models). These tools have been organized into an R package that contains example data, example use-cases, and function documentation. The release package version is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN), and the full open-source GPL-licensed code is freely available for examination and extension online. With this unified, open-source, and freely available package, we hope to improve access and facilitate the application of metabolism in studies and management of lentic ecosystems.

  1. MODEL 9977 B(M)F-96 SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2006-05-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on and for the 9977 Shipping Package, referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP). The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9977 package with the regulatory safety requirements for Type B packages. Per 10 CFR 71.59, for the 9977 packages evaluated in this SARP, the value of ''N'' is 50, and the Transport Index based on nuclear criticality control is 1.0. The 9977 package is designed with a high degree of single containment. The 9977 complies with 10 CFR 71 (2002), Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10 CFR 20 (2003) for As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. The 9977 also satisfies the requirements of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material--1996 Edition (Revised)--Requirements. IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Rev.), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2000). The 9977 package is designed, analyzed and fabricated in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, 1992 edition.

  2. Cost Model Comparison: A Study of Internally and Commercially Developed Cost Models in Use by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima

    2011-01-01

    NASA makes use of numerous cost models to accurately estimate the cost of various components of a mission - hardware, software, mission/ground operations - during the different stages of a mission's lifecycle. The purpose of this project was to survey these models and determine in which respects they are similar and in which they are different. The initial survey included a study of the cost drivers for each model, the form of each model (linear/exponential/other CER, range/point output, capable of risk/sensitivity analysis), and for what types of missions and for what phases of a mission lifecycle each model is capable of estimating cost. The models taken into consideration consisted of both those that were developed by NASA and those that were commercially developed: GSECT, NAFCOM, SCAT, QuickCost, PRICE, and SEER. Once the initial survey was completed, the next step in the project was to compare the cost models' capabilities in terms of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements. This final comparison was then portrayed in a visual manner with Venn diagrams. All of the materials produced in the process of this study were then posted on the Ground Segment Team (GST) Wiki.

  3. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    The first model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the ''failed'' waste package and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the package (because of corrosion products plugging the perforations), thereby being prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to diffuse through the perforations, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had lower peak EBS release rates than with the first model. Impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with low solubility. The analysis indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a ''failed'' waste package (the first model) may be too conservative; thus a ''failed'' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be an important barrier to radionuclide release

  4. Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    in fewer than 5 or so iterations. We employ a fast convex quadratic programming solver to carry out the iterations, which is more than fast enough to run in real-time. We demonstrate our method on a realistic model, with a full year simulation, using real historical data. These simulations show substantial...... cost savings, and reveal how the method exhibits sophisticated response to real-time variations in electricity prices. This demand response is critical to help balance real-time uncertainties associated with large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in a future smart grid....

  5. R-HyMOD: an R-package for the hydrological model HyMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratti, Emanuele; Montanari, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    A software code for the implementation of the HyMOD hydrological model [1] is presented. HyMOD is a conceptual lumped rainfall-runoff model that is based on the probability-distributed soil storage capacity principle introduced by R. J. Moore 1985 [2]. The general idea behind this model is to describe the spatial variability of some process parameters as, for instance, the soil structure or the water storage capacities, through probability distribution functions. In HyMOD, the rainfall-runoff process is represented through a nonlinear tank connected with three identical linear tanks in parallel representing the surface flow and a slow-flow tank representing groundwater flow. The model requires the optimization of five parameters: Cmax (the maximum storage capacity within the watershed), β (the degree of spatial variability of the soil moisture capacity within the watershed), α (a factor for partitioning the flow between two series of tanks) and the two residence time parameters of quick-flow and slow-flow tanks, kquick and kslow respectively. Given its relatively simplicity but robustness, the model is widely used in the literature. The input data consist of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at the given time scale. The R-HyMOD package is composed by a 'canonical' R-function of HyMOD and a fast FORTRAN implementation. The first one can be easily modified and can be used, for instance, for educational purposes; the second part combines the R user friendly interface with a fast processing unit. [1] Boyle D.P. (2000), Multicriteria calibration of hydrological models, Ph.D. dissertation, Dep. of Hydrol. and Water Resour., Univ of Arizona, Tucson. [2] Moore, R.J., (1985), The probability-distributed principle and runoff production at point and basin scale, Hydrol. Sci. J., 30(2), 273-297.

  6. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  7. Conference on the new models of photovoltaic consumption and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastiger, Michaela; Persem, Melanie; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Freier, Karin; Fontaine, Pierre; Mueth, Thierry; Marliave, Luc de; Woerlen, Christine; Gerdung, Anja; Jedliczka, Marc; Mayer, Joerg; Jimenez, Julien; Richard, Pascal; Vogtmann, Michael; Schaefer, Felix; Martin, Nicolas; Blanc, Francois; Ostermann, Christoph; Borghese, Francois; Nykamp, Stefan; Von Appen, Jan; Buis, Sabine; Gossement, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers contributions (Power Point presentations) of a conference on new models of consumption and commercialisation in the solar photovoltaic sector in France and in Germany. These contributions address the following topics: Stimulating self-consumption and direct selling within the EEG; Development of PV self-consumption in France; Experience from applying the new support program for solar energy storage systems; Call for solar photovoltaic projects for own consumption in the Aquitaine region; The SMA flexible storage system (technical solutions for a PV system in a smart home); PV own consumption in industry and commerce, examples and operating concepts; Supplying tenants in multiple-family housing with solar power in the 'Neue Heimat' project; How to manage PV-storage self-consumption from a grid point of view

  8. glmmTMB balances speed and flexibility among packages for Zero-inflated Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Mollie Elizabeth; Kristensen, Kasper; van Benthem, Koen J.

    2017-01-01

    Count data can be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models when observations are correlated in ways that require random effects. However, count data are often zero-inflated, containing more zeros than would be expected from the typical error distributions. We present a new package, glmm...

  9. Internal Corrosion Analysis of Model 9975 Packaging Containing Pu or PuO2 During Shipping and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vormelker, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed an internal corrosion analysis of the Model 9975 packaging assembly containing either Pu or PuO2 for storage in K Reactor under ambient conditions for a period of 12 years. The 12-year storage period includes two years for shipping and up to ten years for storage

  10. Vibration monitoring for aircraft wing model using fiber Bragg grating array packaged by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xiaolong; He, Wei; Dong, Mingli; Zhu, Lianqing

    2017-09-01

    For the improvement of monitoring accuracy, a vibration monitoring for aircraft wing model using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array packaged by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is proposed. The working principle of the vibration monitoring using FBG array has been explained, which can theoretically support the idea of this paper. VARTM has been explained in detail, which is suitable for not only the single FBG sensor but also the FBG array within a relatively large area. The calibration experiment has been performed using the FBG sensor packaged by VARTM. The strain sensitivity of the VARTM package is 1.35 pm/μɛ and the linearity is 0.9999. The vibration monitoring experiment has been carried out using FBG array packaged by VARTM. The measured rate of strain changes across the aluminum test board used to simulate the aircraft wing is 0.69 μɛ/mm and the linearity is 0.9931. The damping ratio is 0.16, which could be further used for system performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that the vibration monitoring using FBG sensors packaged by VARTM can be efficiently used for the structural health monitoring. Given the validation and great performance, this method is quite promising for in-flight monitoring and holds great reference value in other similar engineering structures.

  11. Commercial banks moving into microfinance: which market entry model works best?

    OpenAIRE

    Kielb, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the performance of business models used by commercial banks to enter the microfinance industry. The purpose of the study was to provide a high level indication of whether there is a model or models that yield better success than others. To conduct the research, four commer cial market entry models were chosen, and analysis of secondary data from the MixMaket dataset was completed compare model performance. Results indicated based on the methodology that the “service compan...

  12. Categorical Inputs, Sensitivity Analysis, Optimization and Importance Tempering with tgp Version 2, an R Package for Treed Gaussian Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Gramacy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the new features in version 2.x of the tgp package for R, implementing treed Gaussian process (GP models. The topics covered include methods for dealing with categorical inputs and excluding inputs from the tree or GP part of the model; fully Bayesian sensitivity analysis for inputs/covariates; sequential optimization of black-box functions; and a new Monte Carlo method for inference in multi-modal posterior distributions that combines simulated tempering and importance sampling. These additions extend the functionality of tgp across all models in the hierarchy: from Bayesian linear models, to classification and regression trees (CART, to treed Gaussian processes with jumps to the limiting linear model. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the baseline functionality of the package, outlined in the first vignette (Gramacy 2007.

  13. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  14. Credit risk assessment model for Jordanian commercial banks: Neural scoring approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ali Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in the number of non-performing loans and competition in the banking market, most of the Jordanian commercial banks are reluctant to use data mining tools to support credit decisions. Artificial neural networks represent a new family of statistical techniques and promising data mining tools that have been used successfully in classification problems in many domains. This paper proposes two credit scoring models using data mining techniques to support loan decisions for the Jordanian commercial banks. Loan application evaluation would improve credit decision effectiveness and control loan office tasks, as well as save analysis time and cost. Both accepted and rejected loan applications, from different Jordanian commercial banks, were used to build the credit scoring models. The results indicate that the logistic regression model performed slightly better than the radial basis function model in terms of the overall accuracy rate. However, the radial basis function was superior in identifying those customers who may default.

  15. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...

  16. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  17. Technical Review Report for the Model 9977 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Addendum 1 Justification for DNDO Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M H

    2008-12-17

    The Model 9977 Package is currently certified for Content Envelope C.1, {sup 238}Pu Heat Sources, either in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), or in Food-Pack Can configurations, under Certificate of Compliance (CoC) Certificate Number 9977 and Package Identification Number USA/9977/B(M)F-96 (DOE). Addendum 1, Justification for DNDO Contents,--the Submittal--supplements Revision 2 of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging for the Model 9977 Package. The Submittal adds five new contents to the Model 9977 Package, Content Envelopes, AC.1 through AC.5. The Content Envelopes are neptunium metal, the beryllium-reflected plutonium ball (BeRP Ball), plutonium/uranium metal, plutonium/uranium metal with enhanced wt% {sup 240}Pu (to 50 wt%), and uranium metal. The last three Content Envelopes are stabilized to DOE-STD-3013. These Content Envelopes will be shipped to the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where they will reside, and, hence, to off-site locations in support of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The new certificate will apply to a limited number of Model 9977 Packages. At the same time, the Submittal requests an extension of the periodic maintenance requirements from one (1) year to up to five (5) years using Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature-monitoring systems to measure the ambient storage temperature in order to ensure that the temperature of the Viton{reg_sign} O-rings for the 6-inch Containment Vessel (6CV) remain less than 200 F. The RFIDs have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory. An on-going surveillance program at the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility at the Savannah River Site, and an on-going examination of Viton{reg_sign} O-rings from mock Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide the technical justification for the extension of the periodic maintenance interval. Where extended

  18. hydroPSO: A Versatile Particle Swarm Optimisation R Package for Calibration of Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Rojas, R.

    2012-04-01

    Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is a recent and powerful population-based stochastic optimisation technique inspired by social behaviour of bird flocking, which shares similarities with other evolutionary techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). In PSO, however, each individual of the population, known as particle in PSO terminology, adjusts its flying trajectory on the multi-dimensional search-space according to its own experience (best-known personal position) and the one of its neighbours in the swarm (best-known local position). PSO has recently received a surge of attention given its flexibility, ease of programming, low memory and CPU requirements, and efficiency. Despite these advantages, PSO may still get trapped into sub-optimal solutions, suffer from swarm explosion or premature convergence. Thus, the development of enhancements to the "canonical" PSO is an active area of research. To date, several modifications to the canonical PSO have been proposed in the literature, resulting into a large and dispersed collection of codes and algorithms which might well be used for similar if not identical purposes. In this work we present hydroPSO, a platform-independent R package implementing several enhancements to the canonical PSO that we consider of utmost importance to bring this technique to the attention of a broader community of scientists and practitioners. hydroPSO is model-independent, allowing the user to interface any model code with the calibration engine without having to invest considerable effort in customizing PSO to a new calibration problem. Some of the controlling options to fine-tune hydroPSO are: four alternative topologies, several types of inertia weight, time-variant acceleration coefficients, time-variant maximum velocity, regrouping of particles when premature convergence is detected, different types of boundary conditions and many others. Additionally, hydroPSO implements recent PSO variants such as: Improved Particle Swarm

  19. rpsftm: An R Package for Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Annabel; White, Ian R; Bond, Simon

    2017-12-04

    Treatment switching in a randomised controlled trial occurs when participants change from their randomised treatment to the other trial treatment during the study. Failure to account for treatment switching in the analysis (i.e. by performing a standard intention-to-treat analysis) can lead to biased estimates of treatment efficacy. The rank preserving structural failure time model (RPSFTM) is a method used to adjust for treatment switching in trials with survival outcomes. The RPSFTM is due to Robins and Tsiatis (1991) and has been developed by White et al. (1997, 1999). The method is randomisation based and uses only the randomised treatment group, observed event times, and treatment history in order to estimate a causal treatment effect. The treatment effect, ψ , is estimated by balancing counter-factual event times (that would be observed if no treatment were received) between treatment groups. G-estimation is used to find the value of ψ such that a test statistic Z ( ψ ) = 0. This is usually the test statistic used in the intention-to-treat analysis, for example, the log rank test statistic. We present an R package that implements the method of rpsftm.

  20. Fullrmc, a rigid body Reverse Monte Carlo modeling package enabled with machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Bachir

    2016-05-05

    A new Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) package "fullrmc" for atomic or rigid body and molecular, amorphous, or crystalline materials is presented. fullrmc main purpose is to provide a fully modular, fast and flexible software, thoroughly documented, complex molecules enabled, written in a modern programming language (python, cython, C and C++ when performance is needed) and complying to modern programming practices. fullrmc approach in solving an atomic or molecular structure is different from existing RMC algorithms and software. In a nutshell, traditional RMC methods and software randomly adjust atom positions until the whole system has the greatest consistency with a set of experimental data. In contrast, fullrmc applies smart moves endorsed with reinforcement machine learning to groups of atoms. While fullrmc allows running traditional RMC modeling, the uniqueness of this approach resides in its ability to customize grouping atoms in any convenient way with no additional programming efforts and to apply smart and more physically meaningful moves to the defined groups of atoms. In addition, fullrmc provides a unique way with almost no additional computational cost to recur a group's selection, allowing the system to go out of local minimas by refining a group's position or exploring through and beyond not allowed positions and energy barriers the unrestricted three dimensional space around a group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SPICE Work Package 3: Modelling the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Simon

    2015-04-01

    This talk presents the results of the SPICE Work Package 3. There is an obvious need for methods to verify the accuracy of geoengineering given no observations of a geoengineering programme. Accordingly, model ability in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions is discussed using analysis of CMIP5 data and different configurations of the HadGEM2 model. With the HadGEM2-L60 model shown to be substantially better in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions, simulations of GeoMIP's G4 scenario are performed. Simulated impacts of geoengineering are described, and asymmetries between the immediate onset and immediate cessation ('termination') of geoengineering are analysed. Whilst a rapid large increase in stratospheric sulphate aerosols (such as from volcanic eruptions) can cause substantial damage, most volcanic eruptions in general are not catastrophic. One may therefore suspect that an 'equal but opposite' change in radiative forcing from termination may therefore not be catastrophic, if the climatic response is simulated to be symmetric. HadGEM2 simulations reveal a substantially more rapid change in variables such as near-surface temperature and precipitation following termination than the onset, indicating that termination may be substantially more damaging and even catastrophic. Some suggestions for hemispherically asymmetric geoengineering have been proposed as a way to reduce Northern Hemisphere sea ice, for example, with lesser impacts on the rest of the climate. However, HadGEM2 simulations are performed and observations analysed following volcanic eruptions. Both indicate substantial averse consequences from hemispherically asymmetric loading of stratospheric loading on precipitation in the Sahelian region - a vulnerable region where drought has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees in the past.

