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Sample records for model organisms ability

  1. Association between resting-state brain network topological organization and creative ability: Evidence from a multiple linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Bingqing; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-09-07

    Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability. We identified an optimized organization of intrinsic brain networks in both groups. However, compared with low-creativity participants, high-creativity participants exhibited increased global efficiency and substantially decreased path length, suggesting increased efficiency of information transmission across brain networks in creative individuals. Using a multiple linear regression model, we further demonstrated that regional functional integration properties (i.e., the betweenness centrality and global efficiency) of brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network (SMN), significantly predicted the individual differences in creative ability. Furthermore, the associations between network regional properties and creative performance were creativity-level dependent, where the difference in the resource control component may be important in explaining individual difference in creative performance. These findings provide novel insights into the neural substrate of creativity and may facilitate objective identification of creative ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Antifogging abilities of model nanotextures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouterde, Timothée; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Xavier, Stéphane; Checco, Antonio; Black, Charles T.; Rahman, Atikur; Midavaine, Thierry; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2017-06-01

    Nanometre-scale features with special shapes impart a broad spectrum of unique properties to the surface of insects. These properties are essential for the animal’s survival, and include the low light reflectance of moth eyes, the oil repellency of springtail carapaces and the ultra-adhesive nature of palmtree bugs. Antireflective mosquito eyes and cicada wings are also known to exhibit some antifogging and self-cleaning properties. In all cases, the combination of small feature size and optimal shape provides exceptional surface properties. In this work, we investigate the underlying antifogging mechanism in model materials designed to mimic natural systems, and explain the importance of the texture’s feature size and shape. While exposure to fog strongly compromises the water-repellency of hydrophobic structures, this failure can be minimized by scaling the texture down to nanosize. This undesired effect even becomes non-measurable if the hydrophobic surface consists of nanocones, which generate antifogging efficiency close to unity and water departure of droplets smaller than 2 μm.

  3. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  4. Modeling ability differentiation in the second-order factor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.; Dolan, C.V.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model

  5. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  6. Selection for Reinforcement-Free Learning Ability as an Organizing Factor in the Evolution of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvi Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the relation between environmental structure and neurocognitive structure. We hypothesize that selection pressure on abilities for efficient learning (especially in settings with limited or no reward information translates into selection pressure on correspondence relations between neurocognitive and environmental structure, since such correspondence allows for simple changes in the environment to be handled with simple learning updates in neurocognitive structure. We present a model in which a simple form of reinforcement-free learning is evolved in neural networks using neuromodulation and analyze the effect this selection for learning ability has on the virtual species' neural organization. We find a higher degree of organization than in a control population evolved without learning ability and discuss the relation between the observed neural structure and the environmental structure. We discuss our findings in the context of the environmental complexity thesis, the Baldwin effect, and other interactions between adaptation processes.

  7. Assessing the Ability of Disability Organizations: An interprovincial comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Levesque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite much effort put toward Canadian social policy renewal in the past decade, innovations in programming have been stifled due in large part to a lack of funding and accountability issues. This is clearly evident in the disability policy field related to labour market programming for persons with disabilities where the packaging of programs has continually changed; however, the actual contents have largely remained the same. The focus on federal-provincial dimensions has come to marginalize the role of disability organizations in the process, yet it is these organizations that governments may enter into partnership with in new governance arrangements to foster new programming. This article reviews data from charitable tax returns for the time period 2005–2010 to assess the human, financial, and technological capacity of Canadian disability organizations in five Canadian provinces, in order to implement innovative programming.RÉSUMÉMalgré beaucoup d'efforts au renouvellement de la politique sociale canadienne dans la dernière décennie, les innovations dans la programmation ont été étouffées en grande partie à l'absence de questions de financement et de responsabilité. Cela est très évidente dans le domaine de la politique handicap lié à la programmation du marché du travail pour les personnes handicapées où l'emballage des programmes a constamment changé mais le contenu réel est restés largement pareilles. L'accent sur les dimensions provinciales fédérales est venu à marginaliser le rôle des organisations de personnes handicapées dans le processus, mais ce sont ces organismes que les gouvernements peuvent entrer en partenariat avec de nouveaux modes de gouvernance pour favoriser la nouvelle programmation. Cet article examine les données de bienfaisance des déclarations de revenus pour la période 2005–2010 pour évaluer les capacités humaines, financières et technologiques des organisations de personnes

  8. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  9. The Model of Creative Ability in vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Daleen; de Vos, Helé

    2007-01-01

    Occupational therapy literature has reported on the concept of motivation in great depth and it is evident that motivation has many constructs. Motivation is seen as a key indicator for success in rehabilitation. When assessing a client's vocational skills and performance, occupational therapists in South Africa have found the Model of Creative Ability to be a useful model to determine the quality and quantity of motivation. This article briefly describes the development of the Model of Creative Ability in South Africa and explains the fundamental concepts and terminology used in the model. Criticism of the model as well as the reasons for the popularity of this model are given. A case study is used as an example to illustrate the unique contribution of the levels of motivation and action to a medico-legal report.

  10. Ability of a single-detector, whole-body counter to locate organs containing radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, G.P. de; Holler, E.W.; Botha, M.; Nel, D. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)

    1985-01-01

    The ability of a single-detector, whole-body counter to locate organs containing radioactivity has been studied by scanning an Anderson Remcal phantom both anteriorly and posteriorly over its length and width. Organs can be located satisfactorily, provided the activity distribution is not too complicated.

  11. Modeling personnel turnover in the parametric organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1991-01-01

    A model is developed for simulating the dynamics of a newly formed organization, credible during all phases of organizational development. The model development process is broken down into the activities of determining the tasks required for parametric cost analysis (PCA), determining the skills required for each PCA task, determining the skills available in the applicant marketplace, determining the structure of the model, implementing the model, and testing it. The model, parameterized by the likelihood of job function transition, has demonstrated by the capability to represent the transition of personnel across functional boundaries within a parametric organization using a linear dynamical system, and the ability to predict required staffing profiles to meet functional needs at the desired time. The model can be extended by revisions of the state and transition structure to provide refinements in functional definition for the parametric and extended organization.

  12. Refining Climate Change Projections for Organisms with Low Dispersal Abilities: A Case Study of the Caspian Whip Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlean, Tiberiu C.; Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Strugariu, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Ştefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is one of the most important threats to biodiversity. Ectothermic organisms such as amphibians and reptiles are especially vulnerable as climatic conditions affect them directly. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are increasingly popular in ecological studies, but several drawbacks exist, including the limited ability to account for the dispersal potential of the species. In this study, we use ENMs to explore the impact of global climate change on the Caspian whip snake (Dolichophis caspius) as model for organisms with low dispersal abilities and to quantify dispersal to novel areas using GIS techniques. Models generated using Maxent 3.3.3 k and GARP for current distribution were projected on future climatic scenarios. A cost-distance analysis was run in ArcGIS 10 using geomorphological features, ecological conditions, and human footprint as “costs” to dispersal of the species to obtain a Maximum Dispersal Range (MDR) estimate. All models developed were statistically significant (PMaxent predicted a doubling of suitable climatic area, while GARP predicted a more conservative expansion. Both models agreed on an expansion of suitable area northwards, with minor decreases at the southern distribution limit. The MDR area calculated using the Maxent model represented a third of the total area of the projected model. The MDR based on GARP models recovered only about 20% of the total area of the projected model. Thus, incorporating measures of species’ dispersal abilities greatly reduced estimated area of potential future distributions. PMID:24670422

  13. The interconnection of learning ability and the organization of metacognitive processes and traits of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov, Anatoly V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the relationship between the development of learning ability as one of the general abilities and metacognitive traits of personality are considered in the article. The necessity of appeal to this issue arises from the peculiarities of the current state of research in the theory of abilities and modern metacognitivism. Despite the ever-increasing number of studies in the field of general abilities and learning ability in particular and in the field of metacognitive processes of the personality, the possible interconnection of this class of processes and the level of learning ability and, therefore, the interpretation of this interconnection are rarely considered. To date these crucial areas are not in sufficient contact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify and interpret the possible relationship of the level of learning ability with metacognitive processes and qualities of the individual and their organization. The research procedure was based on a comparison of the individual measures of the development of learning ability as a general ability with the diagnostics of the main parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality, including features of its organization and implementation in relation to the methodology of structural-psychological analysis. This procedure is based on the determination of matrices of intercorrelation and the subsequent interpretation of correlograms of the metacognitive parameters of a person. The main result is that there exists a mutual dependence of characteristics of the level of learning ability and basic parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality (metacognitive processes and traits. This dependence lies in the fact that an increase in the level of development of learning ability increases the intensity of separate metacognitive personal qualities and the general level of their structural organization. An interpretation of the data is presented. According to it

  14. Teaching biology with model organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Dolores A.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and use model organisms that represent each of the kingdoms biologists use to classify organisms, while experiencing the process of science through guided inquiry. The model organisms will be the basis for studying the four high school life science core ideas as identified by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): LS1-From molecules to organisms, LS2-Ecosystems, LS3- Heredity, and LS4- Biological Evolution. NGSS also have identified four categories of science and engineering practices which include developing and using models and planning and carrying out investigations. The living organisms will be utilized to increase student interest and knowledge within the discipline of Biology. Pre-test and posttest analysis utilizing student t-test analysis supported the hypothesis. This study shows increased student learning as a result of using living organisms as models for classification and working in an inquiry-based learning environment.

  15. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cees A.W.; Hendrawan, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum like

  16. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  17. An Ability-Based View of the Organization: Strategic-Resource and Contingency Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Farley Simon; Walker, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper extends the corporation-based metaphor of the tree by proposing that cognition is the core ability that nourishes the development of core competencies. From such an extension, this paper aims to take a step forward to answer the question: what is the role of cognition in the organization that is in pursuit of core competencies…

  18. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  19. An Ability-Based View of the Organization: Strategic-Resource and Contingency Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Farley Simon; Walker, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper extends the corporation-based metaphor of the tree by proposing that cognition is the core ability that nourishes the development of core competencies. From such an extension, this paper aims to take a step forward to answer the question: what is the role of cognition in the organization that is in pursuit of core competencies…

  20. Comparing predictive ability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Near Infrared Spectroscopy for soil texture and organic carbon determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Gislum, René;

    and texture was tested and compared with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique and traditional laboratory analysis. Calibration models were developed on 50 topsoil samples. For all properties except silt, higher predictive ability of LIBS than NIRS models was obtained. Successful calibrations indicate......Soil organic carbon (SOC) and texture have a practical value for agronomy and the environment. Thus, alternative techniques to supplement or substitute for the expensive conventional analysis of soil are developed. Here the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine SOC...

  1. Design of Bioactive Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials with Self-setting Ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T; Machida, S; Morita, Y [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan); Ishida, E, E-mail: tmiya@life.kyutech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Paste-like materials with ability of self-setting are attractive for bone substitutes, since they can be injected from the small hole with minimized invasion to the patient. Although bone cements which set as apatite are clinically used, there is limitation on clinical applications due to their mechanical properties such as high brittleness and low fracture toughness. To overcome this problem, organic-inorganic hybrids based on a flexible polymer are attractive. We have obtained an idea for design of self-setting hybrids using polyion complex fabricated by ionic interaction of anionic and cationic polymers. We aimed at preparation of organic-inorganic hybrids exhibiting self-setting ability and bioactivity. The liquid component was prepared from cationic chitosan aqueous solution. The powder component was prepared by mixing various carrageenans with {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate ({alpha}-TCP). The obtained cements set within 1 day. Compressive strength showed tendency to increase with increase in {alpha}-TCP content in the powder component. The prepared cements formed the apatite in simulated body fluid within 3 days. Novel self-setting materials based on organic-inorganic hybrid can be designed utilizing ionic interaction of polysaccharide.

  2. Modeling the filtration ability of stockpiled filtering facepiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Dana R.

    2016-03-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) are often stockpiled for use during public health emergencies such as an infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. While many stockpile administrators are aware of shelf life limitations, environmental conditions can lead to premature degradation. Filtration performance of a set of FFR retrieved from a storage room with failed environmental controls was measured. Though within the expected shelf life, the filtration ability of several respirators was degraded, allowing twice the penetration of fresh samples. The traditional picture of small particle capture by fibrous filter media qualitatively separates the effect of inertial impaction, interception from the streamline, diffusion, settling, and electrostatic attraction. Most of these mechanisms depend upon stable conformational properties. However, common FFR rely on electrets to achieve their high performance, and over time heat and humidity can cause the electrostatic media to degrade. An extension of the Langevin model with correlations to classical filtration concepts will be presented. The new computational model will be used to predict the change in filter effectiveness as the filter media changes with time.

  3. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  4. Modeling Student Motivation and Students’ Ability Estimates From a Large-Scale Assessment of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zerpa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When large-scale assessments (LSA do not hold personal stakes for students, students may not put forth their best effort. Low-effort examinee behaviors (e.g., guessing, omitting items result in an underestimate of examinee abilities, which is a concern when using results of LSA to inform educational policy and planning. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between examinee motivation as defined by expectancy-value theory, student effort, and examinee mathematics abilities. A principal components analysis was used to examine the data from Grade 9 students (n = 43,562 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on their attitudes and practices related to mathematics. The results suggested a two-component model where the components were interpreted as task-values in mathematics and student effort. Next, a hierarchical linear model was implemented to examine the relationship between examinee component scores and their estimated ability on a LSA. The results of this study provide evidence that motivation, as defined by the expectancy-value theory and student effort, partially explains student ability estimates and may have implications in the information that get transferred to testing organizations, school boards, and teachers while assessing students’ Grade 9 mathematics learning.

  5. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND MODEL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita S. Zuliani Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.

  6. The ability model of emotional intelligence: Searching for valid measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, M.; Antonakis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Current measures of ability emotional intelligence (EI)--including the well-known Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)--suffer from several limitations, including low discriminant validity and questionable construct and incremental validity. We show that the MSCEIT is largely predicted by personality dimensions, general intelligence, and demographics having multiple R's with the MSCEIT branches up to .66; for the general EI factor this relation was even stronger (Multiple...

  7. Application of wastewater with high organic load for saline-sodic soil reclamation focusing on soil purification ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kameli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water source scarcity in arid and semiarid area is limitation factor for saline-sodic soil reclamation. The reusing of agricultural drainage and industrial wastewater are preferred strategies for combating with this concern. The objective of current study was evaluation in application of industrial sugar manufacture wastewater due to high soluble organic compounds in saline-sodic and sodic soil. Also soil ability in wastewater organic compounds removal was second aim of present study. Saline-sodic and sodic soil sample was leached in soil column by diluted wastewater of amirkabir sugar manufacture in Khuzestan Province of Iran at constant water head. Sodium, electric conductivity and chemical oxygen demand of soil column leachate were measured per each pore volume. The experimental kinetics of wastewater organic compounds on two saline-sodic and sodic soil were also investigated by three pseudo second order, intra particle diffusion and elovich model. The results of current study showed that electric conductivity of saline-sodic soil was decreased to 90% during 3 initial pore volumes, from other side exchangeable sodium percent of saline-sodic and sodic soil decreased 30 and 71 percent, respectively. There were no significant different between wastewater chemical oxygen demand removal by saline-sodic and sodic soil in both batch and column studies. Wastewater chemical oxygen demand was decreased to 35% during pass through soil column. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics of wastewater organic compounds were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model with 99 percent correlation coefficient (r2=0.99%.

  8. Synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles and its photodegradation ability towards organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, K.; Suresh, R.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of zinc n-propyl dithiocarbonate (Xanthate). ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by XRD and FE-SEM. XRD peaks match well with the standard ZnS reflections (JCPDS No. 36-1450). It revealed that the synthesized ZnS has a hexagonal structure. The lattice constants are found to be a = 3.08 and c = 6.20 were nanostructures. From FE-SEM image plate like and agglomerated particles was observed. However particles are uniformly distributed in the image. The photodegradation ability of the ZnS nanoparticles was investigated using methylene blue as the model compound.

  9. Comparison of Multidimensional Item Response Models: Multivariate Normal Ability Distributions versus Multivariate Polytomous Ability Distributions. Research Report. ETS RR-08-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.; von Davier, Matthias; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Multidimensional item response models can be based on multivariate normal ability distributions or on multivariate polytomous ability distributions. For the case of simple structure in which each item corresponds to a unique dimension of the ability vector, some applications of the two-parameter logistic model to empirical data are employed to…

  10. Abilities and limitations in the use of regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzov, Morten Andreas Oedegaard

    2012-11-01

    In order to say something about the effect of climate change at the regional level, one takes in use regional climate models. In these models the thesis introduce regional features, which are not included in the global climate models (which are basically in climate research). Regional models can provide good and useful climate projections that add more value than the global climate models, but also introduces an uncertainty in the calculations. How should this uncertainty affect the use of regional climate models?The most common methodology for calculating potential future climate developments are based on different scenarios of possible emissions of greenhouse gases. These scenarios operates as global climate models using physical laws and calculate possible future developments. This is considered mathematical complexed and processes with limited supercomputing capacity calculates the global models for the larger scale of the climate system. To study the effects of climate change are regional details required and the regional models used therefore in a limited area of the climate system. These regional models are driven by data from the global models and refines and improves these data. Impact studies can then use the data from the regional models or data which are further processed to provide more local details using geo-statistical methods. In the preparation of the climate projections is there a minimum of 4 sources of uncertainty. This uncertainty is related to the provision of emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, uncertainties related to the use of global climate models, uncertainty related to the use of regional climate models and the uncertainty of internal variability in the climate system. This thesis discusses the use of regional climate models, and illustrates how the regional climate model adds value to climate projections, and at the same time introduce uncertainty in the calculations. It discusses in particular the importance of the choice of

  11. A Process Model for the Comprehension of Organic Chemistry Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havanki, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cognitive processes individuals use when reading organic chemistry equations and factors that affect these processes, namely, visual complexity of chemical equations and participant characteristics (expertise, spatial ability, and working memory capacity). A six stage process model for the comprehension of organic…

  12. The Effect of Concept Attainment Model on Mathematically Critical Thinking Ability of The University Students

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    Angraini, L. M.; Kartasasmita, B.; Dasari, D.

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the university students’ mathematically critical thinking ability through Concept Attainment Model learning. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, t test, ANOVA one and two ways were used to analyse the data. The results of this study showed that (1) there is no difference grade on the student’s mathematical critical thinking ability between experimental group and conventional group as a whole, (2) there is no difference on the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability of experimental classes based on their mathematical early ability (3) there is no interaction between the learning that is used with the students’ mathematical early ability on the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability.

  13. Model Organisms Fact Sheet: Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Tagline (Optional) ... and treating disease in humans. What is a model? The word model has many meanings, but in ...

  14. High CO2-capture ability of a porous organic polymer bifunctionalized with carboxy and triazole groups.

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    Xie, Lin-Hua; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2013-08-26

    A new porous organic polymer, SNU-C1, incorporating two different CO2 -attracting groups, namely, carboxy and triazole groups, has been synthesized. By activating SNU-C1 with two different methods, vacuum drying and supercritical-CO2 treatment, the guest-free phases, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, respectively, were obtained. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca are 595 and 830 m(2) g(-1), respectively, as estimated by the N2-adsorption isotherms at 77 K. At 298 K and 1 atm, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca show high CO2 uptakes, 2.31 mmol  g(-1) and 3.14 mmol  g(-1), respectively, the high level being due to the presence of abundant polar groups (carboxy and triazole) exposed on the pore surfaces. Five separation parameters for flue gas and landfill gas in vacuum-swing adsorption were calculated from single-component gas-sorption isotherms by using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The data reveal excellent CO2-separation abilities of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, namely high CO2-uptake capacity, high selectivity, and high regenerability. The gas-cycling experiments for the materials and the water-treated samples, experiments that involved treating the samples with a CO2-N2 gas mixture (15:85, v/v) followed by a pure N2 purge, further verified the high regenerability and water stability. The results suggest that these materials have great potential applications in CO2 separation.

  15. Demonstration of the Ability of RCAS to Model Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Cotrell, J.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, the wind industry has sponsored the development, verification, and validation of comprehensive aeroelastic simulators, which are used for wind turbine design, certification, and research. Unfortunately, as wind turbines continue to grow in size and sometimes exhibit unconventional design characteristics, the existing codes do not always support the additional analysis features required for proper design. The development history, functionality, and advanced nature of RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System) make this code a sensible option. RCAS is an aeroelastic simulator developed over a 4-year cooperative effort amongst the U.S. Army's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, Advanced Rotorcraft Technology (ART), Inc., and the helicopter industry. As its name suggests, RCAS was created for the rotorcraft industry but developed as a general purpose code for modeling the aerodynamic and structural response of any system with rotating and nonrotating subsystems (such as wind turbines). To demonstrate that RCAS can analyze wind turbines, models of a conventional, 1.5-MW, 3-bladed, upwind, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) are created in RCAS and wind turbine analysis codes FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) and ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). Using these models, a side-by-side comparison of structural response predictions is performed under several test scenarios.

  16. Teaching Quality Management Model for the Training of Innovation Ability and the Multilevel Decomposition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingjiang; Yao, Chen; Zheng, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the training of undergraduate students' innovation ability. On top of the theoretical framework of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), we propose a teaching quality management model. Based on this model, we establish a multilevel decomposition indicator system, which integrates innovation ability characterized by four…

  17. Measures to assess the prognostic ability of the stratified Cox proportional hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.) The Fibrinogen Studies Collaboration.The Copenhagen City Heart Study; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Many measures have been proposed to summarize the prognostic ability of the Cox proportional hazards (CPH) survival model, although none is universally accepted for general use. By contrast, little work has been done to summarize the prognostic ability of the stratified CPH model; such measures w...

  18. Depicting reading ability as an information literacy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Cuevas Cerveró

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Readers’ world has been lately challenged by significant changes, such as the increase on reading supply, the diversification of documentary media and the new types of reading, writing and communicating through the Internet. Such situation specially affects 21st century schools, which are evolving too slowly and so being relegated from their corresponding pre-eminent place as reading teachers and knowledge transmitters. The main goal of this article is to contribute mitigating such adverse effects on schools by proposing an information literacy skills model aimed for improving reading competency from the school library, which is considered a key element capable of turning reading again into an indispensable instrument in knowledge construction.

  19. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  20. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  1. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  2. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  3. Organization customer behavior: Elected models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is dealing with business-to-business marketing issues with particular attention to some of models oriented to explain differences relative to FMCG marketing. Author describe the core principles of selected models including their basic features. In this paper some of models are in focus - Window and Webster-Window model as well as Sheets model, Nielsen model and Multivariation tools.

  4. Usefulness of an ability-based health model in work ability assessments provided by psychiatrists and psychology specialists writing social security certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Magnus; Barbosa da Silva, António; Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether adding descriptions of the health factors "ability," "environment" and "intentions/goals" to the officially sanctioned biomedical disability model (BDM) would improve assessments of work ability for social security purposes. The study was based on a theoretical design consisting of textual analysis and interpretation. Two further work ability models were defined: the mixed health model (MHM), which describes health factors without assessing a person's abilities in context, and the ability-based health model (AHM), which assesses abilities in a concrete context of environment and intention. Eighty-six social security certificates, written by psychiatrists and psychology specialists in a Norwegian hospital-based mental health clinic, were analysed in relation to the three work ability/disability models. In certificates based on the BDM, a general pattern was found of "gradual work training". The MHM added health factors, but without linking them together in a concrete way. With the AHM, work ability was assessed in terms of a concrete unified evaluation of the claimant's abilities, environments and intentions/goals. Applying the AHM in work ability assessments, in comparison with the BDM and the MHM, is useful because this foregrounds claimants' abilities in a context of concrete goals and work-related opportunities, as a unity. Implications for Rehabilitation A concept of health should include ability, environment and intentions/goals as components. When all three of these components are described in concrete terms in a work ability assessment, an integrated picture of the individual's abilities in the context of his/her particular intentions/goals and work opportunities comes to the fore. This kind of assessment makes it possible to meet the individual's needs for individual follow-up in a work environment.

  5. An evaluation of the applicability of the EPA Organic Leachate Model to leaching of solvent and non-solvent wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Bosserman, Carolyn Whitney

    1989-01-01

    The author evaluated the applicability of the Environmental Protection Agency's Organic Leachate Model to wastes containing organic solvents and other organic compounds ("non-solvents"), and determined that the model tends to overestimate the leaching of organic solvents and other organic compounds. Furthermore, when evaluated for its ability to predict leaching of organic compounds, the model was found to predict the leaching of organic solvent compounds with some accuracy, with a correlatio...

  6. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  7. The Asymptotic Distribution of Ability Estimates: Beyond Dichotomous Items and Unidimensional IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the ability parameter of an item response theory model with known item parameters was proved to be asymptotically normally distributed under a set of regularity conditions for tests involving dichotomous items and a unidimensional ability parameter (Klauer, 1990; Lord, 1983). This article first considers…

  8. Dynamics models of soil organic carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGLi-xia; PANJian-jun

    2003-01-01

    As the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon, soils interact strongly with atmosphere composition, climate, and land change. Soil organic carbon dynamics in ecosystem plays a great role in global carbon cycle and global change. With development of mathematical models that simulate changes in soil organic carbon, there have been considerable advances in understanding soil organic carbon dynamics. This paper mainly reviewed the composition of soil organic matter and its influenced factors, and recommended some soil organic matter models worldwide. Based on the analyses of the developed results at home and abroad, it is suggested that future soil organic matter models should be developed toward based-process models, and not always empirical ones. The models are able to reveal their interaction between soil carbon systems, climate and land cover by technique and methods of GIS (Geographical Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing). These models should be developed at a global scale, in dynamically describing the spatial and temporal changes of soil organic matter cycle. Meanwhile, the further researches on models should be strengthen for providing theory basis and foundation in making policy of green house gas emission in China.

  9. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  10. An evaluation of prior influence on the predictive ability of Bayesian model averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Véronique; Clayton, Murray K; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C

    2012-03-01

    Model averaging is gaining popularity among ecologists for making inference and predictions. Methods for combining models include Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) model averaging. BMA can be implemented with different prior model weights, including the Kullback-Leibler prior associated with AIC model averaging, but it is unclear how the prior model weight affects model results in a predictive context. Here, we implemented BMA using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) approximation to Bayes factors for building predictive models of bird abundance and occurrence in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico. We examined how model predictive ability differed across four prior model weights, and how averaged coefficient estimates, standard errors and coefficients' posterior probabilities varied for 16 bird species. We also compared the predictive ability of BMA models to a best single-model approach. Overall, Occam's prior of parsimony provided the best predictive models. In general, the Kullback-Leibler prior, however, favored complex models of lower predictive ability. BMA performed better than a best single-model approach independently of the prior model weight for 6 out of 16 species. For 6 other species, the choice of the prior model weight affected whether BMA was better than the best single-model approach. Our results demonstrate that parsimonious priors may be favorable over priors that favor complexity for making predictions. The approach we present has direct applications in ecology for better predicting patterns of species' abundance and occurrence.

  11. IN HOUSE TRAINING (IHT) MODEL TO IMPROVE THE ABILITIES OF ENGLISH TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING TEACHING MATERIALS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lengkanawati, Nenden Sri; Setyarini, Sri; Sari, R. Della Kartika; Moecharam, Nicke Yunita

    2015-01-01

    ...’ capabilities in developing and implementing teaching materials; (2) designing a model of IHT to improve the ability of teachers to develop and implement the use of teaching materials; and (3...

  12. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  13. Testing game theory models: fighting ability and decision rules in chameleon contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2006-06-22

    Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and contextual factors such as experience influence fighting ability. Using contests between male Cape dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum, I test alternative game theory models of extended contests. I show how the most likely candidate model can be identified through a process of elimination, based on tests of key predictions. In addition, I present a measure of fighting ability based on multiple traits that allows ability to change as experience changes. In dwarf chameleons, persistence is based on loser thresholds rather than assessment of relative ability, ruling out the sequential assessment model. Winners and losers do not match behaviours in early parts of the contest, arguing against all types of war of attrition models. Although the cumulative assessment model remained as the most likely candidate model, not all specific predictions of this model were upheld.