  2. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  3. Evaluation of the energy-climate package with the help of Gemini-E3 Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielle, M.; Moulinier, J.M.; Bernard, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of the energy-climate package carried out at the request of the Ministry of Sustainable Development (MEEDDAT) by simulating several scenarios on the general calculable equilibrium model GEMINI-E3. The analysis was carried out during the European negotiations in very close collaboration with the services of the Ministry and has thus constituted a useful tool for deciding and defining the position of France, which, besides, chaired the Union in the course of the transition period of the second half of 2008 and was in charge of finding and gaining acceptance of a compromise between all the member countries, while taking into account the aspirations of the professionals most closely involved. As one might guess, the study shows that the easing of constraints through mechanisms of flexibility yields reductions in the cost of European policy on climate change, particularly for the achievement of the main objective, viz. the 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. This cost is reasonable, although its distribution between countries is neither homogeneous, nor in conformity with concerns over equity. Many indirect effects of the policy on climate change, in particular the gains or losses caused by the modification of the terms of trade, may significantly upset the hierarchy of direct costs. This article also looks into the carbon leakage issue and suggests, in particular, favouring the net leakage concept, this being the discrepancy between the additional emissions in non-annex B countries and those which would have been incurred if production in response to demand from annex B countries relatively insensitive to the policy o climatic change, had not been relocated. Another feature of this study is an evaluation, after the event, of the extent to which the use of a modelling tool has effectively allowed identification of the issues raised in the course of the European negotiation, and to provide relevant answers. (authors)

  4. The software package for solving problems of mathematical modeling of isothermal curing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tikhomirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On the basis of the general laws of sulfur vulcanization diene rubbers the principles of the effective cross-linking using a multi-component agents was discussed. It is noted that the description of the mechanism of action of the complex cross-linking systems are complicated by the diversity of interactions of components and the influence of each of them on the curing kinetics, leading to a variety technological complications of real technology and affects on the quality and technical and economic indicators of the production of rubber goods. Based on the known theoretical approaches the system analysis of isothermal curing process was performed. It included the integration of different techniques and methods into a single set of. During the analysis of the kinetics of vulcanization it was found that the formation of the spatial grid parameters vulcanizates depend on many factors, to assess which requires special mathematical and algorithmic support. As a result of the stratification of the object were identified the following major subsystems. A software package for solving direct and inverse kinetic problems isothermal curing process was developed. Information support “Isothermal vulcanization” is a set of applications of mathematical modeling of isothermal curing. It is intended for direct and inverse kinetic problems. When solving the problem of clarifying the general scheme of chemical transformations used universal mechanism including secondary chemical reactions. Functional minimization algorithm with constraints on the unknown parameters was used for solving the inverse kinetic problem. Shows a flowchart of the program. An example of solving the inverse kinetic problem with the program was introduced. Dataware was implemented in the programming language C ++. Universal dependence to determine the initial concentration of the curing agent was applied . It allowing the use of a model with different properties of multicomponent

  5. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Methodology for the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool Commercial/Institutional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Tim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a mathematical model to quantify the water and monetary savings attributable to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) WaterSense labeling program for commercial and institutional products. The National Water Savings–Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is a spreadsheet tool with which the EPA can evaluate the success of its program for encouraging buyers in the commercial and institutional (CI) sectors to purchase more water-efficient products. WaterSense has begun by focusing on three water-using products commonly used in the CI sectors: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. To estimate the savings attributable to WaterSense for each of the three products, LBNL applies an accounting method to national product shipments and lifetimes to estimate the shipments of each product.

  7. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  8. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports

  9. Trickle bed reactor model to simulate the performance of commercial diesel hydrotreating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Murali; R.K. Voolapalli; N. Ravichander; D.T. Gokak; N.V. Choudary [Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Udyog Kendra (India). Corporate R& amp; D Centre

    2007-05-15

    A two phase mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of bench scale and commercial hydrotreating reactors. Major hydrotreating reactions, namely, hydrodesulphurization, hydrodearomatization and olefins saturation were modeled. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor to study the effect of different process variables and these results were used for estimating kinetic parameters. Significant amount of feed vaporization (20-50%) was estimated under normal operating conditions of DHDS suggesting the importance of considering feed vaporization in DHDS modeling. The model was validated with plant operating data, under close to ultra low sulphur levels by correctly accounting for feed vaporization in heat balance relations and appropriate use of hydrodynamic correlations. The model could predict the product quality, reactor bed temperature profiles and chemical hydrogen consumption in commercial plant adequately. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Mechanistic model coupling gas exchange dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaging of non respiring food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, E; Broyart, B; Couvert, O; Guillaume, C; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2015-10-01

    A mechanistic model coupling O2 and CO2 mass transfer (namely diffusion and solubilisation in the food itself and permeation through the packaging material) to microbial growth models was developed aiming at predicting the shelf life of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems. It was experimentally validated on a non-respiring food by investigating concomitantly the O2/CO2 partial pressure in packaging headspace and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (average microbial count) within the food sample. A sensitivity analysis has revealed that the reliability of the prediction by this "super-parametrized" model (no less than 47 parameters were required for running one simulation) was strongly dependent on the accuracy of the microbial input parameters. Once validated, this model was used to decipher the role of O2/CO2 mass transfer on microbial growth and as a MAP design tool: an example of MAP dimensioning was provided in this paper as a proof of concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)--an R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions.

  12. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging: neutron shipping cask, model 4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging demonstrates that the neutron shipping cask can safely transport, in solid or powder form, all isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium. The cask and its contents are described. It also evaluates transport conditions, structural parameters (e.g., load resistance, pressure and impact effects, lifting and tiedown devices), and shielding. Finally, it discusses compliance with Chapter 0529 of the Energy Research and Development Administration Manual, Safety Standards for the Packaging of Fissile and Other Radioactive Materials

  14. An Ada Linear-Algebra Software Package Modeled After HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Lawson, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    New avionics software written more easily. Software package extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to those of HAL/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as Space Station flight software. In addition to built-in functions of HAL/S, package incorporates quaternion functions used in Space Shuttle and Galileo projects and routines from LINPAK solving systems of equations involving general square matrices. Contains two generic programs: one for floating-point computations and one for integer computations. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.

  15. Three-dimensional integration and modeling a revolution in RF and wireless packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a step-by-step discussion of the 3D integration approach for the development of compact system-on-package (SOP) front-ends.Various examples of fully-integrated passive building blocks (cavity/microstip filters, duplexers, antennas), as well as a multilayer ceramic (LTCC) V-band transceiver front-end midule demonstrate the revolutionary effects of this approach in RF/Wireless packaging and multifunctional miniaturization.Designs covered are based on novel ideas and are presented for the first time for millimeterwave (60GHz) ultrabroadband wireless modules.Table of Contents: I

  16. VNM: An R Package for Finding Multiple-Objective Optimal Designs for the 4-Parameter Logistic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Seung Won; Wong, Weng Kee; Yang, Yarong

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-objective optimal design is useful for dose-response studies because it can incorporate several objectives at the design stage. Objectives can be of varying interests and a properly constructed multiple-objective optimal design can provide user-specified efficiencies, delivering higher efficiencies for the more important objectives. In this work, we introduce the VNM package written in R for finding 3-objective locally optimal designs for the 4-parameter logistic (4PL) model widely...

  17. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  18. EERE-VTO T2M Project Final Report - Ideation of a Novel Commercialization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-03

    The Department of Energy Technology Transfer mission is to expand the commercial impact of DOE's portfolio of R&D activities, providing ongoing economic, security, and environmental benefits for all Americans. To advance this mission, Argonne National Laboratory has executed this Technology-to-Market (T2M) project funded by EERE-VTO. The objective of the project was to ideate an overall business model for a private entity with a mission to develop and deploy technology by identifying, de-risking, and moving scientific advances into commercial use.

  19. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  20. A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low

  1. ANALYSIS FOR AERODYNAMICS OF THE SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF A COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE CRUISING AT TRANSONIC SPEED

    OpenAIRE

    KIM YANGKYUN; KIM SUNGCHO

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the computational analysis and visualization of flow around the model of a commercial airplane, Boeing 747-400. The geometry was realized through reverse engineering technique based on the photo scanning measurement. The steady three-dimensional viscous compressible governing equations were solved in the unstructured grid system. The basic conditions for computation were chosen as the same to those of Boeing 747-400’s cruising state. The high Reynolds turbulence models ar...

  2. Modelling of domestic and foreign visitors’ behaviour at commercial bank website during the recent financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Drlík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on modelling of commercial bank website visitors’ behaviour. The authors analyse domestic and foreign market participants’ interests in mandatory financial information disclosure of a commercial bank during the recent financial crisis and try to answer the question whether the purposes of Basel 2 regulations under the Pillar 3 – Market discipline, publishing financial information, have been fulfilled. The authors analyse bank website logs files using web log mining methods to better understand the rate of using of web pages, where mandatory financial information about Basel 2 is published. After data pre-processing the authors use association rule analysis to identify the association among content categories of the website. The results show that there is small interest in mandatory financial information disclosure by the commercial bank in general. The foreign website visitors take more concern in mandatory financial information disclosure, and they take less interest in general information about bank than domestic ones.

  3. airGR: an R-package suitable for large sample hydrology presenting a suite of lumped hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, G.; Delaigue, O.; Coron, L.; Perrin, C.; Andreassian, V.

    2016-12-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2015; Coron et al., 2016), called airGR, to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A (Mouehli et al., 2006), - the monthly GR2M (Mouehli, 2003) models, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), GR5J (Le Moine, 2008) and GR6J (Pushpalatha et al., 2011), - the hourly GR4H model (Mathevet, 2005), - a degree-day snow module CemaNeige (Valéry et al., 2014). The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithm selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is already used for educational purposes. It allows for convenient implementation of model inter-comparisons and

  4. Computer aided simulation for developing a simple model to predict cooling of packaged foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Gram; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    A new equation to predict equilibrium temperatures for cooling operations of packaged foods has been deducted from the traditional 1st order solution to Fourier’s heat transfer equations. The equation is analytical in form and only requires measurable parameters, in form of area vs. volume ratio (A...

  5. Estimating animal abundance with N-mixture models using the R-INLA package for R

    KAUST Repository

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Michel, Nicole L.; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    and data format (relative to other R packages) are desired, (2) survey level covariates of detection are not essential, (3) fast computing times are necessary (R-INLA is 10 times faster than unmarked, 300 times faster than JAGS), and (4) Bayesian inference

  6. A comprehensive waste collection cost model applied to post-consumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.; Bing, X.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW) can be collected for recycling via source separation or post-separation. In source separation, households separate plastics from other waste before collection, whereas in post-separation waste is separated at a treatment centre after collection. There are

  7. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  8. A menu-driven software package of Bayesian nonparametric (and parametric) mixed models for regression analysis and density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsos, George

    2017-02-01

    Most of applied statistics involves regression analysis of data. In practice, it is important to specify a regression model that has minimal assumptions which are not violated by data, to ensure that statistical inferences from the model are informative and not misleading. This paper presents a stand-alone and menu-driven software package, Bayesian Regression: Nonparametric and Parametric Models, constructed from MATLAB Compiler. Currently, this package gives the user a choice from 83 Bayesian models for data analysis. They include 47 Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) infinite-mixture regression models; 5 BNP infinite-mixture models for density estimation; and 31 normal random effects models (HLMs), including normal linear models. Each of the 78 regression models handles either a continuous, binary, or ordinal dependent variable, and can handle multi-level (grouped) data. All 83 Bayesian models can handle the analysis of weighted observations (e.g., for meta-analysis), and the analysis of left-censored, right-censored, and/or interval-censored data. Each BNP infinite-mixture model has a mixture distribution assigned one of various BNP prior distributions, including priors defined by either the Dirichlet process, Pitman-Yor process (including the normalized stable process), beta (two-parameter) process, normalized inverse-Gaussian process, geometric weights prior, dependent Dirichlet process, or the dependent infinite-probits prior. The software user can mouse-click to select a Bayesian model and perform data analysis via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. After the sampling completes, the software automatically opens text output that reports MCMC-based estimates of the model's posterior distribution and model predictive fit to the data. Additional text and/or graphical output can be generated by mouse-clicking other menu options. This includes output of MCMC convergence analyses, and estimates of the model's posterior predictive distribution, for selected

  9. Modelled Cost-Effectiveness of a Package Size Cap and a Kilojoule Reduction Intervention to Reduce Energy Intake from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Neal, Bruce; Zheng, Miaobing; Lal, Anita; Sacks, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL (package size cap), and product reformulation to reduce energy content of packaged SSBs (energy reduction). The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2010 Australia population using a multi-state life table Markov model with a lifetime time horizon. Long-term health outcomes were modelled from calculated changes in body mass index to their impact on Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). Intervention costs were estimated from a limited societal perspective. Cost and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Total intervention costs estimated in AUD 2010 were AUD 210 million. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean body weight (package size cap: 0.12 kg; energy reduction: 0.23 kg); and HALYs gained (package size cap: 73,883; energy reduction: 144,621). Cost offsets were estimated at AUD 750.8 million (package size cap) and AUD 1.4 billion (energy reduction). Cost-effectiveness analyses showed that both interventions were “dominant”, and likely to result in long term cost savings and health benefits. A package size cap and kJ reduction of SSBs are likely to offer excellent “value for money” as obesity prevention measures in Australia. PMID:28878175

  10. Demands placed on waste package performance testing and modeling by some general results on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    Waste packages for a US nuclear waste repository are required to provide reasonable assurance of maintaining substantially complete containment of radionuclides for 300 to 1000 years after closure. The waiting time to failure for complex failure processes affecting engineered or manufactured systems is often found to be an exponentially-distributed random variable. Assuming that this simple distribution can be used to describe the behavior of a hypothetical single barrier waste package, calculations presented in this paper show that the mean time to failure (the only parameter needed to completely specify an exponential distribution) would have to be more than 10 7 years in order to provide reasonable assurance of meeting this requirement. With two independent barriers, each would need to have a mean time to failure of only 10 5 years to provide the same reliability. Other examples illustrate how multiple barriers can provide a strategy for not only achieving but demonstrating regulatory compliance

  11. Safety analysis report for packaging: neutron shipping cask, model 0.5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for Packaging demonstrates that the neutron shipping cask can safely transport, in solid or powder form, all isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium. The shipping cask and its contents are described. It also evaluates transport conditions, structural parameters (e.g., load resistance, pressure and impact effects, lifting and tiedown devices), and shielding. Finally, it discusses compliance with Chapter 0529 of the Energy Research and Development Administration Manual

  12. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. Hoogenboom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  13. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  14. Modelling approach to evaluate safety of LILW-SL disposal in slovenia considering different waste packaging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, J.; Mallants, D.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories is usually demonstrated by means of a safety assessment which normally includes modelling of radionuclide release from a multi-barrier surface or deep repository to the geosphere and biosphere. The present quantitative evaluation performed emphasizes on contrasting disposal options under consideration in Slovenia and concerns siting, disposal concept (deep versus surface), and waste packaging. The assessment has identified a number of conditions that would lead to acceptable waste disposal solutions, while at the same time results also revealed options that would result in exceeding the radiological criteria. Results presented are the output of a collective effort of a Quintessa-led Consortium with SCK-CEN and Belgatom, in the framework of a recent PHARE project. The key objective of this work was to identify the preferred disposal concept and packaging option from a number of alternatives being considered by the Slovenian radioactive waste management agency (ARAO) for low and intermediate level short-lived waste (LILW-SL). The emphasis of the assessment was the consideration of several waste treatment and packaging options in an attempt to identify the minimum required containment characteristics which would result in safe disposal and the cost-benefit of additional safety measures. Waste streams for which alternative treatment and packaging solutions were developed and evaluated include decommissioning waste and NPP operational wastes containing drums with unconditioned ion exchange resins in overpacked tube type containers (TTCs). For the former the disposal options under consideration were either direct disposal of loose pieces grouted into a vault or use of high integrity containers. For the latter three options were foreseen. The first is overpacking of resin containing TTCs grouted into high integrity containers, the second option is complete treatment with hydration, neutralisation, and cementation of

  15. Study of Commercial Bank Risk Monitoring Model in Individual Consumption Credit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红

    2003-01-01

    With the development of individual consumption credit (ICC) in China, commercial banks have been exposed to more and more risks. The loan failure has been an important problem that the banking must face and revolve. This paper develops a factor system to explain how the borrower's risk is affected, and then establishes a risk monitoring model with AHP to pre-warn the banks how much the risk is.

  16. Ecological-economic modelling of interactions between wild and commercial bees and pesticide use

    OpenAIRE

    Kleczkowski, Adam; Ellis, Ciaran; Goulson, Dave; Hanley, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The decline in extent of wild pollinators in recent years has been partly associated with changing farm practices and in particular with increasing pesticide use. In this paper we combine ecological modelling with economic analysis of a single farm output under the as- sumption that both pollination and pest control are essential inputs. We show that the drive to increase farm output can lead to a local decline in the wild bee population. Commercial bees are often considered an alternative to...

  17. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie,

  18. Using ProModel as a simulation tools to assist plant layout design and planning: Case study plastic packaging factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochamarn Tearwattanarattikal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the application of a Simulation Model to assist decision making on expanding capacity and plant layout design and planning. The plant layout design concept is performed first to create the physical layouts then the simulation model used to test the capability of plant to meet various demand forecast scena. The study employed ProModel package as a tool, using the model to compare the performances in term of % utilization, characteristics of WIP and ability to meet due date. The verification and validation stages were perform before running the scenarios. The model runs daily production and then the capacity constraint resources defined by % utilization. The expanding capacity policy can be extra shift-working hours or increasing the number of machines. After expanding capacity solutions are found, the physical layout is selected based on the criterion of space available for WIP and easy flow of material.