  14. A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

  15. The Role of Spatial Ability and Strategy Preference for Spatial Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieff, Mike; Ryu, Minjung; Dixon, Bonnie; Hegarty, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In organic chemistry, spatial reasoning is critical for reasoning about spatial relationships in three dimensions and representing spatial information in diagrams. Despite its importance, little is known about the underlying cognitive components of spatial reasoning and the strategies that students employ to solve spatial problems in organic…

  16. The Role of Spatial Ability and Strategy Preference for Spatial Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieff, Mike; Ryu, Minjung; Dixon, Bonnie; Hegarty, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In organic chemistry, spatial reasoning is critical for reasoning about spatial relationships in three dimensions and representing spatial information in diagrams. Despite its importance, little is known about the underlying cognitive components of spatial reasoning and the strategies that students employ to solve spatial problems in organic…

  17. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  18. Cardiac Electromechanical Models: From Cell to Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Trayanova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart is a multiphysics and multiscale system that has driven the development of the most sophisticated mathematical models at the frontiers of computation physiology and medicine. This review focuses on electromechanical (EM models of the heart from the molecular level of myofilaments to anatomical models of the organ. Because of the coupling in terms of function and emergent behaviors at each level of biological hierarchy, separation of behaviors at a given scale is difficult. Here, a separation is drawn at the cell level so that the first half addresses subcellular/single cell models and the second half addresses organ models. At the subcelluar level, myofilament models represent actin-myosin interaction and Ca-based activation. Myofilament models and their refinements represent an overview of the development in the field. The discussion of specific models emphasizes the roles of cooperative mechanisms and sarcomere length dependence of contraction force, considered the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling law. A model of electrophysiology and Ca handling can be coupled to a myofilament model to produce an EM cell model, and representative examples are summarized to provide an overview of the progression of field. The second half of the review covers organ-level models that require solution of the electrical component as a reaction-diffusion system and the mechanical component, in which active tension generated by the myocytes produces deformation of the organ as described by the equations of continuum mechanics. As outlined in the review, different organ-level models have chosen to use different ionic and myofilament models depending on the specific application; this choice has been largely dictated by compromises between model complexity and computational tractability. The review also addresses application areas of EM models such as cardiac resynchronization therapy and the role of mechano-electric coupling in arrhythmias and

  19. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ZFIN serves as the zebrafish model organism database. It aims to: a) be the community database resource for the laboratory use of zebrafish, b) develop and support...

  20. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Picard, Willy

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  1. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  2. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima

    2009-01-01

    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  3. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF MAIZE IN MIXTURE WITH CLIMBING BEAN IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Bavec, Franc; Živec, Urška; Grobelnik Mlakar, Silva; Bavec , Martina; Radics , Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Intercropped crops represent an important production system in organic farming, especially maize/climbing bean mixture due to its high content of protein in bean seeds for human diet, and producing silage for ruminants. To test this hypothesis, the effects of maize (Zea mays L.) sown as a sole crop and maize/climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cipro) mixtures on maize plant height, maize leaf area index, bean leaf area index and grain yield were investigated in field experiments on an o...

  4. New Insights into Molecular Organization of Human Neuraminidase-1: Transmembrane Topology and Dimerization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Pascal; Baud, Stéphanie; Bocharova, Olga V.; Bocharov, Eduard V.; Kuznetsov, Andrey S.; Kawecki, Charlotte; Bocquet, Olivier; Romier, Beatrice; Gorisse, Laetitia; Ghirardi, Maxime; Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Martiny, Laurent; Dauchez, Manuel; Efremov, Roman G.; Debelle, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) is a lysosomal sialidase catalyzing the removal of terminal sialic acids from sialyloconjugates. A plasma membrane-bound NEU1 modulating a plethora of receptors by desialylation, has been consistently documented from the last ten years. Despite a growing interest of the scientific community to NEU1, its membrane organization is not understood and current structural and biochemical data cannot account for such membrane localization. By combining molecular biology and biochemical analyses with structural biophysics and computational approaches, we identified here two regions in human NEU1 - segments 139–159 (TM1) and 316–333 (TM2) - as potential transmembrane (TM) domains. In membrane mimicking environments, the corresponding peptides form stable α-helices and TM2 is suited for self-association. This was confirmed with full-size NEU1 by co-immunoprecipitations from membrane preparations and split-ubiquitin yeast two hybrids. The TM2 region was shown to be critical for dimerization since introduction of point mutations within TM2 leads to disruption of NEU1 dimerization and decrease of sialidase activity in membrane. In conclusion, these results bring new insights in the molecular organization of membrane-bound NEU1 and demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of two potential TM domains that may anchor NEU1 in the membrane, control its dimerization and sialidase activity. PMID:27917893

  5. New Insights into Molecular Organization of Human Neuraminidase-1: Transmembrane Topology and Dimerization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Pascal; Baud, Stéphanie; Bocharova, Olga V.; Bocharov, Eduard V.; Kuznetsov, Andrey S.; Kawecki, Charlotte; Bocquet, Olivier; Romier, Beatrice; Gorisse, Laetitia; Ghirardi, Maxime; Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Martiny, Laurent; Dauchez, Manuel; Efremov, Roman G.; Debelle, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) is a lysosomal sialidase catalyzing the removal of terminal sialic acids from sialyloconjugates. A plasma membrane-bound NEU1 modulating a plethora of receptors by desialylation, has been consistently documented from the last ten years. Despite a growing interest of the scientific community to NEU1, its membrane organization is not understood and current structural and biochemical data cannot account for such membrane localization. By combining molecular biology and biochemical analyses with structural biophysics and computational approaches, we identified here two regions in human NEU1 - segments 139-159 (TM1) and 316-333 (TM2) - as potential transmembrane (TM) domains. In membrane mimicking environments, the corresponding peptides form stable α-helices and TM2 is suited for self-association. This was confirmed with full-size NEU1 by co-immunoprecipitations from membrane preparations and split-ubiquitin yeast two hybrids. The TM2 region was shown to be critical for dimerization since introduction of point mutations within TM2 leads to disruption of NEU1 dimerization and decrease of sialidase activity in membrane. In conclusion, these results bring new insights in the molecular organization of membrane-bound NEU1 and demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of two potential TM domains that may anchor NEU1 in the membrane, control its dimerization and sialidase activity.

  6. Porous anionic indium-organic framework with enhanced gas and vapor adsorption and separation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanbiao; Lin, Zujin; Fu, Hongru; Wang, Fei; Shen, Min; Wang, Xusheng; Cao, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A three-dimensional microporous anionic metal-organic framework (MOF) (Et4N)3[In3(TATB)4] (FJI-C1, H3TATB=4,4',4''-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyltribenzoic acid) with large unit cell volume has been synthesized. Assisted by the organic cation group Et4N in the pores of the compound, FJI-C1 not only shows high adsorption uptakes of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons, but also exhibits highly selective separation of propane, acetylene, ethane, and ethylene from methane at room temperature. Furthermore, it also exhibits high separation selectivity for propane over C2 hydrocarbons and acetylene can be readily separated from their C2 hydrocarbons mixtures at low pressure due to the high selectivity for C2H2 in comparison to C2H4 and C2H6. In addition, FJI-C1 with hydrophilic internal pores surfaces shows highly efficient adsorption separation of polar molecules from nonpolar molecules. Notably, it exhibits high separation selectivity for benzene over cyclohexane due to the π-π interactions between benzene molecules and s-triazine rings of the porous MOF. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Relationship between Spatial Visualization Ability and Students' Ability to Model 3D Objects from Engineering Assembly Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branoff, T. J.; Dobelis, M.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been used as a predictor of success in several engineering and technology disciplines (Strong & Smith, 2001). In engineering graphics courses, scores on spatial tests have also been used to predict success (Adanez & Velasco, 2002; Leopold, Gorska, & Sorby, 2001). Other studies have shown that some type of…

  8. Condensing Organic Aerosols in a Microphysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  9. A New Model for Inclusive Sports? An Evaluation of Participants’ Experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Corazza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport has been recognised as a potential catalyst for social inclusion. The Mixed Ability Model represents an innovative approach to inclusive sport by encouraging disabled and non-disabled players to interact in a mainstream club environment. However, research around the impacts of the Model is currently lacking. This paper aims to contribute empirical data to this gap by evaluating participants’ experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby and highlighting implications for future initiatives. Primary qualitative data were collected within two Mixed Ability Rugby teams in the UK and Italy through online questionnaires and focus groups. Data were analysed using Simplican et al.’s (2015 model of social inclusion. Data show that Mixed Ability Rugby has significant potential for achieving inclusionary outcomes. Positive social impacts, reported by all participants, regardless of (disability, include enhanced social networks, an increase in social capital, personal development and fundamental perception shifts. Factors relevant to the Mixed Ability Model are identified that enhance these impacts and inclusionary outcomes. The mainstream setting was reportedly the most important, with further aspects including a supportive club environment and promotion of self-advocacy. A ‘Wheel of Inclusion’ is developed that provides a useful basis for evaluating current inclusive sport initiatives and for designing new ones.

  10. Multivariate models of mixed assortment: phenotypic assortment and social homogamy for education and fluid ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C A; Baker, L A; Pedersen, N L

    2000-11-01

    Phenotypic assortment is assumed to be the principal mechanism of spouse similarity in most biometrical studies. Other assortment mechanisms, such as social homogamy, may be plausible. Two models are presented that consider phenotypic assortment and social homogamy simultaneously (i.e., mixed assortment), where selective associations between social background factors (Model I) versus selective associations between total environments (Model II) distinguish the models. A series of illustrative analyses was undertaken for education and fluid ability available on a sample of 116 Swedish twin pairs and their spouses. On the basis of several fit criteria Model I was preferred over Model II. Both social homogamy and phenotypic assortment may contribute to spouse similarity for educational attainment and fluid ability. Furthermore, spouse similarity for fluid ability may arise indirectly from social homogamy and phenotypic assortment for educational attainment. Power analyses indicated greater observed power for Model I than Model II. Additional power analyses indicated that considerably more twin-spouse sets would be needed for Model II than Model I, to resolve social homogamy and phenotypic assortment. Effects of misspecification of mechanisms of spouse similarity are also briefly discussed.

  11. A Model of Institutional Creative Change for Assessing Universities as Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Universities, like students, differ in their ability to learn and to recreate themselves. In this article, I present a 3-part model of institutional creative change for assessing universities as learning organizations that can move creatively into the future. The first part, prerequisites, deals with actual ability to change creatively and belief…

  12. The influence of teams, supervisors and organizations on healthcare practitioners' abilities to practise ethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah; Austin, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare practitioners make many important ethical decisions in their day-to-day practices. Questions arising in daily practice require practitioners to make prudent, balanced and good decisions, which are most effectively made interpersonally and reflectively. It is commonly assumed that the team-based structure of healthcare delivery can provide practitioners with the support needed to address ethical questions in their practice, especially if the team involves multidisciplinary collaboration. A phenomenological study was conducted in which the impact of the team and the larger organization on practitioners' experiences of dealing with moral challenges was uncovered. Various mental healthcare professionals shared their experiences of ethically challenging situations in their practices and described the ways in which their teammates and supervisors affected how they faced these troubling situations. These findings allow us to see that there is considerable room for healthcare managers, many of whom are nurses, to facilitate supportive, ethical environments for healthcare professionals. An understanding of the essential experience of practising ethically allows for an appreciation of the significance of the team's role in supporting it and enables healthcare managers to target support for ethical healthcare work.

  13. Putting "Organizations" into an Organization Theory Course: A Hybrid CAO Model for Teaching Organization Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, David R.; Venkatachary, Ranga

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a retrospective analysis of an instructor's multiyear redesign of a course on organization theory into what is called a hybrid Classroom-as-Organization model. It is suggested that this new course design served to apprentice students to function in quasi-real organizational structures. The authors further argue…

  14. Web Resources for Model Organism Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Tang; Yanqing Wang; Junwei Zhu; Wenming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    An ever-growing number of resources on model organisms have emerged with the continued development of sequencing technologies. In this paper, we review 13 databases of model organisms, most of which are reported by the National Institutes of Health of the United States (NIH; http://www.nih.gov/science/models/). We provide a brief description for each database, as well as detail its data source and types, functions, tools, and availability of access. In addition, we also provide a quality assessment about these databases. Significantly, the organism databases instituted in the early 1990s––such as the Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), and FlyBase––have developed into what are now comprehensive, core authority resources. Furthermore, all of the databases mentioned here update continually according to user feedback and with advancing technologies.

  15. Ability in daily activities after early supported discharge models of stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taule, Tina; Strand, Liv Inger; Assmus, Jörg; Skouen, Jan Sture

    2015-01-01

    Abstract More knowledge is needed about how different rehabilitation models in the municipality influence stroke survivors’ ability in activities of daily living (ADL). Objectives: To compare three models of outpatient rehabilitation; early supported discharge (ESD) in a day unit, ESD at home and traditional treatment in the municipality (control group), regarding change in ADL ability during the first three months after stroke. Methods: A group comparison study was designed within a randomized controlled trial. Included participants were tested with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) at baseline and discharged directly home. Primary and secondary outcomes were the AMPS and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results and conclusions: Included were 154 participants (57% men, median age 73 years), and 103 participants completed the study. There were no significant group differences in pre–post changed ADL ability measured by the AMPS. To find the best rehabilitation model to improve the quality of stroke survivors’ motor and process skills needs further research. Patients participating in the ESD rehabilitation models were, compared with traditional treatment, significantly associated with improved ADL ability measured by the mRS when controlling for confounding factors, indicating that patients with social needs and physical impairment after stroke may benefit from ESD rehabilitation models. PMID:26005768

  16. Ability in daily activities after early supported discharge models of stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taule, Tina; Strand, Liv Inger; Assmus, Jörg; Skouen, Jan Sture

    2015-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about how different rehabilitation models in the municipality influence stroke survivors' ability in activities of daily living (ADL). To compare three models of outpatient rehabilitation; early supported discharge (ESD) in a day unit, ESD at home and traditional treatment in the municipality (control group), regarding change in ADL ability during the first three months after stroke. A group comparison study was designed within a randomized controlled trial. Included participants were tested with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) at baseline and discharged directly home. Primary and secondary outcomes were the AMPS and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Included were 154 participants (57% men, median age 73 years), and 103 participants completed the study. There were no significant group differences in pre-post changed ADL ability measured by the AMPS. To find the best rehabilitation model to improve the quality of stroke survivors' motor and process skills needs further research. Patients participating in the ESD rehabilitation models were, compared with traditional treatment, significantly associated with improved ADL ability measured by the mRS when controlling for confounding factors, indicating that patients with social needs and physical impairment after stroke may benefit from ESD rehabilitation models.

  17. Mathematical Modeling Social Responsibility for Dynamic Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Chavoshbashi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic organizations as accountable organizations, for transparency and accountability to its stakeholders to stakeholders for their toward performance there should express their commitment to social responsibility are through their values and ensure that this commitment throughout the organization are now and thus will have a social responsibility for their mutual benefit, so there is more and more coherent in their ethical approach takes advantage and the community and stakeholders and the organization will have better performance and strengths. Because of interest in social responsibility, in this paper dynamic model is presented for Corporate Social Responsibility of Bionic organization. Model presented a new model is inspired by chaos theory and natural systems theory based on bifurcation in creation to be all natural systems, realizing the value of responsibility as one of the fundamental values of social and institutional development that the relationship between business and work environment in the global market economy and range will be specified. First Social Responsibility factors identified, then experts and scholars determine the weight of the components and technical coefficient for modeling and paired comparison has been done using MATLAB mathematical Software.

  18. Site-specific distribution and competitive ability of indigenous bean-nodulating rhizobia isolated from organic fields in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongphatcharachai, Manoosak; Wang, Ping; Staley, Christopher; Chun, Chan Lan; Ferguson, John A; Moncada, Kristine M; Sheaffer, Craig C; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-20

    Organic dry bean production systems have received increasing interest in many regions of the US, including Minnesota. Thus, improving biological N2 fixation would be highly beneficial for organic crop production. To date, only limited work has been done to select efficient N2-fixing rhizobia for organic dry bean production. In this study, soil samples from 25 organic fields in Minnesota, with a previous cropping history of dry beans, soybeans or both, were collected during May to July 2012. Genetic diversity of indigenous dry bean-rhizobia (511 isolates) was determined by using horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced, repetitive, extragenic, and palindromic-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting and isolates were classified as belonging to 58 different genotypes. The more abundant rhizobia isolated from bean nodules comprised 35.6% of the population. None of the isolates were identical to commonly-used commercial strains used in the U.S., including Rhizobium tropici CIAT899. Seventeen predominant genotypes were shown to represent two main species, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (67.1%) and Rhizobium etli (30.2%). One of the indigenous strains, orgK9, displayed efficient N2-fixation and competitive ability relative to the commercial strains tested. The lack of large numbers of indigenous dry bean-rhizobia at most study sites will be useful to avoid competition problems between inoculant strains and indigenous rhizobia. This will allow inoculation with highly effective N2-fixing rhizobia, thus resulting in improved crop productivity. Our results highlight the existence of site-specific rhizobial genotypes in different organic fields and identify strains that may prove useful as novel inoculants for organic dry bean production systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reading Ability Development from Kindergarten to Junior Secondary: Latent Transition Analyses with Growth Mixture Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the reading ability development of children in the large scale Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 data; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Pollack, & Atkins-Burnett, 2006 under the dynamic systems. To depict children's growth pattern, we extended the measurement part of latent transition analysis to the growth mixture model and found that the new model fitted the data well. Results also revealed that most of the children stayed in the same ability group with few cross-level changes in their classes. After adding the environmental factors as predictors, analyses showed that children receiving higher teachers' ratings, with higher socioeconomic status, and of above average poverty status, would have higher probability to transit into the higher ability group.

  20. Polymer models of chromosome (re)organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirny, Leonid

    Chromosome Conformation Capture technique (Hi-C) provides comprehensive information about frequencies of spatial interactions between genomic loci. Inferring 3D organization of chromosomes from these data is a challenging biophysical problem. We develop a top-down approach to biophysical modeling of chromosomes. Starting with a minimal set of biologically motivated interactions we build ensembles of polymer conformations that can reproduce major features observed in Hi-C experiments. I will present our work on modeling organization of human metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Our works suggests that active processes of loop extrusion can be a universal mechanism responsible for formation of domains in interphase and chromosome compaction in metaphase.

  1. Computer adaptive practice of Maths ability using a new item response model for on the fly ability and difficulty estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, S.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for computerized adaptive practice and monitoring. This model is used in the Maths Garden, a web-based monitoring system, which includes a challenging web environment for children to practice arithmetic. Using a new item response model based on the Elo (1978) rating

  2. Self-organization ability of chiral Nα-substituted, Nβ-Boc protected α-hydrazino acetamides in the crystal and solution states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussodia, Ralph-Olivier; Romero, Eugenie; Wenger, Emmanuel; Jamart-Grégoire, Brigitte; Acherar, Samir

    2017-08-29

    The limitations of peptides have severely hampered their use in pharmacology, thus prompting the design of new peptidomimetic foldamers. This requires precise knowledge of the secondary structure of new compounds and the ability to predict their self-organization. Conformational studies of the basic units of these foldamers can be of invaluable assistance in designing new bioactive compounds. To this end, we investigated the conformation of three chiral Nα-substituted, Nβ-Boc protected α-hydrazino acetamide model compounds containing various side chains both on the Nα- and Cα- atoms in both the crystal and solution states. On the basis of IR spectroscopy, NMR and X-ray diffraction experiments, we demonstrated that these three models adopt conformational preferences, relying on eight-, six- or five-membered H-bonded pseudocycles (C8, C6 or C5), depending on the steric bulk of both Nα- or Cα- side chains. This study sheds light onto the versatile self-organization ability of the specific class of α-Nα-hydrazinopeptides and emphasizes the key role of the Cα- side chain on the conformational preference of the self-structuration.

  3. Microtechnology-Based Multi-Organ Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drugs affect the human body through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME processes. Due to their importance, the ADME processes need to be studied to determine the efficacy and side effects of drugs. Various in vitro model systems have been developed and used to realize the ADME processes. However, conventional model systems have failed to simulate the ADME processes because they are different from in vivo, which has resulted in a high attrition rate of drugs and a decrease in the productivity of new drug development. Recently, a microtechnology-based in vitro system called “organ-on-a-chip” has been gaining attention, with more realistic cell behavior and physiological reactions, capable of better simulating the in vivo environment. Furthermore, multi-organ-on-a-chip models that can provide information on the interaction between the organs have been developed. The ultimate goal is the development of a “body-on-a-chip”, which can act as a whole body model. In this review, we introduce and summarize the current progress in the development of multi-organ models as a foundation for the development of body-on-a-chip.

  4. Microtechnology-Based Multi-Organ Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Sung, Jong Hwan

    2017-05-21

    Drugs affect the human body through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) processes. Due to their importance, the ADME processes need to be studied to determine the efficacy and side effects of drugs. Various in vitro model systems have been developed and used to realize the ADME processes. However, conventional model systems have failed to simulate the ADME processes because they are different from in vivo, which has resulted in a high attrition rate of drugs and a decrease in the productivity of new drug development. Recently, a microtechnology-based in vitro system called "organ-on-a-chip" has been gaining attention, with more realistic cell behavior and physiological reactions, capable of better simulating the in vivo environment. Furthermore, multi-organ-on-a-chip models that can provide information on the interaction between the organs have been developed. The ultimate goal is the development of a "body-on-a-chip", which can act as a whole body model. In this review, we introduce and summarize the current progress in the development of multi-organ models as a foundation for the development of body-on-a-chip.

  5. On the Relationships between Jeffreys Modal and Weighted Likelihood Estimation of Ability under Logistic IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two estimators of ability with logistic item response theory models: the Bayesian modal (BM) estimator and the weighted likelihood (WL) estimator. For the BM estimator, Jeffreys' prior distribution is considered, and the corresponding estimator is referred to as the Jeffreys modal (JM) estimator. It is established that under…

  6. The approach of power priors for ability estimation in IRT models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matteucci, Mariagiulia; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to propose the introduction of power prior distributions in the ability estimation of item response theory (IRT) models. In the literature, power priors have been proposed to integrate information coming from historical data with current data within Bayesian parameter estimat

  7. Spatial Visualization Ability and Impact of Drafting Models: A Quasi Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jovanovic, Vukica

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was done to determine significant positive effects among three different types of visual models and to identify whether any individual type or combination contributed towards a positive increase of spatial visualization ability for students in engineering technology courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Spatial Visualization Ability and Drafting Models for Industrial and Technology Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine significant positive effects among the use of three different types of drafting models, and to identify whether any differences exist towards promotion of spatial visualization ability for students in Industrial Technology and Technology Education courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  9. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  10. New Federated Collaborative Networked Organization Model (FCNOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcous M. Yassa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Collaborative Networked Organization (CNO usually comes upon expected business opportunities and needs huge of negotiation during its lifecycle, especially to increase the Dynamic Virtual Organization (DVO configuration automation. Decision makers need more comprehensive information about CNO system to support their decisions. Unfortunately, there is no single formal modeling, tool, approach or any comprehensive methodology that covers all perspectives. In spite of there are some approaches to model CNO have been existed, these approaches model the CNO either with respect to the technology, or business without considering organizational behavior, federation modeling, and external environments. The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated framework that combines the existed modeling perspectives, as well as, proposes new ones. Also, it provides clear CNO boundaries. By using this approach the view of CNO environment becomes clear and unified. Also, it minimizes the negotiations within CNO components during its life cycle, supports DVO configuration automation, as well as, helps decision making for DVO, and achieves harmonization between CNO partners. The proposed FCNOM utilizes CommonKADS methodology organization model for describing CNO components. Insurance Collaborative Network has been used as an example to proof the proposed FCNOM model.

  11. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... such as rural amenities and rural development that are spillover benefit additional to the supply of food. In this paper we further develop an existing dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy to specifically incorporate organic farming. In the model and input-output data each primary...... to illustrate the working of our theory by constructing a long term forecast for the development of the Danish economy. Moreover we simulate the effect of the recent agreed 2003 reform of the common agricultural policy....

  12. Safety Cultural Competency Modeling in Nuclear Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear safety cultural competency model should be supplemented through a bottom-up approach such as behavioral event interview. The developed model, however, is meaningful for determining what should be dealt for enhancing safety cultural competency of nuclear organizations. The more details of the developing process, results, and applications will be introduced later. Organizational culture include safety culture in terms of its organizational characteristics.

  13. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  14. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The f...

  15. Construct validation and the Rasch model: functional ability of healthy elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Kreiner, S; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a measure of functional ability, developed with the intention of achieving a high degree of variability and capacity for discriminating among a group of healthy elderly people. Data were collected from 734 70-year-old people in Denmark...... in the county of Copenhagen. Functional ability was measured with the traditional activities of daily living and with a classification system developed specially for healthy elderly people. Construct validity was tested by the Rasch model for item analysis, addressing specifically the internal validity...

  16. Measuring teaching ability with the Rasch model by scaling a series of product and performance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Judy R; Lang, William Steve

    2006-01-01

    Rasch measurement can provide a much needed solution to scaling teacher ability. Typically, decisions about teacher ability are based on dichotomously scored certification tests focused on knowledge of content or pedagogy. This paper presents early developmental work of a partial-credit teacher-ability scale of 42 tasks (performances and products) with 348 rated items or criteria. The tasks and criteria are aligned with national and state standards for expected teacher knowledge and skills. These tasks are being used in about two-thirds of Florida school districts and are spreading to colleges of education. Over time there will be many variations in both tasks and criteria, but here we focus on the initial system and the Rasch model as part of the plan for development of the system.

  17. Emergent organization in a model market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Avinash Chand; Manchanda, Kaustubh; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2017-09-01

    We study the collective behaviour of interacting agents in a simple model of market economics that was originally introduced by Nørrelykke and Bak. A general theoretical framework for interacting traders on an arbitrary network is presented, with the interaction consisting of buying (namely consumption) and selling (namely production) of commodities. Extremal dynamics is introduced by having the agent with least profit in the market readjust prices, causing the market to self-organize. In addition to examining this model market on regular lattices in two-dimensions, we also study the cases of random complex networks both with and without community structures. Fluctuations in an activity signal exhibit properties that are characteristic of avalanches observed in models of self-organized criticality, and these can be described by power-law distributions when the system is in the critical state.

  18. Emergent organization in a model market

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Avinash Chand; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    We study the collective behavior of interacting agents in a simple model of market economics originally introduced by N{\\o}rrelykke and Bak. A general theoretical framework for interacting traders on an arbitrary network is presented, with the interaction consisting of buying (namely, consumption) and selling (namely, production) of commodities. Extremal dynamics is introduced by having the agent with least profit in the market readjust prices, causing the market to self--organize. We study this model market on regular lattices in two--dimension as well as on random complex networks; in the critical state fluctuations in an activity signal exhibit properties that are characteristic of avalanches observed in models of self-organized criticality, and these can be described by power--law distributions.

  19. Self-organized model of cascade spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, S.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a minimal self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation. For a wide range of parameters, the system is in a critical state and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution similar to the empirically observed one. We further generalize the model to reproduce volatility clustering and other observed properties of real stocks.

  20. Recursive self-organizing network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Barbara; Micheli, Alessio; Sperduti, Alessandro; Strickert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Self-organizing models constitute valuable tools for data visualization, clustering, and data mining. Here, we focus on extensions of basic vector-based models by recursive computation in such a way that sequential and tree-structured data can be processed directly. The aim of this article is to give a unified review of important models recently proposed in literature, to investigate fundamental mathematical properties of these models, and to compare the approaches by experiments. We first review several models proposed in literature from a unifying perspective, thereby making use of an underlying general framework which also includes supervised recurrent and recursive models as special cases. We shortly discuss how the models can be related to different neuron lattices. Then, we investigate theoretical properties of the models in detail: we explicitly formalize how structures are internally stored in different context models and which similarity measures are induced by the recursive mapping onto the structures. We assess the representational capabilities of the models, and we shortly discuss the issues of topology preservation and noise tolerance. The models are compared in an experiment with time series data. Finally, we add an experiment for one context model for tree-structured data to demonstrate the capability to process complex structures.

  1. The Effect of Problem Solving and Problem Posing Models and Innate Ability to Students Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Kartika Irawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Problem Solving dan Problem Posing serta Kemampuan Awal terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa   Abstract: Chemistry concepts understanding features abstract quality and requires higher order thinking skills. Yet, the learning on chemistry has not boost the higher order thinking skills of the students. The use of the learning model of Problem Solving and Problem Posing in observing the innate ability of the student is expected to resolve the issue. This study aims to determine the learning model which is effective to improve the study of the student with different level of innate ability. This study used the quasi-experimental design. The research data used in this research is the quiz/test of the class which consist of 14 multiple choice questions and 5 essay questions. The data analysis used is ANOVA Two Ways. The results showed that Problem Posing is more effective to improve the student compared to Problem Solving, students with high level of innate ability have better outcomes in learning rather than the students with low level of innate ability after being applied with the Problem solving and Problem posing model, further, Problem Solving and Problem Posing is more suitable to be applied to the students with high level of innate ability. Key Words: problem solving, problem posing, higher order thinking skills, innate ability, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Pemahaman konsep-konsep kimia yang bersifat abstrak membutuhkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Pembelajaran kimia belum mendorong siswa melakukan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Penggunaan model pembelajaran Problem Solving dan Problem Posing dengan memperhatikan kemampuan awal siswa diduga dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model pembelajaran yang efektif dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar dengan kemampuan awal siswa yang berbeda. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksperimen semu. Data penelitian menggunakan tes hasil belajar

  2. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  3. Modeling plasmonic efficiency enhancement in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Y; Apter, B; Katz, E A; Efron, U

    2015-09-10

    Efficiency enhancement of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells by means of the plasmonic effect is investigated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) optical simulations combined with analytical modeling of exciton dissociation and charge transport efficiencies. The proposed method provides an improved analysis of the cell performance compared to previous FDTD studies. The results of the simulations predict an 11.8% increase in the cell's short circuit current with the use of Ag nano-hexagons.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF INQUIRY TRAINING LEARNING MODEL AND CRITICAL THINGKING ABILITY TOWARD SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS OF SMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferawati Hutapea; Motlan .

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research are 1). To know are differences in science process skills of students with the applied of inquiry training learning model and direct instruction learning models, 2). To know are differences in science process skills of students who has high critical thinking ability and the  critically low ability, 3). To know the interaction inquiry training learning model and critical thinking ability toward students science process skills. The samples in this research conducted by c...

  5. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function.

  6. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  7. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  8. Acute kidney injury enhances outcome prediction ability of sequential organ failure assessment score in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III score in ICU patients with AKI.A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission.One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4% patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%. Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032 was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001 for SOFA score ≤10 vs. ≥11 in these ICU patients with AKI.For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ≥ "11" on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome.

  9. Role of Corporate Culture in Model of Logic Levels of Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya А. Aleksandrova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the level of corporate culture in a model of logic levels of the organization. The modern organization is influenced by the external factors, and therefore it should have the ability to form and accumulate potential for corporate culture in order to ensure a timely response to the external environment and effectively manage the operation and development of numerous elements and subsystems of the organization.

  10. Self-organized model of cascade spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system's elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution-similar to the empirically observed one-over a wide range of parameters.

  11. Improving the asset pricing ability of the Consumption-Capital Asset Pricing Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng

    This paper compares the asset pricing ability of the traditional consumption-based capital asset pricing model to models from two strands of literature attempting to improve on the poor empirical results of the C-CAPM. One strand is based on the intertemporal asset pricing model of Campbell (1993...... able to price assets conditionally as suggested by Cochrane (1996) and Lettau and Ludvigson (2001b). The unconditional C-CAPM is rewritten as a scaled factor model using the approximate log consumptionwealth ratio cay, developed by Lettau and Ludvigson (2001a), as scaling variable. The models...... are estimated on US data and the resulting pricing errors are compared using average pricing errors and a number of composite pricing error measures. The conditional C-CAPM and the two beta I-CAPM of Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004) result in pricing errors of approximately the same size, both average...

  12. ABILITY OF PHAEOCYSTIS SP TO GROW ON ORGANIC-PHOSPHATES - DIRECT MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION WITH THE USE OF AN INHIBITION CONSTANT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBOEKEL, WHM

    1991-01-01

    Batch culture experiments were performed to test the ability of Phaeocystis sp. to grow on organic phosphates as the only source of phosphorus. Of nine organic phosphates tested seven supported growth equally well as did inorganic phosphate. Growth on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) was slow

  13. Distinguishing ability analysis of compressed sensing radar imaging based on information theory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Bingchen; Lin, Yueguan; Hong, Wen; Wu, Yirong

    2011-11-01

    Recent theory of compressed sensing (CS) has been widely used in many application areas. In this paper, we mainly concentrate on the CS in radar and analyze the distinguishing ability of CS radar image based on information theory model. The information content contained in the CS radar echoes is analyzed by simplifying the information transmission channel as a parallel Gaussian channel, and the relationship among the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the echo signal, the number of required samples, the length of the sparse targets and the distinguishing level of the radar image is gotten. Based on this result, we introduced the distinguishing ability of the CS radar image and some of its properties are also gotten. Real IECAS advanced scanning two-dimensional railway observation (ASTRO) data experiment demonstrates our conclusions.

  14. Ability of non-linear mixed models to predict growth in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Galeano-Vasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Von Bertalanffy, Richards, Gompertz, Brody, and Logistics non-linear mixed regression models were compared for their ability to estimate the growth curve in commercial laying hens. Data were obtained from 100 Lohmann LSL layers. The animals were identified and then weighed weekly from day 20 after hatch until they were 553 days of age. All the nonlinear models used were transformed into mixed models by the inclusion of random parameters. Accuracy of the models was determined by the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria (AIC and BIC, respectively, and the correlation values. According to AIC, BIC, and correlation values, the best fit for modeling the growth curve of the birds was obtained with Gompertz, followed by Richards, and then by Von Bertalanffy models. The Brody and Logistic models did not fit the data. The Gompertz nonlinear mixed model showed the best goodness of fit for the data set, and is considered the model of choice to describe and predict the growth curve of Lohmann LSL commercial layers at the production system of University of Antioquia.

  15. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken ...

  16. The variability and causes of organic carbon retention ability of different agricultural straw types returned to soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yannan; Hu, Yu; Wu, Jihua; Fu, Xiaohua; Le, Yiquan

    2017-03-01

    Retaining the organic carbon (C) content of agricultural straw when returned to soil is restricted by rapid decomposition. In order to clarify the difference in returned straw decomposition and the causes, and to develop a straw returning mode with high-efficiency of organic C accumulation, the decomposition processes of corn, soybean, rice and wheat straws were systematically studied in fields. When returned in situ (the original planting area), the C in soybean straw was decomposed most quickly with a decomposition constant of 0.00542 d(-1), but wheat straw showed a longer retention in soil with 0.00303 d(-1). However, for ex situ return of all straw in one area away from in situ return, soybean straw was decomposed most slowly (0.00452 d(-1)) and wheat straw more quickly (0.00652 d(-1)). The sequence of C decomposition rate in 270 d was soybean > corn > rice > wheat (in situ) and corn > wheat > rice > soybean (ex situ). Both surrounding soil and straw nature were important factors influencing the decomposition rate. The farmland with rice and wheat rotation retained more C from returned straws due to its high moisture and low nitrogen (N) content, while the soybean field was a contrast. Soybean straw had a low decomposition rate after ex situ return due to its low N content and high C/N ratio. The farmland of wheat-rice rotation combined with soybean straw ex situ return may develop into a field of higher C retention ability.

  17. Evaluating the predictive abilities of community occupancy models using AUC while accounting for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fagan, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict patterns of species' occurrences is fundamental to the successful management of animal communities. To determine optimal management strategies, it is essential to understand species-habitat relationships and how species habitat use is related to natural or human-induced environmental changes. Using five years of monitoring data in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA, we developed four multi-species hierarchical models for estimating amphibian wetland use that account for imperfect detection during sampling. The models were designed to determine which factors (wetland habitat characteristics, annual trend effects, spring/summer precipitation, and previous wetland occupancy) were most important for predicting future habitat use. We used the models to make predictions of species occurrences in sampled and unsampled wetlands and evaluated model projections using additional data. Using a Bayesian approach, we calculated a posterior distribution of receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) values, which allowed us to explicitly quantify the uncertainty in the quality of our predictions and to account for false negatives in the evaluation dataset. We found that wetland hydroperiod (the length of time that a wetland holds water) as well as the occurrence state in the prior year were generally the most important factors in determining occupancy. The model with only habitat covariates predicted species occurrences well; however, knowledge of wetland use in the previous year significantly improved predictive ability at the community level and for two of 12 species/species complexes. Our results demonstrate the utility of multi-species models for understanding which factors affect species habitat use of an entire community (of species) and provide an improved methodology using AUC that is helpful for quantifying the uncertainty in model predictions while explicitly accounting for

  18. Cube Kohonen self-organizing map (CKSOM) model with new equations in organizing unstructured data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Poh; Haron, Habibollah

    2013-09-01

    Surface reconstruction by using 3-D data is used to represent the surface of an object and perform important tasks. The type of data used is important and can be described as either structured or unstructured. For unstructured data, there is no connectivity information between data points. As a result, incorrect shapes will be obtained during the imaging process. Therefore, the data should be reorganized by finding the correct topology so that the correct shape can be obtained. Previous studies have shown that the Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM) could be used to solve data organizing problems. However, 2-D Kohonen maps are limited because they are unable to cover the whole surface of closed 3-D surface data. Furthermore, the neurons inside the 3-D KSOM structure should be removed in order to create a correct wireframe model. This is because only the outside neurons are used to represent the surface of an object. The aim of this paper is to use KSOM to organize unstructured data for closed surfaces. KSOM isused in this paper by testing its ability to organize medical image data because KSOM is mostly used in constructing engineering field data. Enhancements are added to the model by introducing class number and the index vector, and new equations are created. Various grid sizes and maximum iterations are tested in the experiments. Based on the results, the number of redundancies is found to be directly proportional to the grid size. When we increase the maximum iterations, the surface of the image becomes smoother. An area formula is used and manual calculations are performed to validate the results. This model is implemented and images are created using Dev C++ and GNUPlot.

  19. Evaluating the ability of regional models to predict local avian abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Miller, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial modeling over broad scales can potentially direct conservation efforts to areas with high species-specific abundances. We examined the performance of regional models for predicting bird abundance at spatial scales typically addressed in conservation planning. Specifically, we used point count data on wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) from 2 time periods (1995-1998 and 2006-2007) to evaluate the ability of regional models derived via Bayesian hierarchical techniques to predict bird abundance. We developed models for each species within Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 23 in the upper midwestern United States at 800-ha, 8,000-ha, and approximately 80,000-ha scales. We obtained count data from the Breeding Bird Survey and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset (1992). We evaluated predictions from the best models, as defined by an information-theoretic criterion, using point count data collected within an ecological subregion of BCR 23 at 131 count stations in the 1990s and again in 2006-2007. Competing (Deviance Information Criteria rs = 0.57; P = 0.14), the survey period that most closely aligned with the time period of data used for regional model construction. Wood thrush models exhibited positive correlations with point count data for all survey areas and years combined (rs = 0.58, P ≤ 0.001). In comparison, blue-winged warbler models performed worse as time increased between the point count surveys and vintage of the model building data (rs = 0.03, P = 0.92 for Iowa and rs = 0.13, P = 0.51 for all areas, 2006-2007), likely related to the ephemeral nature of their preferred early successional habitat. Species abundance and sensitivity to changing habitat conditions seems to be an important factor in determining the predictive ability of regional models. Hierarchical models can be a useful tool for concentrating efforts at the scale of management units and should be one of many tools used by

  20. A Study of the Effects of an Organization Change from Streamed to Mixed-Ability Classes upon Science Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, R. G.; Rowe, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This study quantified possible changes in the classroom learning experiences of high- and low-ability pupils, which might accompany an organizational change from streamed to mixed-ability classes for science learning in secondary schools. Deteriorations in the quality of the classroom interactions of both high- and low-ability pupils were found.…

  1. Detection of Bronchial Function of NHBD Lung Following One-h Warm Ischemia by Organ Bath Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Song ZHAO; Qiuming LIAO; Jianjun WANG

    2009-01-01

    laxant abilities of bronchial smooth muscles, and the epithe-lium-dependent adjustment both kept intact. Organ bath model could be a liable and scientific way to evaluate the bronchial function of NHBD lung.

  2. Modeling uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants into polyethylene passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jay M; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-17

    Single-phase passive samplers are gaining acceptance as a method to measure hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) concentration in water. Although the relationship between the HOC concentration in water and passive sampler is linear at equilibrium, mass transfer models are needed for nonequilibrium conditions. We report measurements of organochlorine pesticide diffusion and partition coefficients with respect to polyethylene (PE), and present a Fickian approach to modeling HOC uptake by PE in aqueous systems. The model is an analytic solution to Fick's second law applied through an aqueous diffusive boundary layer and a polyethylene layer. Comparisons of the model with existing methods indicate agreement at appropriate boundary conditions. Laboratory release experiments on the organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDE, DDD, and chlordane in well-mixed slurries support the model's applicability to aqueous systems. In general, the advantage of the model is its application in the cases of well-agitated systems, low values of polyethylene-water partioning coefficients, thick polyethylene relative to the boundary layer thickness, and/or short exposure times. Another significant advantage is the ability to estimate, or at least bound, the needed exposure time to reach a desired CPE without empirical model inputs. A further finding of this work is that polyethylene diffusivity does not vary by transport direction through the sampler thickness.

  3. Incorporating microbial ecology into the metabolic modelling of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, A; Carvalho, G; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    In the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) has been studied intensively in recent years by both microbiologists and engineers, due to its important effects on phosphorus removal performance and efficiency. This study addresses the impact of microbial ecology on assessing the PAO-GAO competition through metabolic modelling, focussing on reviewing recent developments, discussion of how the results from molecular studies can impact the way we model the process, and offering perspectives for future research opportunities based on unanswered questions concerning PAO and GAO metabolism. Indeed, numerous findings that are seemingly contradictory could in fact be explained by the metabolic behaviour of different sub-groups of PAOs and/or GAOs exposed to different environmental and operational conditions. Some examples include the glycolysis pathway (i.e. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) vs. Entner-Doudoroff (ED)), denitrification capacity, anaerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity and PAOs' ability to adjust their metabolism to e.g. a GAO-like metabolism. Metabolic modelling may further yield far-reaching influences on practical applications as well, and serves as a bridge between molecular/biochemical research studies and the optimisation of wastewater treatment plant operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  5. IN HOUSE TRAINING (IHT MODEL TO IMPROVE THE ABILITIES OF ENGLISH TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING TEACHING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ministerial Regulation Number 16 of the year 2007 on academic qualification standards and teacher competencies requires teachers to demonstrate four competencies: personality, social, pedagogical, and  professional. However, there are two competencies (pedagogical and professional which become the stumbling obstacles for teachers of English in their professional involvement. Therefore, this study was designed to aim at: (1 creating a conceptual framework for enhancing teachers’ capabilities in developing and implementing teaching materials; (2 designing a model of IHT to improve the ability of teachers to develop and implement the use of teaching materials; and (3 piloting and implementing the IHT model in teacher training programs. The method used in the data analysis adopted a qualitative design with reference especially to the theory of the development of teaching materials (Crowford: 2002 and the design of IHT (Wallace: 1993. The results showed that most respondents tended to resort to the textbook as the primary source for students’ learning activities, with some enrichment materials obtained from the Internet and other sources. Nevertheless most of the teachers were still found to encounter quite a few obstacles in developing their teaching-learning materials, appropriate to the topics as indicated in the syllabus and to the student characteristics. To alleviate this hurdle, the IHT model to be incorporated in a teacher training program could be an effective alternative to improve the ability of the teachers in developing their English teaching-learning materials.

  6. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  7. Gray matter correlates of Trait and Ability models of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Weber, Mareen; Schwab, Zachary J; Deldonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Weiner, Melissa R; Rauch, Scott L

    2012-06-20

    Research suggests that emotional intelligence capacities may be related to the functional integrity of the corticolimbic regions including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and amygdala. No study has yet examined regional brain volumes in relation to the two dominant models of emotional intelligence: the Ability model, which posits a set of specific demonstrable capabilities for solving emotional problems, and the Trait model, which proposes a set of stable emotional competencies that can be assessed through subjectively rated self-report scales. In 36 healthy participants, we correlated scores on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (an Ability measure) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (a Trait measure) with regional brain volumes using voxel-based morphometry. Total Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test scores were positively correlated with the left insula grey matter volume. The Strategic emotional intelligence subscale correlated positively with the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and insular volume. In contrast, for the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Stress Management scores correlated positively with the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex volume. Amygdala volumes were unrelated to emotional intelligence measures. Findings support the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and insula as key nodes in the emotional intelligence circuitry.

  8. Modeling disordered morphologies in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Lennartz, Christian; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2013-12-05

    Organic thin film devices are investigated for many diverse applications, including light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaic and organic field effect transistors. Modeling of their properties on the basis of their detailed molecular structure requires generation of representative morphologies, many of which are amorphous. Because time-scales for the formation of the molecular structure are slow, we have developed a linear-scaling single molecule deposition protocol which generates morphologies by simulation of vapor deposition of molecular films. We have applied this protocol to systems comprising argon, buckminsterfullerene, N,N-Di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine, mer-tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum(III), and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, with and without postdeposition relaxation of the individually deposited molecules. The proposed single molecule deposition protocol leads to formation of highly ordered morphologies in argon and buckminsterfullerene systems when postdeposition relaxation is used to locally anneal the configuration in the vicinity of the newly deposited molecule. The other systems formed disordered amorphous morphologies and the postdeposition local relaxation step has only a small effect on the characteristics of the disordered morphology in comparison to the materials forming crystals.

  9. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.

  10. Ability of silybin and its derivatives to prevent protein oxidation in different model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purchartová, K.; Baron, C.P.; Křen, V.

    2013-01-01

    to prevent activation of hemoglobin (Hb) to highly reactive hypervalent heme protein species (ferrylHb and perferrylHb) was examined. Indeed, Hb cytotoxicity has been associated with the generation of protein radicals, which are formed when the ferric iron of Hb (Fe3+) is oxidised by H2O2 to (Fe4+) to form...... perferrylHb and ferrylHb, with the later also bearing a radical on its protein. The relationship between the structural properties of silybin and its derivatives and their ability to prevent oxidation of Hb was investigated in model system in the presence or the absence of lipids. The antioxidant activities...

  11. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao He; De-Ying Hu; Yi-Lan Liu; Li-Fen Wu; Lian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School (CCWS) on the nurses' caring ability. Methods: Questionnaire 25 nurses of humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS using the Nkongho Caring Ability Inventory (CAI) before and after implement the humanistic nursing care model, including reform the systems of nursing care, introduce humanistic care model, implement the humanistic care, to measure the nurses' caring ability. Results: The nurses' caring ability had significantly developed on total, cognition dimension, courage dimension and patience dimension after all measures considered (p Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  12. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  13. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  14. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, William J.

    Due to the call of current science education reform for the integration of engineering practices within science classrooms, design-based instruction is receiving much attention in science education literature. Although some aspect of modeling is often included in well-known design-based instructional methods, it is not always a primary focus. The purpose of this study was to better understand how design-based instruction with an emphasis on scientific modeling might impact students' spatial abilities and their model-based argumentation abilities. In the following mixed-method multiple case study, seven seventh grade students attending a secular private school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States underwent an instructional intervention involving design-based instruction, modeling and argumentation. Through the course of a lesson involving students in exploring the interrelatedness of the environment and an animal's form and function, students created and used multiple forms of expressed models to assist them in model-based scientific argument. Pre/post data were collected through the use of The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotation, the Mental Rotation Test and interviews. Other data included a spatial activities survey, student artifacts in the form of models, notes, exit tickets, and video recordings of students throughout the intervention. Spatial abilities tests were analyzed using descriptive statistics while students' arguments were analyzed using the Instrument for the Analysis of Scientific Curricular Arguments and a behavior protocol. Models were analyzed using content analysis and interviews and all other data were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings in the area of spatial abilities included increases in spatial reasoning for six out of seven participants, and an immense difference in the spatial challenges encountered by students when using CAD software instead of paper drawings to create models. Students perceived 3D printed

  15. Modeling charge transport in organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Kirkpatrick, James; Frost, Jarvist M

    2009-11-17

    The performance of an organic photovoltaic cell depends critically on the mobility of charge carriers within the constituent molecular semiconductor materials. However, a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales control charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. This Account describes a set of computational methods, specifically molecular modeling methods, to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. Using case studies, we show how this combination of methods can reproduce experimental mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Although currently applied to material systems of high symmetry or well-defined structure, further developments of this approach could address more complex systems such anisotropic or multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers. Even with an approximate treatment of packing disorder, these computational methods simulate experimental mobilities within an order of magnitude at high electric fields. We can both reproduce the relative values of electron and hole mobility in a conjugated small molecule and rationalize those values based on the symmetry of frontier orbitals. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of molecular packing, we can quantitatively replicate vertical charge transport along stacks of discotic liquid crystals which vary only in the structure of their side chains. We can reproduce the trends in mobility with molecular weight for self-organizing polymers using a cheap, coarse

  16. Using Rasch model to analyze the ability of pre-university students in vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Faridah Mohamed; Shariff, Asma Ahmad; Tahir, Rohayatimah Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Evaluating students' performance only from overall examination marks does not give accurate evidence of their achievement on a particular subject. For a more detailed analysis, an instrument called Rasch Measurement Model (Rasch Model), widely used in education research, may be applied. Using the analysis map, the level of each student's ability and the level of the questions difficulty can be measured. This paper describes how the Rasch Model is used to evaluate students' achivement and performance in Vector, a subject taken by students enrolled in the Physical Science Program at the Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya. Usually, students' understanding of the subject and performance are assessed and examined at the end of the semester in the final examination, apart from continuous assessment done throughout the course. In order to evaluate the individual achievement and get a better and accurate evidence on the performance, 28 male and 28 female students' marks were taken randomly from the final examination results and analysed using the Rasch Model. Observation made from the map showed that more than half of the questions were categorized as difficult while the two most difficult questions could be answered correctly by 33.9% of the students. Results showed that the students performed very well and their achievement was above expectation. About 27% of the sudents could be considered as having very high ability in answering all the questions, with one student being able to answer well, obtaining perfect score. However, two students were found to be misfits since they were able to answer difficult questions but gave poor response to easy ones.

  17. Ohlson´s Model and its Prediction Ability in Comparison with Selected Bankruptcy Models in Conditions of Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Kubíčková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of a study examining the ability of Ohlson’s Logit model assessing and predicting the financial condition development of SMEs in comparison with the other models outcomes. Ohlson´s model was created using logit regression, which allows in the evaluation of the financial situation involve qualitative and discrete variables. The aim of the study is to determine whether the method used to derive the model influences the final assessment of the financial condition and indication of bankruptcy. The solution is based on the comparison of the resulting assessment of these four models, value of which were calculated on the same sample of Czech firms. As compared models were selected Z-score model, derived in the terms of US enterprises, IN05 model, which was derived in the conditions of Czech companies and Taffer´s model, derived in the conditions of UK firms. The sample consisted of 1996 small and medium firms in the manufacturing industry in Czech Republic. Data were obtained from the database of Albertina for the period of the years 2012 and 2013. It was found that the assessment of the firm´s financial situation matches in case of the results of Ohlson´s model and Taffler´s model, greater differences were found between the resulting values of Ohlson´s and Taffler´s model on one side and IN05 and Altman's model on the other side. Ohlson´s model and the Taffler´s model confirmed a good financial situation of companies in about 90 per cent of firms, Altman´s model and IN05 model in about 40 per cent of firms. The influence of the method used to derive the model on the assessment of the financial condition of companies was not proven.

  18. Testing the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model to simulate contributing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, S. G.; Spence, C.

    2016-06-01

    A dry climate, the prevalence of small depressions, and the lack of a well-developed drainage network are characteristics of environments with extremely variable contributing areas to runoff. These types of regions arguably present the greatest challenge to properly understanding catchment streamflow generation processes. Previous studies have shown that contributing area dynamics are important for streamflow response, but the nature of the relationship between the two is not typically understood. Furthermore, it is not often tested how well hydrological models simulate contributing area. In this study, the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model, was tested to determine if it could simulate contributing area. The study focused on the St. Denis Creek watershed in central Saskatchewan, Canada, which with its considerable topographic depressions, exhibits wide variation in contributing area, making it ideal for this type of investigation. MESH-PDMROF was able to replicate contributing area derived independently from satellite imagery. Daily model simulations revealed a hysteretic relationship between contributing area and streamflow not apparent from the less frequent remote sensing observations. This exercise revealed that contributing area extent can be simulated by a semi-distributed hydrological model with a scheme that assumes storage capacity distribution can be represented with a probability function. However, further investigation is needed to determine if it can adequately represent the complex relationship between streamflow and contributing area that is such a key signature of catchment behavior.

  19. Models of intellectual disability: towards a perspective of (poss)ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J A

    2013-04-01

    The social and medical models of disability configure the relationship between disability and impairment differently. Neither of these models has provided a comprehensive theoretical or practical basis for talking about intellectual disability (ID). Models that emphasise the interactive nature of disability appear to be more promising. This study explores the ways in which models of disability are reflected in disability discourse in an empirical discourse analysis conducted in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Q methodology was used in this study as a discourse analysis tool. Adults with ID, parents of children with ID and professionals who work with people with ID completed a sorting task where they stated the degree to which they agreed or disagreed with statements that are made about people with ID. This exercise resulted in a pattern of responses for each participant, termed a Q sort and these were used as data in a factor analysis using dedicated Q method software. A second order factor analysis was then performed on the resulting factors. Four discourses were identified: the Social Model/Human Rights Discourse, the Medical Model/Professional Religious Discourse, the Community Model/Community Religious Discourse and the Interactive Discourse. Except for the last one, each of these discourses adopts a model of disability with a static view of impairment as fixed. The Interactive Discourse appears to be related to dynamic, environmental conceptions of disability where competence is built through social interaction. A theory of (poss)ability is proposed and some of its concerns are suggested. This perspective views impairment as an interaction between individuals and their environment and postulates that competence is a function of context, rather than a property of the individual. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A new atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO: organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Amundson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In atmospheric aerosols, water and volatile inorganic and organic species are distributed between the gas and aerosol phases in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium. Within an atmospheric particle, liquid and solid phases can exist at equilibrium. Models exist for computation of phase equilibria for inorganic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols; when organic species are present, the phase equilibrium problem is complicated by organic/water interactions as well as the potentially large number of organic species. We present here an extension of the UHAERO inorganic thermodynamic model (Amundson et al., 2006c to organic/water systems. Phase diagrams for a number of model organic/water systems characteristic of both primary and secondary organic aerosols are computed. Also calculated are inorganic/organic/water phase diagrams that show the effect of organics on inorganic deliquescence behavior. The effect of the choice of activity coefficient model for organics on the computed phase equilibria is explored.

  1. A new atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO: organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Amundson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In atmospheric aerosols, water and volatile inorganic and organic species are distributed between the gas and aerosol phases in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium. Within an atmospheric particle, liquid and solid phases can exist at equilibrium. Models exist for computation of phase equilibria for inorganic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols; when organic species are present, the phase equilibrium problem is complicated by organic/water interactions as well as the potentially large number of organic species. We present here an extension of the UHAERO inorganic thermodynamic model (Amundson et al., 2006c to organic/water systems. Phase diagrams for a number of model organic/water systems characteristic of both primary and secondary organic aerosols are computed. Also calculated are inorganic/organic/water phase diagrams that show the effect of organics on inorganic deliquescence behavior. The effect of the choice of activity coefficient model for organics on the computed phase equilibria is explored.