  19. 16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling and packaging samples. 1702.13 Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  20. A model to estimate the cost of the National Essential Public Health Services Package in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Delu; Wong, Sabrina T; Chen, Wei; Xin, Qianqian; Wang, Lihong; Cui, Mingming; Yin, Tao; Li, Ruili; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Yang, Huiming; Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Bowen; Yang, Weizhong

    2015-06-06

    In order to address several health challenges, the Chinese government issued the National Essential Public Health Services Package (NEPHSP) in 2009. In China's large cities, the lack of funding for community health centers and consequent lack of comprehensive services and high quality care has become a major challenge. However, no study has been carried out to estimate the cost of delivering the services in the package. This project was to develop a cost estimation approach appropriate to the context and use it to calculate the cost of the NEPHSP in Beijing in 2011. By adjusting models of cost analysis of primary health care and workload indicators of staffing need developed by the World Health Organization, a model was developed to estimate the cost of the services in the package through an intensive interactive process. A total of 17 community health centers from eight administrative districts in Beijing were selected. Their service volume and expenditure data in 2010 were used to evaluate the costs of providing the NEPHSP in Beijing based on the applied model. The total workload of all types of primary health care in 17 sample centers was equivalent to the workload requirement for 14,056,402 standard clinic visits. The total expenditure of the 17 sample centers was 26,329,357.62 USD in 2010. The cost of the workload requirement of one standard clinic visit was 1.87 USD. The workload of the NEPHSP was equivalent to 5,514,777 standard clinic visits (39.23 % of the total workload). The model suggests that the cost of the package in Beijing was 7.95 USD per capita in 2010. The cost of the NEPHSP in urban areas was lower than suburban areas: 7.31 and 8.65 USD respectively. The average investment of 3.97 USD per capita in NEPHSP was lower than the amount needed to meet its running costs. NEPHSP in Beijing is therefore underfunded. Additional investment is needed, and a dynamic cost estimate mechanism should be introduced to ensure services remain adequately funded.

  1. 49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Packagings. (i) Natural wood used in the construction of Large Packagings must be well-seasoned, commercially...) Reconstituted wood used in the construction of Large Packagings must be water resistant reconstituted wood such... Packaging types are designated: (1) 50C natural wood. (2) 50D plywood. (3) 50F reconstituted wood. (b...

  2. Modeling flight attendants' exposure to secondhand smoke in commercial aircraft: historical trends from 1955 to 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Flight attendants were exposed to elevated levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in commercial aircraft when smoking was allowed on planes. During flight attendants' working years, their occupational SHS exposure was influenced by various factors, including the prevalence of active smokers on planes, fliers' smoking behaviors, airplane flight load factors, and ventilation systems. These factors have likely changed over the past six decades and would affect SHS concentrations in commercial aircraft. However, changes in flight attendants' exposure to SHS have not been examined in the literature. This study estimates the magnitude of the changes and the historic trends of flight attendants' SHS exposure in U.S. domestic commercial aircraft by integrating historical changes of contributing factors. Mass balance models were developed and evaluated to estimate flight attendants' exposure to SHS in passenger cabins, as indicated by two commonly used tracers (airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM)). Monte Carlo simulations integrating historical trends and distributions of influence factors were used to simulate 10,000 flight attendants' exposure to SHS on commercial flights from 1955 to 1989. These models indicate that annual mean SHS PM concentrations to which flight attendants were exposed in passenger cabins steadily decreased from approximately 265 μg/m(3) in 1955 and 1960 to 93 μg/m(3) by 1989, and airborne nicotine exposure among flight attendants also decreased from 11.1 μg/m(3) in 1955 to 6.5 μg/m(3) in 1989. Using duration of employment as an indicator of flight attendants' cumulative occupational exposure to SHS in epidemiological studies would inaccurately assess their lifetime exposures and thus bias the relationship between the exposure and health effects. This historical trend should be considered in future epidemiological studies.

  3. HDclassif : An R Package for Model-Based Clustering and Discriminant Analysis of High-Dimensional Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Berge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the R package HDclassif which is devoted to the clustering and the discriminant analysis of high-dimensional data. The classification methods proposed in the package result from a new parametrization of the Gaussian mixture model which combines the idea of dimension reduction and model constraints on the covariance matrices. The supervised classification method using this parametrization is called high dimensional discriminant analysis (HDDA. In a similar manner, the associated clustering method iscalled high dimensional data clustering (HDDC and uses the expectation-maximization algorithm for inference. In order to correctly t the data, both methods estimate the specific subspace and the intrinsic dimension of the groups. Due to the constraints on the covariance matrices, the number of parameters to estimate is significantly lower than other model-based methods and this allows the methods to be stable and efficient in high dimensions. Two introductory examples illustrated with R codes allow the user to discover the hdda and hddc functions. Experiments on simulated and real datasets also compare HDDC and HDDA with existing classification methods on high-dimensional datasets. HDclassif is a free software and distributed under the general public license, as part of the R software project.

  4. Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Samuel, Anand A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

  5. Vibrational Markovian modelling of footprints after the interaction of antibiotics with the packaging region of HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Humberto González; de Armas, Ronal Ramos; Molina, Reinaldo

    2003-11-01

    The design of novel anti-HIV compounds has now become a crucial area for scientists working in numerous interrelated fields of science such as molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, mathematical biology, molecular modelling and bioinformatics. In this context, the development of simple but physically meaningful mathematical models to represent the interaction between anti-HIV drugs and their biological targets is of major interest. One such area currently under investigation involves the targets in the HIV-RNA-packaging region. In the work described here, we applied Markov chain theory in an attempt to describe the interaction between the antibiotic paromomycin and the packaging region of the RNA in Type-1 HIV. In this model, a nucleic acid squeezed graph is used. The vertices of the graph represent the nucleotides while the edges are the phosphodiester bonds. A stochastic (Markovian) matrix was subsequently defined on this graph, an operation that codifies the probabilities of interaction between specific nucleotides of HIV-RNA and the antibiotic. The strength of these local interactions can be calculated through an inelastic vibrational model. The successive power of this matrix codifies the probabilities with which the vibrations after drug-RNA interactions vanish along the polynucleotide main chain. The sums of self-return probabilities in the k-vicinity of each nucleotide represent physically meaningful descriptors. A linear discriminant function was developed and gave rise to excellent discrimination in 80.8% of interacting and footprinted nucleotides. The Jackknife method was employed to assess the stability and predictability of the model. On the other hand, a linear regression model predicted the local binding affinity constants between a specific nucleotide and the antibiotic (R(2)=0.91, Q(2)=0.86). These kinds of models could play an important role either in the discovery of new anti-HIV compounds or the study of their mode of action.

  6. Influence of FRAPCON-1 evaluation models on fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, R.; Laats, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary set of nine evaluation models (EMs) was added to the FRAPCON-1 computer code, which is used to calculate fuel rod behavior in a nuclear reactor during steady-state operation. The intent was to provide an audit code to be used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing activities when calculations of conservative fuel rod temperatures are required. The EMs place conservatisms on the calculation of rod temperature by modifying the calculation of rod power history, fuel and cladding behavior models, and materials properties correlations. Three of the nine EMs provide either input or model specifications, or set the reference temperature for stored energy calculations. The remaining six EMs were intended to add thermal conservatism through model changes. To determine the relative influence of these six EMs upon fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors, a sensitivity study was conducted. That study is the subject of this paper

  7. An assessment Model for Customer Relationship Management Process in Iranian Private-Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmoures Hasangholi Pour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to several reports, in spite of huge investment on customer relationship management (CRM, risk of implementing such projects is high. One of failure factors is having no method to assess CRM success comprehensively. Nowadays, classic financial methods are common ways for assessing marketing and CRM initiatives. But, the mentioned models are unsuitable to assess investments like CRM that we expect to have intangible, indirect and strategic benefits. So, we need a process-oriented approach to assess all tangible and intangible factors of CRM process and complete existing models. In this paper, using a qualitative approach and grounded theory, a comprehensive and process-oriented CRM assessment model will be provided that considers all factors of customer relationship management in private-commercial banks of Iran. Finally, based on analysis of developed model, some suggestions will be offered for banking managers and future researchers.

  8. Experimental characterization and modeling of commercial polybenzimidazole-based MEA performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Anders; Refshauge, R. H.; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    are currently published to enable good system design and modeling. In this paper the influence of operation on synthesis gas and the variation of the cathode stoichiometry are investigated based on a generic commercial membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The CO content in the anode gas was varied from 0 to 5......%, with CO2 contents ranging from 25 to 20% at temperatures ranging from 160 to 200 °C. The influence of the cathode stoichiometry was investigated in the interval of 2-5 at temperatures from 120 to 180 °C with pure hydrogen on the anode. A novel semi empirical model of the fuel cell voltage versus current...... density, cathode stoichiometry and temperature was derived. It shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The simplicity and accuracy of the model makes it ideal for system modeling, control design and real-time applications....

  9. ELECTRONIC BANKING AS ANS COMPETITIVE EDGE FOR COMMERCIAL BANKS OF PAKISTAN: ROE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundas Rauf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of electronic banking on the profitability of commercial banks has been measured by developing the integrated model based on Return on Equity for the period of 2002 to 2012. Three major banks named as National Bank of Pakistan, Habib Metropolitan Bank, and Askari Bank Limited have been incorporated into the sample of this study, by applying the Ordinary Least Square (OLS , it has been concluded that services of E-Banking have significant impact on the profitability of recent adopters in terms of Return on Equity.

  10. Evaluation Of Electricity Production Cost Of Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Models

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNER, Nimeti

    2017-01-01

    The level of the development of countries is being measured by thecountry’s quantity of production and consumption energy. Concerning Turkey,according to an energy report of The World Energy Council Turkish NationalCommittee in order to meet the electricity needs of the country in 2010, there should befounded a 2000 MW(e) capacity nuclear power plant. For the nuclear electric powerplant considered to be founded in Turkey, three types of commercial reactor models,that are Pressiued Water React...

  11. An exploratory model of girls' vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A

    2011-05-01

    Due to inaccessibility of child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, the majority of emergent research on the problem lacks theoretical framing or sufficient data for quantitative analysis. Drawing from Agnew's general strain theory, this study utilized structural equation modeling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviors or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioral and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation. The proposed model was tested with data from 174 predominately African American women, 12% of whom indicated involvement in prostitution while a minor. Findings revealed child maltreatment worsened with increased caregiver strain. Experiencing child maltreatment was linked to running away, initiating substance use at earlier ages, and higher levels of sexual denigration of self/others. Sexual denigration of self/others was significantly related to the likelihood of prostitution as a minor. The network of variables in the model accounted for 34% of the variance in prostitution as a minor.

  12. Economic modeling of fault tolerant flight control systems in commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the current development of a comprehensive model which will supply the assessment and analysis capability to investigate the economic viability of Fault Tolerant Flight Control Systems (FTFCS) for commercial aircraft of the 1990's and beyond. An introduction to the unique attributes of fault tolerance and how they will influence aircraft operations and consequent airline costs and benefits is presented. Specific modeling issues and elements necessary for accurate assessment of all costs affected by ownership and operation of FTFCS are delineated. Trade-off factors are presented, aimed at exposing economically optimal realizations of system implementations, resource allocation, and operating policies. A trade-off example is furnished to graphically display some of the analysis capabilities of the comprehensive simulation model now being developed.

  13. Modelling traditional household use of biomass policy changes for a commercial sustainable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audinet, P.; Fages, E.

    1997-01-01

    Feasible policy alternatives are searched for, which could tackle the job market problem, thus achieving the first step towards solving the biomass dependency issue. To do this, an economic model is built which includes specific characteristics of biomass collection and use, such as non-monetary income, determinants of time allocation between formal and informal activities, and energy sources substitutability. The economic features of biomass production and use is studied in order to understand the underlying principles at work at the cross-roads between rural labour market and energy consumption patterns. The issue of fuelwood plantation is examined on a commercial basis using a spread-sheet model to assess its viability and the constraints for the policy maker. An economic model is developed to test the effects of a variety of policy changes on the local economy as described in the spread-sheet framework. The case of India is studied. (K.A.)

  14. Short communication: Genetic lag represents commercial herd genetic merit more accurately than the 4-path selection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, C D; Rogers, G W

    2018-05-01

    Expectation of genetic merit in commercial dairy herds is routinely estimated using a 4-path genetic selection model that was derived for a closed population, but commercial herds using artificial insemination sires are not closed. The 4-path model also predicts a higher rate of genetic progress in elite herds that provide artificial insemination sires than in commercial herds that use such sires, which counters other theoretical assumptions and observations of realized genetic responses. The aim of this work is to clarify whether genetic merit in commercial herds is more accurately reflected under the assumptions of the 4-path genetic response formula or by a genetic lag formula. We demonstrate by tracing the transmission of genetic merit from parents to offspring that the rate of genetic progress in commercial dairy farms is expected to be the same as that in the genetic nucleus. The lag in genetic merit between the nucleus and commercial farms is a function of sire and dam generation interval, the rate of genetic progress in elite artificial insemination herds, and genetic merit of sires and dams. To predict how strategies such as the use of young versus daughter-proven sires, culling heifers following genomic testing, or selective use of sexed semen will alter genetic merit in commercial herds, genetic merit expectations for commercial herds should be modeled using genetic lag expectations. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)

  16. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  17. Modeling of Monthly Residential and Commercial Electricity Consumption Using Nonlinear Seasonal Models—The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ming To

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling and forecasting monthly electricity consumption are the keys to optimizing energy management and planning. This paper examines the seasonal characteristics of electricity consumption in Hong Kong—a subtropical city with 7 million people. Using the data from January 1970 to December 2014, two novel nonlinear seasonal models for electricity consumption in the residential and commercial sectors were obtained. The models show that the city’s monthly residential and commercial electricity consumption patterns have different seasonal variations. Specifically, monthly residential electricity consumption (mainly for appliances and cooling in summer has a quadratic relationship with monthly mean air temperature, while monthly commercial electricity consumption has a linear relationship with monthly mean air temperature. The nonlinear seasonal models were used to predict residential and commercial electricity consumption for the period January 2015–December 2016. The correlations between the predicted and actual values were 0.976 for residential electricity consumption and 0.962 for commercial electricity consumption, respectively. The root mean square percentage errors for the predicted monthly residential and commercial electricity consumption were 7.0% and 6.5%, respectively. The new nonlinear seasonal models can be applied to other subtropical urban areas, and recommendations on the reduction of commercial electricity consumption are given.

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  20. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs

  2. Modelling of the Effectiveness of Al-Ti-B Refiners in Commercial Purity Aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, A. M.; Evans, P. V.; Bristow, D. J.; Greer, A. L.

    Al-5Ti-1B (wt.%) alloys are effective grain refiners for DC-cast aluminium although as few as 1% of the TiB2 particles added to the melt nucleate grains. The aim of this work is to develop quantitative modelling for prediction of grain sizes in commercial purity aluminium. In this way the low efficiency of refiners can be understood, ultimately to clarify the design rules for a more effective refiner. The modelling focuses on the role of particle size distribution. This is in conjunction with measurements (by scanning electron microscopy and image analysis) of the particle size distributions in commercial Al-5Ti-1B refiners known to have differing performances. The undercooling required for heterogeneous nucleation of oc-Al on the surface of potent TiB2 particles is extremely low. Accordingly, the modelling is based on the assumption that the critical step for a particle to behave as an active growth centre is that required to initiate free growth from the particle surface, rather than the initial heterogeneous nucleation event. It is considered that further initiation of free growth of crystals is stopped by the onset of recalescence in the melt during solidification. Only those particles which are active growth centres at the point of recalescence will contribute towards the final grain size. Negligible interference between particles and spherical growth up to the point of recalescence are assumed; these assumptions are rigorously tested. The model tests the effect of varying the particle size distribution by using measured distributions from `good' and `poor' refiners. The variation of grain size with addition rate of refiner is examined. The model predicts an effective saturation, beyond which further addition has little effect. In general, good agreement is found between the grain-size predictions and conventional grain-refining tests.

  3. EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR DESCRIBING FIRE BEHAVIOR IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCIAL EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Leonardo Alves White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling forest fire behavior is an important task that can be used to assist in fire prevention and suppression operations. However, according to previous studies, the existing common worldwide fire behavior models used do not correctly estimate the fire behavior in Brazilian commercial hybrid eucalypt plantations. Therefore, this study aims to build new empirical models to predict the fire rate of spread, flame length and fuel consumption for such vegetation. To meet these objectives, 105 laboratory experimental burns were done, where the main fuel characteristics and weather variables that influence fire behavior were controlled and/or measured in each experiment. Dependent and independent variables were fitted through multiple regression analysis. The fire rate of spread proposed model is based on the wind speed, fuel bed bulk density and 1-h dead fuel moisture content (r2 = 0.86; the flame length model is based on the fuel bed depth, 1-h dead fuel moisture content and wind speed (r2 = 0.72; the fuel consumption proposed model has the 1-h dead fuel moisture, fuel bed bulk density and 1-h dead dry fuel load as independent variables (r2= 0.80. These models were used to develop a new fire behavior software, the “Eucalyptus Fire Safety System”.

  4. Safety analysis report for packaging (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Model DT-14A package for enriched uranium), Y/DD-326 Supplement No. 1 (Rev. 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, G.; Kennedy, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This Supplement to the Safety Analysis Report Y/DD-326 [1.4.1] was prepared in accordance with US NRC Regulatory Guide 7.9 to address the Naval Fuel contents to be shipped in the DT-14A packaging. New chapters were written for Shielding, Critcality and Quality Assurance. Independent reviews were obtained for each of these chapters and for a product leakage analysis referenced in Chapter 7.0 of this document. Other chapters invoke the Y/DD-326 SARP with minor changes or additions as indicated in the Supplement. All references to form or composition of the fuel are classified Confidential NNPI in the interest of national security

  5. Development of seismic analysis model for HTGR core on commercial FEM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Nobumasa; Ohashi, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake prods to revise the design basis earthquake intensity severely. In aseismic design of block-type HTGR, the securement of structural integrity of core blocks and other structures which are made of graphite become more important. For the aseismic design of block-type HTGR, it is necessary to predict the motion of core blocks which are collided with adjacent blocks. Some seismic analysis codes have been developed in 1970s, but these codes are special purpose-built codes and have poor collaboration with other structural analysis code. We develop the vertical 2 dimensional analytical model on multi-purpose commercial FEM code, which take into account the multiple impacts and friction between block interfaces and rocking motion on contact with dowel pins of the HTGR core by using contact elements. This model is verified by comparison with the experimental results of 12 column vertical slice vibration test. (author)

  6. ANALYSIS FOR AERODYNAMICS OF THE SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF A COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE CRUISING AT TRANSONIC SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM YANGKYUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the computational analysis and visualization of flow around the model of a commercial airplane, Boeing 747-400. The geometry was realized through reverse engineering technique based on the photo scanning measurement. The steady three-dimensional viscous compressible governing equations were solved in the unstructured grid system. The basic conditions for computation were chosen as the same to those of Boeing 747-400’s cruising state. The high Reynolds turbulence models are tried. The angle of attack is varied to investigate the effect of the flight conditions to the aerodynamic performance. And flow and aerodynamic characteristics due to the existence of winglet were compared.

  7. Recovery Kinetics in Commercial Purity Aluminum Deformed to Ultrahigh Strain: Model and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to analyze recovery kinetics is developed from a recent model, and microstructural observations are introduced to supplement hardness measurements. The approach involves two steps of data fitting, and the second step of fitting enables an estimation of the apparent activation energy...... for recovery. This approach is applied to commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) cold rolled to ultrahigh strain (99.6 pct reduction in thickness) and annealed at temperatures from 413 K to 493 K (140 A degrees C to 220 A degrees C). The annealing data fit the recovery model well, and the analysis shows...... that the apparent activation energy increases during recovery and approaches 190 kJ/mol at the end of recovery, suggesting that solute drag is an important rate-controlling mechanism. The recovery rate for the highly strained Al is found to be higher than that for Al deformed to a lower strain, an effect which...

  8. Modeling Dynamic Anisotropic Behaviour and Spall Failure in Commercial Aluminium Alloys AA7010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials of aluminium alloys. The previous published constitutive model is used as a reference to start the development in this work. The proposed formulation that used a new definition of Mandel stress tensor to define Hill's yield criterion and a new shock equation of state (EOS) of the generalised orthotropic pressure is further enhanced with Grady spall failure model to closely predict shockwave propagation and spall failure in the chosen commercial aluminium alloy. This hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The implementations of a new EOS of the generalised orthotropic pressure including the spall failure are also discussed in this paper. The capability of the proposed constitutive model to capture the complex behaviour of the selected material is validated against range of Plate Impact Test data at 234, 450 and 895 ms-1 impact velocities.

  9. Parametric study of the effects of thermal environment on a waste package for a tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J K; Sundberg, W D; Krumhansl, J L [Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, (USA)

    1982-12-31

    The thermal environment has been modeled in a simple reference waste package in a tuff repository for a variety of variables. The waste package was composed of the waste form, canister, overpack and backfill. The emplacement hole was 122cm dia. Waste forms used in the calculations were commercial high level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel (SF). Canister loadings varied from 50 to 100 kW/acre. Primary attention was focused on the backfill behavior in the thermal and chemical environment. Results are related to the maximum temperature calculated for the backfill. These calculations raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of the backfill within the context of the total waste package.

  10. Business model configuration and dynamics for technology commercialization in mature markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, Serena; Arcese, Gabriella; Lucchetti, Maria Claudia; Mortara, Letizia

    2017-01-01

    The food industry is a well-established and complex industry. New entrants attempting to penetrate it via the commercialization of a new technological innovation could face high uncertainty and constraints. The capability to innovate through collaboration and to identify suitable strategies and innovative business models (BMs) can be particularly important for bringing a technological innovation to this market. However, although the potential for these capabilities has been advocated, we still lack a complete understanding of how new ventures could support the technology commercialization process via the development of BMs. The paper aims to discuss these issues. To address this gap, this paper builds a conceptual framework that knits together the different bodies of extant literature (i.e. entrepreneurship, strategy and innovation) to analyze the BM innovation processes associated with the exploitation of emerging technologies; determines the suitability of the framework using data from the exploratory case study of IT IS 3D - a firm which has started to exploit 3D printing in the food industry; and improves the initial conceptual framework with the findings that emerged in the case study. From this analysis it emerged that: companies could use more than one BM at a time; hence, BM innovation processes could co-exist and be run in parallel; the facing of high uncertainty might lead firms to choose a closed and/or a familiar BM, while explorative strategies could be pursued with open BMs; significant changes in strategies during the technology commercialization process are not necessarily reflected in a radical change in the BM; and firms could deliberately adopt interim strategies and BMs as means to identify the more suitable ones to reach the market. This case study illustrates how firms could innovate the processes of their BM development to face the uncertainties linked with the entry into a mature and highly conservative industry (food).

  11. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  12. Piloting a Commercial Model for Fortified Rice: Lessons Learned From Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Peiman; Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg; Kreis, Katharine

    2016-05-18

    Two billion people worldwide have micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a proven intervention to increase essential micronutrient availability in diets without requiring consumer behavioral change. Fortification of rice has high potential reach; however, cost, technology, market, and cultural constraints have prevented its wider adoption. From 2010 to 2014, PATH and Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition implemented a pilot project in Brazil testing a model to scale up rice fortification through commercial channels. The project focused on 5 areas: (1) building fortified rice kernel production capacity; (2) supply chain development; (3) distribution channel and market development; (4) demand generation; and (5) advocacy and knowledge dissemination. Primary data were collected in 2 rounds of quantitative research 6 months apart and conducted in 2 regions in Brazil. Secondary data were sourced from published literature, socioeconomic and demographic data, and sales figures from the project's rice miller partner. Postmortem analysis was conducted by the project team with input from external sources. Although the project successfully launched a fortified rice product and a category brand platform, it was unsuccessful in reaching meaningful scale. Market and industry dynamics affected producers' willingness to launch new fortified products. Consumers' strong attachment to rice combined with a weak understanding of micronutrient malnutrition hampered demand creation efforts. This project showed that a purely commercial approach is insufficient for sustainable scale-up of fortified rice to achieve public health goals in a 3- to 5-year period. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A cash flow model of development activity and the scope for energy savings. [Commercial office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, D [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (AU). Dept. of Architecture

    1991-01-01

    When proposing energy saving measures to the developers of large commercial office projects, it is necessary to appreciate what the developers' goals and perceptions are. This paper looks at a simple cash-flow model of development activity, and illustrates the potential for energy savings with reference to some data from two major Australian cities. This data was collected between July and November 1989 by surveys which were carried out on the basic design of 26 of the tallest Brisbane commercial office buildings. This survey followed an extensive investigation into the premises needs of modern office building tenants in Brisbane, in which over 200 CBD tenants were questioned. This investigation showed that there was an increasing need for air conditioning capacity and electrical power; greater tendencies for ''after hours'' office work; a desire for larger floor-plates to cater for expanding tenant organizations, and the emergence of ''professional tenants''. These observations have been documented elsewhere in the orbit reports amongst others. The buildings surveyed represent 60% of the estimated Brisbane central business district (CBD) office stock of area 1,256,000 m{sup 2}. (author).

  14. Modeling & Simulation Education for the Acquisition and T&E Workforce: FY07 Deliverable Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olwell, David H; Johnson, Jean; Few, Stephanie; Didoszak, Jarema M

    2007-01-01

    This technical report presents the deliverables for calendar year 2007 for the "Educating the Modeling and Simulation Workforce" project performed for the DoD Modeling and Simulation Steering Committee...

  15. Hidden Semi Markov Models for Multiple Observation Sequences: The mhsmm Package for R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Jarad Michael; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    models only allow a geometrically distributed sojourn time in a given state, while hidden semi-Markov models extend this by allowing an arbitrary sojourn distribution. We demonstrate the software with simulation examples and an application involving the modelling of the ovarian cycle of dairy cows...

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  18. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  20. Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

    2009-05-29

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

  1. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira Forti

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male and Brazil (400 female and 400 male to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (P<0.001. In Brazil, the most frequent eye colour brown was significantly less frequent than expected in comparison to the general Brazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  2. Extensive EIS characterization of commercially available lithium polymer battery cell for performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    or degradation of an electrochemical system. Used for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, this method allows for a fast and accurate assessment of the battery's impedance at any working point, without modifying the state of the battery. The influence of the operating conditions, state of charge (SOC) and temperature...... on the performance of a commercially available 53 Ah Lithium polymer battery cell, manufactured by Kokam Co. Ltd., is investigated in laboratory experiments, at its beginning of life, by means of EIS. A data fitting algorithm was used to obtain the parameter values for the proposed equivalent electrical circuit......, which was further selected for the development of an accurate EIS based performance model for the chosen Li-ion battery cell....

  3. An Optimal Investment Strategy and Multiperiod Deposit Insurance Pricing Model for Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E. Muller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ the method of stochastic optimal control to derive the optimal investment strategy for maximizing an expected exponential utility of a commercial bank’s capital at some future date T>0. In addition, we derive a multiperiod deposit insurance (DI pricing model that incorporates the explicit solution of the optimal control problem and an asset value reset rule comparable to the typical practice of insolvency resolution by insuring agencies. By way of numerical simulations, we study the effects of changes in the DI coverage horizon, the risk associated with the asset portfolio of the bank, and the bank’s initial leverage level (deposit-to-asset ratio on the DI premium while the optimal investment strategy is followed.

  4. Automating calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of complex models using the R package Flexible Modeling Environment (FME): SWAT as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Parameter optimization and uncertainty issues are a great challenge for the application of large environmental models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a physically-based hydrological model for simulating water and nutrient cycles at the watershed scale. In this study, we present a comprehensive modeling environment for SWAT, including automated calibration, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities through integration with the R package Flexible Modeling Environment (FME). To address challenges (e.g., calling the model in R and transferring variables between Fortran and R) in developing such a two-language coupling framework, 1) we converted the Fortran-based SWAT model to an R function (R-SWAT) using the RFortran platform, and alternatively 2) we compiled SWAT as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL). We then wrapped SWAT (via R-SWAT) with FME to perform complex applications including parameter identifiability, inverse modeling, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the R environment. The final R-SWAT-FME framework has the following key functionalities: automatic initialization of R, running Fortran-based SWAT and R commands in parallel, transferring parameters and model output between SWAT and R, and inverse modeling with visualization. To examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study simulating streamflow in the Cedar River Basin in Iowa in the United Sates was used, and we compared it with the built-in auto-calibration tool of SWAT in parameter optimization. Results indicate that both methods performed well and similarly in searching a set of optimal parameters. Nonetheless, the R-SWAT-FME is more attractive due to its instant visualization, and potential to take advantage of other R packages (e.g., inverse modeling and statistical graphics). The methods presented in the paper are readily adaptable to other model applications that require capability for automated calibration, and sensitivity and uncertainty

  5. Statistical Methods for the Qualitative Assessment of Dynamic Models with Time Delay (R Package qualV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Jachner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of ecological models differ, to some extent, more from measured data than from empirical knowledge. Existing techniques for validation based on quantitative assessments sometimes cause an underestimation of the performance of models due to time shifts, accelerations and delays or systematic differences between measurement and simulation. However, for the application of such models it is often more important to reproduce essential patterns instead of seemingly exact numerical values. This paper presents techniques to identify patterns and numerical methods to measure the consistency of patterns between observations and model results. An orthogonal set of deviance measures for absolute, relative and ordinal scale was compiled to provide informations about the type of difference. Furthermore, two different approaches accounting for time shifts were presented. The first one transforms the time to take time delays and speed differences into account. The second one describes known qualitative criteria dividing time series into interval units in accordance to their main features. The methods differ in their basic concepts and in the form of the resulting criteria. Both approaches and the deviance measures discussed are implemented in an R package. All methods are demonstrated by means of water quality measurements and simulation data. The proposed quality criteria allow to recognize systematic differences and time shifts between time series and to conclude about the quantitative and qualitative similarity of patterns.

  6. Documentation of 'Care-Packages' for Children in OECD's 2003 Tax/Ben Model, December 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This working paper contains documentation for the modelling of schemes implemented in OECD's 2003 Tax/Ben model for use in the 'Carearchitecture' project. The documentation also includes schemes already in the model and used in the calculations for the project. The documented schemes include...... personal taxation, parental leave benefits, payment for childcare, child benefits and housing benefits in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain and Germany....

  7. Analysis and model testing of Super Tiger Type B packaging in accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Romesberg, L.E.; May, R.A.; Joseph, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Based on previous scale model test results with more rigid systems and the subsystem tests on drums, it is believed that the scaled models realistically replicate full scale system behavior. Future work will be performed to obtain improved stiffness data on the Type A containers. These data will be incorporated into the finite element model, and improved correlation with the test results is expected. Review of the scale model transport system test results indicated that the method of attachment of the Super Tiger to the trailer was the primary cause for detachment of the outer door during the one-eighth scale grade-crossing test. Although the container seal on the scale model of Super Tiger was not adequately modeled to provide a leak-tight seal, loss of the existing seal in a full scale test can be inferred from the results of the one-quarter scale model grade-crossing test. In each test, approximately two-thirds of the model drums were estimated to have deformed sufficiently to predict loss of drum head closure seal, with several partially losing their contents within the overpack. In no case were drums ejected from the overpack, nor was there evidence of material loss in excess of the amount assumed in the WIPP EIS from any of the Super Tiger models tested. 9 figures

  8. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume III. SPAHR interactive package guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projectons. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, adn thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This manual outlines the use of the interactive capabilities of SPAHR. SPAHR is an integrated system of computer programs designed for simulating numerous health risk scenarios using the techniques of demographic modeling. This system of computer programs has been designed to be very flexible so as to allow the user to simulate a large variety of scenarios. It provides the user with an integrated package for projecting the impacts on human health of exposure to various hazards, particularly those resulting from the effluents related to energy production

  9. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  10. 'spup' - An R package for uncertainty propagation in spatial environmental modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawicka, K.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Computer models are crucial tools in engineering and environmental sciences for simulating the behaviour of complex systems. While many models are deterministic, the uncertainty in their predictions needs to be estimated before they are used for decision support. Advances in uncertainty analysis

  11. Electromagnetic modeling and optimization of packaged photodetector modules for 100 Gbit/s applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, H-G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an accurate full 3D EM behavioral model of PD chips for the first time. The model, which is meshed at 130 GHz, runs for about 17 minutes on an Intel Core2 Duo CPU@3 GHz PC with 3.5 GB of RAM. The impact of various parameters in wire- bonding transitions for transmission...

  12. Variability in the Effectiveness of a Video Modeling Intervention Package for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; MacFarland, Mari C.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2015-01-01

    Video modeling is an evidence-based instructional strategy for teaching a variety of skills to individuals with autism. Despite the effectiveness of this strategy, there is some uncertainty regarding the conditions under which video modeling is likely to be effective. The present investigation examined the differential effectiveness of video…

  13. DMPy: a Python package for automated mathematical model construction of large-scale metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W; van Rosmalen, Rik P; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Fleck, Christian

    2018-06-19

    Models of metabolism are often used in biotechnology and pharmaceutical research to identify drug targets or increase the direct production of valuable compounds. Due to the complexity of large metabolic systems, a number of conclusions have been drawn using mathematical methods with simplifying assumptions. For example, constraint-based models describe changes of internal concentrations that occur much quicker than alterations in cell physiology. Thus, metabolite concentrations and reaction fluxes are fixed to constant values. This greatly reduces the mathematical complexity, while providing a reasonably good description of the system in steady state. However, without a large number of constraints, many different flux sets can describe the optimal model and we obtain no information on how metabolite levels dynamically change. Thus, to accurately determine what is taking place within the cell, finer quality data and more detailed models need to be constructed. In this paper we present a computational framework, DMPy, that uses a network scheme as input to automatically search for kinetic rates and produce a mathematical model that describes temporal changes of metabolite fluxes. The parameter search utilises several online databases to find measured reaction parameters. From this, we take advantage of previous modelling efforts, such as Parameter Balancing, to produce an initial mathematical model of a metabolic pathway. We analyse the effect of parameter uncertainty on model dynamics and test how recent flux-based model reduction techniques alter system properties. To our knowledge this is the first time such analysis has been performed on large models of metabolism. Our results highlight that good estimates of at least 80% of the reaction rates are required to accurately model metabolic systems. Furthermore, reducing the size of the model by grouping reactions together based on fluxes alters the resulting system dynamics. The presented pipeline automates the

  14. Model Package Report: Central Plateau Vadose Zone Geoframework Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Sarah D.