  2. The Internal/External Frame of Reference Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate…

  3. THE APPLICATION OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY MODEL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF SPEAKING ABILITY OF DYSARTHRIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusdi Sastra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on behavior therapy has been conducted on patients with dysarthria, a disorder of articulation due to impairment of the central nervous system, which directly controls the activity of the muscles that play a role in the process of articulation in the pronunciation production. This study discusses three issues: lingual form made by people with dysarthria before getting behavior therapy, emotional influences on lexical and semantic knowledge of the patient, and the achievement of the model of behavior therapy applied to patients with dysarthria speech impairment. The theory used in this study was from Prins (2004 and the method of analysis applied is the method from Nunan (1992combined with Sudaryanto (1993.The research found that there is an increased ability of patient to talk: nearly 40 percent of the index lingual knowledge or information, 20 percent of semantics, and 40 percent of feeling. Lingual index is significant as a means of therapy for patients with dysarthria. An increase in the speech ability improves confidence in facing social life.

  4. Investigating inbreeding depression for heat stress tolerance in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2012-01-01

    -year university students and discuss learning outcomes of the exercise as an example of inquiry-based science teaching. We use the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to test the ability of inbred and control (non-inbred) females to survive heat stress exposure. Flies were anaesthetised and collected...

  5. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  6. Knowledge Management Model on Educational Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsina Ferdinandus

    2015-12-01

    Key Words: model, knowledge management, educational organizations Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan proses knowledge management yang dilakukan pada SMA Negeri 1 Pulau-pulau Aru dan SMA Yos Sudarso Dobo di Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru. Penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif dengan rancangan studi multi kasus. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara mendalam dan dokumentasi kemudian dianalisis dengan teknik analisis data kasus individu dan analisis data lintas kasus. Temuan penelitian ini menggambarkan (1 guru-guru sudah melakukan transformasi pengetahuan explicit to tacit dengan baik ketika melakukan persiapan pembelajaran, transformasi pengetahuan tacit to explicit belum dilakukan dengan baik, dan transformasi pengetahuan tacit to tacit sudah dilakukan dengan baik; (2  sosialisasi dilakukan dengan baik, namun belum maksimal; (3  kepala sekolah SMA Negeri 1 Pulau-pulau Aru lebih demokratis dan kepala sekolah SMA Yos Sudarso Dobo lebih paternalistis; (4 peningkatan berupa upaya memasukan pengetahuan dari luar sekolah sudah dilakukan oleh kedua sekolah; dan (5  proses knowledge capture di kedua sekolah sudah berjalan dengan baik. Kata kunci: model, knowledge management, organisasi pendidikan

  7. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Copper Azide as the Primary Explosive with Low Electrostatic Sensitivity and Excellent Initiation Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyou; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Shan; Song, Naimeng; Chen, Yifa; Tong, Wenchao; Han, Yuzhen; Yang, Li; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    A powerful yet safe primary explosive, embedded in a conductive carbon scaffold, is prepared by using a metal-organic framework as precursor. It simultaneously possesses low electrostatic sensitivity, good flame sensitivity, and excellent initiation ability. This method is simple, scalable, and provides a new platform for the development of energetic materials especially those employed in miniaturized explosive systems.

  8. Forecasting ability of a multi-renewal seismicity model for Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Molchan, G

    2013-01-01

    The inter-event time, IET, is sometimes used as a basis for prediction of large earthquakes. It is the case when theoretical analysis of prediction is possible. Quite recently a specific IET- model was suggested for dynamic probabilistic prediction of M > 5.5 events in Italy . In this study we analyze both some aspects of the statistical estimation of the model and its predictive ability. We find that more or less effective prediction is possible within 4 out of 34 seismotectonic zones where seismicity rate or clustering of events is relatively high. We show that, in the framework of the model, one can suggest a simple zone independent strategy, which practically optimizes the relative number of nonaccidental successes, or the Hanssen-Kuiper, HK, skill score. This quasi-optimal strategy declares alarm in a zone for the first 2.67 years just after the occurrence of each large event in the zone. The optimal HK skill score values are: 26% for the 3 most active zones and 2-10% for the 26 least active zones. Howev...

  9. Thermodynamic model for glass forming ability of ternary metallic glass systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic model of multicomponent chemical short range order (MCSRO) was established in order to evaluate the glass forming ability (GFA) of ternary alloys. Comprehensive numerical calculations using MSCRO software were conducted to obtain the composition dependence of the MCSRO undercooling in Zr-Ni-Cu, Zr-Si-Cu and Pd-Si-Cu ternary systems. By the MCSRO undercooling principle, the composition range of Zr-Ni-Cu system with optimum GFA is determined to be 62.5~75Zr, 5~20Cu, 12.5~25Ni (n(Ni)/n(Cu)=1~5). The TTT curves of Zr-Ni-Cu system were also calculated based on the MCSRO model. The critical cooling rates for Zr-based alloy with deep MSCRO undercooling are estimated to be as low as 100?K/s, which is consistent with the practical cooling rate in the preparation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). The calculation also illustrates that the easy glass forming systems such as Pd-based alloys exhibit an extraordinary deep MCSRO undercooling. It is shown that the thermodynamic model of MCSRO provides an effective method for the alloy designing of BMG.

  10. COMPUTER MODEL FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of manures, composts and growing media quality should include enough properties to enable an optimal use from productivity and environmental points of view. The aim of this paper is to describe basic structure of organic fertilizer (and growing media evaluation model to present the model example by comparison of different manures as well as example of using plant growth experiment for calculating impact of pH and EC of growing media on lettuce plant growth. The basic structure of the model includes selection of quality indicators, interpretations of indicators value, and integration of interpreted values into new indexes. The first step includes data input and selection of available data as a basic or additional indicators depending on possible use as fertilizer or growing media. The second part of the model uses inputs for calculation of derived quality indicators. The third step integrates values into three new indexes: fertilizer, growing media, and environmental index. All three indexes are calculated on the basis of three different groups of indicators: basic value indicators, additional value indicators and limiting factors. The possible range of indexes values is 0-10, where range 0-3 means low, 3-7 medium and 7-10 high quality. Comparing fresh and composted manures, higher fertilizer and environmental indexes were determined for composted manures, and the highest fertilizer index was determined for composted pig manure (9.6 whereas the lowest for fresh cattle manure (3.2. Composted manures had high environmental index (6.0-10 for conventional agriculture, but some had no value (environmental index = 0 for organic agriculture because of too high zinc, copper or cadmium concentrations. Growing media indexes were determined according to their impact on lettuce growth. Growing media with different pH and EC resulted in very significant impacts on height, dry matter mass and leaf area of lettuce seedlings. The highest lettuce

  11. Formal Modelling of Goals in Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, Viara; Sharpanskykh, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Each organization exists or is created for the achievement of one or more goals. To ensure continued success, the organization should monitor its performance with respect to the formulated goals. In practice the performance of an organization is often evaluated by estimating its performance indicato

  12. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao He

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  13. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Edison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  14. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S.; Hall, Robert D.; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter D.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura K.; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research. PMID:26891337

  15. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edison, Arthur; Hall, Robert; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter; Kurland, Irwin; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd; Viant, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields

  16. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S; Hall, Robert D; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter D; Kurland, Irwin J; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura K; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd W; Viant, Mark R

    2016-02-15

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  17. The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.

  18. Self-Organized Criticality in a Random Network Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nirei, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    A new model of self-organized criticality is defined by incorporating a random network model in order to explain endogenous complex fluctuations of economic aggregates. The model can feature many globally interactive systems such as economies or societies.

  19. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Schwier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN ability. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2–6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well-described by a weighted Szyszkowski–Langmuir (S–L model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005. Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1 the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term, and (2 a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2 for surface tension modeling because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling fits and goodness of fit (χ2 values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  20. Study of Self-Organization Model of Multiple Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Li Shu-qin; Ceng Xian-yi; Xia De-shen

    2006-01-01

    A good organization model of multiple mobile robot should be able to improve the efficiency of the system, reduce the complication of robot interactions, and detract the difficulty of computation. From the sociology aspect of topology, structure and organization, this paper studies the multiple mobile robot organization formation and running mechanism in the dynamic, complicated and unknown environment. It presents and describes in detail a Hierarchical- Web Recursive Organization Model (HWRO...

  1. A Topological Model for C2 Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    functions of the organization, and the capabilities of its members, as these sets somehow efine the boundaries of organizational performance and the...and functions of the organization, and the capabilities of its members, as these sets somehow efine the boundaries of organizational performance and

  2. 3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2016-04-04

    In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models.

  3. Assessing the ability of mechanistic volatilization models to simulate soil surface conditions: a study with the Volt'Air model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L; Bedos, C; Génermont, S; Braud, I; Cellier, P

    2011-09-01

    Ammonia and pesticide volatilization in the field is a surface phenomenon involving physical and chemical processes that depend on the soil surface temperature and water content. The water transfer, heat transfer and energy budget sub models of volatilization models are adapted from the most commonly accepted formalisms and parameterizations. They are less detailed than the dedicated models describing water and heat transfers and surface status. The aim of this work was to assess the ability of one of the available mechanistic volatilization models, Volt'Air, to accurately describe the pedo-climatic conditions of a soil surface at the required time and space resolution. The assessment involves: (i) a sensitivity analysis, (ii) an evaluation of Volt'Air outputs in the light of outputs from a reference Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model (SiSPAT) and three experimental datasets, and (iii) the study of three tests based on modifications of SiSPAT to establish the potential impact of the simplifying assumptions used in Volt'Air. The analysis confirmed that a 5 mm surface layer was well suited, and that Volt'Air surface temperature correlated well with the experimental measurements as well as with SiSPAT outputs. In terms of liquid water transfers, Volt'Air was overall consistent with SiSPAT, with discrepancies only during major rainfall events and dry weather conditions. The tests enabled us to identify the main source of the discrepancies between Volt'Air and SiSPAT: the lack of gaseous water transfer description in Volt'Air. They also helped to explain why neither Volt'Air nor SiSPAT was able to represent lower values of surface water content: current classical water retention and hydraulic conductivity models are not yet adapted to cases of very dry conditions. Given the outcomes of this study, we discuss to what extent the volatilization models can be improved and the questions they pose for current research in water transfer modeling and parameterization.

  4. Do Learning Activities Improve Students’ Ability to Construct Explanatory Models with a Prism Foil Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Gojkošek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of knowledge is considered to be a fundamental goal of education; therefore, knowing and understanding the conditions that influence the efficiency of the transfer from learning activity to problem solving play a decisive role in the improvement of science education. In this article, the results of a study of 196 highschool students’ ability to transfer knowledge in explanatory model construction are present. Three test groups were formed, traditional, prediction and lab groups, in which students were involved in three different learning activities. A week after instruction, students were tested with a foil test and Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning. According to the results, little knowledge transfer from learning activities to the foil test occurred. Among the three tested learning methods, the one asking for prediction seems to best improve the transfer of knowledge. Time spent on activities had little or no effect on the transfer of knowledge. Some possible reasons for the observed results are presented, and the importance of correct scientific explanation during the learning process is considered.

  5. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2013-09-28

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate R(c) below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing R(c), and thus good glass-formers possess small values of R(c). We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change R(c) significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ~10(11) K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than R(c) for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  6. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2013-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate Rc below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing Rc, and thus good glass-formers possess small values of Rc. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change Rc significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ˜1011 K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than Rc for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  7. using stereochemistry models in teaching organic compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    (ii) provide the students with basic knowledge in chemical concepts and ... ethanol, ethan-l-ol and ethyl alcohol in some textbooks and they are the same. ... Considering class level, what is the performance of the students in naming organic.

  8. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  9. Constructive Replication of the Visual-Perceptual-Image Rotation Model in Thurstone's (1941) Battery of 60 Tests of Mental Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Bouchard, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relative statistical performance of the Cattell-Horn fluid-crystallized model and the Vernon verbal-perceptual model of the structure of human intelligence in a sample of 436 adults heterogeneous for age, place of origin, and educational background who completed 42 separate tests of mental ability from three test…

  10. Cognitive Ability, Academic Achievement and Academic Self-Concept: Extending the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. Aim: To simultaneously…

  11. Long-term Predictive Ability of Bankruptcy Models in the Czech Republic: Evidence from 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy models are a common tool of financial analysis to predict the financial distress of companies. However, in the recent years, the instability and risk of the overall economic environment have underlined the need for accurate tools to predict bankruptcy and assess the overall performance of companies. In this article, we analyze the ex-ante predictive ability of selected bankruptcy and solvency models commonly used in financial analysis: Kralicek quick test, Taffler model, the IN99 and IN05 indexes, and Altman Z’-score models in the case of Czech companies from 2007 to 2012. We determined the percentage of cases when these models correctly predicted failures of companies up to five years in advance, and found that the IN05 and IN99 credibility indexes provided the best results, as well as the Altman Z’-score model. However, the predictive ability of the Taffler model and Kralicek quicktest has only been limited.

  12. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  13. MODELING OF MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Iovan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When driving any major change within an organization, strategy and execution are intrinsic to a project’s success. Nevertheless, closing the gap between strategy and execution remains a challenge for many organizations [1]. Companies tend to focus more on execution than strategy for quick results, instead of taking the time needed to understand the parts that make up the whole, so the right execution plan can be put in place to deliver the best outcomes. A large part of this understands that business operations don’t fit neatly within the traditional organizational hierarchy. Business processes are often messy, collaborative efforts that cross teams, departments and systems, making them difficult to manage within a hierarchical structure [2]. Business process management (BPM fills this gap by redefining an organization according to its end-to-end processes, so opportunities for improvement can be identified and processes streamlined for growth, revenue and transformation. This white paper provides guidelines on what to consider when using business process applications to solve your BPM initiatives, and the unique capabilities software systems provides that can help ensure both your project’s success and the success of your organization as a whole. majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  14. Multivariate Longitudinal Modeling of Cognitive Aging: Associations Among Change and Variation in Processing Speed and Visuospatial Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Annie; Muniz, Graciela; Piccinin, Andrea M; Johansson, Boo; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate the use of the parallel latent growth curve model using data from OCTO-Twin. We found a significant intercept-intercept and slope-slope association between processing speed and visuospatial ability. Within-person correlations among the occasion-specific residuals were significant, suggesting that the occasion-specific fluctuations around individual's trajectories, after controlling for intraindividual change, are related between both outcomes. Random and fixed effects for visuospatial ability are reduced when we include structural parameters (directional growth curve model) providing information about changes in visuospatial abilities after controlling for processing speed. We recommend this model to researchers interested in the analysis of multivariate longitudinal change, as it permits decomposition and directly interpretable estimates of association among initial levels, rates of change, and occasion-specific variation.

  15. Accounting, Accountability, and Ethics in Public Sector Organizations : Toward a Duality Between Instrumental Accountability and Relational Response-Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, E.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the performativity of organizational economics in the construction of “nexus-of-contract” organizations (or market bureaucracies) and inherent frames of instrumental accountability in the public sector. It argues for a duality between instrumental accountability and relationa

  16. MARTINI Model for Physisorption of Organic Molecules on Graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, Cristian; Beurroies, Isabelle; de Ridder, David; Eelkema, Rienk; Marrink, Siewert J.; De Feyter, Steven; van Esch, Jan H.; de Vries, Alex H.

    2013-01-01

    An extension to the MARTINI coarse-grained model is presented to describe the adsorption of organic molecules on graphite surfaces. The model allows the study of the dynamics of the preferential adsorption of long-chain organic molecules from solvent and the formation of ordered structures on the su

  17. Yeast and filamentous fungi as model organisms in microbody research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Ida J. van der; Veenhuis, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Yeast and filamentous fungi are important model organisms in microbody research. The value of these organisms as models for higher eukaryotes is underscored by the observation that the principles of various aspects of microbody biology are strongly conserved from lower to higher eukaryotes. This has

  18. The initiative on Model Organism Proteomes (iMOP) Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrimpf, Sabine P; Mering, Christian von; Bendixen, Emøke

    2012-01-01

    iMOP – the Initiative on Model Organism Proteomes – was accepted as a new HUPO initiative at the Ninth HUPO meeting in Sydney in 2010. A goal of iMOP is to integrate research groups working on a great diversity of species into a model organism community. At the Tenth HUPO meeting in Geneva...

  19. Modeling the Explicit Chemistry of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madronich, Sasha [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-09

    The atmospheric burden of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) remains one of the most important yet uncertain aspects of the radiative forcing of climate. This grant focused on improving our quantitative understanding of SOA formation and evolution, by developing, applying, and improving a highly detailed model of atmospheric organic chemistry, the Generation of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) model. Eleven (11) publications have resulted from this grant.

  20. The implementation of multiple intelligences based teaching model to improve mathematical problem solving ability for student of junior high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasni, Nurli; Fatimah, Siti; Yulanda, Syerli

    2017-05-01

    This research aims to achieve some purposes such as: to know whether mathematical problem solving ability of students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model., to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the attitude of the students to Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. The method employed here is quasi-experiment which is controlled by pre-test and post-test. The population of this research is all of VII grade in SMP Negeri 14 Bandung even-term 2013/2014, later on two classes of it were taken for the samples of this research. A class was taught using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model and the other one was taught using cooperative learning. The data of this research were gotten from the test in mathematical problem solving, scale questionnaire of the student attitudes, and observation. The results show the mathematical problem solving of the students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model learning is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning, the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning and Multiple Intelligences based teaching model are in intermediate level, and the students showed the positive attitude in learning mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. As for the recommendation for next author, Multiple Intelligences based teaching model can be tested on other subject and other ability.

  1. Predicting the acute neurotoxicity of diverse organic solvents using probabilistic neural networks based QSTR modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2016-03-01

    Organic solvents are widely used chemicals and the neurotoxic properties of some are well established. In this study, we established nonlinear qualitative and quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (STR) models for predicting neurotoxic classes and neurotoxicity of structurally diverse solvents in rodent test species following OECD guideline principles for model development. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) based qualitative and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) based quantitative STR models were constructed using neurotoxicity data from rat and mouse studies. Further, interspecies correlation based quantitative activity-activity relationship (QAAR) and global QSTR models were also developed using the combined data set of both rodent species for predicting the neurotoxicity of solvents. The constructed models were validated through deriving several statistical coefficients for the test data and the prediction and generalization abilities of these models were evaluated. The qualitative STR models (rat and mouse) yielded classification accuracies of 92.86% in the test data sets, whereas, the quantitative STRs yielded correlation (R(2)) of >0.93 between the measured and model predicted toxicity values in both the test data (rat and mouse). The prediction accuracies of the QAAR (R(2) 0.859) and global STR (R(2) 0.945) models were comparable to those of the independent local STR models. The results suggest the ability of the developed QSTR models to reliably predict binary neurotoxicity classes and the endpoint neurotoxicities of the structurally diverse organic solvents.

  2. KICS: A Model of Motivational Leadership in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This pure research gave birth to a Model of Motivational Leadership – KICS: which embraces knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy. It is a synergistic  proposition based on the theory of emotional intelligence as the index of competencies needed for effective leadership. It opened with a general discussion on traditional models of leadership, then the roles of knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy as they relate to motivational leadership. Issues of emotional intelligence clusters and synthesis of the model’s elements were discussed, emphasizing how KICS-based motivational leadership skills can be developed and sustained. Motivational leadership entails exciting people’s imaginations and inspiring them to move in a desired direction. It takes more than simple power to motivate and lead in organizations. Realizing that unity and cohesiveness are built from personal bonds, the best leaders ensure to deepen their rapport with employees and colleagues which enhances organizational performance. This pure research argues that the synergy of related emotional intelligence competencies can lead to motivational leadership behaviour. Knowledge is critical to leadership because there are different types of leadership and different situations require different kinds of knowledge, and the person possessing the knowledge demanded by a certain situation in most cases, tends to become the best leader. A knowledgeable person is one who is trained to consider his actions to undertake them deliberately, in a disciplined manner. Added to this ability is the intelligence to endure in a chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion and difficulty, all combined in producing a motivational leader. Knowledge tends to be procedural in nature and to operate outside of focal awareness. It also reflects the structure of the situation more closely than it does in the structure of formal disciplinary knowledge. The survey research design

  3. [Epidemiological intelligence as a model of organization in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz

    2012-03-01

    The concept of epidemiological intelligence, as a construction of information societies, goes beyond monitoring a list of diseases and the ability to elicit rapid responses. The concept should consider the complexity of the definition of epidemiology in the identification of this object of study without being limited to a set of actions in a single government sector. The activities of epidemiological intelligence include risk assessment, strategies for prevention and protection, subsystems of information, crisis management rooms, geographical analysis, etc. This concept contributes to the understanding of policies in health, in multisectorial and geopolitical dimensions, as regards the organization of services around public health emergencies, primary healthcare, as well as disasters. The activities of epidemiological intelligence should not be restricted to scientific research, but the researchers must beware of threats to public health. Lalonde's model enabled consideration of epidemiological intelligence as a way to restructure policies and share resources by creating communities of intelligence, whose purpose is primarily to deal with public health emergencies and disasters.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  5. MODEL OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION IN BROADCASTING ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Najafbagy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present a model of learning organization for Iran Broadcasting Organization which is under the management of the spiritual leader of Iran. The study is based on characteristics of Peter Senge’s original learning organization namely, personal stery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking. The methodology was a survey research employed questionnaire among sample employees and managers of the Organization.Findings showed that the Organization is fairly far from an ffective learning organization.Moreover, it seems that employees’ performance in team learning and changes in mental models are more satisfactory than managers. Regarding other characteristics of learning organizations, there are similarities in learning attempts by employees and managers. The rganization lacks organizational vision, and consequently there is no shared vision in the Organization. It also is in need of organizational culture. As a kind of state-owned organization, there s no need of financial support which affect the need for learning organization. It also does not face the threat of sustainabilitybecause there is no competitive organization.Findings also show that IBO need a fundamental change in its rganizational learning process. In this context, the general idea is to unfreeze the mindset of leadership of IBO and creating a visionand organizational culture based on learning and staff development. Then gradually through incremental effective change and continual organizational learning process in dividual, team and organization levels engage in development and reinforcement of skills of personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking, should lead IBO to learning organization.

  6. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  7. Evolutionary Model to Traditional Culture and Program Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xiao; JIN Wei-xing; YANG De-qin

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between the evolutions of Chinese Traditional Culture (CTC) and program organization, an outline of the CTC is generalized by reviewing literature, and which is also compartmentalized into two aspects according to economic philosophy views: traditional philosophy aspect and value judgment. Based on three dimensions, which are the philosophy aspect (P), program organization model (P), and value judgment from economic philosophy views (V), and this evolution sequence, the CTC's influence on the program organization model in the evolution is discussed; then the cultural spatial evolution model for program organization based on the three dimensions (PPV) is constructed. From analyzing the plane matrix of P-P and empirical investigating on the organizational model of construction enterprises, it is found that the ancient Chinese government organizational model still has prevailing influence on the modern program organizational model in China.

  8. Establish Reflective Learning Model,Cultivate Comprehensive Vocational Ability%构建反思性学习模式,培养综合职业能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2014-01-01

    近年来,综合职业能力的培养已成为高职院校关注的重要领域。公共英语教学涉及的学生多,影响大,是高职生综合职业能力培养的重要平台。本文旨在具体研究在公共英语听说自主学习课程中培养学生的反思性学习能力,并从自我计划、自我监控、自我评价和自我调整四个方面提出了英语自主学习课程中的反思性学习模式,从而更好的从自我管理能力、沟通能力、团队合作能力、组织协调能力、口头与书面表达能力、判断思维能力等方面培养高职生的综合职业能力。%Recently cultivating the comprehensive vocational ability of vocational students has become the important field for vocational colleges .Public English teaching is the main stage , since its wide influence .This thesis mainly researches to cultivate students’ reflective learn‐ing ability in public English listening and speaking self‐learning course and tries to establish reflective learning model according to the four aspects including :self‐planning ,self‐monito‐ring ,self‐evaluating and self‐regulating to enhance students’ comprehensive vocational abili‐ty ,such as:self‐management skills ,communication skills ,team‐w ork ability ,organization and coordination ability ,oral and w ritten ability ,critical thinking ability ,etc .

  9. Mathematical models of cell self-organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Perthame

    2011-04-01

    More recently nonlinear hyperbolic and kinetic models also have been used to describe the phenomena at a smaller scale. We explain here some motivations for ‘microscopic’ descriptions, the mathematical difficulties arising in their analysis and how kinetic models can help in understanding the unity of these descriptions.

  10. Exploring Organic Mechanistic Puzzles with Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gail; Schwartz, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The molecular modeling was used to reinforce more general skills such as deducing and drawing reaction mechanisms, analyzing reaction kinetics and thermodynamics and drawing reaction coordinate energy diagrams. This modeling was done through the design of mechanistic puzzles, involving reactions not familiar to the students.

  11. Can organic farming feed the world? : a contribution to the debate on the ability of organic farming systems to provide sustainable supplies of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulding, K.W.T.; Trewavas, A.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper Badgley et al. (2007) claimed that organic farming, if used worldwide, would provide sufficient food for a growing world population. The paper stimulated much critical response. Our paper makes a critical assessment of this claim for wheat, a major cereal crop and source of food

  12. Self-Perceptions of Ability and Achievement across the High School Transition: Investigation of a State-Trait Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Naida; DuBois, David L.; Crombie, Gail

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between self-perceptions of ability and achievement in math, science, and English from Grades 8 to 11 (N = 342). A state-trait model that included an association between stable (i.e., trait-like) components of self-perceptions and achievement as well as time-specific (i.e., state-like) effects during the…

  13. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  14. Development of a Blended Instructional Model via Weblog to Enhance English Summary Writing Ability of Thai Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termsinsuk, Saisunee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research and development was to develop an effective blended instructional model via weblog to enhance English summary writing ability of Thai undergraduate students. A sample group in the English program of Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University was studied in academic year 2010-2013. The research instruments were an…

  15. Developing Algebra Structure Module and Model of Cooperative Learning Helping Concept Map Media for Improving Proofing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafari

    2017-01-01

    This research was purposed to develop module and learning model and instrument of proofing ability in algebra structure through cooperative learning with helping map concept media for students of mathematic major and mathematics education in State University and Private University in North Sumatra province. The subject of this research was the…

  16. [Models of the organization of neonatal screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassio, A; Piazzi, S; Colli, C; Balsamo, A; Bozza, D; Salardi, S; Sprovieri, G; Cacciari, E

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate the different organizational strategies of a congenital hypothyroidism screening program. Positive and negative aspects of laboratory screening tests (TSH only, T4-supplemental TSH, TSH and T4), organization strategies (centralization or decentralization), recall and first follow-up criteria are examined. The authors consider that the necessity for an early diagnostic confirmation can be associated with a precise etiologic diagnosis and an evaluation of the prenatal severity of congenital hypothyroidism factors. Some European and North-American experiences are compared with the activity of a regional Italian screening center.

  17. Design and synthesis of a new organic receptor and evaluation of colorimetric anion sensing ability in organo-aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikala, P.; Tarafder, Kartick; Trivedi, Darshak R.

    2017-01-01

    A new organic receptor has been designed and synthesized by the combination of aromatic dialdehyde with nitro-substituted aminophenol resulting in a Schiff base compound. The receptor exhibited a colorimetric response for F- and AcO- ion with a distinct color change from pale yellow to red and pink respectively in dry DMSO solvent and yellow to pale greenish yellow in DMSO:H2O (9:1, v/v). UV-Vis titration studies displayed a significant shift in absorption maxima in comparison with the free receptor. The shift could be attributed to the hydrogen bonding interactions between the active anions and the hydroxyl functionality aided by the electron withdrawing nitro substituent on the receptor. 1H NMR titration and density functionality studies have been performed to understand the nature of interaction of receptor and anions. The lower detection limit of 1.12 ppm was obtained in organic media for F- ion confirming the real time application of the receptor.

  18. Design and synthesis of a new organic receptor and evaluation of colorimetric anion sensing ability in organo-aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikala, P; Tarafder, Kartick; Trivedi, Darshak R

    2017-01-01

    A new organic receptor has been designed and synthesized by the combination of aromatic dialdehyde with nitro-substituted aminophenol resulting in a Schiff base compound. The receptor exhibited a colorimetric response for F(-) and AcO(-) ion with a distinct color change from pale yellow to red and pink respectively in dry DMSO solvent and yellow to pale greenish yellow in DMSO:H2O (9:1, v/v). UV-Vis titration studies displayed a significant shift in absorption maxima in comparison with the free receptor. The shift could be attributed to the hydrogen bonding interactions between the active anions and the hydroxyl functionality aided by the electron withdrawing nitro substituent on the receptor. (1)H NMR titration and density functionality studies have been performed to understand the nature of interaction of receptor and anions. The lower detection limit of 1.12ppm was obtained in organic media for F(-) ion confirming the real time application of the receptor.