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of the Central Plateau Vadose Zone (CPVZ) Geoframework model (GFM) is to provide a reasonable, consistent, and defensible three-dimensional (3D) representation of the vadose zone beneath the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site to support the Composite Analysis (CA) vadose zone contaminant fate and transport models. The GFM is a 3D representation of the subsurface geologic structure. From this 3D geologic model, exported results in the form of point, surface, and/or volumes are used as inputs to populate and assemble the various numerical model architectures, providing a 3D-layered grid that is consistent with the GFM. The objective of this report is to define the process used to produce a hydrostratigraphic model for the vadose zone beneath the Hanford Site Central Plateau and the corresponding CA domain.

  15. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for

  16. Extended latanoprost release from commercial contact lenses: in vitro studies using corneal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Mohammadi

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared, for the first time, the release of a 432 kDa prostaglandin F2a analogue drug, Latanoprost, from commercially available contact lenses using in vitro models with corneal epithelial cells. Conventional polyHEMA-based and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses were soaked in drug solution (131 μg = ml solution in phosphate buffered saline. The drug release from the contact lens material and its diffusion through three in vitro models was studied. The three in vitro models consisted of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET membrane without corneal epithelial cells, a PET membrane with a monolayer of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC, and a PET membrane with stratified HCEC. In the cell-based in vitro corneal epithelium models, a zero order release was obtained with the silicone hydrogel materials (linear for the duration of the experiment whereby, after 48 hours, between 4 to 6 μg of latanoprost (an amount well within the range of the prescribed daily dose for glaucoma patients was released. In the absence of cells, a significantly lower amount of drug, between 0.3 to 0.5 μg, was released, (p <0:001. The difference observed in release from the hydrogel lens materials in the presence and absence of cells emphasizes the importance of using an in vitro corneal model that is more representative of the physiological conditions in the eye to more adequately characterize ophthalmic drug delivery materials. Our results demonstrate how in vitro models with corneal epithelial cells may allow better prediction of in vivo release. It also highlights the potential of drug-soaked silicone hydrogel contact lens materials for drug delivery purposes.

  17. Semi-empirical model to determine pure β--emitters in closed waste packages using Bremsstrahlung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Hermanne, A.

    2001-01-01

    unsealed pure β - -emitting isotopes are applied. The 3 H, 35 S, 32 P and 33 P are widely used for DNA sequencing studies. Also large amount of 3 H and 14 C are used in organic compound synthesis resulting in long-lived low-level radioactive waste. The β - -particles can be detected by beta counter but it is not applicable in the case of closed waste packages, since the β - - particles loss their energy quickly and they are not capable to escape from the sealed waste package. The emitted β - -particles have continuous energy spectrum and no direct gamma radiation follow the decay. The only means of detection of these β - -particles is through the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced while the particle slows down. The cross section of the Bremsstrahlung generation process depends on the initial energy of the slowing down β - - particles and is proportional to the atomic density n and the average Z 2 of the waste matrix. The probability of this process is much lower than that of the ionisation process for beta particles but it is still high enough to produce measurable amounts of photons. We studied the 35 S and 32 P pure β - -emitter sources in sealed waste packages. The continuous nature of the Bremsstrahlung radiation prevents us using the 'full-energy photo peak area' method. Instead a Region of Interest (ROI) was defined. Unlike for the full-energy photo peak method where the detector efficiency is calculated in the function of energy, for pure β - - emitters an optimised ROI was defined in the spectrum and a special efficiency, eps*beta(E) was determined. The used geometry and the nature of the waste matrix requires time consuming efficiency calibrations of the detector system to be able to establish an efficiency - (matrix density, geometry, matrix composition, activity distribution) function. We studied experimentally the possible deviations of the eps*beta(E) function in case of non uniform activity distribution in order to be able to model the associated error

  18. Influência da embalagem na aceitação de diferentes marcas comerciais de cerveja tipo Pilsen Influence of packaging on the acceptability of different commercial brands of Pilsen beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Moreira Ribeiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas nove marcas de cervejas comerciais brasileiras tipo Pilsen, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da embalagem na aceitação das mesmas. As amostras foram separadas em três grupos e baseadas na pesquisa Top of Mind/2005. As marcas 1, 2, 3 e 4 (grupo a foram as mais citadas pelos consumidores nacionais; as 5 e 6 (grupo b tiveram citação intermediária; e as 7, 8 e 9 (grupo c são consideradas regionais. O trabalho foi dividido em 3 etapas: teste cego, teste com embalagem e teste com informação. Os testes foram aplicados a 54 julgadores, em condições laboratoriais, usando escala hedônica de 9 categorias. Os resultados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (p Nine Brazilian commercial brands of Pilsen beer were studied to evaluate the influence of packaging on their acceptability. The brands were separated into three groups, based on the Top of Mind/2005 research. Brands number 1, 2, 3 and 4 (group a are the most recognized by national consumers; brands number 5 and 6 (group b have intermediate recognition and brands number 7, 8 and 9 (group c are considered regional. This study was separated in 3 stages: blind test, test with labels and test with information. The tests were applied to 54 consumers under laboratory conditions, using a nine-point hedonic scale. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0,05. In the blind test, brand 1 was significantly different from brands 4, 7 and 8, being the less accepted. In the test with labels, the situation was inverted, since brand 1 was the most accepted, along with brands 3, 4 and 9; and brand 7 was the less accepted. On the other hand, in the test with information, Group A beers and brand 8, which is regional, were the most accepted. The results indicate that the labels can often influence and modify the acceptability of some beers.

  19. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  20. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  1. Estimating cost efficiency of Turkish commercial banks under unobserved heterogeneity with stochastic frontier models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Gunes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the cost efficiency of Turkish commercial banks over the restructuring period of the Turkish banking system, which coincides with the 2008 financial global crisis and the 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. To this end, within the stochastic frontier framework, we employ true fixed effects model, where the unobserved bank heterogeneity is integrated in the inefficiency distribution at a mean level. To select the cost function with the most appropriate inefficiency correlates, we first adopt a search algorithm and then utilize the model averaging approach to verify that our results are not exposed to model selection bias. Overall, our empirical results reveal that cost efficiencies of Turkish banks have improved over time, with the effects of the 2008 and 2010 crises remaining rather limited. Furthermore, not only the cost efficiency scores but also impacts of the crises on those scores appear to vary with regard to bank size and ownership structure, in accordance with much of the existing literature.

  2. BATMAN--an R package for the automated quantification of metabolites from nuclear magnetic resonance spectra using a Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Astle, William; De Iorio, Maria; Ebbels, Timothy M D

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra are widely used in metabolomics to obtain metabolite profiles in complex biological mixtures. Common methods used to assign and estimate concentrations of metabolites involve either an expert manual peak fitting or extra pre-processing steps, such as peak alignment and binning. Peak fitting is very time consuming and is subject to human error. Conversely, alignment and binning can introduce artefacts and limit immediate biological interpretation of models. We present the Bayesian automated metabolite analyser for NMR spectra (BATMAN), an R package that deconvolutes peaks from one-dimensional NMR spectra, automatically assigns them to specific metabolites from a target list and obtains concentration estimates. The Bayesian model incorporates information on characteristic peak patterns of metabolites and is able to account for shifts in the position of peaks commonly seen in NMR spectra of biological samples. It applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample from a joint posterior distribution of the model parameters and obtains concentration estimates with reduced error compared with conventional numerical integration and comparable to manual deconvolution by experienced spectroscopists. http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/medicine/people/t.ebbels/ t.ebbels@imperial.ac.uk.

  3. Numerical Modeling for the Solute Uptake from Groundwater by Plants-Plant Uptake Package

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Amr A.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model is presented to describe solute transport in groundwater coupled to sorption by plant roots, translocation into plant stems, and finally evapotranspiration. The conceptual model takes into account both Root Concentration Factor, RCF, and Transpiration Stream Concentration Factor, TSCF for chemicals which are a function of Kow. A similar technique used to simulate the solute transport in groundwater to simulate sorption and plant uptake is used. The mathematical equation is s...

  4. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  5. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  6. Comparison of lung tumor motion measured using a model-based 4DCT technique and a commercial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Dylan; Shaverdian, Narek; Kishan, Amar U; Thomas, David H; Dou, Tai H; Lewis, John H; Lamb, James M; Cao, Minsong; Tenn, Stephen; Percy, Lee P; Low, Daniel A

    2017-11-11

    To compare lung tumor motion measured with a model-based technique to commercial 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans and describe a workflow for using model-based 4DCT as a clinical simulation protocol. Twenty patients were imaged using a model-based technique and commercial 4DCT. Tumor motion was measured on each commercial 4DCT dataset and was calculated on model-based datasets for 3 breathing amplitude percentile intervals: 5th to 85th, 5th to 95th, and 0th to 100th. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were defined on the 4DCT and 5th to 85th interval datasets and compared using Dice similarity. Images were evaluated for noise and rated by 2 radiation oncologists for artifacts. Mean differences in tumor motion magnitude between commercial and model-based images were 0.47 ± 3.0, 1.63 ± 3.17, and 5.16 ± 4.90 mm for the 5th to 85th, 5th to 95th, and 0th to 100th amplitude intervals, respectively. Dice coefficients between ITVs defined on commercial and 5th to 85th model-based images had a mean value of 0.77 ± 0.09. Single standard deviation image noise was 11.6 ± 9.6 HU in the liver and 6.8 ± 4.7 HU in the aorta for the model-based images compared with 57.7 ± 30 and 33.7 ± 15.4 for commercial 4DCT. Mean model error within the ITV regions was 1.71 ± 0.81 mm. Model-based images exhibited reduced presence of artifacts at the tumor compared with commercial images. Tumor motion measured with the model-based technique using the 5th to 85th percentile breathing amplitude interval corresponded more closely to commercial 4DCT than the 5th to 95th or 0th to 100th intervals, which showed greater motion on average. The model-based technique tended to display increased tumor motion when breathing amplitude intervals wider than 5th to 85th were used because of the influence of unusually deep inhalations. These results suggest that care must be taken in selecting the appropriate interval during image generation when using model-based 4DCT methods. Copyright © 2017

  7. Intentions to introduce electric vehicles in the commercial sector: A model based on the theory of planned behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruber, Johannes; Reinthaler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Light and heavy duty commercial vehicles are a cause of concern in urban areas because of their cumulative stress on the system in terms of air pollution, congestion, and noise. This cumulative stress is expected to increase with the expected growth in commercial vehicle movements. While electric...... fleets. The framework is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and it is modelled with a structural equation model with latent variables. The model is estimated on the basis of 1443 responses from a large-scale survey in Austria, Denmark, and Germany. The results establish a linkage between...

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  10. Neurofitter: a parameter tuning package for a wide range of electrophysiological neuron models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Van Geit

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase in available computational power and the higher quality of experimental recordings have turned the tuning of neuron model parameters into a problem that can be solved by automatic global optimization algorithms. Neurofitter is a software tool that interfaces existing neural simulation software and sophisticated optimization algorithms with a new way to compute the error measure. This error measure represents how well a given parameter set is able to reproduce the experimental data. It is based on the phase-plane trajectory density method, which is insensitive to small phase differences between model and data. Neurofitter enables the effortless combination of many different time-dependent data traces into the error measure, allowing the neuroscientist to focus on what are the seminal properties of the model. We show results obtained by applying Neurofitter to a simple single compartmental model and a complex multi-compartmental Purkinje cell (PC model. These examples show that the method is able to solve a variety of tuning problems and demonstrate details of its practical application.

  11. Voluminal modelling for the characterization of wastes packages by gamma emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettier, J.L.; Thierry, R.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to model the measurement process used for multi-photon emission computed tomography on nuclear waste drum. Our model MEPHISTO (Multi-Energy PHoton Imagery through Segmented TOmography) takes into account all phenomena influencing gamma emergent flux and high resolution spectrometric measurements using an HpGe detector through a collimator aperture. These phenomena are absorption and Compton scattering of gamma photons in waste drum, geometrical blur, spatial and energetic response of the detector. The analysis of results shows better localisation and quantification performances compared with a Ray-Driven method. It proves the importance of an accurate modelization of collimated measurements to reduce noise and stabilize iterative image reconstructions. (authors)

  12. The performance effect of the Lean package – a survey study using a structural equation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    Purpose - Our aim is to test and validate a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model in order to understand how the practices of Lean affect performance. Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional survey with 200 responding companies indicating...... that they use Lean. This is analyzed in a structural quation model setting. Findings - Previous quantitative research has shown mixed results for the performance of Lean because they have not addressed the system-wide mediating relations between Lean practices. We find that Companies using a system...... practices in creating improved performance. Hence, we develop a new systemwide structural equation model approach with multiple mediations, and we validate this with substantial tests....

  13. Establishing a Commercialization Model for Innovative Products in the Residential Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Andrew Patton

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, innovation is viewed as a critical factor in the future health of the construction industry. There is universal interest in successful commercialization of innovative construction products. This thesis focuses on the US construction industry's ability to successfully commercialize innovative products. US small, limited-resource innovators will be key players in this success. Recent failures of entrepreneurial business ventures in the commercialization of such product...

  14. Commercial exchanges in B2B Dyads. A new model of decision-making in fast changing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Bragado, Elisa

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents a Model of Commercial Exchanges in B2B Dyads. This model explains how buying and selling decisions are made in industrial markets that are subject to continuous change, particularly the market for telecommunication products and services.Buying and selling decision-making

  15. Modelling stream aquifer seepage in an alluvial aquifer: an improved loosing-stream package for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Yassin Z.; Bruen, Michael P.

    2002-07-01

    Seepage from a stream, which partially penetrates an unconfined alluvial aquifer, is studied for the case when the water table falls below the streambed level. Inadequacies are identified in current modelling approaches to this situation. A simple and improved method of incorporating such seepage into groundwater models is presented. This considers the effect on seepage flow of suction in the unsaturated part of the aquifer below a disconnected stream and allows for the variation of seepage with water table fluctuations. The suggested technique is incorporated into the saturated code MODFLOW and is tested by comparing its predictions with those of a widely used variably saturated model, SWMS_2D simulating water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media. Comparisons are made of both seepage flows and local mounding of the water table. The suggested technique compares very well with the results of variably saturated model simulations. Most currently used approaches are shown to underestimate the seepage and associated local water table mounding, sometimes substantially. The proposed method is simple, easy to implement and requires only a small amount of additional data about the aquifer hydraulic properties.

  16. Packaging the News: Propaganda Model Revisited and the Implications for Foreign Affairs Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Ling

    This research review explores the propaganda model proposed by E. S. Herman and N. Chomsky (1988) as an alternative way of looking at the American news media. The study begins with a review of the theoretical assumptions and the supporting empirical findings highlighting the propaganda framework, following which is a synthesis of research…

  17. A non-conventional watershed partitioning method for semi-distributed hydrological modelling: the package ALADHYN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduni, Giovanni; Pagani, Alessandro; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Rosso, Renzo

    2002-02-01

    The extraction of the river network from a digital elevation model (DEM) plays a fundamental role in modelling spatially distributed hydrological processes. The present paper deals with a new two-step procedure based on the preliminary identification of an ideal drainage network (IDN) from contour lines through a variable mesh size, and the further extraction of the actual drainage network (AND) from the IDN using land morphology. The steepest downslope direction search is used to identify individual channels, which are further merged into a network path draining to a given node of the IDN. The contributing area, peaks and saddles are determined by means of a steepest upslope direction search. The basin area is thus partitioned into physically based finite elements enclosed by irregular polygons. Different methods, i.e. the constant and variable threshold area methods, the contour line curvature method, and a topologic method descending from the Hortonian ordering scheme, are used to extract the ADN from the IDN. The contour line curvature method is shown to provide the most appropriate method from a comparison with field surveys. Using the ADN one can model the hydrological response of any sub-basin using a semi-distributed approach. The model presented here combines storm abstraction by the SCS-CN method with surface runoff routing as a geomorphological dispersion process. This is modelled using the gamma instantaneous unit hydrograph as parameterized by river geomorphology. The results are implemented using a project-oriented software facility for the Analysis of LAnd Digital HYdrological Networks (ALADHYN).

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Commercial Building Electrical Loads for Demand Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardino, Jonathan

    In recent years there has been a push in the electric power industry for more customer involvement in the electricity markets. Traditionally the end user has played a passive role in the planning and operation of the power grid. However, many energy markets have begun opening up opportunities to consumers who wish to commit a certain amount of their electrical load under various demand side management programs. The potential benefits of more demand participation include reduced operating costs and new revenue opportunities for the consumer, as well as more reliable and secure operations for the utilities. The management of these load resources creates challenges and opportunities to the end user that were not present in previous market structures. This work examines the behavior of commercial-type building electrical loads and their capacity for supporting demand side management actions. This work is motivated by the need for accurate and dynamic tools to aid in the advancement of demand side operations. A dynamic load model is proposed for capturing the response of controllable building loads. Building-specific load forecasting techniques are developed, with particular focus paid to the integration of building management system (BMS) information. These approaches are tested using Drexel University building data. The application of building-specific load forecasts and dynamic load modeling to the optimal scheduling of multi-building systems in the energy market is proposed. Sources of potential load uncertainty are introduced in the proposed energy management problem formulation in order to investigate the impact on the resulting load schedule.