  19. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate

    2014-08-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  20. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  1. Effects of ethanol and diclofenac on the organization of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles and their ability as skin carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Matricardi, Pietro; Catalán-Latorre, Ana; Nácher, Amparo; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol and/or diclofenac on vesicle bilayer structure have been studied. Liposomes with hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and two different concentrations of diclofenac sodium (5 and 10 mg/ml) were obtained. In addition, ethanol was mixed in the water phase at different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 % v/v) to obtain ethosomes. To characterize vesicles, rehological analysis were carried out to investigate the intervesicle interactions, while bilayer structure was evaluated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the ethanol and/or diclofenac concentration-dependent ability to improve diclofenac skin delivery was evaluated in vitro. The addition of 20 % ethanol and/or diclofenac led to solid-like ethosome dispersion due to the formation of a new intervesicle structure, as previously found in transcutol containing vesicle dispersions. However, when using 5-10 % of ethanol the induction to form vesicle interconnections was less evident but the simultaneous presence of the drug at the highest concentration facilitated this phenomenon. Ethosomes containing the highest amount of both, drug (10 mg/ml) and ethanol (20 % v/v), improved the drug deposition in the skin strata and in the receptor fluid up to 1.5-fold, relative to liposomes. Moreover this solid-like formulation can easily overcome drawbacks of traditional liquid liposome formulations which undergo a substantial loss at the application site.

  2. Comparing risk attitudes of organic and non-organic farmers with a Bayesian random coefficient model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is usually considered to be more risky than conventional farming, but the risk aversion of organic farmers compared with that of conventional farmers has not been studied. Using a non-structural approach to risk estimation, a Bayesian random coefficient model is used to obtain indivi

  3. The Enhancement of Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability of Aliyah Madrasas Student Model Using Gorontalo by Interactive Learning Setting Cooperative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnaeni

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking ability of students' mathematical is a component that must be mastered by the student. Learn to think critically means using mental processes, such as attention, categorize, selection, and rate/decide. Critical thinking ability in giving proper guidance in thinking and working, and assist in determining the relationship between…

  4. Comparing predictive abilities of three visible-near infrared spectrophotometers for soil organic carbon and clay determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Stenberg, Bo; Deng, Fan;

    2013-01-01

    -NIRS sensors for soil characterization. There is a need for more work on the effects of scanning strategies, and use of different soil instrumentation. We compared three vis-NIR sensors with varying resolution, signal-to-noise ratios and spectral range. Their performance was evaluated based on soil organic...... carbon (SOC) and clay calibrations for 194 Danish top soils. Scanning procedures for the three spectrophotometers where done according to uniform laboratory protocols. SOC and clay calibrations were performed using PLS regression. One third of the data was used as an independent test set. A range......Due to advances in optical technology a wide range of spectrometers is available. Recent interests in soil global libraries and sensor fusion presents a challenge with respect to combining data from different instrumentation. Only little research, however, has been done on the comparison of vis...

  5. Metal organic frameworks/macroporous carbon composites with enhanced stability properties and good electrocatalytic ability for ascorbic acid and hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Zhu, Liande; Bo, Xiangjie; Han, Ce; Li, Mian; Guo, Liping

    2014-11-01

    The thermal, water and electrochemical stability of Cu-based metal organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) confined in macroporous carbon (MPC) hybrids has been investigated. Thermogravimetric analyses, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to confirm the stability of pure Cu-MOFs, MPC, and Cu-MOFs-MPC. As compared to pure Cu-MOFs, the porous composite materials of MPC and Cu-MOFs interact and seem to form new materials having homogenous structure and chemistry, which show structural stability in aqueous media and electrochemical stability in phosphate buffer solution (PBS pH 7.4). The detection of ascorbic acid and hemoglobin is performed as an electrochemical probe, indicating Cu-MOFs-MPC holds great promise for the design of electrochemical sensors.

  6. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another. Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms from a wider assortment of lineages on the tree of life. There are many model organisms, such as viruses (e.g., Phage lambda virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, etc., bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio fischeri, etc., algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Emiliania huxleyi, etc., molds (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, etc., yeasts (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, etc., higher plants (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Lemna gibba, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabaccum, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, Zea mays, etc. and animals (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, dog, frog, Hydra, Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, fish, etc..

  7. Using of Experiential Learning Model Based on Multimedia to Increase the Ability of Literation Writing Indonesian Poem in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isah Cahyani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The education system in a country must be able to equip its young generation with sophisticated literacy skills, if they do not want to see individuals and their communities in poverty or poverty (PIRLS, 2007. The ability of literacy has become the center of attention has even become a crucial issue because of the ability of literacy related to the development of human resources in the future (PIRLS, 2007. This is because literacy skills are the key to success in school and the key to success to participate actively in the world of work, society, and politics. In the 2013 Curriculum, the competence expected from an SD / MI graduate is to have a productive and creative thinking and acting abstract and concrete. Writing is a productive action. Therefore, writing skills in Elementary School must continue to be nurtured and developed so that the expected graduate competence is achieved. Nevertheless, Alwasilah (2007 states that writing skills are the most neglected language skills in language education. This happens due to improper practice in writing lessons from elementary to university level. According to International Study of Achievement in Writen Composition (in Rahman, 2011, Indonesia is a country whose culture of writing and reading is still below average. The purpose of this study, namely to find out how the influence of multimedia-based Experiential Learning model on the ability of elementary students in writing poetry. Research method that the authors use is a quasi-experimental research method with a quantitative approach. To obtain research data, researchers used test instruments, observation sheets, and questionnaires. Quantitative approach is used to get a picture of the ability of students writing multimedia based with Experential Learning model. The result of the research, that is there is significant difference at the level of significance 0,05% between result of student learning in learning writing writing based on multimedia with

  8. Research on evaluation model of technology innovation ability of state-owned enterprises in northeast industry base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hongguang; QI Guoyou; ZHANG Ning

    2007-01-01

    The paper viewed the current problem that state-owned enterprises in northeast industry base hadn't technologies of their own intellectual property right, whose sources mainly depended on imitation and introduction from abroad. Operational evaluation method and index criteria system of enterprises technology innovation ability were put forward in this paper, different enterprises may revise the model according to their actual situations to evaluate the enterprise technological innovation ability scientifically and quickly. The findings will be helpful to correlative departments to formulate the related policies and also has important theoretical and practical value in technological innovation project of enterprise.

  9. Daphnia as an Emerging Epigenetic Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kami D. M. Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia offer a variety of benefits for the study of epigenetics. Daphnia’s parthenogenetic life cycle allows the study of epigenetic effects in the absence of confounding genetic differences. Sex determination and sexual reproduction are epigenetically determined as are several other well-studied alternate phenotypes that arise in response to environmental stressors. Additionally, there is a large body of ecological literature available, recently complemented by the genome sequence of one species and transgenic technology. DNA methylation has been shown to be altered in response to toxicants and heavy metals, although investigation of other epigenetic mechanisms is only beginning. More thorough studies on DNA methylation as well as investigation of histone modifications and RNAi in sex determination and predator-induced defenses using this ecologically and evolutionarily important organism will contribute to our understanding of epigenetics.

  10. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  11. Nobelist TD Lee Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LIU; Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We have studied Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network(TDLSCN)and their innovation ability(Fig.1a).It is found that TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation network,but also the number of TD Lee’s published article appears the phenomenon of multiple-peak with year evolution,which becomes Nobelist TD Lee’s

  12. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality) and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and ...

  13. RNA-seq in the tetraploid Xenopus laevis enables genome-wide insight in a classic developmental biology model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nirav M; Tandon, Panna; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Conlon, Frank L

    2014-04-01

    Advances in sequencing technology have significantly advanced the landscape of developmental biology research. The dissection of genetic networks in model and non-model organisms has been greatly enhanced with high-throughput sequencing technologies. RNA-seq has revolutionized the ability to perform developmental biology research in organisms without a published genome sequence. Here, we describe a protocol for developmental biologists to perform RNA-seq on dissected tissue or whole embryos. We start with the isolation of RNA and generation of sequencing libraries. We further show how to interpret and analyze the large amount of sequencing data that is generated in RNA-seq. We explore the abilities to examine differential expression, gene duplication, transcript assembly, alternative splicing and SNP discovery. For the purposes of this article, we use Xenopus laevis as the model organism to discuss uses of RNA-seq in an organism without a fully annotated genome sequence. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    accumulation relationship for land, and an explicit modeling of the rate of stock accumulation (i.e., of land investment). We assume that land is industry specific, with land rentals adjusting to ensure that land supply equals land demand for each industry. Once the decision has been made to transform land...

  15. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  16. Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

  17. Volatility in crude oil futures. A comparison of the predictive ability of GARCH and implied volatility models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnolucci, Paolo [University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research (4CMR), 19 Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EP (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The WTI future contract quoted at the NYMEX is the most actively traded instrument in the energy sector. This paper compares the predictive ability of two approaches which can be used to forecast volatility: GARCH-type models where forecasts are obtained after estimating time series models, and an implied volatility model where forecasts are obtained by inverting one of the models used to price options. Although the main scope of the research discussed here is to evaluate which model produces the best forecast of volatility for the WTI future contract, evaluated according to statistical and regression-based criteria, we also investigate whether volatility of the oil futures are affected by asymmetric effects, whether parameters of the GARCH models are influenced by the distribution of the errors and whether allowing for a time-varying long-run mean in the volatility produces any improvement on the forecast obtained from GARCH models. (author)

  18. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches...

  19. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  20. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-11-19

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories.

  1. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  2. Physical Ability-Task Performance Models: Assessing the Risk of Omitted Variable Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Variable Bias References Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step...Boomsma, A. (2000). Reporting analysis of covariance structures. Structural Equation Modeling , 7(3), 461-483. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993...Company. Fan, X., Thompson, B., & Wang, L. (1999). Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit

  3. Kineic Modelling of Degradation of Organic Compounds in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZONGSHENG; ZHANGSHUIMING; 等

    1997-01-01

    A set of equations in suggested to describe the kinetics of degradation of organic ompounds applied to soils ad the kinetics of growth of the inolved microorganisms:-dx/dt=jx+kxm dm/dt=-fm+gxm where x is the concentration of organic compound at time t,m is the numer of microorganisms capable of degrading the organic compound at time t,while j,k,f and g are positive constants,This model can satisfactorily be used to explain the degradation curve of organic compounds and the growth curve of the involved microorganisms.

  4. Models of Intellectual Disability: Towards a Perspective of (Poss)ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The social and medical models of disability configure the relationship between disability and impairment differently. Neither of these models has provided a comprehensive theoretical or practical basis for talking about intellectual disability (ID). Models that emphasise the interactive nature of disability appear to be more promising.…

  5. Development of a Blended Instructional Model via Weblog to Enhance English Summary Writing Ability of Thai Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisunee Termsinsuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research and development was to develop an effective blended instructional model via weblog to enhance English summary writing ability of Thai undergraduate students. A sample group in the English program of Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University was studied in academic year 2010-2013. The research instruments were an effective semi-structured interview form, the learning and instructional record format, the test of English summary writing ability, and the English summary writing criterion. The data were analyzed by percentage, means, standard deviation, and the t-test. It was found that the blended instructional model via weblog comprised three stages of blended activities: extracting information via face to face instruction, summarizing via weblog, and publishing on weblog. It was named “S2A Model.” The model was effective in enhancing the university students’ English summary writing ability as the post-test scores of the students met the set criterion of the study.

  6. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING FOR PROJECTS COSTS MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂTRAŞCU AURELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Information Technologies in organizations represents an evident progress for company, money economy, time economy and generates value for the organization. In this paper the author proposes to model the business processes for an organization that manages projects costs, because modelling is an important part of any software development process. Using software for projects costs management is essential because it allows the management of all operations according to the established parameters, the management of the projects groups, as well as the management of the projects and subprojects, at different complexity levels.

  7. Mathematical model for cyclodextrin alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

    2013-06-04

    While many cyclodextrin-based applications have been developed to assess or enhance bioavailability of organic pollutants, the choice of cyclodextrin (CD) is largely empirical, with little consideration of pollutant diversity and environmental matrix effects. This study aimed at developing a mathematical model for quantifying CD alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants. Cyclodextrin appears to have multiple effects, together contributing to its bioavailability-enhancing property. Cyclodextrin is adsorbed onto the adsorbent matrix to different extents. The adsorbed CD is capable of sequestrating organic pollutants, highlighting the role of a pseudophase similar to solid environmental matrix. Aqueous CD can reduce adsorption of organic pollutants via inclusion complexation. The two effects cancel each other to a certain degree, which determines the levels of organic pollutants dissolved (comprising freely dissolved and CD-included forms). Additionally, the CD-included form is nearly identical in biological activity to the free form. A mathematical model of one variable (i.e., CD concentration) was derived to quantify effects of CD on the bioavailability of organic pollutants. Model analysis indicates that alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants by CD depends on both CD (type and level) and environmental matrix. The selection of CD type and amendment level for a given application may be predicted by the model.

  8. A survey of financial planning models for health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J R; Kaminsky, F C; McGee, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes "what if?" financial planning models developed for health care administrators and financial managers to study and evaluate the economic impact of changes in a health care organization's charge structure, operating policies, reimbursement plans, and services and resources. Models for inpatient and outpatient care systems are presented. The models are described in terms of input, output, and application. An assessment of the state of the art of financial planning and prospects for the future of what if?models are given.

  9. Strategic planning models in public and non-profit sport organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA THEAKOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is widely used by organisations, as itis an integral part of strategy. The present study tackles thetopic of strategic planning as it is developed by public andnon-profit organizations and provides an extensive review ofliterature in the area of the development and role of strategic planning within strategic management and the way it is adopted by public and non-profit organizations. For the purposes of this paper, five models of strategic planning have been discussed with the belief that they describe better the models that can be approached and developed by public and non-profit organizations in the area of sport. This article aims at partly contributing to the theoretical discussion concerning the ability of organizations to integrate and deploy strategic planning. For this study we examined a non-profitsport organization in British Columbia, Canada. The authorspropose that public and non-profit sport organizations shoulddevelop their own model of strategic planning, which mayhelp them to think and act strategically.

  10. Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.

  11. Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Cai, Yu; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.

  12. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-01-01

    Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...... to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best available proxy data...

  13. What Affects The Ability To Accumulate The Best Applicants By Russian Universities? The Application Of Quantile Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaszkiewicz Edyta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate which university’s characteristics have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of universities in their ability to attract better students in Russia. We examined the impact of three groups of factors,related to teaching, research and entrepreneurial activities of universities. The quantile regression model was applied for the subsample of public and private higher education institutions localized in Russia.

  14. Analysis on evaluation ability of nonlinear safety assessment model of coal mines based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-liang; LIU Hai-bo; LIU Ai-hua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the integration analysis of goods and shortcomings of various methods used in safety assessment of coal mines, combining nonlinear feature of mine safety sub-system, this paper establishes the neural network assessment model of mine safety, analyzes the ability of artificial neural network to evaluate mine safety state, and lays the theoretical foundation of artificial neural network using in the systematic optimization of mine safety assessment and getting reasonable accurate safety assessment result.

  15. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Elizabeth E; Ellis, Martha M; Morris, William F; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlén, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N; Knight, Tiffany M; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer L; Doak, Daniel F; Ganesan, Rengaian; McEachern, Kathyrn; Thorpe, Andrea S; Menges, Eric S

    2013-10-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Ellis, Martha M.; Morris, William F.; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlen, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer I.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ganesan, Rengaian; Thorpe, Andrea S.; Menges, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models.

  17. Phytoremediation and its models for organic contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Soil pollution has been attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Sorts of traditional physiochemical methods have been used to remove the organic pollutants from soils. However, the enormous costs and low efficiencies associated with these remediation technologies limit their availabilities. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to cleanup pollutants in soils. As overwhelmingly positive results have been shown, phytoremediation is a most economical and effective remediation technique for organic contaminated soils. In this paper phytoremediation and its models for organic contaminated soils is overviewed. The mechanisms of phytoremediation mainly include the direct plant uptake of organic pollutants, degradation by plant-derived degradative enzymes, and stimulated biodegradation in plant rhizosphere. Phytoremediation efficiency is tightly related to physicochemical properties of organic pollutants, environmental characteristics, and plant types. It is no doubt that soil amendments such as surfactants change the solubilities and availabilities of organic pollutants in soils. However, little information is available about effects of soil amendments on phytoremediation efficiencies. Phytoremediation models have been developed to simulate and predict the environmental behavior of organic pollutants, and progress of models is illustrated. In many ways phytoremediation is still in its initial stage, and recommendations for the future research on phytoremediation are presented.

  18. Modeling secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA through reactions of organic compounds in condensed aqueous phases is growing. In this study, the potential formation of SOA from irreversible aqueous-phase reactions of organic species in clouds was investigated. A new proposed aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism (AqChem is coupled with the existing gas-phase Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM and the Model to Predict the Multiphase Partitioning of Organics (MPMPO that simulate SOA formation. AqChem treats irreversible organic reactions that lead mainly to the formation of carboxylic acids, which are usually less volatile than the corresponding aldehydic compounds. Zero-dimensional model simulations were performed for tropospheric conditions with clouds present for three consecutive hours per day. Zero-dimensional model simulations show that 48-h averaged SOA formation are increased by 27% for a rural scenario with strong monoterpene emissions and 7% for an urban scenario with strong emissions of aromatic compounds, respectively, when irreversible organic reactions in clouds are considered. AqChem was also incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.4 with CACM/MPMPO and applied to a previously studied photochemical episode (3–4 August 2004 focusing on the eastern United States. The CMAQ study indicates that the maximum contribution of SOA formation from irreversible reactions of organics in clouds is 0.28 μg m−3 for 24-h average concentrations and 0.60 μg m−3 for one-hour average concentrations at certain locations. On average, domain-wide surface SOA predictions for the episode are increased by 8.6% when irreversible, in-cloud processing of organics is considered.

  19. A Workforce Design Model: Providing Energy to Organizations in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the change in performance realized by a professional services organization, which resulted in the Life Giving Workforce Design (LGWD) model through a grounded theory research design. This study produced a workforce design model characterized as an organizational blueprint that provides virtuous…

  20. Simple model of self-organized biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Derrida, Bernard; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Jackson, Andrew D.; Wettig, Tilo

    1994-08-01

    We give an exact solution of a recently proposed self-organized critical model of biological evolution. We show that the model has a power law distribution of durations of coevolutionary ``avalanches'' with a mean field exponent 3/2. We also calculate analytically the finite size effects which cut off this power law at times of the order of the system size.

  1. Modeling organic compounds in the estuarine and coastal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.P.M. Laane; D. van de Meent; P. de Voogt; J. Parsons; J. Hendriks; J. van Gils

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical development and present applications of water-quality models for organic chemical compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Various types of water-quality models are described, varying in the amount of compar

  2. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    soils, regressions or models are in use, which were not intended to be used for tree fruits. A simple model for uptake of neutral organic contaminants into fruits is developed. It considers xylem and phloem transport to fruits through the stem. The mass balance is solved for the steady...

  3. Resilience moderates the relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability among Chinese practice nursing students: A structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghua; Liu, Yun; Li, Guopeng; Fang, Yueyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Li, Ping

    2016-11-01

    To examine the positive association between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability among practice nursing students, and to determine whether resilience plays a moderating role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability among Chinese practice nursing students. Three hundred and seventy-seven practice nursing students from three hospitals participated in this study. They completed questionnaires including the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EII), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), and Clinical Communication Ability Scale (CCAS). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among emotional intelligence, resilience, and clinical communication ability. Emotional intelligence was positively associated with clinical communication ability (Pintelligence and clinical communication ability (Pintelligence is positively related to clinical communication ability among Chinese practice nursing students, and resilience moderates the relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical communication ability, which may provide scientific evidence to aid in developing intervention strategies to improve clinical communication ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards an Intelligent Project Based Organization Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Marrouni Oussama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy is undergoing a recession phase that had made competition tougher and imposed new business framework. Businesses have to shift from the classical management approaches to an Intelligent Project Based Organization (IPBO model that provides flexibility and agility. IPBO model is intended to reinforce the proven advantages of Project Based Organization (PBO by the use of suitable Enterprise Intelligence (EI Systems. The goal of this paper is to propose an IPBO model that combines benefits of PBO and EI and helps overcoming their pitfalls

  5. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.

  6. Mathematics Instructional Model Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Promote Problem Solving Ability at Junior High School Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Musdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase.  At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.

  7. Xanthusbase: adapting wikipedia principles to a model organism database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinoff, Bradley I; Suen, Garret; Just, Eric M; Merchant, Sohel M; Kibbe, Warren A; Chisholm, Rex L; Welch, Roy D

    2007-01-01

    xanthusBase (http://www.xanthusbase.org) is the official model organism database (MOD) for the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In many respects, M.xanthus represents the pioneer model organism (MO) for studying the genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic basis of prokaryotic multicellularity, a topic that has garnered considerable attention due to the significance of biofilms in both basic and applied microbiology research. To facilitate its utility, the design of xanthusBase incorporates open-source software, leveraging the cumulative experience made available through the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project, MediaWiki (http://www.mediawiki.org), and dictyBase (http://www.dictybase.org), to create a MOD that is both highly useful and easily navigable. In addition, we have incorporated a unique Wikipedia-style curation model which exploits the internet's inherent interactivity, thus enabling M.xanthus and other myxobacterial researchers to contribute directly toward the ongoing genome annotation.

  8. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling....../resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...

  9. An assessment of the ability of the obstruction-scaling model to estimate solute diffusion coefficients in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiev, Nicholas A; Amsden, Brian G

    2015-02-10

    The ability to estimate the diffusion coefficient of a solute within hydrogels has important application in the design and analysis of hydrogels used in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. A number of mathematical models have been derived for this purpose; however, they often rely on fitted parameters and so have limited predictive capability. Herein we assess the ability of the obstruction-scaling model to provide reasonable estimates of solute diffusion coefficients within hydrogels, as well as the assumption that a hydrogel can be represented as an entangled polymer solution of an equivalent concentration. Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran solutes were loaded into sodium alginate solutions as well as hydrogels of different polymer volume fractions formed from photoinitiated cross-linking of methacrylate sodium alginate. The tracer diffusion coefficients of these solutes were measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The measured diffusion coefficients were then compared to the values predicted by the obstruction-scaling model. The model predictions were within ±15% of the measured values, suggesting that the model can provide useful estimates of solute diffusion coefficients within hydrogels and solutions. Moreover, solutes diffusing in both sodium alginate solutions and hydrogels were demonstrated to experience the same degree of solute mobility restriction given the same effective polymer concentration, supporting the assumption that a hydrogel can be represented as an entangled polymer solution of equivalent concentration.

  10. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  11. The expanding epigenetic landscape of non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics studies the emergence of different phenotypes from a single genotype. Although these processes are essential to cellular differentiation and transcriptional memory, they are also widely used in all branches of the tree of life by organisms that require plastic but stable adaptation to their physical and social environment. Because of the inherent flexibility of epigenetic regulation, a variety of biological phenomena can be traced back to evolutionary adaptations of few conserved molecular pathways that converge on chromatin. For these reasons chromatin biology and epigenetic research have a rich history of chasing discoveries in a variety of model organisms, including yeast, flies, plants and humans. Many more fascinating examples of epigenetic plasticity lie outside the realm of model organisms and have so far been only sporadically investigated at a molecular level; however, recent progress on sequencing technology and genome editing tools have begun to blur the lines between model and non-model organisms, opening numerous new avenues for investigation. Here, I review examples of epigenetic phenomena in non-model organisms that have emerged as potential experimental systems, including social insects, fish and flatworms, and are becoming accessible to molecular approaches.

  12. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  13. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  14. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  15. On the Ability of the Regional Climate Model RIEMS to Simulate the Present Climate over Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A continuous 10-year simulation in Asia for the period of 1 July 1988 to 31 December 1998 was conducted using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS) with NCEP Reanalysis Ⅱ data as the driving fields. The model processes include surface physics state package (BATS le), a Holtslag explicit planetary boundary layer formulation, a Grell cumulus parameterization, and a modified radiation package (CCM3). Model-produced surface temperature and precipitation are compared with observations from 1001 meteorology stations distributed over Asia and with the 0.5°× 0.5° CRU gridded dataset. The analysis results show that: (1) RIEMS reproduces well the spatial pattern and the seasonal cycle of surface temperature and precipitation; (2) When regionally averaged, the seasonal mean temperature biases are within 1-2°C. For precipitation, the model tends to give better simulation in winter than in summer,and seasonal precipitation biases are mostly in the range of -12%-50%; (3) Spatial correlation coefficients between observed and simulated seasonal precipitation are higher in north of the Yangtze River than in the south and higher in winter than in summer; (4) RIEMS can well reproduce the spatial pattern of seasonal mean sea level pressure. In winter, the model-simulated Siberian high is stronger than the observed. In summer, the simulated subtropical high is shifted northwestwards; (5) The temporal evolution of the East Asia summer monsoon rain belt, with steady phases separated by more rapid transitions, is reproduced.

  16. Using implicit association tests in age-heterogeneous samples: The importance of cognitive abilities and quad model processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Egloff, Boris; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i.e., quad model parameters) contribute to IAT results in a large age-heterogeneous sample. Participants (N = 549; 51% female) in an age-stratified sample (range = 12-88 years) completed different IATs and 2 tasks to assess cognitive processing speed and verbal ability. From the IAT data, D2-scores were computed based on RTs, and quad process parameters (activation of associations, overcoming bias, detection, guessing) were estimated from individual error rates. Substantial IAT scores and quad processes except guessing varied with age. Quad processes AC and D predicted D2-scores of the content-specific IAT. Importantly, the effects of cognitive abilities and quad processes on IAT scores were not significantly moderated by participants' age. These findings suggest that IATs seem suitable for age-heterogeneous studies from adolescence to old age when IATs are constructed and analyzed appropriately, for example with D-scores and process parameters. We offer further insight into how D-scoring controls for method effects in IATs and what IAT scores capture in addition to implicit representations of characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Lotka-Volterra competition models for sessile organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matthew; Tanner, Jason E

    2008-04-01

    Markov models are widely used to describe the dynamics of communities of sessile organisms, because they are easily fitted to field data and provide a rich set of analytical tools. In typical ecological applications, at any point in time, each point in space is in one of a finite set of states (e.g., species, empty space). The models aim to describe the probabilities of transitions between states. In most Markov models for communities, these transition probabilities are assumed to be independent of state abundances. This assumption is often suspected to be false and is rarely justified explicitly. Here, we start with simple assumptions about the interactions among sessile organisms and derive a model in which transition probabilities depend on the abundance of destination states. This model is formulated in continuous time and is equivalent to a Lotka-Volterra competition model. We fit this model and a variety of alternatives in which transition probabilities do not depend on state abundances to a long-term coral reef data set. The Lotka-Volterra model describes the data much better than all models we consider other than a saturated model (a model with a separate parameter for each transition at each time interval, which by definition fits the data perfectly). Our approach provides a basis for further development of stochastic models of sessile communities, and many of the methods we use are relevant to other types of community. We discuss possible extensions to spatially explicit models.

  18. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction....... Diffraction by fractal metallic supergratings. Optics Express, 15(24), 15628–15636 (2007) [3] Goszczak, A. J. et al. Nanoscale Aluminum dimples for light trapping in organic thin films (submitted)...

  19. Modelling the formation of organic particles in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; O'Dowd, C.

    2003-12-01

    A modelling study investigating the formation of organic particles from inorganic, thermodynamically stable clusters was carried out. A recently-developed theory, the so-called nano-Köhler theory, which describes a thermodynamic equilibrium between a nanometer-size cluster, water and water-soluble organic compound, was implemented in a dynamical model along with a treatment of the appropriate aerosol and gas-phase processes. The obtained results suggest that both gaseous sulphuric acid and organic vapours contribute to organic particle formation. The initial growth of freshly-nucleated clusters having a diameter around 1 nm is driven by condensation of gaseous sulphuric acid and by a lesser extent cluster self-coagulation. After the clusters have reached sizes of around 2 nm in diameter, low-volatile organic vapours start to condense spontaneously into the clusters, thereby accelerating their growth to detectable sizes. A shortage of gaseous sulphuric acid or organic vapours limit, or suppress altogether, the particle formation, since freshly-nucleated clusters are rapidly coagulated away by pre-existing particles. The obtained modelling results were applied to explaining the observed seasonal cycle in the number of aerosol formation events in a continental forest site.

  20. Precisely parameterized experimental and computational models of tissue organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitoris, Jared M; Paliwal, Saurabh; Sekar, Rajesh B; Blake, Robert; Park, JinSeok; Trayanova, Natalia A; Tung, Leslie; Levchenko, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Patterns of cellular organization in diverse tissues frequently display a complex geometry and topology tightly related to the tissue function. Progressive disorganization of tissue morphology can lead to pathologic remodeling, necessitating the development of experimental and theoretical methods of analysis of the tolerance of normal tissue function to structural alterations. A systematic way to investigate the relationship of diverse cell organization to tissue function is to engineer two-dimensional cell monolayers replicating key aspects of the in vivo tissue architecture. However, it is still not clear how this can be accomplished on a tissue level scale in a parameterized fashion, allowing for a mathematically precise definition of the model tissue organization and properties down to a cellular scale with a parameter dependent gradual change in model tissue organization. Here, we describe and use a method of designing precisely parameterized, geometrically complex patterns that are then used to control cell alignment and communication of model tissues. We demonstrate direct application of this method to guiding the growth of cardiac cell cultures and developing mathematical models of cell function that correspond to the underlying experimental patterns. Several anisotropic patterned cultures spanning a broad range of multicellular organization, mimicking the cardiac tissue organization of different regions of the heart, were found to be similar to each other and to isotropic cell monolayers in terms of local cell-cell interactions, reflected in similar confluency, morphology and connexin-43 expression. However, in agreement with the model predictions, different anisotropic patterns of cell organization, paralleling in vivo alterations of cardiac tissue morphology, resulted in variable and novel functional responses with important implications for the initiation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias. We conclude that variations of tissue geometry and topology

  1. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  2. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  3. Stochastic order in dichotomous item response models for fixed tests, research adaptive tests, or multiple abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1995-01-01

    Dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models can be viewed as families of stochastically ordered distributions of responses to test items. This paper explores several properties of such distributiom. The focus is on the conditions under which stochastic order in families of conditional distribution

  4. The Use of Cooperative Round Robin Discussion Model to Improve Students' Holistic Ability in TEFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Slamet; Ma'rifah, Ulfatul; Arifani, Yudhi

    2017-01-01

    This classroom action research is carried out within two cycles to breed a strategy on how a" Round Robin Discussion Learning Model" enhance students' critical thinking, presentation skills, confidence, and independent learning in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) class. Pop-up quiz, teacher made-tests, classroom…

  5. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  6. Eratosthenes Visits Middle School: Assessing the Ability of Students to Work with Models of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sergio; Powers, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    In the exciting, "out of this world" activity described here, students measure the Earth using meter sticks while measuring their shadows in two distant locations. To obtain the size of the Earth, students discover the connection between the measurements of the shadows and a model of the spherical Earth following the method developed by…

  7. Characterization of a Highly Thermostable and Organic Solvent-Tolerant Copper-Containing Polyphenol Oxidase with Dye-Decolorizing Ability from Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Jinlong; Wang, Huimin; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK) was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK. Cu2+ was essential for substrate oxidation, but the ratio of copper atoms/molecule of LaclK was determined to only be 1:1. Notably, the optimal temperature of LaclK was 85°C with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates, and the half-life approximately 3 days at 80°C. Furthermore, 10% (v/v) organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, Triton x-100 or dimethyl sulfoxide) could promote enzymatic activity. LaclK exhibited wide-spectrum decolorization ability towards triphenylmethane dyes, azo dyes and aromatic dyes, decolorizing 92% and 94% of Victoria Blue B (25 μM) and Ethyl Violet (25 μM), respectively, at a concentration of 60 U/L after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Overall, we characterized a novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant copper-containing polyphenol oxidase possessing dye-decolorizing ability. These unusual properties make LaclK an alternative for industrial applications, particularly processes that require high-temperature conditions.

  8. Characterization of a Highly Thermostable and Organic Solvent-Tolerant Copper-Containing Polyphenol Oxidase with Dye-Decolorizing Ability from Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Jinlong; Wang, Huimin; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK) was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK. Cu2+ was essential for substrate oxidation, but the ratio of copper atoms/molecule of LaclK was determined to only be 1:1. Notably, the optimal temperature of LaclK was 85°C with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates, and the half-life approximately 3 days at 80°C. Furthermore, 10% (v/v) organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, Triton x-100 or dimethyl sulfoxide) could promote enzymatic activity. LaclK exhibited wide-spectrum decolorization ability towards triphenylmethane dyes, azo dyes and aromatic dyes, decolorizing 92% and 94% of Victoria Blue B (25 μM) and Ethyl Violet (25 μM), respectively, at a concentration of 60 U/L after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Overall, we characterized a novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant copper-containing polyphenol oxidase possessing dye-decolorizing ability. These unusual properties make LaclK an alternative for industrial applications, particularly processes that require high-temperature conditions. PMID:27741324

  9. Modelling cognitive skills, ability and school quality to explain labour market earnings differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cobus Burger; Servaas van der Berg

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to explain wage differences between race groups in South Africa are constrained by the fact that quality of education is known to differ greatly between groups, thus the unexplained portion of the wage gap may be much affected by such differences in education quality. Using a simulation model that utilises school-leaving (matric) examination results and educational attainment levels to generate estimates of education quality, we find that much of the wage gap can indeed be explained ...

  10. Modeling of Spatially Correlated Energetic Disorder in Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordt, Pascal; Andrienko, Denis

    2016-01-12

    Mesoscale modeling of organic semiconductors relies on solving an appropriately parametrized master equation. Essential ingredients of the parametrization are site energies (driving forces), which enter the charge transfer rate between pairs of neighboring molecules. Site energies are often Gaussian-distributed and are spatially correlated. Here, we propose an algorithm that generates these energies with a given Gaussian distribution and spatial correlation function. The method is tested on an amorphous organic semiconductor, DPBIC, illustrating that the accurate description of correlations is essential for the quantitative modeling of charge transport in amorphous mesophases.

  11. Biobanking of a Marine Invertebrate Model Organism: The Sea Urchin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin has long been used as an invertebrate model organism in developmental biology, membrane transport and sperm oocyte interactions, and for the assessment of marine pollution. This review explores the effects of cryopreservation and biobanking in the biology and development of sea urchins, all the way from germaplasm through to juveniles. This review will provide an integral view of the process and all that is known so far about the biology of cryopreserved sea urchins, as well as provide an insight on the applications of the biobanking of these model organisms.

  12. Assessing the prediction ability of different mathematical models for the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum under non-isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Dalcanton, Francieli; Falcão de Aragão, Gláucia Maria; Carciofi, Bruno Augusto Mattar; Laurindo, João Borges

    2013-10-21

    Mathematical models taking temperature variations into account are useful in predicting microbial growth in foods, like meat products, for which Lactobacillus plantarum is a mesophilic and one of the main spoiling bacterium. The current study assessed the ability of the main primary models and their non-isothermal versions to predict L. plantarum growth under constant and variable temperature. Experimental data of microbial growth were obtained in MRS medium under isothermal conditions (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 30°C) which were used to obtain the secondary models. The experimental data under non-isothermal conditions (periodically oscillating temperature between the plateaus 4-12, 5-15, and 20-30°C) were used to validate the non-isothermal models. The bias factors indicated that all assessed models provided safe predictions of the microorganism growth at the non-isothermal conditions. Overall, despite the very good performance of the primary models (isothermal), none of the models was able to predict with accuracy the L. plantarum growth under temperature variations, mainly when the temperature range was close to refrigeration temperature. Incorporating the complex microbial adaptation mechanisms into the predictive models is a challenge to be overcome.

  13. A Development of a Collaborative Blended Learning Model to Enhance Learning Achievement and Thinking Ability of Undergraduate Students at the Institute of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingpum, Peerasak; Ruangsuwan, Chaiyot; Chaicharoen, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of a collaborative blended learning (CoBl) to develop learning achievement and thinking ability of undergraduate students in the Institute of Physical Education. The research is divided into three phases using the blended learning model via collaborative learning with thinking abilities approach as follows:…

  14. Understanding the mathematics and science achievement and growth trajectories of high ability high school students using hierarchical linear modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen-Ferrer, Bellasanta

    2009-12-01

    This study used longitudinal data and individual, family, and academic-related matriculation variables to examine trends in initial status and growth trajectories in overall academics, mathematics, and science achievement among 224 high ability high school Asian students. Results indicate that females have an advantage in both initial status and growth rates in overall academics and science. None of the family variables entered in the models were found to be significantly related to overall academics grade point average. All available matriculation variables entered into the models explained less than or at most about half the variance in initial achievement status and growth rate in overall academics and science but not in mathematics. These results strongly imply that other factors, notably family and school and/or classroom-related variables, not measured by the ones used in the models could explain the expected variance in initial status and growth rate of the students especially in Mathematics.

  15. Pearl extract enhances the migratory ability of fibroblasts in a wound healing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chi-Ruei; Young, Tai-Horng

    2013-03-01

    For 2000 years, traditional Chinese medicine has been used as a remedy for general health improvement, including the fight against aging. Pearl powder has recently been used as a health food that has antioxidant, antiaging, antiradioactive, and tonic activities for cells; it is also applied to cure aphthous ulcer, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer on clinical therapy. In addition, the mother of pearl, nacre, could enhance the cell adhesion and tissue regeneration of skin fibroblasts. Fibroblast is regarded as indispensable in the processes of wound healing. Therefore, the effect of pearl extract (PL) on fibroblasts is investigated in this study. PL is produced by a room temperature super extraction system (Taiwan patent no. I271 220). DMEM medium containing PL (300 μg/mL) was used to examine the effect of migration-promoting potential on human fibroblast cell line or human primary fibroblast cells in a wound healing model in vitro. Medium containing PL (300 μg/mL) demonstrated that the migratory cell numbers of fibroblasts were three times more than that without PL, and mRNA expression of collagen type III was higher than in collagen type I in fibroblasts. It revealed a migration-promoting potential of human fibroblasts in a wound healing model in vitro. The present study found that the migration-promoting effect in PL, which could be a supplement in cell culture. These data suggest PL could be useful for enhancing the wound healing of fibroblasts.

  16. Workshop meeting report Organs-on-Chips: human disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Stolpe, Anja; den Toonder, Jaap

    2013-09-21

    The concept of "Organs-on-Chips" has recently evolved and has been described as 3D (mini-) organs or tissues consisting of multiple and different cell types interacting with each other under closely controlled conditions, grown in a microfluidic chip, and mimicking the complex structures and cellular interactions in and between different cell types and organs in vivo, enabling the real time monitoring of cellular processes. In combination with the emerging iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cell) field this development offers unprecedented opportunities to develop human in vitro models for healthy and diseased organ tissues, enabling the investigation of fundamental mechanisms in disease development, drug toxicity screening, drug target discovery and drug development, and the replacement of animal testing. Capturing the genetic background of the iPSC donor in the organ or disease model carries the promise to move towards "in vitro clinical trials", reducing costs for drug development and furthering the concept of personalized medicine and companion diagnostics. During the Lorentz workshop (Leiden, September 2012) an international multidisciplinary group of experts discussed the current state of the art, available and emerging technologies, applications and how to proceed in the field. Organ-on-a-chip platform technologies are expected to revolutionize cell biology in general and drug development in particular.

  17. The ability of a GCM-forced hydrological model to reproduce global discharge variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Data from General Circulation Models (GCMs are often used to investigate hydrological impacts of climate change. However GCM data are known to have large biases, especially for precipitation. In this study the usefulness of GCM data for hydrological studies, with focus on discharge variability and extremes, was tested by using bias-corrected daily climate data of the 20CM3 control experiment from a selection of twelve GCMs as input to the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. Results of these runs were compared with discharge observations of the GRDC and discharges calculated from model runs based on two meteorological datasets constructed from the observation-based CRU TS2.1 and ERA-40 reanalysis. In the first dataset the CRU TS 2.1 monthly timeseries were downscaled to daily timeseries using the ERA-40 dataset (ERA6190. This dataset served as a best guess of the past climate and was used to analyze the performance of PCR-GLOBWB. The second dataset was created from the ERA-40 timeseries bias-corrected with the CRU TS 2.1 dataset using the same bias-correction method as applied to the GCM datasets (ERACLM. Through this dataset the influence of the bias-correction method was quantified. The bias-correction was limited to monthly mean values of precipitation, potential evaporation and temperature, as our focus was on the reproduction of inter- and intra-annual variability.

    After bias-correction the spread in discharge results of the GCM based runs decreased and results were similar to results of the ERA-40 based runs, especially for rivers with a strong seasonal pattern. Overall the bias-correction method resulted in a slight reduction of global runoff and the method performed less well in arid and mountainous regions. However, deviations between GCM results and GRDC statistics did decrease for Q, Q90 and IAV. After bias-correction consistency amongst

  18. Stochastic models for plant microtubule self-organization and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Ezgi C; Dixit, Ram; Gautam, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    One of the key enablers of shape and growth in plant cells is the cortical microtubule (CMT) system, which is a polymer array that forms an appropriately-structured scaffolding in each cell. Plant biologists have shown that stochastic dynamics and simple rules of interactions between CMTs can lead to a coaligned CMT array structure. However, the mechanisms and conditions that cause CMT arrays to become organized are not well understood. It is prohibitively time-consuming to use actual plants to study the effect of various genetic mutations and environmental conditions on CMT self-organization. In fact, even computer simulations with multiple replications are not fast enough due to the spatio-temporal complexity of the system. To redress this shortcoming, we develop analytical models and methods for expeditiously computing CMT system metrics that are related to self-organization and array structure. In particular, we formulate a mean-field model to derive sufficient conditions for the organization to occur. We show that growth-prone dynamics itself is sufficient to lead to organization in presence of interactions in the system. In addition, for such systems, we develop predictive methods for estimation of system metrics such as expected average length and number of CMTs over time, using a stochastic fluid-flow model, transient analysis, and approximation algorithms tailored to our problem. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerical test instances and discuss biological insights.

  19. Implementing Marine Organic Aerosols Into the GEOS-Chem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large under-prediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.

  20. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; LIN Min; QIAO Fang-Li; HOU Yi-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of-2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed.

  1. Financial market model based on self-organized percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chunxia; WANG Jie; ZHOU Tao; LIU Jun; XU Min; ZHOU Peiling; WANG Binghong

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the self-organized evolution of the trader group's structure, a parsimonious percolation model for stock market is established, which can be considered as a kind of betterment of the Cont-Bouchaud model. The return distribution of the present model obeys Lévy form in the center and displays fat-tail property, in accord with the stylized facts observed in real-life financial time series. Furthermore, this model reveals the power-law relationship between the peak value of the probability distribution and the time scales, in agreement with the empirical studies on the Hang Seng Index.

  2. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-09-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  3. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-10-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  4. The ability of microbial community of Lake Baikal bottom sediments associated with gas discharge to carry out the transformation of organic matter under thermobaric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Viktorovich Bukin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to compare the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities inhabiting the subsurface sediment in geographically distinct locations is one of the keys to understanding the evolution and function of the subsurface biosphere. Prospective areas for study of the subsurface biosphere are the sites of hydrocarbon discharges on the bottom of the Lake Baikal rift, where ascending fluxes of gas-saturated fluids and oil from deep layers of bottom sediments seep into near-surface sediment. The samples of surface sediments collected in the area of the Posolskaya Bank methane seep were cultured for 17 months under thermobaric conditions (80°С, 5 MPa with the addition of complementary organic substrate, and a different composition for the gas phase. After incubation, the presence of intact cells of microorganisms, organic matter transformation and the formation of oil biomarkers was confirmed in the samples, with the addition of Baikalian diatom alga Synedra acus detritus, and gas mixture СH4:H2:CO2. Taxonomic assignment of the 16S rRNA sequence data indicates that the predominant sequences in the enrichment were Sphingomonas (55.3%, Solirubrobacter (27.5% and Arthrobacter (16.6%. At the same time, in heat-killed sediment and in sediment without any additional substrates, which were cultivated in a CH4 atmosphere, no geochemical changes were detected, nor the presence of intact cells and 16S rRNA sequences of Bacteria and Archaea. This data may suggest that the decomposition of organic matter under culturing conditions could be performed by microorganisms from low-temperature sediment layers. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is migration of the representatives of the deep thermophilic community through fault zones in the near surface sediment layers, together with gas-bearing fluids.

  5. The Ability of Microbial Community of Lake Baikal Bottom Sediments Associated with Gas Discharge to Carry Out the Transformation of Organic Matter under Thermobaric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukin, Sergei V; Pavlova, Olga N; Manakov, Andrei Y; Kostyreva, Elena A; Chernitsyna, Svetlana M; Mamaeva, Elena V; Pogodaeva, Tatyana V; Zemskaya, Tamara I

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compare the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities inhabiting the subsurface sediment in geographically distinct locations is one of the keys to understanding the evolution and function of the subsurface biosphere. Prospective areas for study of the subsurface biosphere are the sites of hydrocarbon discharges on the bottom of the Lake Baikal rift, where ascending fluxes of gas-saturated fluids and oil from deep layers of bottom sediments seep into near-surface sediment. The samples of surface sediments collected in the area of the Posolskaya Bank methane seep were cultured for 17 months under thermobaric conditions (80°C, 5 MPa) with the addition of complementary organic substrate, and a different composition for the gas phase. After incubation, the presence of intact cells of microorganisms, organic matter transformation and the formation of oil biomarkers was confirmed in the samples, with the addition of Baikal diatom alga Synedra acus detritus, and gas mixture CH4:H2:CO2. Taxonomic assignment of the 16S rRNA sequence data indicates that the predominant sequences in the enrichment were Sphingomonas (55.3%), Solirubrobacter (27.5%) and Arthrobacter (16.6%). At the same time, in heat-killed sediment and in sediment without any additional substrates, which were cultivated in a CH4 atmosphere, no geochemical changes were detected, nor the presence of intact cells and 16S rRNA sequences of Bacteria and Archaea. This data may suggest that the decomposition of organic matter under culturing conditions could be performed by microorganisms from low-temperature sediment layers. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is migration of the representatives of the deep thermophilic community through fault zones in the near surface sediment layers, together with gas-bearing fluids.

  6. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  7. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  8. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This manuscript reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, inver...

  9. Development of a model to predict partition coefficient of organic pollutants in cloud point extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmirani, Samareh; Farahani, Ebrahim Vasheghani; Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) study has been performed to establish a model to relate structural descriptors of 45 organic compounds to their partition coefficients in water-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles at 298K using partial least squares (PLS). 510 of six different categories of structural descriptors were calculated by Dragon software. The descriptors with 0.9 mutually pair correlations and with less than 0.1 with dependent variables were excluded at the early stage of the preprocessing of the structural data matrix. The data set was randomly divided into two groups: training set (40 molecules) and test set (5 molecules). In the final model 50 of the most effective of the structural descriptors on the partition coefficient were remained to model building by PLS calibration method. The optimum number of latent variables 5, which spanned 80% of the original variations of data matrix, was selected using leave one out cross validation method. Prediction ability of the model was tested by prediction of the partition coefficients of five unknown compounds and the mean relative error of prediction was 3.6%. The outliers were treated using leverage and score plots of the first third principal components. The efficiency of the new model was compared with Abraham model and it was found that the proposed model has more prediction ability.

  10. Building a Theoretical Model of Metacognitive Processes in Complex Modeling Activities: A Window into the Development of Students' Metacognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Rae

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model of metacognition in complex modeling activities has been developed based on existing frameworks, by synthesizing the re-conceptualization of metacognition at multiple levels by looking at the three sources that trigger metacognition. Using the theoretical model as a framework, this study was designed to explore how students'…

  11. A dynamical phyllotaxis model to determine floral organ number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho S Kitazawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots.

  12. Modeling organic matter stabilization during windrow composting of livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudart, D; Paul, E; Robin, P; Paillat, J M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is a complex bioprocess, requiring a lot of empirical experiments to optimize the process. A dynamical mathematical model for the biodegradation of the organic matter during the composting process has been developed. The initial organic matter expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) is decomposed into rapidly and slowly degraded compartments and an inert one. The biodegradable COD is hydrolysed and consumed by microorganisms and produces metabolic water and carbon dioxide. This model links a biochemical characterization of the organic matter by Van Soest fractionating with COD. The comparison of experimental and simulation results for carbon dioxide emission, dry matter and carbon content balance showed good correlation. The initial sizes of the biodegradable COD compartments are explained by the soluble, hemicellulose-like and lignin fraction. Their sizes influence the amplitude of the carbon dioxide emission peak. The initial biomass is a sensitive variable too, influencing the time at which the emission peak occurs.

  13. Simple model of self-organized biological evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, J.; Derrida, B.; Flyvbjerg, H.; Jackson, A.D.; Wettig, T. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States) The Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB4 0EH (United Kingdom) Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France) Service de Physique Theorique, Centre de Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France) CONNECT, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1994-08-08

    We give an exact solution of a recently proposed self-organized critical model of biological evolution. We show that the model has a power law distribution of durations of coevolutionary avalanches'' with a mean field exponent 3/2. We also calculate analytically the finite size effects which cut off this power law at times of the order of the system size.

  14. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S. R.; Brown, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    BeetleBase () is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software component...

  15. A two-site bipolaron model for organic magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, W.; Bloom, F. L.; Bobbert, P. A.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Koopmans, B.

    2008-04-01

    The recently proposed bipolaron model for large "organic magnetoresistance" (OMAR) at room temperature is extended to an analytically solvable two-site scheme. It is shown that even this extremely simplified approach reproduces some of the key features of OMAR, viz., the possibility to have both positive and negative magnetoresistance, as well as its universal line shapes. Specific behavior and limiting cases are discussed. Extensions of the model, to guide future experiments and numerical Monte Carlo studies, are suggested.

  16. Validation and Scenario Analysis of a Soil Organic Carbon Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; LIU Shi-liang; SHEN Qi-rong; ZONG Liang-gang; JIANG Ding-an; HUANG Hong-guang

    2002-01-01

    A model developed by the authors was validated against independent data sets. The data sets were obtained from field experiments of crop residue decomposition and a 7-year soil improvement in Yixing City, Jiangsu Province. Model validation indicated that soil organic carbon dynamics can be simulated from the weather variables of temperature, sunlight and precipitation, soil clay content and bulk density, grain yield of previous crops, qualities and quantities of the added organic matter. Model simulation in general agreed with the measurements. The comparison between computed and measured resulted in correlation coefficient γ2 values of 0.9291 * * * (n = 48) and 0. 6431 * * (n = 65) for the two experiments, respectively. Model prediction under three scenarios of no additional organic matter input, with an annual incorporation of rice and wheat straw at rates of 6.75t/ha and 9.0t/ha suggested that the soil organic carbon in Wanshi Township of Yixing City would be from an initial value of 7.85g/kg in 1983 to 6.30g/kg, 11.42g/kg and 13g/kg in 2014, respectively. Consequently, total nitrogen content of the soil was predicted to be respectively 0.49g/kg,0.89g/kg and 1.01g/kg under the three scenarios.

  17. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  18. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  19. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  20. Editorial: Plant organ abscission: from models to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shedding of plant organs is a highly coordinated process essential for both vegetative and reproductive development (Addicott, 1982; Sexton and Roberts, 1982; Roberts et al., 2002; Leslie et al., 2007; Roberts and Gonzalez-Carranza, 2007; Estornell et al., 2013). Research with model plants, name...

  1. SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Most current soil organic matter (SOM) models represent the soil as a bulk without specification of the vertical distribution of SOM in the soil profile. However, the vertical SOM profile may be of great importance for soil carbon cycling, both on short (hours to years) time scale, due to

  2. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  3. The glass-forming ability of model metal-metalloid alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are amorphous alloys with desirable mechanical properties and processing capabilities. To date, the design of new BMGs has largely employed empirical rules and trial-and-error experimental approaches. Ab initio computational methods are currently prohibitively slow to be practically used in searching the vast space of possible atomic combinations for bulk glass formers. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained, anisotropic potential, which mimics interatomic covalent bonding, to measure the critical cooling rates for metal-metalloid alloys as a function of the atomic size ratio σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and number fraction x{sub S} of the metalloid species. We show that the regime in the space of σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and x{sub S} where well-mixed, optimal glass formers occur for patchy and LJ particle mixtures, coincides with that for experimentally observed metal-metalloid glass formers. Thus, our simple computational model provides the capability to perform combinatorial searches to identify novel glass-forming alloys.

  4. The glass-forming ability of model metal-metalloid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-03-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are amorphous alloys with desirable mechanical properties and processing capabilities. To date, the design of new BMGs has largely employed empirical rules and trial-and-error experimental approaches. Ab initio computational methods are currently prohibitively slow to be practically used in searching the vast space of possible atomic combinations for bulk glass formers. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained, anisotropic potential, which mimics interatomic covalent bonding, to measure the critical cooling rates for metal-metalloid alloys as a function of the atomic size ratio σS/σL and number fraction xS of the metalloid species. We show that the regime in the space of σS/σL and xS where well-mixed, optimal glass formers occur for patchy and LJ particle mixtures, coincides with that for experimentally observed metal-metalloid glass formers. Thus, our simple computational model provides the capability to perform combinatorial searches to identify novel glass-forming alloys.

  5. Atomistic modelling and prediction of glass forming ability in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Sina

    Atomistic modeling (via molecular dynamics with EAM interaction potentials) was conducted for the detailed investigation of kinetics, thermodynamics, structure, and bonding in Ni-Al and Cu-Zr metallic glasses. This work correlates GFA with the nature of atomic-level bonding and vibrational properties, with results potentially extensible to the Transition Metal -- Transition Metal and Transition Metal -- Metalloid alloy classes in general. As a first step in the development of a liquid-only GFA tuning approach, an automated tool has also been created for the broad compositional sampling of liquid and glassy phase properties in multicomponent (binary, ternary, quaternary) alloy systems. Its application to the Cu-Zr alloy system shows promising results, including the successful identification of the two highest GFA compositions, Cu50Zr50 and Cu64Zr 36. Combined, the findings of this work highlight the critical importance of incorporating more complex alloy-specific information regarding the nature of bonding and ordering at the atomic level into such an approach.

  6. The ability of general circulation models to simulate tropical cyclones and their precursors over the North Atlantic main development region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Chauvin, Fabrice [Groupe de Modelisation Grande Echelle et Climat, CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Walsh, Kevin [University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lavender, Sally; Abbs, Deborah [CSIRO Atmospheric and Marine Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Roux, Frank [Universite de Toulouse and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d' Aerologie, Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    The ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to generate Tropical Cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic Main Development Region (MDR; 10-20 N, 20-80 W; Goldenberg and Shapiro in J Clim 9:1169-1187, 1996) is examined through a subset of ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations from the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multimodel data set and a high-resolution (0.5 ) Sea Surface Temperature (SST)-forced simulation from the Australian Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model GCM. The results are compared with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-2) and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) reanalyses over a common period from 1980 to 1998. Important biases in the representation of the TC activity are encountered over the MDR. This study emphasizes the strong link in the GCMs between African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and TC activity in this region. However, the generation of AEWs is not a sufficient condition alone for the models to produce TCs. Precipitation over the Sahel, especially rainfall over the Fouta Djallon highlands (cf. Fig. 1), is playing a role in the generation of TCs over the MDR. The influence of large-scale fields such as SST, vertical wind shear and tropospheric humidity on TC genesis is also examined. The ability of TC genesis indices, such as the Genesis Potential Index and the Convective Yearly Genesis Potential, to represent TC activity over the MDR in simulations at low to high spatial resolutions is analysed. These indices are found to be a reasonable method for comparing cyclogenesis in different models, even though other factors such as AEW activity should also be considered. (orig.)