  19. The project finance model in the supply of residential and commercial premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Juričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of dwellings greater than the demand, a reduction in the availability of housing loans and increased credit risk, caused, inter alia, by the financial crisis: these are the basic features of today’s residential property and commercial premises markets in Croatia today. Built but unsold housing units have exposed private investors, who have organised the supply of units within the balance sheet of their firms, to significant risk of underinvestment. The materialisation of this risk is most manifested in the impossibility of funding the core business because of loans that they have agreed on for the construction of dwelling units meant for sale on the market. The paper then proposes a model that, if it were applied, could insure investors to a greater extent against the risk of underinvestment. The supply of dwelling units with protected rentals by the local public sector organised in the traditional manner, i.e. according to a model in which the local public sector figures in the role of investor, distributes the burden of development costs onto the future generations as well. However, practice has shown that traditional models inequitably expose future generations to the risk of a reduction in the quality of this kind of public service. From this point of view the proposed model transfers to the future generation not only the costs but also the obligations to secure equal qualities of public service in such a way that the private investor long-term assumes the risk of the availability of public building.The problem in this kind of organisation of the supply of a public service is double taxation via VAT, changes in the law concerning which are accordingly proposed.

  20. Modeling Commercial Freshwater Turtle Production on US Farms for Pet and Meat Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ivana; Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, William E; Feldman, Mark; Forstner, Michael R J

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater turtles are being exploited for meat, eggs, traditional medicine, and pet trade. As a response, turtle farming became a booming aquaculture industry in the past two decades, specifically in the southeastern states of the United States of America (US) and across Southeast Asia. However, US turtle farms are currently producing turtles only for the pet trade while commercial trappers remain focused on catching the largest individuals from the wild. In our analyses we have created a biological and economic model that describes farming operations on a representative turtle farm in Louisiana. We first modeled current production of hatchling and yearling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) (i.e., traditional farming) for foreign and domestic pet markets, respectively. We tested the possibility of harvesting adult turtles from the breeding stock for sale to meat markets to enable alternative markets for the farmers, while decreasing the continued pressures on wild populations (i.e., non-traditional farming). Our economic model required current profit requirements of ~$13/turtle or ~$20.31/kg of meat from non-traditional farming in order to acquire the same profit as traditional farming, a value which currently exceeds market values of red-eared sliders. However, increasing competition with Asian turtle farms and decreasing hatchling prices may force the shift in the US toward producing turtles for meat markets. In addition, our model can be modified and applied to more desirable species on the meat market once more knowledge is acquired about species life histories and space requirements under farmed conditions.

  1. Modeling Commercial Freshwater Turtle Production on US Farms for Pet and Meat Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mali

    Full Text Available Freshwater turtles are being exploited for meat, eggs, traditional medicine, and pet trade. As a response, turtle farming became a booming aquaculture industry in the past two decades, specifically in the southeastern states of the United States of America (US and across Southeast Asia. However, US turtle farms are currently producing turtles only for the pet trade while commercial trappers remain focused on catching the largest individuals from the wild. In our analyses we have created a biological and economic model that describes farming operations on a representative turtle farm in Louisiana. We first modeled current production of hatchling and yearling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans (i.e., traditional farming for foreign and domestic pet markets, respectively. We tested the possibility of harvesting adult turtles from the breeding stock for sale to meat markets to enable alternative markets for the farmers, while decreasing the continued pressures on wild populations (i.e., non-traditional farming. Our economic model required current profit requirements of ~$13/turtle or ~$20.31/kg of meat from non-traditional farming in order to acquire the same profit as traditional farming, a value which currently exceeds market values of red-eared sliders. However, increasing competition with Asian turtle farms and decreasing hatchling prices may force the shift in the US toward producing turtles for meat markets. In addition, our model can be modified and applied to more desirable species on the meat market once more knowledge is acquired about species life histories and space requirements under farmed conditions.

  2. Modeling Commercial Freshwater Turtle Production on US Farms for Pet and Meat Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ivana; Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, William E.; Feldman, Mark; Forstner, Michael R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater turtles are being exploited for meat, eggs, traditional medicine, and pet trade. As a response, turtle farming became a booming aquaculture industry in the past two decades, specifically in the southeastern states of the United States of America (US) and across Southeast Asia. However, US turtle farms are currently producing turtles only for the pet trade while commercial trappers remain focused on catching the largest individuals from the wild. In our analyses we have created a biological and economic model that describes farming operations on a representative turtle farm in Louisiana. We first modeled current production of hatchling and yearling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) (i.e., traditional farming) for foreign and domestic pet markets, respectively. We tested the possibility of harvesting adult turtles from the breeding stock for sale to meat markets to enable alternative markets for the farmers, while decreasing the continued pressures on wild populations (i.e., non-traditional farming). Our economic model required current profit requirements of ~$13/turtle or ~$20.31/kg of meat from non-traditional farming in order to acquire the same profit as traditional farming, a value which currently exceeds market values of red-eared sliders. However, increasing competition with Asian turtle farms and decreasing hatchling prices may force the shift in the US toward producing turtles for meat markets. In addition, our model can be modified and applied to more desirable species on the meat market once more knowledge is acquired about species life histories and space requirements under farmed conditions. PMID:26407157

  3. An open and extensible framework for spatially explicit land use change modelling in R: the lulccR package (0.1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2015-04-01

    Land use change has important consequences for biodiversity and the sustainability of ecosystem services, as well as for global environmental change. Spatially explicit land use change models improve our understanding of the processes driving change and make predictions about the quantity and location of future and past change. Here we present the lulccR package, an object-oriented framework for land use change modelling written in the R programming language. The contribution of the work is to resolve the following limitations associated with the current land use change modelling paradigm: (1) the source code for model implementations is frequently unavailable, severely compromising the reproducibility of scientific results and making it impossible for members of the community to improve or adapt models for their own purposes; (2) ensemble experiments to capture model structural uncertainty are difficult because of fundamental differences between implementations of different models; (3) different aspects of the modelling procedure must be performed in different environments because existing applications usually only perform the spatial allocation of change. The package includes a stochastic ordered allocation procedure as well as an implementation of the widely used CLUE-S algorithm. We demonstrate its functionality by simulating land use change at the Plum Island Ecosystems site, using a dataset included with the package. It is envisaged that lulccR will enable future model development and comparison within an open environment.

  4. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  5. Combined analytical model for preformance assessment of the waste package/geologic medium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.K.; Nair, S.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    For sparsely soluble isotopes leaching rates are probably controlled by solubility limits. For a situation like this backfill provides a significant resistance to escape of nuclides from the repository. Isotope 129 I shows significant concentration level at a 10 km downstream distance. For this isotope the backfill thickness of 0.25 m used in the test case is not sufficient to reduce the concentration to an insignificant level. Materials for backfill and thickness of the backfill probably have to be chosen from the consideration of nuclides like 129 I. The three dimensional transport model used here provides a relatively more accurate estiamtes of concentration levels and discharge rates than the one dimensional model

  6. CoMET: A Mesquite package for comparing models of continuous character evolution on phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunghau Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuously varying traits such as body size or gene expression level evolve during the history of species or gene lineages. To test hypotheses about the evolution of such traits, the maximum likelihood (ML method is often used. Here we introduce CoMET (Continuous-character Model Evaluation and Testing, which is module for Mesquite that automates likelihood computations for nine different models of trait evolution. Due to its few restrictions on input data, CoMET is applicable to testing a wide range of character evolution hypotheses. The CoMET homepage, which links to freely available software and more detailed usage instructions, is located at http://www.lifesci.ucsb.edu/eemb/labs/oakley/software/comet.htm.

  7. rpsftm: An R package for rank preserving structural failure time models

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, A.; White, I. R.; Bond, S.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment switching in a randomised controlled trial occurs when participants change from their randomised treatment to the other trial treatment during the study. Failure to account for treatment switching in the analysis (i.e. by performing a standard intention-to-treat analysis) can lead to biased estimates of treatment efficacy. The rank preserving structural failure time model (RPSFTM) is a method used to adjust for treatment switching in trials with survival outcomes. The RPSFTM is due ...

  8. Electronic commercial diplomacy: a research model and an empirical analysis of embassy websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Gesink, Tobias; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the question to what extent governments adopted digital communication channels in their commercial diplomacy services? Commercial diplomatic services are offered by governments to companies and entrepreneurs who aspire to do business in another country. First, this article

  9. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): USA/9507/BLF (ERDA--AL), Model AL-M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.A.; Bertram, R.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Edling, D.A.; Flanagan, T.M.; Griffin, J.F.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    The SARP includes structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control of three insulated drum shipping containers identified as USA/9507/BLF (ERDA-AL), also called AL-M1, configurations 1, 3, and 5. Complete physical and technical descriptions of the packages are presented. Each package consists of an inner container centered within an insulated steel drum. The contents are plutonium-239 and uranium-235 in configurations-1 and -3. The configuration-5 package is intended for shipment of up to 100,000 Ci of tritiated water immobilized on a sorbent such as molecular sieve

  10. 7 CFR 58.524 - Packaging and general identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging and general identification. 58.524 Section... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.524 Packaging and general identification. (a) Containers. Containers used for packaging cottage cheese shall be any commercially acceptable multiple use or...

  11. Software package r3t. Model for transport and retention in porous media. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fein, E.

    2004-01-01

    In long-termsafety analyses for final repositories for hazardous wastes in deep geological formations the impact to the biosphere due to potential release of hazardous materials is assessed for relevant scenarios. The model for migration of wastes from repositories to men is divided into three almost independent parts: the near field, the geosphere, and the biosphere. With the development of r 3 t the feasibility to model the pollutant transport through the geosphere for porous or equivalent porous media in large, three-dimensional, and complex regions is established. Furthermore one has at present the ability to consider all relevant retention and interaction effects which are important for long-term safety analyses. These are equilibrium sorption, kinetically controlled sorption, diffusion into immobile pore waters, and precipitation. The processes of complexing, colloidal transport and matrix diffusion may be considered at least approximately by skilful choice of parameters. Speciation is not part of the very recently developed computer code r 3 t. With r 3 t it is possible to assess the potential dilution and the barrier impact of the overburden close to reality

  12. Organizational-economic model of formation of socio-commercial multifunctional complex in the construction of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Ariadna; Prytkova, Oksana O.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the features of the formation of the organizational and economic model of the construction of a socio-commercial multifunctional complex for high-rise construction. Authors have given examples of high-altitude multifunctional complexes in Moscow, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation of multifunctional complexes, stressed the need for a holistic strategic approach, allowing to take into account the prospects for the development of the city and the creation of a comfortable living environment. Based on the analysis of multifunctional complexes features, a matrix of SWOT analysis was compiled. For the development of cities and improving the quality of life of the population, it is proposed to implement a new type of multifunctional complexes of a joint social and commercial direction, including, along with the implementation of office areas - schools, polyclinics, various sports facilities and cultural and leisure centers (theatrical, dance, studio, etc.). The approach proposed in the article for developing the model is based on a comparative evaluation of the multifunctional complex project of a social and commercial direction implemented at the expense of public-private partnership in the form of a concession agreement and a commercial multifunctional complex being built at the expense of the investor. It has been proved by calculations that the obtained indicators satisfy the conditions of expediency of the proposed organizational-economic model and the project of the social and commercial multifunctional complex is effective.

  13. Organizational-economic model of formation of socio-commercial multifunctional complex in the construction of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Ariadna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the features of the formation of the organizational and economic model of the construction of a socio-commercial multifunctional complex for high-rise construction. Authors have given examples of high-altitude multifunctional complexes in Moscow, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation of multifunctional complexes, stressed the need for a holistic strategic approach, allowing to take into account the prospects for the development of the city and the creation of a comfortable living environment. Based on the analysis of multifunctional complexes features, a matrix of SWOT analysis was compiled. For the development of cities and improving the quality of life of the population, it is proposed to implement a new type of multifunctional complexes of a joint social and commercial direction, including, along with the implementation of office areas - schools, polyclinics, various sports facilities and cultural and leisure centers (theatrical, dance, studio, etc.. The approach proposed in the article for developing the model is based on a comparative evaluation of the multifunctional complex project of a social and commercial direction implemented at the expense of public-private partnership in the form of a concession agreement and a commercial multifunctional complex being built at the expense of the investor. It has been proved by calculations that the obtained indicators satisfy the conditions of expediency of the proposed organizational-economic model and the project of the social and commercial multifunctional complex is effective.

  14. Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

  15. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  16. pyLIMA: An Open-source Package for Microlensing Modeling. I. Presentation of the Software and Analysis of Single-lens Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, E.; Norbury, M.; Bozza, V.; Street, R.

    2017-11-01

    Microlensing is a unique tool, capable of detecting the “cold” planets between ˜1 and 10 au from their host stars and even unbound “free-floating” planets. This regime has been poorly sampled to date owing to the limitations of alternative planet-finding methods, but a watershed in discoveries is anticipated in the near future thanks to the planned microlensing surveys of WFIRST-AFTA and Euclid's Extended Mission. Of the many challenges inherent in these missions, the modeling of microlensing events will be of primary importance, yet it is often time-consuming, complex, and perceived as a daunting barrier to participation in the field. The large scale of future survey data products will require thorough but efficient modeling software, but, unlike other areas of exoplanet research, microlensing currently lacks a publicly available, well-documented package to conduct this type of analysis. We present version 1.0 of the python Lightcurve Identification and Microlensing Analysis (pyLIMA). This software is written in Python and uses existing packages as much as possible to make it widely accessible. In this paper, we describe the overall architecture of the software and the core modules for modeling single-lens events. To verify the performance of this software, we use it to model both real data sets from events published in the literature and generated test data produced using pyLIMA's simulation module. The results demonstrate that pyLIMA is an efficient tool for microlensing modeling. We will expand pyLIMA to consider more complex phenomena in the following papers.

  17. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  18. Hybrid Model-Based and Data-Driven Fault Detection and Diagnostics for Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Stephen; Heaney, Michael; Jin, Xin; Robertson, Joseph; Cheung, Howard; Elmore, Ryan; Henze, Gregor

    2016-08-01

    Commercial buildings often experience faults that produce undesirable behavior in building systems. Building faults waste energy, decrease occupants' comfort, and increase operating costs. Automated fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) tools for buildings help building owners discover and identify the root causes of faults in building systems, equipment, and controls. Proper implementation of FDD has the potential to simultaneously improve comfort, reduce energy use, and narrow the gap between actual and optimal building performance. However, conventional rule-based FDD requires expensive instrumentation and valuable engineering labor, which limit deployment opportunities. This paper presents a hybrid, automated FDD approach that combines building energy models and statistical learning tools to detect and diagnose faults noninvasively, using minimal sensors, with little customization. We compare and contrast the performance of several hybrid FDD algorithms for a small security building. Our results indicate that the algorithms can detect and diagnose several common faults, but more work is required to reduce false positive rates and improve diagnosis accuracy.

  19. Kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide during the finish-frying of commercial french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jane K; Balagiannis, Dimitrios P; Higley, Jeremy; Smith, Gordon; Wedzicha, Bronislaw L; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-09-12

    Acrylamide is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine during the preparation of French fries. The commercial preparation of French fries is a multistage process involving the preparation of frozen, par-fried potato strips for distribution to catering outlets, where they are finish-fried. The initial blanching, treatment in glucose solution, and par-frying steps are crucial because they determine the levels of precursors present at the beginning of the finish-frying process. To minimize the quantities of acrylamide in cooked fries, it is important to understand the impact of each stage on the formation of acrylamide. Acrylamide, amino acids, sugars, moisture, fat, and color were monitored at time intervals during the frying of potato strips that had been dipped in various concentrations of glucose and fructose during a typical pretreatment. A mathematical model based on the fundamental chemical reaction pathways of the finish-frying was developed, incorporating moisture and temperature gradients in the fries. This showed the contribution of both glucose and fructose to the generation of acrylamide and accurately predicted the acrylamide content of the final fries.

  20. A cost and technical efficiency analysis of two alternative models for implementing the basic package of health services in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaakman, Aaron Philip; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Boitard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and international partners have directed a contracting-out model through which non-governmental organisations (NGOs) deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 31 of the 34 Afghan provinces. The MoPH also managed health service delivery in three provinces under an alternative initiative entitled Strengthening Mechanisms (SM). In 2011, under the authority of the MoPH and Delegation of the European Union to Afghanistan, EPOS Health Management conducted a cost and technical efficiency study of the contracting-out and SM mechanisms in six provinces to examine economic trade-offs in the provision of the BPHS. The study provides analyses of all resource inputs and primary outputs of the BPHS in the six provinces during 2008 and 2009. The authors examined technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) at the BPHS facility level. Cost analysis results indicate that the weighted average cost per BPHS outpatient visit totalled $3.41 in the SM provinces and $5.39 in the NGO-led provinces in 2009. Furthermore, the data envelopment analyses (DEAs) indicate that facilities in the three NGO-led provinces scored 0.168 points higher on the DEA scale (0-1) than SM facilities. The authors conclude that an approximate 60% increase in costs yielded a 16.8% increase in technical efficiency in the delivery of the BPHS during 2009 in the six provinces.