  7. Designing an Effective Female Leadership Model in Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah MALEKI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since leadership is a critical factor for improving organizational performance, failure or success of an organization highly depends on the efficiency of leadership at all levels. Scholars elaborated that leadership is the ability of influencing one's attitudes, aptitudes and beliefs, in the way that it will lead to meet organizational objectives. The main purpose of this study is to consider two domains of efficient leadership and women’s leadership style, in order to determine and elaborate the dimensions of the new concept of “Women’s Efficient Leadership”. We intend to describe the characteristics of women’s efficient leadership in state organizations in Iran by means of offering a logical pattern, in order to be able to propose a favorable pattern, leading to increased efficiency in governmental organizations of the country. Innovation of this study can be divided into two parts: one is theoretical contribution and developing the knowledge of efficient leadership as well as women’s leadership style, and the second one is scientific contribution and proposing a pattern for women’s efficient leadership in state organizations, using compound approach. The outcomes of this study show that women’s efficient leadership in state organizations consists of 7 subjects, 17 dimensions, and 85 components, which represent various characteristics in different periods of time. The thesis that women’s efficient leadership has an evolving nature was approved and that it consists of a combination of factors such as capability of team making, having vision, cognitive and psychological capabilities, able to bring continuous improvement of organizational performance, mentoring and making effective relations. In this study, the influence of mentioned factors on women’s efficient leadership has been investigated by means of questionnaires and has been approved.

  8. Supramolecular organization of functional organic materials in the bulk and at organic/organic interfaces: a modeling and computer simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccioli, Luca; D'Avino, Gabriele; Berardi, Roberto; Orlandi, Silvia; Pizzirusso, Antonio; Ricci, Matteo; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Zannoni, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The molecular organization of functional organic materials is one of the research areas where the combination of theoretical modeling and experimental determinations is most fruitful. Here we present a brief summary of the simulation approaches used to investigate the inner structure of organic materials with semiconducting behavior, paying special attention to applications in organic photovoltaics and clarifying the often obscure jargon hindering the access of newcomers to the literature of the field. Special attention is paid to the choice of the computational "engine" (Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics) used to generate equilibrium configurations of the molecular system under investigation and, more importantly, to the choice of the chemical details in describing the molecular interactions. Recent literature dealing with the simulation of organic semiconductors is critically reviewed in order of increasing complexity of the system studied, from low molecular weight molecules to semiflexible polymers, including the challenging problem of determining the morphology of heterojunctions between two different materials.

  9. Modeling secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the potential formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA through reactions of organic compounds in condensed aqueous phases is growing. In this study, the potential formation of SOA from irreversible aqueous-phase reactions of organic species in clouds was investigated. A new proposed aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism (AqChem is coupled with the existing gas-phase Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM and the Model to Predict the Multiphase Partitioning of Organics (MPMPO that simulate SOA formation. AqChem treats irreversible organic reactions that lead mainly to the formation of carboxylic acids, which are usually less volatile than the corresponding aldehydic compounds. Zero-dimensional model simulations were performed for tropospheric conditions with clouds present for three consecutive hours per day. Zero-dimensional model simulations show that 48-h average SOA formation is increased by 27% for a rural scenario with strong monoterpene emissions and 7% for an urban scenario with strong emissions of aromatic compounds, respectively, when irreversible organic reactions in clouds are considered. AqChem was also incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.4 with CACM/MPMPO and applied to a previously studied photochemical episode (3–4 August 2004 focusing on the eastern United States. The CMAQ study indicates that the maximum contribution of SOA formation from irreversible reactions of organics in clouds is 0.28 μg m−3 for 24-h average concentrations and 0.60 μg m−3 for one-hour average concentrations at certain locations. On average, domain-wide surface SOA predictions for the episode are increased by 9% when irreversible, in-cloud processing of organics is considered. Because aldehydes of carbon number greater than four are assumed to convert fully to the corresponding carboxylic acids upon reaction with OH in cloud droplets and this assumption may overestimate

  10. Testing the Ability of Numerical Model to Simulate Climate and Its Change With 4D-EOF Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The four-dimensional empirical orthogonal function (4D-EOF), which in reality is a simple combination of three-dimensional EOF (3D-EOF) and extended EOF (EEOF), is put forward in this paper to test the ability of numerical model to simulate climate and its change. The 4D-EOF analysis is able to reveal not only the horizontal characteristic pattern of analyzed variable, and its corresponding annual and inter-annual variations, but also the vertical structural characteristics. The method suggested is then used to analyze the monthly mean 100-, 500-, 700-, and 1000-hPa geopotential height fields (4941 grids and grid spacing 60 km) and their anomaly fields in 1989-1998 simulated by the MM5V3 from the RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project for East Asia)-Ⅱ, as well as their counterparts (used as the observed fields)from the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis dataset in the same period. The ability of MM5V3 in simulating East Asian climate and its change is tested by comparing the 4D-EOF analysis results of the simulated and observed datasets. The comparative analyzed results show that the horizontal pattern of the first eigenvector of the observed monthly mean geopotential height fields and its vertical equivalent barotropic feature were well simulated; the simulations of the first two eigenvectors of the observed monthly mean geopotential height anomaly fields were also successful for their horizontal abnormal distributions and significant equivalent barotropic features in the vertical were well reproduced; and furthermore, the observed characteristics,such as the variation with height, the annual and inter-annual variations of the monthly mean geopotential height/anomaly fields were also well reflected in the simulation. Therefore, the 4D-EOF is able to comprehensively test numerical model's ability of simulating the climate and its change, and the simulation ability of MM5V3 for the climate and its change in East Asia in the 1990s was satisfactory.

  11. Assessment of the interns’ ability based on Dundee model in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRA AMINI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of medical profession and the role of the physician in society is no secret to anyone. Skills and competencies in clinical practice are necessary for the medical profession. In fact, in patient care, doctors require practical skills in addition to scientific knowledge. This study examines the potentials of medical school students in three areas of doing the right thing, doing the right thing in an intermediate range, and doing the right thing by the right person. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive-analytical and sectional model. The population of this study was all interns of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were passing internship at Internal Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Emergency wards. About 100 persons were selected were selected by simple randomization. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with 12 questions was designed in two parts. The questionnaire was approved by 7 Faculty members of Clinical Medicine and Medical Education, and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 medical students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (82%. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 14 using descriptive statistical methods. Results: Results showed that within the inner circle, interns evaluated their skills in surgery, internal medicine, and gynecology wards, intermediate and at other wards as weak. Also within the center circle, interns evaluated adequate educational evidence-based training in the field of medicine, and sufficiency of educational training in the field of clinical decision making and clinical care as suitable. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that medical interns’ skills in performing most medical skills are moderate. So teaching students by new educational methods and workshop techniques, using experienced teachers will be effective. The use of clinical skills training centers and objective

  12. Ability of alpha-lipoic acid to reverse the diabetic cystopathy in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-jun JIANG; Da-xin GONG; Hai-bo LIU; Chun-ming YANG; Zhi-xi SUN; Chui-ze KONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate whether alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is able to reverse impaired bladder function induced by diabetes in a rat model and to explore the possible mechanism mediating the effect. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 age-matched groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM) treated with vehicle, and DM with α-LA treatment. The diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Six weeks after the induction of DM, the two groups received another 6 weeks of treatment with vehicle or α-LA (100 mg/kg, ip). Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured weekly. The bladder function was evaluated by in vitro cystometry. The oxidative stress status was determined by biochemical methods, and the level of nerve growth factor was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed impaired bladder function characterized by increased bladder capacity, decreased bladder contractility (voiding efficiency), and an increase in residual urine. Treat-ment with α-LA significantly normalized the increased bladder capacity for induc-ing voiding, single-voided volume, and post-void residual volume, α-LA treat-ment significantly reversed the increased level of malondialdehyde and reduced the activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase. DM caused a decrease in the bladder nerve growth factor (NGF) level, and α-LA upregulated the level of NGF in the diabetic rat bladder. Conclusion: These results indicate that α-LA has a beneficial effect on diabetes-induced cystopathy by ameliorating oxidative stress and normalizing the NGF level in the bladder.

  13. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  14. Global Modeling of the Oceanic Source of Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Myriokefalitakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The global marine organic aerosol budget is investigated by a 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model considering recently proposed parameterisations of the primary marine organic aerosol (POA and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the oxidation of marine volatile organic compounds. MODIS and SeaWiFS satellite data of Chlorophyll-a and ECMWF solar incoming radiation, wind speed, and temperature are driving the oceanic emissions in the model. Based on the adopted parameterisations, the SOA and the submicron POA marine sources are evaluated at about 5 Tg yr−1 (∼1.5 Tg C yr−1 and 7 to 8 Tg yr−1 (∼4 Tg C yr−1, respectively. The computed marine SOA originates from the dimethylsulfide oxidation (∼78%, the potentially formed dialkyl amine salts (∼21%, and marine hydrocarbon oxidation (∼0.1%. Comparison of calculations with observations indicates an additional marine source of soluble organic carbon that could be partially encountered by marine POA chemical ageing.

  15. Prognostic Abilities and Quality Assessment of Models for the Prediction of 90-Day Mortality in Liver Transplant Waiting List Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, Marc; Kaltenborn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-score and diverse variants are widely used for prognosis on liver transplant waiting-lists. Methods 818 consecutive patients on the liver transplant waiting-list included to calculate the MELD, MESO Index, MELD-Na, UKELD, iMELD, refitMELD, refitMELD-Na, upMELD and PELD-scores. Prognostic abilities for 90-day mortality were investigated applying Receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Independent risk factors for 90-day mortality were identified with multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. Methodological quality of the underlying development studies was assessed with a systematic assessment tool. Results 74 patients (9%) died on the liver transplant waiting list within 90 days after listing. All but one scores, refitMELD-Na, had acceptable prognostic performance with areas under the ROC-curves (AUROCs)>0.700. The iMELD performed best (AUROC = 0.798). In pediatric cases, the PELD-score just failed to reach the acceptable threshold with an AUROC = 0.699. All scores reached a mean quality score of 72.3%. Highest quality scores could be achieved by the UKELD and PELD-scores. Studies specifically lack statistical validity and model evaluation. Conclusions Inferior quality assessment of prognostic models does not necessarily imply inferior prognostic abilities. The iMELD might be a more reliable tool representing urgency of transplantation than the MELD-score. PELD-score is assumedly not accurate enough to allow graft allocation decision in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:28129338

  16. Accounting for microbial habitats in modeling soil organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Garnier, Patricia; Nunan, Naoise; Pot, Valérie; Raynaud, Xavier; Vieublé, Laure; Otten, Wilfred; Falconer, Ruth; Monga, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The extreme heterogeneity of soils constituents, architecture and inhabitants at the microscopic scale is increasingly recognized. Microbial communities exist and are active in a complex 3-D physical framework of mineral and organic particles defining pores of various sizes, more or less inter-connected. This results in a frequent spatial disconnection between soil carbon, energy sources and the decomposer organisms and a variety of microhabitats that are more or less suitable for microbial growth and activity. However, current biogeochemical models account for C dynamics at the macroscale (cm, m) and consider time- and spatially averaged relationships between microbial activity and soil characteristics. Different modelling approaches have intended to account for this microscale heterogeneity, based either on considering aggregates as surrogates for microbial habitats, or pores. Innovative modelling approaches are based on an explicit representation of soil structure at the fine scale, i.e. at µm to mm scales: pore architecture and their saturation with water, localization of organic resources and of microorganisms. Three recent models are presented here, that describe the heterotrophic activity of either bacteria or fungi and are based upon different strategies to represent the complex soil pore system (Mosaic, LBios and µFun). These models allow to hierarchize factors of microbial activity in soil's heterogeneous architecture. Present limits of these approaches and challenges are presented, regarding the extensive information required on soils at the microscale and to up-scale microbial functioning from the pore to the core scale.

  17. Model Based Fuzzy Expert System for Measuring Organization Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Taghizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model based on fuzzy set theory for determining the score of knowledge management in organization. The introduced model has five stages. In the first stage, input and output variable of model are characterized by available theories. Inputs are as follows: knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer. The output is as follow score of knowledge management in organization. In the second stage, the input and output are converted into fuzzy numbers after classification. Inference rules are explained in the third stage. In the fourth stage, defuzzification is performed, and in the fifth stage, the devised system is tested. The test result shows that the presented model has high validity. Ultimately, by using the designed model, the score of knowledge management for Tabriz Kar machinery industry was calculated. The statistical population consists of 50 members of this organization. All the population has been studied. A questionnaire was devised, and its validity and reliability were confirmed. The result indicated that the score of knowledge management in Tabriz Kar machinery industry with the membership rank of 0.924 was at an average level and with the membership rank of 0.076 was at a high

  18. Modeling organic nitrogen conversions in activated sludge bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Stensel, H David

    2011-01-01

    For biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems designed to maximize nitrogen removal, the effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration may range from 2.0 to 4.0 g N/m(3) with about 25-50% in the form of organic nitrogen (ON). In this study, current approaches to modeling organic N conversions (separate processes vs. constant contents of organic fractions) were compared. A new conceptual model of ON conversions was developed and combined with Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d). The model addresses a new insight into the processes of ammonification, biomass decay and hydrolysis of particulate and colloidal ON (PON and CON, respectively). Three major ON fractions incorporated are defined as dissolved (DON) (model parameter set, the behaviors of both inorganic N forms (NH4-N, NOX-N) and ON forms (DON, CON) in the batch experiments were predicted. The challenges to accurately simulate and predict effluent ON levels from BNR systems are due to analytical methods of direct ON measurement (replacing TKN) and lack of large enough database (in-process measurements, dynamic variations of the ON concentrations) which can be used to determine parameter value ranges.

  19. THE MODEL OF EXTERNSHIP ORGANIZATION FOR FUTURE TEACHERS: QUALIMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya A. Isaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present author’s model for bachelors – future teachers of vocational training. The model is been worked out from the standpoint of qualimetric approach and provides a pedagogical training.Methods. The process is based on the literature analysis of externship organization for students in higher education and includes the SWOT-analysis techniques in pedagogical training. The method of group expert evaluation is the main method of pedagogical qualimetry. Structural components of professional pedagogical competency of students-future teachers are defined. It allows us to determine a development level and criterion of estimation on mastering programme «Vocational training (branch-wise».Results. This article interprets the concept «pedagogical training»; its basic organization principles during students’ practice are stated. The methods of expert group formation are presented: self-assessment and personal data.Scientific novelty. The externship organization model for future teachers is developed. This model is based on pedagogical training, using qualimetric approach and the SWOT-analysis techniques. Proposed criterion-assessment procedures are managed to determine the developing levels of professional and pedagogical competency.Practical significance. The model is introduced into pedagogical training of educational process of Kalashnikov’s Izhevsk State Technical University, and can be used in other similar educational establishments.

  20. Self-organizing model of motor cortical activities during drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Siming H.; Si, Jennie; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    1996-05-01

    The population vector algorithm has been developed to combine the simultaneous direction- related activities of a population of motor cortical neurons to predict the trajectory of the arm movement. In our study, we consider a self-organizing model of a neural representation of the arm trajectory based on neuronal discharge rates. Self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM) is used to select the optimal set of weights in the model to determine the contribution of individual neuron to the overall movement. The correspondence between the movement directions and the discharge patterns of the motor cortical neurons is established in the output map. The topology preserving property of the SOFM is used to analyze real recorded data of a behavior monkey. The data used in this analysis were taken while the monkey was drawing spirals and doing the center out movement. Using such a statistical model, the monkey's arm moving directions could be well predicted based on the motor cortex neuronal firing information.

  1. Rotation in turbulence of aquatic organisms modeled as particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan; Byron, Margaret; Bellani, Gabriele

    2012-11-01

    We investigate which length and time scales are relevant for determining the rotation of aquatic organisms and their gametes. We are interested in parameter space beyond the Stokes regime, and also the effect of particle shape on rotation. We report experimental measurements that use custom-manufactured particles to model aquatic organisms, which are designed with the necessary optical properties so that we can measure their rotation, simultaneously with the vorticity statistics of the surrounding fluid. Lagrangian timeseries of particles' angular velocity allows investigation of rotational diffusion.

  2. Modeling stable isotope and organic carbon in hillslope stormflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Marx, Anne; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Votrubova, Jana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Cislerova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    Reliable prediction of water movement and fluxes of dissolved substances (such as stable isotopes and organic carbon) at both the hillslope and the catchment scales remains a challenge due to complex boundary conditions and soil spatial heterogeneity. In addition, microbially mediated transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are known to affect balance of DOC in soils, hence the transformations need to be included in a conceptual model of a DOC transport. So far, only few studies utilized stable isotope information in modeling and even fewer linked dissolved carbon fluxes to mixing and/or transport models. In this study, stormflow dynamics of oxygen-18 isotope and dissolved organic carbon was analyzed using a physically based modeling approach. One-dimensional dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model, based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations, was used to simulate the subsurface transport processes in a forest soil during several observed rainfall-runoff episodes. The transport of heat in the soil profile was described by conduction-advection equation. Water flow and transport of solutes and heat were assumed to take place in two mutually communicating porous domains, the soil matrix and the network of preferential pathways. The rate of microbial transformations of DOC was assumed to depend on soil water content and soil temperature. Oxygen-18 and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were observed in soil pore water, hillslope stormflow (collected in the experimental hillslope trench), and stream discharge (at the catchment outlet). The modeling was used to analyze the transformation of input solute signals into output hillslope signals observed in the trench stormflow. Signatures of oxygen-18 isotope in hillslope stormflow as well as isotope concentration in soil pore water were predicted reasonably well. Due to complex nature of microbial transformations, prediction of DOC rate and transport was associated with a high uncertainty.

  3. Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Roderick R.; Liberman, Vladimir; Downs, Deanna K.

    2000-07-01

    Photodeposition of organic films on transparent substrates irradiated in the presence of trace levels of hydrocarbons has been experimentally investigated and a model is presented that describes the film growth behavior. The efficacy of a given organic precursor at forming a deposit is proportional to the product of its surface coverage and by its photon absorption cross section. These measurement are important in predicting the transmission characteristics of lithographic optics operating at 157-, 193-, and 248-nm wavelength. For example, a lens element irradiated continuously for one year in the presence of 1 part per billion of t-butyl benzene would exhibit a transmission of approximately 87 percent at 193 nm. The effects of oxygen- containing ambients are also documented, and methods for elimination and/or prevention of organic contamination are suggested.

  4. Organic livestock production systems as a model of sustainability development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Pauselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming and livestock production offer effective means of satisfying consumer demand for healthy and safe foods and reducing the environmental pressure of agricultural production. In Mediterranean areas organic livestock production could be considered a feasible systems to improve rural development in unfavourable areas and to maintain rural landscape. Constrains, like pasture availability during the year, determine the evolution of different strategies in livestock rearing to improve or maintain net income of population. Moreover the evaluation of the sustainability using a holistic approach using assessment criteria like Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Emergy Assessment could be considered models to evaluate organic and conventional livestock production sustainability and at the same time new research fields.

  5. IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Gastaud Maçada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the capacity Information Technology (IT has for generating value for organizations. Investments in IT made by organizations have increased each year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the IT Business Value for Information Intensive Organizations (IIO - e.g. banks, insurance companies and securities brokers. The research method consisted of a survey that used and combined the models from Weill and Broadbent (1998 and Gregor, Martin, Fernandez, Stern and Vitale (2006. Data was gathered using an adapted instrument containing 5 dimensions (Strategic, Informational, Transactional, Transformational and Infra-structure with 27 items. The instrument was refined by employing statistical techniques such as Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis through Structural Equations (first and second order Model Measurement. The final model is composed of four factors related to IT Business Value: Strategic, Informational, Transactional and Transformational, arranged in 15 items. The dimension Infra-structure was excluded during the model refinement process because it was discovered during interviews that managers were unable to perceive it as a distinct dimension of IT Business Value.

  6. Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136. The simplicity of the model offers a clear understanding of the main properties of city traffic and its phase transitions. We use the proposed model to compare two methods for coordinating traffic lights: a green-wave method that tries to optimize phases according to expected flows and a self-organizing method that adapts to the current traffic conditions. The self-organizing method delivers considerable improvements over the green-wave method. For low densities, the self-organizing method promotes the formation and coordination of platoons that flow freely in four directions, i.e. with a maximum velocity and no stops. For medium densities, the method allows a constant usage of the intersections, exploiting their maximum flux capacity. For high dens...

  7. Nonequilibrium drift-diffusion model for organic semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felekidis, Nikolaos; Melianas, Armantas; Kemerink, Martijn

    2016-07-01

    Two prevailing formalisms are currently used to model charge transport in organic semiconductor devices. Drift-diffusion calculations, on the one hand, are time effective but assume local thermodynamic equilibrium, which is not always realistic. Kinetic Monte Carlo models, on the other hand, do not require this assumption but are computationally expensive. Here, we present a nonequilibrium drift-diffusion model that bridges this gap by fusing the established multiple trap and release formalism with the drift-diffusion transport equation. For a prototypical photovoltaic system the model is shown to quantitatively describe, with a single set of parameters, experiments probing (1) temperature-dependent steady-state charge transport—space-charge limited currents, and (2) time-resolved charge transport and relaxation of nonequilibrated photocreated charges. Moreover, the outputs of the developed kinetic drift-diffusion model are an order of magnitude, or more, faster to compute and in good agreement with kinetic Monte Carlo calculations.

  8. Modeling regional secondary organic aerosol using the Master Chemical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Cleveland, Meredith; Ziemba, Luke D.; Griffin, Robert J.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.; Ying, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A modified near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.2) with 5727 species and 16,930 reactions and an equilibrium partitioning module was incorporated into the Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to predict the regional concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the eastern United States (US). In addition to the semi-volatile SOA from equilibrium partitioning, reactive surface uptake processes were used to simulate SOA formation due to isoprene epoxydiol, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The CMAQ-MCM-SOA model was applied to simulate SOA formation during a two-week episode from August 28 to September 7, 2006. The southeastern US has the highest SOA, with a maximum episode-averaged concentration of ∼12 μg m-3. Primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA concentrations predicted by CMAQ-MCM-SOA agree well with AMS-derived hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) urban concentrations at the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Predicted molecular properties of SOA (O/C, H/C, N/C and OM/OC ratios) at the site are similar to those reported in other urban areas, and O/C values agree with measured O/C at the same site. Isoprene epoxydiol is predicted to be the largest contributor to total SOA concentration in the southeast US, followed by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. The semi-volatile SOA components are dominated by products from β-caryophyllene oxidation, but the major species and their concentrations are sensitive to errors in saturation vapor pressure estimation. A uniform decrease of saturation vapor pressure by a factor of 100 for all condensable compounds can lead to a 150% increase in total SOA. A sensitivity simulation with UNIFAC-calculated activity coefficients (ignoring phase separation and water molecule partitioning into the organic phase) led to a 10% change in the predicted semi-volatile SOA concentrations.

  9. Model Establishment for Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; LIU Shi-liang; SHEN Qi-rong; ZONG Liang-gang

    2002-01-01

    Assuming that decomposition of organic matter in soils follows the first-order kinetics reaction,a computer model was developed to simulate soil organic matter dynamics. Organic matter in soils is divided up into two parts that include incorporated organic carbon from crop residues or other organic fertilizer and soil intrinsic carbon. The incorporated organic carbon was assumed to consist of two components, labile-C and resistant-C. The model was represented by a differential equation of dCi/dt = Ki× fT × fw × fs × Ci ( i = l,r, S ) and an integral equation of Cit = Cio × EXP ( Ki X fT X fw X fs X t ). Effect of soil parameters of temperature, moisture and texture on the decomposition was functioned by the fT, fw and fs, respectively.Data from laboratory incubation experiments were used to determine the first-order decay rate Ki and the fraction of labile-C of crop residues by employing a nonlinear method. The values of K for the components of labile-C and resistant-C and the soil intrinsic carbon were evaluated to be 0. 025,0. 080 × 10-2 and 0. 065 ×10-3d-1, respectively. The labile-C fraction of wheat straw, wheat roots, rice straw and rice roots were0.50, 0.25, 0.40 and 0.20, respectively. These values are related to the initial residue carbon-to-nitrogen ratio ( C/N) and lignin content.

  10. Mobility dependent recombination models for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenpfahl, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Modern solar cell technologies are driven by the effort to enhance power conversion efficiencies. A main mechanism limiting power conversion efficiencies is charge carrier recombination which is a direct function of the encounter probability of both recombination partners. In inorganic solar cells with rather high charge carrier mobilities, charge carrier recombination is often dominated by energetic states which subsequently trap both recombination partners for recombination. Free charge carriers move fast enough for Coulomb attraction to be irrelevant for the encounter probability. Thus, charge carrier recombination is independent of charge carrier mobilities. In organic semiconductors charge carrier mobilities are much lower. Therefore, electrons and holes have more time react to mutual Coulomb-forces. This results in the strong charge carrier mobility dependencies of the observed charge carrier recombination rates. In 1903 Paul Langevin published a fundamental model to describe the recombination of ions in gas-phase or aqueous solutions, known today as Langevin recombination. During the last decades this model was used to interpret and model recombination in organic semiconductors. However, certain experiments especially with bulk-heterojunction solar cells reveal much lower recombination rates than predicted by Langevin. In search of an explanation, many material and device properties such as morphology and energetic properties have been examined in order to extend the validity of the Langevin model. A key argument for most of these extended models is, that electron and hole must find each other at a mutual spatial location. This encounter may be limited for instance by trapping of charges in trap states, by selective electrodes separating electrons and holes, or simply by the morphology of the involved semiconductors, making it impossible for electrons and holes to recombine at high rates. In this review, we discuss the development of mobility limited

  11. Model evaluation of marine primary organic aerosol emission schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gantt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several marine primary organic aerosol (POA emission schemes have been evaluated using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to provide guidance for their implementation in air quality and climate models. These emission schemes, based on varying dependencies of chlorophyll a concentration ([chl a] and 10 m wind speed (U10, have large differences in their magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality. Model comparison with weekly and monthly mean values of the organic aerosol mass concentration at two coastal sites shows that the source function exclusively related to [chl a] does a better job replicating surface observations. Sensitivity simulations in which the negative U10 and positive [chl a] dependence of the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol are enhanced show improved prediction of the seasonality of the marine POA concentrations. A top-down estimate of submicron marine POA emissions based on the parameterization that compares best to the observed weekly and monthly mean values of marine organic aerosol surface concentrations has a global average emission rate of 6.3 Tg yr−1. Evaluation of existing marine POA source functions against a case study during which marine POA contributed the major fraction of submicron aerosol mass shows that none of the existing parameterizations are able to reproduce the hourly-averaged observations. Our calculations suggest that in order to capture episodic events and short-term variability in submicron marine POA concentration over the ocean, new source functions need to be developed that are grounded in the physical processes unique to the organic fraction of sea spray aerosol.

  12. Model evaluation of marine primary organic aerosol emission schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Sciare, J.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, several marine primary organic aerosol (POA) emission schemes have been evaluated using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to provide guidance for their implementation in air quality and climate models. These emission schemes, based on varying dependencies of chlorophyll a concentration ([chl a]) and 10 m wind speed (U10), have large differences in their magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality. Model comparison with weekly and monthly mean values of the organic aerosol mass concentration at two coastal sites shows that the source function exclusively related to [chl a] does a better job replicating surface observations. Sensitivity simulations in which the negative U10 and positive [chl a] dependence of the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol are enhanced show improved prediction of the seasonality of the marine POA concentrations. A top-down estimate of submicron marine POA emissions based on the parameterization that compares best to the observed weekly and monthly mean values of marine organic aerosol surface concentrations has a global average emission rate of 6.3 Tg yr-1. Evaluation of existing marine POA source functions against a case study during which marine POA contributed the major fraction of submicron aerosol mass shows that none of the existing parameterizations are able to reproduce the hourly-averaged observations. Our calculations suggest that in order to capture episodic events and short-term variability in submicron marine POA concentration over the ocean, new source functions need to be developed that are grounded in the physical processes unique to the organic fraction of sea spray aerosol.