  1. The Next Generation in Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction Modeling within the MODFLOW Software Family: A New Package for MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-OWHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, S. E.; Leake, S. A.; Hanson, R. T.; Galloway, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction Packages, SUB and SUB-WT, for MODFLOW are two currently supported subsidence packages within the MODFLOW family of software. The SUB package allows the calculation of instantaneous and delayed releases of water from distributed interbeds (relatively more compressible fine-grained sediments) within a saturated aquifer system or discrete confining beds. The SUB-WT package does not include delayed releases, but does perform a more rigorous calculation of vertical stresses that can vary the effective stress that causes compaction. This calculation of instantaneous compaction can include the effect of water-table fluctuations for unconfined aquifers on effective stress, and can optionally adjust the elastic and inelastic storage properties based on the changes in effective stress. The next generation of subsidence modeling in MODFLOW is under development, and will merge and enhance the capabilities of the SUB and SUB-WT Packages for MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-OWHM. This new version will also provide some additional features such as stress dependent vertical hydraulic conductivity of interbeds, time-varying geostatic loads, and additional attributes related to aquifer-system compaction and subsidence that will broaden the class of problems that can be simulated. The new version will include a redesigned source code, a new user friendly input file structure, more output options, and new subsidence solution options. This presentation will discuss progress in developing the new package and the new features being implemented and their potential applications. By Stanley Leake, Scott E. Boyce, Randall T. Hanson, and Devin Galloway

  2. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  3. Modeling of Commercial Turbofan Engine With Ice Crystal Ingestion: Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Coennen, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which is ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  4. Modeling of Commercial Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion; Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.; Coennen, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which is ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  5. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  6. Modular Modeling System (MMS) code: a versatile power plant analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Wong, F.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic version of the Modular Modeling System (MMS-01), a power plant systems analysis computer code jointly developed by the Nuclear Power and the Coal Combustion Systems Divisions of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has been released to the utility power industry in April 1983 at a code release workshop held in Charlotte, North Carolina. Since then, additional modules have been developed to analyze the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and the Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) when the safety systems are activated. Also, a selected number of modules in the MMS-01 library have been modified to allow the code users more flexibility in constructing plant specific systems for analysis. These new PWR and BWR modules constitute the new MMS library, and it includes the modifications to the MMS-01 library. A year and half long extensive code qualification program of this new version of the MMS code at EPRI and the contractor sites, back by further code testing in an user group environment is culminating in the MMS-02 code release announcement seminar. At this seminar, the results of user group efforts and the code qualification program will be presented in a series of technical sessions. A total of forty-nine papers will be presented to describe the new code features and the code qualification efforts. For the sake of completion, an overview of the code is presented to include the history of the code development, description of the MMS code and its structure, utility engineers involvement in MMS-01 and MMS-02 validations, the enhancements made in the last 18 months to the code, and finally the perspective on the code future in the fossil and nuclear industry

  7. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  8. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding

  9. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  10. A generic model for glucose production from various cellulose sources by a commercial cellulase complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by commercially available Cellubrix were described mathematically, with Avicel and wheat straw as substrates. It was demonstrated that hydrolysis could be described by three reactions: direct glucose formation and indirect glucose formation via cellobiose.

  11. Opportunities for Improving Army Modeling and Simulation Development: Making Fundamental Adjustments and Borrowing Commercial Business Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John

    2000-01-01

    ...; requirements which span the conflict spectrum. The Army's current staff training simulation development process could better support all possible scenarios by making some fundamental adjustments and borrowing commercial business practices...

  12. Modelling streamflow reductions resulting from commercial afforestation in South Africa: From research to application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available , in 1972, of legislation that required timber growers to apply for permits to establish commercial plantations. Applications to establish forestry plantations became mandatory, and were rejected if it was deemed that the afforestation would use...

  13. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    to address this need. A numerical tool based on two approaches (Wave and Modal) is developed. It allows a fast computation of the vibroacoustic response for multilayer structures over full frequency spectrum and for various kinds of excitations (monople, rain on the roof, diffuse acoustic filed, turbulent boundary layer) . A comparison between results obtained by the developed model, experimental tests and the finite element method is given and discussed. The results are very promising with respect to the potential of such a model for industrial use as a prediction tool, and even for design. The code can be also integrated within an SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) strategy in order to model a full vehicle by computing in particular the insertion loss and the equivalent damping added by the sound package. Keywords: Transfer Matrix Method, Wave Approach,Turbulent Boundary Layer, Rain on the Roof, Monopole, Insertion loss, Double-wall, Sound Package.

  14. Capability and deficiency of the simplified model for energy calculation of commercial buildings in the Brazilian regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, A.P.; Lamberts, R.; Costola, D.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment on the accuracy of the Brazilian regulation simplified model for commercial buildings. The first step was to compare its results with BESTEST. The study presents a straightforward approach to apply the BESTEST in other climates than the original one

  15. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  16. A structural model of the genome packaging process in a membrane-containing double stranded DNA virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Hong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two crucial steps in the virus life cycle are genome encapsidation to form an infective virion and genome exit to infect the next host cell. In most icosahedral double-stranded (ds DNA viruses, the viral genome enters and exits the capsid through a unique vertex. Internal membrane-containing viruses possess additional complexity as the genome must be translocated through the viral membrane bilayer. Here, we report the structure of the genome packaging complex with a membrane conduit essential for viral genome encapsidation in the tailless icosahedral membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1. We utilize single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM and symmetry-free image reconstruction to determine structures of PRD1 virion, procapsid, and packaging deficient mutant particles. At the unique vertex of PRD1, the packaging complex replaces the regular 5-fold structure and crosses the lipid bilayer. These structures reveal that the packaging ATPase P9 and the packaging efficiency factor P6 form a dodecameric portal complex external to the membrane moiety, surrounded by ten major capsid protein P3 trimers. The viral transmembrane density at the special vertex is assigned to be a hexamer of heterodimer of proteins P20 and P22. The hexamer functions as a membrane conduit for the DNA and as a nucleating site for the unique vertex assembly. Our structures show a conformational alteration in the lipid membrane after the P9 and P6 are recruited to the virion. The P8-genome complex is then packaged into the procapsid through the unique vertex while the genome terminal protein P8 functions as a valve that closes the channel once the genome is inside. Comparing mature virion, procapsid, and mutant particle structures led us to propose an assembly pathway for the genome packaging apparatus in the PRD1 virion.

  17. A structural model of the genome packaging process in a membrane-containing double stranded DNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuan; Oksanen, Hanna M; Liu, Xiangan; Jakana, Joanita; Bamford, Dennis H; Chiu, Wah

    2014-12-01

    Two crucial steps in the virus life cycle are genome encapsidation to form an infective virion and genome exit to infect the next host cell. In most icosahedral double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses, the viral genome enters and exits the capsid through a unique vertex. Internal membrane-containing viruses possess additional complexity as the genome must be translocated through the viral membrane bilayer. Here, we report the structure of the genome packaging complex with a membrane conduit essential for viral genome encapsidation in the tailless icosahedral membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1. We utilize single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and symmetry-free image reconstruction to determine structures of PRD1 virion, procapsid, and packaging deficient mutant particles. At the unique vertex of PRD1, the packaging complex replaces the regular 5-fold structure and crosses the lipid bilayer. These structures reveal that the packaging ATPase P9 and the packaging efficiency factor P6 form a dodecameric portal complex external to the membrane moiety, surrounded by ten major capsid protein P3 trimers. The viral transmembrane density at the special vertex is assigned to be a hexamer of heterodimer of proteins P20 and P22. The hexamer functions as a membrane conduit for the DNA and as a nucleating site for the unique vertex assembly. Our structures show a conformational alteration in the lipid membrane after the P9 and P6 are recruited to the virion. The P8-genome complex is then packaged into the procapsid through the unique vertex while the genome terminal protein P8 functions as a valve that closes the channel once the genome is inside. Comparing mature virion, procapsid, and mutant particle structures led us to propose an assembly pathway for the genome packaging apparatus in the PRD1 virion.

  18. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  19. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1996-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  20. The Peace and Power Conceptual Model: An Assessment Guide for School Nurses Regarding Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Hannah E; Aronowitz, Teri

    2017-10-01

    Human trafficking is a global problem; more than half of all victims are children. In the United States (US), at-risk youth continue to attend school. School nurses are on the frontlines, presenting a window of opportunity to identify and prevent exploitation. Available papers targeting school nurses report that school nurses may lack awareness of commercial sexual exploitation and may have attitudes and misperceptions about behaviors of school children at risk. This is a theoretical paper applying the Peace and Power Conceptual Model to understand the role of school nurses in commercial sexual exploitation of children.

  1. Modelling and testing the performance of a commercial ammonia/water absorption chiller using Aspen-Plus platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Rami; Boukholda, Ismail; Bourouis, Mahmoud; Bellagi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A steady-state simulation model of a commercial 3-ton ammonia/water absorption chiller is developed and validated using the flow-sheeting software Aspen-Plus. First an appropriate thermodynamic property model for the ammonia/water fluid mixture is selected. To this purpose nine methods from the software library are pre-selected and tested, but none of the methods predicts the VLE (vapour–liquid equilibrium) with sufficient accuracy. The interaction parameters of these models are then determined by fitting the equations of state (EOS) to VLE data. It is finally found that the Boston–Mathias modified Peng–Robinson EOS with fitted parameters predicts most accurately the VLE for the temperature and pressure ranges encountered in commercial chillers. A simulation model of the machine is then developed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with data from literature at a cooling air temperature of 35 ºC. The heat transfer characteristics (UA) of the various heat exchangers of the machine are then determined and the model modified to make it accept these (UA) as input parameters. The comparison of the simulation predictions at cooling air temperatures of 26.7 and 38 ºC with the bibliographical data showed good concordance. The proposed model could be very useful for the analysis and performance prediction of the commercial absorption chiller. - Highlights: • A commercial NH 3 /H 2 O absorption chiller is simulated using the software Aspen-Plus. • Peng-Robinson-Boston-Mathias equation of state is used to predict VLE of NH 3 /H 2 O fluid mixture. • A steady-state model describing the chiller operation is developed. • The model predicts the internal operating conditions and COP of the chiller.

  2. Understanding dynamics of information transmission in Drosophila melanogaster using a statistical modeling framework for longitudinal network data (the RSiena package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian ePasquaretta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Social learning – the transmission of behaviors through observation or interaction with conspecifics – can be viewed as a decision-making process driven by interactions among individuals. Animal group structures change over time and interactions among individuals occur in particular orders that may be repeated following specific patterns, change in their nature, or disappear completely. Here we used a stochastic actor-oriented model built using the RSiena package in R to estimate individual behaviors and their changes through time, by analyzing the dynamic of the interaction network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster during social learning experiments. In particular, we re-analyzed an experimental dataset where uninformed flies, left free to interact with informed ones, acquired and later used information about oviposition site choice obtained by social interactions. We estimated the degree to which the uninformed flies had successfully acquired the information carried by informed individuals using the proportion of eggs laid by uninformed flies on the medium their conspecifics had been trained to favor. Regardless of the degree of information acquisition measured in uninformed individuals, they always received and started interactions more frequently than informed ones did. However, information was efficiently transmitted (i.e. uninformed flies predominantly laid eggs on the same medium informed ones had learn to prefer only when the difference in contacts sent between the two fly types was small. Interestingly, we found that the degree of reciprocation, the tendency of individuals to form mutual connections between each other, strongly affected oviposition site choice in uninformed flies. This work highlights the great potential of RSiena and its utility in the studies of interaction networks among non-human animals.

  3. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  4. Commercial development of environmental technologies for the automotive industry towards a new model of technological innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Office of Planning and Research, Sacramento, CA (United States); Paolucci, E. [Politecnico di Torino University (Italy). Production and Economics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Economic importance of environmental issues is increasing, and new technologies are expected to reduce pollution derived both from productive processes and products, with costs that are still unknown. Until now there is still little knowledge concerning the process of technological innovation in this field. What does exist, is outdated due to rapid change in technology. In this paper we analyse the development of Zinc Air Fuel Cells (ZAFC) and their transfer from research laboratories to large mass production. ZAFC are a new environmental technology, proved to have a commercial value, that can be used for building Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV). Although ZAFC performances are higher than traditional lead-acid batteries ones, difficulties in funding ZAFC engineering and moving them from laboratories to production caused some years delay in their diffusion. On the bases of this paradigmatic case, we argue that existing economic and organizational literature concerning technological innovation is not able to fully explain steps followed in developing environmental technologies. Existing models mainly consider adoption problems as due to market uncertainty, weak appropriability regime, lack of a dominant design, and difficulties in reconfiguring organizational routines. Additionally, the following aspects play a fundamental role in developing environmental technologies, pointing out how technological trajectories depend both on exogenous market conditions and endogenous firm competencies: 1 regulations concerning introduction of ZEV create market demand and business development for new technologies; they impose constraints that can be met only by segmenting transportation market at each stage of technology development; 2 each stage of technology development requires alternative forms of division and coordination of innovative labour; upstream and downstream industries are involved in new forms of inter-firm relationships, causing a reconfiguration of product architecture

  5. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D

    1997-10-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.

  6. Aquarius - A Modelling Package for Groundwater Flow and Coupled Heat Transport in the Range 0.1 to 100 MPa and 0.1 to 1000 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    Aquarius is a Windows application that models fluid flow and heat transport under conditions in which fluid buoyancy can significantly impact patterns and magnitudes of fluid flow. The package is designed as a visualization tool through which users can examine flow systems in environments, both low temperature aquifers and regions with elevated PT regimes such as deep sedimentary basins, hydrothermal systems, and contact thermal aureoles. The package includes 4 components: (1) A finite-element mesh generator/assembler capable of representing complex geologic structures. Left-hand, right-hand and alternating linear triangles can be mixed within the mesh. Planer horizontal, planer vertical and cylindrical vertical coordinate sections are supported. (2) A menu-selectable system for setting properties and boundary/initial conditions. The design retains mathematical terminology for all input parameters such as scalars (e.g., porosity), tensors (e.g., permeability), and boundary/initial conditions (e.g., fixed potential). This makes the package an effective instructional aide by linking model requirements with the underlying mathematical concepts of partial differential equations and the solution logic of boundary/initial value problems. (3) Solution algorithms for steady-state and time-transient fluid flow/heat transport problems. For all models, the nonlinear global matrix equations are solved sequentially using over-relaxation techniques. Matrix storage design allows for large (e.g., 20000) element models to run efficiently on a typical PC. (4) A plotting system that supports contouring nodal data (e.g., head), vector plots for flux data (e.g., specific discharge), and colour gradient plots for elemental data (e.g., porosity), water properties (e.g., density), and performance measures (e.g., Peclet numbers). Display graphics can be printed or saved in standard graphic formats (e.g., jpeg). This package was developed from procedural codes in C written originally to

  7. OUTLAY FOR COMMERCIALIZATION OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS IN THE CONTEXT OF MARKETING MODELS OF INNOVATION DIFFUSION

    OpenAIRE

    O. Zhylinska; S. Firsova

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of identifying the costs for commercialization of high-tech products is revealed based on theoretical assumptions of marketing models of innovation diffusion. The results obtained show the objective nature of the avalanche increase of transaction costs choice, caused by a high level of information asymmetry, which occurs in gaps in lifecycle of high technology products adoption. A development and systematization of marketing measures to bridge the gap in life cycle of high techn...

  8. Calculation of shipboard fire conditions for radioactive materials packages with the methods of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Shipboard fires both in the same ship hold and in an adjacent hold aboard a break-bulk cargo ship are simulated with a commercial finite-volume computational fluid mechanics code. The fire models and modeling techniques are described and discussed. Temperatures and heat fluxes to a simulated materials package are calculated and compared to experimental values. The overall accuracy of the calculations is assessed

  9. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  10. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  11. Irradiation of microbial controlling on package tofu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Wang Li; Wang Shuo; Wang Ning

    2009-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological controlling, nutrient and sensory qualities of packaged tofu (bean curd) stored at commercial condition. Results showed that D 10 values of Listeria innocua and Samonella enteritidis inoculated in packaged tofu were 0.225 and 0.240kGy, respectively. Irradiation dose lower than 2.0kGy had no significant effects on content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05). γ-irradiation could decrease microbial in packaged tofu and 2.0kGy should be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of the products. (authors)

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Summary report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1). This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volume 1

  13. Emergency response packaging: A conceptual outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Bennett, P.C.; Wheeler, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Packaging and Transportation Needs in the 1990's (PATN) component of the Transportation Assessment and Integration (TRAIN) program (DOE Nov. 1991) was designed to survey United States Department of Energy programs, both ongoing and planned, to identify needs for packaging and transportation services over the next decade. PATN also identified transportation elements that should be developed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE EM) Transportation Management Program (TMP). As a result of the predominant involvement of the TMP in radioactive material shipment issues and DOE EM's involvement with waste management issues, the primary focus of PATN was on waste packaging issues. Pending DOE regulations will formalize federal guidelines and regulations for transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials within the boundaries of DOE reservations and facilities and reflect a growing awareness of concern regarding safety environmental responsibility activities on DOE reservations. Future practices involving the transportation of radioactive material within DOE reservations will closely parallel those used for commercial and governmental transportation across the United States. This has added to the perceived need for emergency recovery packaging and emergency response features on primary packaging, for both on-site shipments and shipments between DOE facilities (off-site). Historically, emergency response and recovery functions of packaging have not been adequately considered in packaging design and construction concepts. This paper develops the rationale for emergency response packaging, including both overpack concepts for repackaging compromised packaging and primary packaging redesign to facilitate the recovery of packages via mobile remote handling equipment. The rationale will examine concepts for determination of likely use patterns to identify types of shipments where recovery packaging may have the most favorable payoff

  14. A ternary phase-field model incorporating commercial CALPHAD software and its application to precipitation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Lill, J.V.; Chen, S.L.; Simmons, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A ternary phase-field model was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative thermodynamic driving forces. A recently available diffusion mobility database for ordered phases is also implemented to give a better description of the diffusion behavior in alloys. Because the targeted application of this model is the study of precipitation in Ni-based superalloys, a Ni-Al-Cr model alloy was constructed. A detailed description of this model is given in the paper. We have considered the misfit effects of the partitioning of the two solute elements. Transformation rules of the dual representation of the γ+γ ' microstructure by CALPHAD and by the phase field are established and the link with commercial CALPHAD software is described. Proof-of-concept tests were performed to evaluate the model and the results demonstrate that the model can qualitatively reproduce observed γ ' precipitation behavior. Uphill diffusion of Al is observed in a few diffusion couples, showing the significant influence of Cr on the chemical potential of Al. Possible applications of this model are discussed.

  15. actuar: An R Package for Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Dutang, Christophe; Goulet, Vincent; Pigeon, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    actuar is a package providing additional Actuarial Science functionality to the R statistical system. The project was launched in 2005 and the package is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network since February 2006. The current version of the package contains functions for use in the fields of loss distributions modeling, risk theory (including ruin theory), simulation of compound hierarchical models and credibility theory. This paper presents in detail but with few technical terms t...

  16. Long-term behaviour of concrete: development of operational model to predict the evolution of its containment performance. Application to cemented waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peycelon, H.; Le Bescop, P.; Richet, C.; Adenot, F.

    2001-01-01

    In order to describe the main phenomena during different stages of cement waste packages life-time and to predict the long-term behaviour (containment performance) of concrete, coupled experiments and modelling studies are achieved. With respect to logical methodology, improvement of these studies is accomplished. Degradation of concrete in low mineralized, carbonated and sulfated water lead to an evolution of chemical characteristics (dissolution/precipitation of solid phases) and of transport properties which must be included or coupled in retention/transport modelling of radio nuclides to predict containment performance. (author)

  17. A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obidimma Ezezika

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2 auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

  18. TREK1-a program package of modeling of the ion implantation of materials used in electronic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'ev, A.V.; Nechaev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    A package of computer programs is described which treats the slowing down of ions in solids by the means of Monte-Carlo method in the binary collision approximation for an amorphous substance using a screened Coulomb potential for nuclear collisions and the Brandt-Kitagawa theory for the electronic energy loss. For each nuclear collision, the impact parameter and the azimuthal deflection angle are determined from random numbers. The package contains a program of calculation of ion implantation whose features are described above, a database 'MME' (Materials of Micro Electronics) which stores all necessary data for the calculation, and a database control application providing an easy access to the data in MME. The programs of the package are made to run under Windows 95/98 and Windows NT operating systems. They were created using the following means: Borland Delphi 3.0, Paradox 7.0, Borland Database Engine 4.5. The running time of the calculation process depends on the problem chosen and is mainly influenced by the number of pseudo ions, their energy and atomic properties of the target. For the test example of 100 keV boron atoms incident PMMA, a calculation with 1*10 4 pseudo ions on a computer with the Pentium-166 processor requires about 2 min compared to 7 min by well known Trim95

  19. Localization of adenovirus morphogenesis players, together with visualization of assembly intermediates and failed products, favor a model where assembly and packaging occur concurrently at the periphery of the replication center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Condezo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV morphogenesis is a complex process, many aspects of which remain unclear. In particular, it is not settled where in the nucleus assembly and packaging occur, and whether these processes occur in a sequential or a concerted manner. Here we use immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (immunoEM to trace packaging factors and structural proteins at late times post infection by either wildtype virus or a delayed packaging mutant. We show that representatives of all assembly factors are present in the previously recognized peripheral replicative zone, which therefore is the AdV assembly factory. Assembly intermediates and abortive products observed in this region favor a concurrent assembly and packaging model comprising two pathways, one for capsid proteins and another one for core components. Only when both pathways are coupled by correct interaction between packaging proteins and the genome is the viral particle produced. Decoupling generates accumulation of empty capsids and unpackaged cores.

  20. Analytic implementation of the GRAAL model: Application to a R7T7-type glass package in a geological disposal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Y., E-mail: yves.minet@cea.f [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Bonin, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DIR/DS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gin, S.; Frugier, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2010-09-30

    The Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer Model (GRAAL) was proposed in 2008 to describe borosilicate nuclear glass alteration based on coupling an affinity law with the formation and dissolution of a passivating reactive interface. It is examined here in a simplified form in which only the affinity with respect to silicon is taken into account with a concentration at saturation C{sub sat}, and the precipitation of neoformed phases is described by an affine relation for silicon above a precipitation threshold C{sub sat}{sup '}. This simplified 'analytical GRAAL' model is capable of predicting the quantities of altered glass and the silicon and boron concentration variations in analytical or semi-analytical form, and thereby identify the main characteristic quantities of the system. The model was tested against a series of laboratory experiments lasting from a few days to a few years; its sensitivity to the parameter values was examined, and the model was validated with respect to SON68 glass alteration in initially pure water. It was then applied to the alteration of a glass package in a repository over periods of up to a million years, by means of exploratory calculations comprising a sensitivity study of the internal model parameters and extrapolation to the temperatures expected in a geological repository in order to identify the parameters and mechanisms having the greatest impact on the residual alteration rate. Alteration is controlled by the precipitation of neoformed phases in every case. The transient conditions are of very limited duration with respect to either silicon or boron (no more than a 100 years, with less than 0.01% alteration of the package). In the precipitation law used in the model, the residual alteration rate and total package lifetime are determined primarily by two parameters: k' (the precipitation kinetics) and {sigma}' (the precipitate surface area per unit volume in the geological barrier

  1. To Own or Lease Solar: Understanding Commercial Retailers' Decisions to Use Alternative Financing Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report examines the tradeoffs among financing methods for businesses installing onsite photovoltaics (PV). We present case studies of PV financing strategies used by two large commercial retailers that have deployed substantial U.S. PV capacity: IKEA, which owns its PV, and Staples, which purchases power generated from onsite PV systems through power purchase agreements (PPAs). We also analyze the financial considerations that influence any company's choice of PV financing strategy. Our goal in this report is to clarify the financial and institutional costs and benefits of financing strategies and to inform other companies that are considering launching or expanding similar PV programs.

  2. Energy Savings Modeling and Inspection Guidelines for Commercial Building Federal Tax Deductions for Buildings in 2016 and Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Field-Macumber, Kristin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document provides guidance for modeling and inspecting energy-efficient property in commercial buildings for certification of the energy and power cost savings related to Section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) enacted in Section 1331 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, noted in Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Notices 2006-52 (IRS 2006), 2008-40 (IRS 2008) and 2012-26 (IRS 2012), and updated by the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes (PATH) Act of 2015. Specifically, Section 179D provides federal tax deductions for energy-efficient property related to a commercial building's envelope; interior lighting; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC); and service hot water (SHW) systems. This document applies to buildings placed in service on or after January 1, 2016.

  3. End use technology choice in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS): An analysis of the residential and commercial building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Cullenward, Danny; Davidian, Danielle; Weyant, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is arguably the most influential energy model in the United States. The U.S. Energy Information Administration uses NEMS to generate the federal government's annual long-term forecast of national energy consumption and to evaluate prospective federal energy policies. NEMS is considered such a standard tool that other models are calibrated to its forecasts, in both government and academic practice. As a result, NEMS has a significant influence over expert opinions of plausible energy futures. NEMS is a massively detailed model whose inner workings, despite its prominence, receive relatively scant critical attention. This paper analyzes how NEMS projects energy demand in the residential and commercial sectors. In particular, we focus on the role of consumers' preferences and financial constraints, investigating how consumers choose appliances and other end-use technologies. We identify conceptual issues in the approach the model takes to the same question across both sectors. Running the model with a range of consumer preferences, we estimate the extent to which this issue impacts projected consumption relative to the baseline model forecast for final energy demand in the year 2035. In the residential sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 0.73 quads (− 6.0%) to an increase of 0.24 quads (+ 2.0%). In the commercial sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 1.0 quads (− 9.0%) to an increase of 0.99 quads (+ 9.0%). - Highlights: • This paper examines the impact of consumer preferences on final energy in the Commercial and Residential sectors of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). • We describe the conceptual and empirical basis for modeling consumer technology choice in NEMS. • We offer a range of alternative parameters to show the energy demand sensitivity to technology choice. • We show there are significant potential savings available in both building sectors. • Because the model uses its own

  4. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  5. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  6. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  7. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dhiman, Romika; Rokana, Namita; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of a Supersonic Commercial Transport Turbo-Machinery Propulsion System for Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joe; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kopasakis, George; Woolwine, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic model for a variable cycle turbofan engine, supersonic inlet, and convergent-divergent nozzle that can be integrated with an aeroelastic vehicle model to create an overall Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) modeling tool. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to capture relevant thrust dynamics of a full supersonic propulsion system by using relatively simple quasi-one dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods that will allow for accurate control algorithm development and capture the key aspects of the thrust to feed into an APSE model. Previously, propulsion system component models have been developed and are used for this study of the fully integrated propulsion system. An overview of the methodology is presented for the modeling of each propulsion component, with a focus on its associated coupling for the overall model. To conduct APSE studies the described dynamic propulsion system model is integrated into a high fidelity CFD model of the full vehicle capable of conducting aero-elastic studies. Dynamic thrust analysis for the quasi-one dimensional dynamic propulsion system model is presented along with an initial three dimensional flow field model of the engine integrated into a supersonic commercial transport.

  9. actuar: An R Package for Actuarial Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dutang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available actuar is a package providing additional Actuarial Science functionality to the R statistical system. The project was launched in 2005 and the package is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network since February 2006. The current version of the package contains functions for use in the fields of loss distributions modeling, risk theory (including ruin theory, simulation of compound hierarchical models and credibility theory. This paper presents in detail but with few technical terms the most recent version of the package.

  10. KrF laser cost/performance model for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Simple expressions suitable for use in commercial-applications plant parameter studies for the direct capital cost plus indirect field costs and for the efficiency as a function of repetition rate were developed for pure-optical-compression KrF laser fusion drivers. These simple expressions summarize estimates obtained from detailed cost-performance studies incorporating recent results of ongoing physics, design, and cost studies. Contributions of KrF laser capital charges and D and M costs to total levelized constant-dollar (1984) unit ICF power generation cost are estimated as a function of plant size and driver pulse energy using a published gain for short-wavelength lasers and representative values of plant parameters

  11. Legal aspects of Joint Pre-Commercial Procurements: from modeling to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services is changing fundamentally. Cloud-based services are replacing traditional local - or on-premises - software and infrastructure installations for many public sector organisations. This applies to government but also to public research organisations, including libraries, which currently deal with the outburst of big data and the need for additional computing capacity. While technology service options continue to evolve, procurement processes and policies have remained firmly rooted in historical practices that are no longer effective. In order for public research organisations of all sizes to take advantage of the best solutions the market has to offer nowadays, a more flexible and agile procurement process must be created and implemented. The objective of this presentation is to review strategies and tips in order to help procurers implement and publish a Joint Pre-Commercial Procurement tender; including: General legal framework of PC...

  12. Technical comparison of the commercialized Racon model 21000 Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) and original Sandia/USAF prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattman, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The military has been moving from a global strategic response with fixed site asset protection to regional tactical response requirements. This change necessitates high security sensor systems that can be easily relocated and rapidly placed in operation by unskilled operators. The Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories with United States Air Force funding. Racon, Inc. is now commercializing the PRLS through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) with the United States Air Force. The commercialized design of the new PRLS bi-static radar sensor benefits from the extensive field testing of the original Sandia/USAF-developed engineering prototype systems of the 1980s. Tests conducted in hot, cold, wind, rain, and snow conditions verified exceptional intruder detection capability, resistance to spoofing attempts, and insusceptibility to mutual interference and nuisance alarms caused by birds or small animals. The use of 1990's implementation technology combined with extensive testing information has resulted in significant product performance enhancements as well as cost savings. This paper compares technical features of the original Sandia/USAF prototypes with the new commercialized Racon model 21000 Portable, Reconfigurable Line Sensor. The PRLS advances the art of outdoor security to meet the Relocatable Sensor System (RSS) challenge of the 1990s

  13. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  14. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  15. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  16. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  17. Comparative Plasma Exposure and Lung Distribution of Two Human Use Commercial Azithromycin Formulations Assessed in Murine Model: A Preclinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rivulgo, Virginia Margarita; Sparo, Mónica; Ceci, Mónica; Fumuso, Elida; Confalonieri, Alejandra; Delpech, Gastón; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Azithromycin(AZM)therapeutic failure and relapses of patients treated with generic -35 formulations have been observed in clinical practice.The main goal of this research was 36 to compare in a pre-clinical study the serum exposure and lung tissue concentrationof 37 two commercial formulations AZM-based in murine model. The current study involved 38 264 healthy Balb-C.Mice were divided in two groups (n=44): Animals of Group A 39 (Reference Formulation ?R-) were orally treated with AZM suspens...

  18. OUTLAY FOR COMMERCIALIZATION OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS IN THE CONTEXT OF MARKETING MODELS OF INNOVATION DIFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of identifying the costs for commercialization of high-tech products is revealed based on theoretical assumptions of marketing models of innovation diffusion. The results obtained show the objective nature of the avalanche increase of transaction costs choice, caused by a high level of information asymmetry, which occurs in gaps in lifecycle of high technology products adoption. A development and systematization of marketing measures to bridge the gap in life cycle of high technology products adoption are made in accordance with the economic interests of the dominant categories of consumers.

  19. PNNL Technical Support to The Implementation of EMTA and EMTA-NLA Models in Autodesk® Moldflow® Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Wang, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Under the Predictive Engineering effort, PNNL developed linear and nonlinear property prediction models for long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). These models were implemented in PNNL’s EMTA and EMTA-NLA codes. While EMTA is a standalone software for the computation of the composites thermoelastic properties, EMTA-NLA presents a series of nonlinear models implemented in ABAQUS® via user subroutines for structural analyses. In all these models, it is assumed that the fibers are linear elastic while the matrix material can exhibit a linear or typical nonlinear behavior depending on the loading prescribed to the composite. The key idea is to model the constitutive behavior of the matrix material and then to use an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach (EMTA) combined with numerical techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions to determine the behavior of the as-formed composite. The basic property prediction models of EMTA and EMTA-NLA have been subject for implementation in the Autodesk® Moldflow® software packages. These models are the elastic stiffness model accounting for fiber length and orientation distributions, the fiber/matrix interface debonding model, and the elastic-plastic models. The PNNL elastic-plastic models for LFTs describes the composite nonlinear stress-strain response up to failure by an elastic-plastic formulation associated with either a micromechanical criterion to predict failure or a continuum damage mechanics formulation coupling damage to plasticity. All the models account for fiber length and orientation distributions as well as fiber/matrix debonding that can occur at any stage of loading. In an effort to transfer the technologies developed under the Predictive Engineering project to the American automotive and plastics industries, PNNL has obtained the approval of the DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies to provide Autodesk, Inc. with the technical support for the implementation of the basic property prediction models of EMTA and

  20. Internal Model of Commercial Bank as an Instrument for Measuring Credit Risk of the Borrower in Relation to Financial Performance (Credit Scoring and Bankruptcy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belás Jaroslav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks generally use different methods and procedures for managing credit risk. The internal rating method in which the client has an important position in the process of granting credit provides a comprehensive assessment of client creditworthiness. The aim of this article is to analyze selected theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of internal rating models of commercial banks within the context of models that measures financial performance and to make a comparison of results of real - rating models which are used in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The results of the chosen credit scoring and bankruptcy methods on selected companies from segments of small and medium-sized companies are presented.