  13. The Development of Learning Devices Based Guided Discovery Model to Improve Understanding Concept and Critical Thinking Mathematically Ability of Students at Islamic Junior High School of Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, Kiki; Saragih, Sahat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to: 1) development of learning devices based guided discovery model in improving of understanding concept and critical thinking mathematically ability of students at Islamic Junior High School; 2) describe improvement understanding concept and critical thinking mathematically ability of students at MTs by using…

  14. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  15. Dissecting genetic and environmental mutation signatures with model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Romulo; Tam, Annie S; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    Deep sequencing has impacted on cancer research by enabling routine sequencing of genomes and exomes to identify genetic changes associated with carcinogenesis. Researchers can now use the frequency, type, and context of all mutations in tumor genomes to extract mutation signatures that reflect the driving mutational processes. Identifying mutation signatures, however, may not immediately suggest a mechanism. Consequently, several recent studies have employed deep sequencing of model organisms exposed to discrete genetic or environmental perturbations. These studies exploit the simpler genomes and availability of powerful genetic tools in model organisms to analyze mutation signatures under controlled conditions, forging mechanistic links between mutational processes and signatures. We discuss the power of this approach and suggest that many such studies may be on the horizon.

  16. Semantic network based component organization model for program mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张尧学; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Based on the definition of component ontology, an effective component classification mechanism and a facet named component relationship are proposed. Then an application domain oriented, hierarchical component organization model is established. At last a hierarchical component semantic network (HCSN) described by ontology interchange language(OIL) is presented and then its function is described. Using HCSN and cooperating with other components retrieving algorithms based on component description, other components information and their assembly or composite modes related to the key component can be found. Based on HCSN, component directory library is catalogued and a prototype system is constructed. The prototype system proves that component library organization based on this model gives guarantee to the reliability of component assembly during program mining.

  17. Multispecies QSAR modeling for predicting the aquatic toxicity of diverse organic chemicals for regulatory toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Kumar, Anuj; Mohan, Dinesh

    2014-05-19

    The research aims to develop multispecies quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) modeling tools capable of predicting the acute toxicity of diverse chemicals in various Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended test species of different trophic levels for regulatory toxicology. Accordingly, the ensemble learning (EL) approach based classification and regression QSAR models, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were developed using the algae (P. subcapitata) experimental toxicity data for chemicals. The EL-QSAR models were successfully applied to predict toxicities of wide groups of chemicals in other test species including algae (S. obliguue), daphnia, fish, and bacteria. Structural diversity of the selected chemicals and those of the end-point toxicity data of five different test species were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of the constructed QSAR models were compared using statistical parameters. The developed QSAR models (DTB and DTF) yielded a considerably high classification accuracy in complete data of model building (algae) species (97.82%, 99.01%) and ranged between 92.50%-94.26% and 92.14%-94.12% in four test species, respectively, whereas regression QSAR models (DTB and DTF) rendered high correlation (R(2)) between the measured and model predicted toxicity end-point values and low mean-squared error in model building (algae) species (0.918, 0.15; 0.905, 0.21) and ranged between 0.575 and 0.672, 0.18-0.51 and 0.605-0.689 and 0.20-0.45 in four different test species. The developed QSAR models exhibited good predictive and generalization abilities in different test species of varied trophic levels and can be used for predicting the toxicities of new chemicals for screening and prioritization of chemicals for regulation.

  18. Using an Informative Missing Data Model to Predict the Ability to Assess Recovery of Balance Control after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Wood, Scott J.; Jain, Varsha

    2008-01-01

    Astronauts show degraded balance control immediately after spaceflight. To assess this change, astronauts' ability to maintain a fixed stance under several challenging stimuli on a movable platform is quantified by "equilibrium" scores (EQs) on a scale of 0 to 100, where 100 represents perfect control (sway angle of 0) and 0 represents data loss where no sway angle is observed because the subject has to be restrained from falling. By comparing post- to pre-flight EQs for actual astronauts vs. controls, we built a classifier for deciding when an astronaut has recovered. Future diagnostic performance depends both on the sampling distribution of the classifier as well as the distribution of its input data. Taking this into consideration, we constructed a predictive ROC by simulation after modeling P(EQ = 0) in terms of a latent EQ-like beta-distributed random variable with random effects.

  19. Mechanical models for the self-organization of tubular patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chin-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Organogenesis, such as long tubule self-organization, requires long-range coordination of cell mechanics to arrange cell positions and to remodel the extracellular matrix. While the current mainstream in the field of tissue morphogenesis focuses primarily on genetics and chemical signaling, the influence of cell mechanics on the programming of patterning cues in tissue morphogenesis has not been adequately addressed. Here, we review experimental evidence and propose quantitative mechanical models by which cells can create tubular patterns.

  20. Spatial self-organization in hybrid models of multicellular adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforti, Adriano; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Montañez, Raúl; Solé, Ricard

    2016-10-01

    Spatial self-organization emerges in distributed systems exhibiting local interactions when nonlinearities and the appropriate propagation of signals are at work. These kinds of phenomena can be modeled with different frameworks, typically cellular automata or reaction-diffusion systems. A different class of dynamical processes involves the correlated movement of agents over space, which can be mediated through chemotactic movement or minimization of cell-cell interaction energy. A classic example of the latter is given by the formation of spatially segregated assemblies when cells display differential adhesion. Here, we consider a new class of dynamical models, involving cell adhesion among two stochastically exchangeable cell states as a minimal model capable of exhibiting well-defined, ordered spatial patterns. Our results suggest that a whole space of pattern-forming rules is hosted by the combination of physical differential adhesion and the value of probabilities modulating cell phenotypic switching, showing that Turing-like patterns can be obtained without resorting to reaction-diffusion processes. If the model is expanded allowing cells to proliferate and die in an environment where diffusible nutrient and toxic waste are at play, different phases are observed, characterized by regularly spaced patterns. The analysis of the parameter space reveals that certain phases reach higher population levels than other modes of organization. A detailed exploration of the mean-field theory is also presented. Finally, we let populations of cells with different adhesion matrices compete for reproduction, showing that, in our model, structural organization can improve the fitness of a given cell population. The implications of these results for ecological and evolutionary models of pattern formation and the emergence of multicellularity are outlined.

  1. Immunogenicity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Vesicles and Protective Ability in the Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Linda E; Barenkamp, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins. OMV-specific antisera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of representative NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay. The three OMV-specific antisera mediated killing of 18 of 65, 24 of 65, and 30 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Overall, they mediated killing of 39 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia-expressing OMV-specific antisera mediated killing of 17 of 25 and 14 of 25 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains. Overall, they mediated killing of 20 of 25 Hia-expressing strains. OMVs from prototype NTHi strain 12 were used to immunize chinchillas and the course of middle ear infection was monitored following intrabullar challenge with the homologous strain. All control animals developed culture-positive otitis media, as did two of three HMW1/HMW2-immunized animals. All OMV-immunized animals, with or without supplemental HMW1/HMW2 immunization, were completely protected against otitis media. NTHi OMVs are the first immunogens examined in this model that provided complete protection with sterile immunity after NTHi strain 12 challenge. These data suggest that NTHi OMVs hold significant potential as components of protective NTHi vaccines, possibly in combination with HMW1/HMW2 proteins. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yue; Rao Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices is presented in this article.This model is based on the drift-diffusion equations which include charge injection,transport,space charge effects,trapping,heterojunction interface and recombination process.The device structure in the simulation is ITO/CuPc(20 nm)/NPD(40 nm)/Alq3(60 nm)/LiF/Al.There are two heterojunctions which should be dealt with in the simulation.The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics,carrier distribution and recombination rate of a device are calculated.The simulation results and measured data are in good agreement.

  3. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  4. Self-organized Collaboration Network Model Based on Module Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyong; Lu, Lan; Liu, Qiming

    Recently, the studies of the complex network have gone deep into many scientific fields, such as computer science, physics, mathematics, sociology, etc. These researches enrich the realization for complex network, and increase understands for the new characteristic of complex network. Based on the evolvement characteristic of the author collaboration in the scientific thesis, a self-organized network model of the scientific cooperation network is presented by module emerging. By applying the theoretical analysis, it is shown that this network model is a scale-free network, and the strength degree distribution and the module degree distribution of the network nodes have the same power law. In order to make sure the validity of the theoretical analysis for the network model, we create the computer simulation and demonstration collaboration network. By analyzing the data of the network, the results of the demonstration network and the computer simulation are consistent with that of the theoretical analysis of the model.

  5. Modeling Multi-Agent Self-Organization through the Lens of Higher Order Attractor Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butner, Jonathan E; Wiltshire, Travis J; Munion, A K

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction occurs across many time scales and varying numbers of agents; from one-on-one to large-scale coordination in organizations, crowds, cities, and colonies. These contexts, are characterized by emergent self-organization that implies higher order coordinated patterns occurring over time that are not due to the actions of any particular agents, but rather due to the collective ordering that occurs from the interactions of the agents. Extant research to understand these social coordination dynamics (SCD) has primarily examined dyadic contexts performing rhythmic tasks. To advance this area of study, we elaborate on attractor dynamics, our ability to depict them visually, and quantitatively model them. Primarily, we combine difference/differential equation modeling with mixture modeling as a way to infer the underlying topological features of the data, which can be described in terms of attractor dynamic patterns. The advantage of this approach is that we are able to quantify the self-organized dynamics that agents exhibit, link these dynamics back to activity from individual agents, and relate it to other variables central to understanding the coordinative functionality of a system's behavior. We present four examples that differ in the number of variables used to depict the attractor dynamics (1, 2, and 6) and range from simulated to non-simulated data sources. We demonstrate that this is a flexible method that advances scientific study of SCD in a variety of multi-agent systems.

  6. ezRAD: a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we introduce ezRAD, a novel strategy for restriction site–associated DNA (RAD that requires little technical expertise or investment in laboratory equipment, and demonstrate its utility for ten non-model organisms across a wide taxonomic range. ezRAD differs from other RAD methods primarily through its use of standard Illumina TruSeq library preparation kits, which makes it possible for any laboratory to send out to a commercial genomic core facility for library preparation and next-generation sequencing with virtually no additional investment beyond the cost of the service itself. This simplification opens RADseq to any lab with the ability to extract DNA and perform a restriction digest. ezRAD also differs from others in its flexibility to use any restriction enzyme (or combination of enzymes that cuts frequently enough to generate fragments of the desired size range, without requiring the purchase of separate adapters for each enzyme or a sonication step, which can further decrease the cost involved in choosing optimal enzymes for particular species and research questions. We apply this method across a wide taxonomic diversity of non-model organisms to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of our approach. The simplicity of ezRAD makes it particularly useful for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms and targeted amplicon sequencing in natural populations of non-model organisms that have been historically understudied because of lack of genomic information.

  7. ezRAD: a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Robert J; Puritz, Jonathan B; Forsman, Zac H; Whitney, Jonathan L; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Andrews, Kimberly R; Bird, Christopher E

    2013-01-01

    Here, we introduce ezRAD, a novel strategy for restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) that requires little technical expertise or investment in laboratory equipment, and demonstrate its utility for ten non-model organisms across a wide taxonomic range. ezRAD differs from other RAD methods primarily through its use of standard Illumina TruSeq library preparation kits, which makes it possible for any laboratory to send out to a commercial genomic core facility for library preparation and next-generation sequencing with virtually no additional investment beyond the cost of the service itself. This simplification opens RADseq to any lab with the ability to extract DNA and perform a restriction digest. ezRAD also differs from others in its flexibility to use any restriction enzyme (or combination of enzymes) that cuts frequently enough to generate fragments of the desired size range, without requiring the purchase of separate adapters for each enzyme or a sonication step, which can further decrease the cost involved in choosing optimal enzymes for particular species and research questions. We apply this method across a wide taxonomic diversity of non-model organisms to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of our approach. The simplicity of ezRAD makes it particularly useful for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms and targeted amplicon sequencing in natural populations of non-model organisms that have been historically understudied because of lack of genomic information.

  8. Organic Growth Improvement of Indonesian Logistics Companies (A Conceptual Model: Contribution of Strategic Management, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Management to Corporate Entrepreneurship and Its Impact on Organic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian logistics companies needed performance improvement (particularly in organic growth for increasing their competitiveness. Based on previous researches that in order to increase organic growth, it could be conducted through developing corporate entrepreneurship, namely the activities that enhance company’s ability to innovate, take risk and seize market opportunities. The purpose of this paper tried to explore the relationships among variables, namely organic growth (OG, corporate entrepreneurship (CE, transformational leadership (TL, knowledge management (KM, and strategic management (SM. Therefore, this research used causal-explanatory study to explain relationships among the variables. The results of this research were concluded that TL, KM, and SM have contributions to corporate entrepreneurship and organicgrowth. The relationships could be constructed in a conceptual model that could be verified through further research.

  9. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic soils in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppelt, Thomas; Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Sören; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse gas emission potential of peatland ecosystems are mandatory for a complete annual emission budget in Europe. The GHG-Europe project aims to improve the modelling capabilities for greenhouse gases, e.g., nitrous oxide. The heterogeneous and event driven fluxes of nitrous oxide are challenging to model on European scale, especially regarding the upscaling purpose and certain parameter estimations. Due to these challenges adequate techniques are needed to create a robust empirical model. Therefore a literature study of nitrous oxide fluxes from organic soils has been carried out. This database contains flux data from boreal and temperate climate zones and covers the different land use categories: cropland, grassland, forest, natural and peat extraction sites. Especially managed crop- and grassland sites feature high emission potential. Generally nitrous oxide emissions increases significantly with deep drainage and intensive application of nitrogen fertilisation. Whereas natural peatland sites with a near surface groundwater table can act as nitrous oxide sink. An empirical fuzzy logic model has been applied to predict annual nitrous oxide emissions from organic soils. The calibration results in two separate models with best model performances for bogs and fens, respectively. The derived parameter combinations of these models contain mean groundwater table, nitrogen fertilisation, annual precipitation, air temperature, carbon content and pH value. Influences of the calibrated parameters on nitrous oxide fluxes are verified by several studies in literature. The extrapolation potential has been tested by an implemented cross validation. Furthermore the parameter ranges of the calibrated models are compared to occurring values on European scale. This avoid unknown systematic errors for the regionalisation purpose. Additionally a sensitivity analysis specify the model behaviour for each alternating parameter. The upscaling process for European peatland

  10. Modelling erosion and its interaction with soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Water driven soil erosion removes and relocates a significant quantity of soil organic carbon. In China the quantity of carbon removed from the soil through water erosion has been reported to be 180+/-80 Mt y-1 (Yue et al., 2011). Being able to effectively model the movement of such a large quantity of carbon is important for the assessment of soil quality and carbon storage in the region and further afield. A large selection of erosion models are available and much work has been done on evaluating the performance of these in developed countries (Merritt et al., 2006). Fewer studies have evaluated the application of these models on soils in developing countries. Here we evaluate and compare the performance of two of these models, WEPP (Laflen et al., 1997) and RUSLE (Renard et al., 1991), for simulations of soil erosion and deposition at the slope scale on a Chinese Red Soil under cultivation using measurements taken at the site. We also describe work to dynamically couple the movement of carbon presented in WEPP to a model of soil organic matter and nutrient turnover, ECOSSE (Smith et al., 2010). This aims to improve simulations of both erosion and carbon cycling by using the simulated rates of erosion to alter the distribution of soil carbon, the depth of soil and the clay content across the slopes, changing the simulated rate of carbon turnover. This, in turn, affects the soil carbon available to be eroded in the next timestep, so improving estimates of carbon erosion. We compare the simulations of this coupled modelling approach with those of the unaltered ECOSSE and WEPP models to determine the importance of coupling erosion and turnover models on the simulation of carbon losses at catchment scale.

  11. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  12. The Properties of Humic Acids Extracted from Four Sources of Organic Matters and Their Ability to Bind Fe2+ at New Established Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herviyanti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the properties of humic acid extracted from four kinds of organic matters (a peat soil, a stable manure, a compost of rice straw and a municipal waste and their potentiality to bind Fe2+ at new established rice field, a series of experiment was done in Soil Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University Padang. First step was characterization of functional groups and other chemical properties of humic acids, and their reaction with Fe2+. The second step was to examine the ability of humic acids to bind Fe2+ solution at new established rice field by conducting incubation experiments. The experiment used a completely randomized design with three replications. The 450 ppm Fe solution was treated with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 ppm humic acids and incubated for 24 hours. While top soil samples taken from Sitiung, West Sumatera were treated with 0,100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm humic acids, flooded with deionized water, and incubated for 6 weeks. The result showed that the functional group and other chemical characteristic of humic acid from rice straw compost and peat soil were better than those of manure and municipal waste compost. Functional group of both humic acids was dominated by COO-. High reactivity of the humic acid had been found when humic acids were added to Fe solution with ratio 1 : 1. Use of humic acid extracted from peat soil with the levels from 0 to 100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm decreased the Fe2+ concentration from 1.361 ppm to 910, 860, 831, and 776 ppm, respectively at new established rice field. While the use of humic acid extracted from rice straw compost with the same levels as above decreased the Fe2+ concentration from 1361 to 770, 701, 612, and 600 ppm, respectively, after four weeks of flooding.

  13. In silico model for predicting soil organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K(OC)) of organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Jingwen; Yang, Xianhai; Lyakurwa, Felichesmi; Li, Xuehua; Qiao, Xianliang

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of in silico method, the methodology of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been shown to be an efficient way to predict soil organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients (KOC) values. In the present study, a total of 824 logKOC values were used to develop and validate a QSAR model for predicting KOC values. The model statistics parameters, adjusted determination coefficient (R(2)adj) of 0.854, the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.472, the leave-one-out cross-validation squared correlation coefficient (Q(2)LOO) of 0.850, the external validation coefficient Q(2)ext of 0.761 and the RMSEext of 0.558 were obtained, which indicate satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability. The squared Moriguchi octanol-water partition coefficient (MLOGP2) explained 66.5% of the logKOC variance. The applicability domain of the current model has been extended to emerging pollutants like polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorochemicals and heterocyclic toxins. The developed model can be used to predict the compounds with various functional groups including C=C, -C≡C-, -OH, -O-, -CHO, C=O, -C=O(O), -COOH, -C6H5, -NO2, -NH2, -NH-, N-, -N-N-, -NH-C(O)-NH-, -O-C(O)-NH2, -C(O)-NH2, -X(F, Cl, Br, I), -S-, -SH, -S(O)2-, -OS(O)2-, -NH-S(O)2-, (SR)2PH(OR)2 and Si. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of the RothC model to simulate soil C mineralization of exogenous organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Claudio; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sinicco, Tania; Fornasier, Flavio; Galvez, Antonia; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel

    2017-07-01

    The development of soil organic C (SOC) models capable of producing accurate predictions for the long-term decomposition of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in soils is important for the effective management of organic amendments. However, reliable C modeling in amended soils requires specific optimization of current C models to take into account the high variability in EOM origin and properties. The aim of this work was to improve the prediction of C mineralization rates in amended soils by modifying the RothC model to encompass a better description of EOM quality. The standard RothC model, involving C input to the soil only as decomposable (DPM) or resistant (RPM) organic material, was modified by introducing additional pools of decomposable (DEOM), resistant (REOM) and humified (HEOM) EOM. The partitioning factors and decomposition rates of the additional EOM pools were estimated by model fitting to the respiratory curves of amended soils. For this task, 30 EOMs from 8 contrasting groups (compost, anaerobic digestates, sewage sludge, agro-industrial waste, crop residues, bioenergy by-products, animal residues and meat and bone meals) were added to 10 soils and incubated under different conditions. The modified RothC model was fitted to C mineralization curves in amended soils with great accuracy (mean correlation coefficient 0.995). In contrast to the standard model, the EOM-optimized RothC was able to better accommodate the large variability in EOM source and composition, as indicated by the decrease in the root mean square error of the simulations for different EOMs (from 29.9 to 3.7 % and 20.0 to 2.5 % for soils amended with bioethanol residue and household waste compost, respectively). The average decomposition rates for DEOM and REOM pools were 89 and 0.4 yr-1, higher than the standard model coefficients for DPM (10 yr-1) and RPM (0.3 yr-1). The results indicate that the explicit treatment of EOM heterogeneity enhances the model ability to describe amendment

  15. Free radical scavenging ability of Aspalathus linearis in two in vitro models of diabetes and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Y. Waisundara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The free radical scavenging activity of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos tea and its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were investigated in two in vitro disease models of cancer and diabetes. Although the antioxidant activity of this tea has been reported in several studies, its effects in disease models of ROS-induced oxidative stress have not been systematically evaluated to date. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was used in this study to quantify the antioxidant capacity of the extract, whereas the ROS scavenging ability in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and HeLa cells were investigated. The CAT and SOD assays were also carried out in the two disease models in order to evaluate the effect of the extract in the stimulation of these two enzyme activities. The extract was observed to have reduced ROS in a dose-dependent manner in both HUVECs and HeLa cells. The stimulation of the CAT and SOD enzyme activities were observed to be dose-dependent as well. The high ORAC value of the extract indicated the presence of antioxidant compounds which could directly quench ROS, whereby this mechanism of action could be hypothesized to have been further complemented through the stimulation of CAT and SOD. Overall, the Aspalathus linearis extract was observed to have increased the CAT and SOD activities in two in vitro disease models of cancer and hyperglycemia. Given the correlation between the ORAC values, the increases in CAT and SOD activities and the reduction in ROS in a dose-dependent manner, it could be hypothesized that the extract had a significant therapeutic potential for either the prevention of the onset of the two diseases or their progression because ROS has been identified as their root causes.

  16. Developing the Self-Directed Learning Instructional Model to Enhance English Reading Ability and Self-Directed Learning of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop the instructional model for enhancing self-directed learning skills of Bangkok University students, study the impacts of the model on their English reading comprehension and self-directed learning ability as well as explore their opinion towards self-directed learning. The model development process…

  17. Image-derived, three-dimensional generative models of cellular organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Murphy, Robert F

    2011-05-01

    Given the importance of subcellular location to protein function, computational simulations of cell behaviors will ultimately require the ability to model the distributions of proteins within organelles and other structures. Toward this end, statistical learning methods have previously been used to build models of sets of two-dimensional microscope images, where each set contains multiple images for a single subcellular location pattern. The model learned from each set of images not only represents the pattern but also captures the variation in that pattern from cell to cell. The models consist of sub-models for nuclear shape, cell shape, organelle size and shape, and organelle distribution relative to nuclear and cell boundaries, and allow synthesis of images with the expectation that they are drawn from the same underlying statistical distribution as the images used to train them. Here we extend this generative models approach to three dimensions using a similar framework, permitting protein subcellular locations to be described more accurately. Models of different patterns can be combined to yield a synthetic multi-channel image containing as many proteins as desired, something that is difficult to obtain by direct microscope imaging for more than a few proteins. In addition, the model parameters represent a more compact and interpretable way of communicating subcellular patterns than descriptive image features and may be particularly effective for automated identification of changes in subcellular organization caused by perturbagens.

  18. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  19. OBJECT ORIENTED MODELLING, A MODELLING METHOD OF AN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TĂNĂSESCU ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Now, most economic organizations use different information systems types in order to facilitate their activity. There are different methodologies, methods and techniques that can be used to design information systems. In this paper, I propose to present the advantages of using the object oriented modelling at the information system design of an economic organization. Thus, I have modelled the activity of a photo studio, using Visual Paradigm for UML as a modelling tool. For this purpose, I have identified the use cases for the analyzed system and I have presented the use case diagram. I have, also, realized the system static and dynamic modelling, through the most known UML diagrams.

  20. Optical Measurements and Modeling to Estimate Concentrations and Fluxes of Organic Matter in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Mitchell, B. Greg; Marra, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project was a collaboration between two Principal Investigators, Dr. Dariusz Stramski and Dr. Greg Mitchell of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego. Our overall goal was to conduct optical measurements and modeling to estimate concentrations of organic matter in the Southern Ocean in support of the U.S. JGOFS Process Study in this region. Key variables and processes of high relevance to accomplish the JGOFS goals include time and space resolution of phytoplankton pigments, particulate organic carbon, and the formation and export of organic carbon. Our project focused on establishing the fundamental relationships for parameterization of these variables and processes in terms of the optical properties of seawater, and developing understanding of why the Southern Ocean differs from other low-latitude systems, or has differentiation within. Our approach builds upon historical observations that optical properties provide a useful proxy for key reservoirs of organic matter such as chlorophyll alpha (Chl) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, which are of relevance to the JGOFS objectives. We carried out detailed studies of in situ and water sample optical properties including spectral reflectance, absorption, beam attenuation, scattering, and backscattering coefficients. We evaluated the ability to estimate Chl from the spectral reflectance (ocean color) in the Southern Ocean. We examined relationships between the ocean optical properties and particulate organic carbon. We developed, for the first time, an algorithm for estimating particulate organic carbon concentration in the surface ocean from satellite imagery of ocean color. With this algorithm, we obtained maps of POC distribution in the Southern Ocean showing the seasonal progression of POC in the austral spring-summer season. We also developed a semianalytical reflectance model for the investigated polar waters based on our field measurements of absorption

  1. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Organic Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    de Falco, Carlo; Sacco, Riccardo; Verri, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we continue our mathematical study of organic solar cells (OSCs) and propose a two-scale (micro- and macro-scale) model of heterojunction OSCs with interface geometries characterized by an arbitrarily complex morphology. The microscale model consists of a system of partial and ordinary differential equations in an heterogeneous domain, that provides a full description of excitation/transport phenomena occurring in the bulk regions and dissociation/recombination processes occurring in a thin material slab across the interface. The macroscale model is obtained by a micro-to-macro scale transition that consists of averaging the mass balance equations in the normal direction across the interface thickness, giving rise to nonlinear transmission conditions that are parametrized by the interfacial width. These conditions account in a lumped manner for the volumetric dissociation/recombination phenomena occurring in the thin slab and depend locally on the electric field magnitude and orientation. Usi...

  2. Controlling self-organized criticality in sandpile models

    CERN Document Server

    Cajueiro, Daniel O

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an external control to reduce the size of avalanches in some sandpile models exhibiting self organized criticality. This rather intuitive approach seems to be missing in the vast literature on such systems. The control action, which amounts to triggering avalanches in sites that are near to be come critical, reduces the probability of very large events, so that energy dissipation occurs most locally. The control is applied to a directed Abelian sandpile model driven by both uncorrelated and correlated deposition. The latter is essential to design an efficient and simple control heuristic, but has only small influence in the uncontrolled avalanche probability distribution. The proposed control seeks a tradeoff between control cost and large event risk. Preliminary results hint that the proposed control works also for an undirected sandpile model.

  3. Genome Editing and Its Applications in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances are important for innovative biological research. Development of molecular tools for DNA manipulation, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas, has revolutionized genome editing. These approaches can be used to develop potential therapeutic strategies to effectively treat heritable diseases. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made in CRISPR/Cas technology, including technical improvements and wide application in many model systems. This review describes recent advancements in genome editing with a particular focus on CRISPR/Cas, covering the underlying principles, technological optimization, and its application in zebrafish and other model organisms, disease modeling, and gene therapy used for personalized medicine.

  4. Intelligent Model for Measuring Organization Maturity in E-Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available E-Business is one of the most fascinating areas of information Technology. Managers should seek out means for making decision towards optimizing resource development in this area in order to control their expense and capital allocations at a higher, strategic level. To do this, manager must first identify their level of e-business development and plan to improve the status quo by identifying factors contributing to the growth in this approach. The present paper aims to construct and develop intelligent models for determining the organization status quo and management decision-making towards improving the situation using fuzzy [logic] tools. Thus for modeling these factors and their impact, the contributing factors in development of e-business approaches were identified by literature survey. These were later categorized using Delphi Method. Furthermore the FCM model was used to graphically illustrate the causal relationships among factors, including the mode and means of their mutual impact.

  5. Self-organized criticality model for brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Herrmann, Hans J

    2006-01-20

    Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Here we present a model that is based on self-organized criticality and takes into account brain plasticity, which is able to reproduce the spectrum of electroencephalograms (EEG). The model consists of an electrical network with threshold firing and activity-dependent synapse strengths. The system exhibits an avalanche activity in a power-law distribution. The analysis of the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduces very robustly the power-law behavior with the exponent 0.8, experimentally measured in EEG spectra. The same value of the exponent is found on small-world lattices and for leaky neurons, indicating that universality holds for a wide class of brain models.

  6. Genome Editing and Its Applications in Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyuan; Liu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Technological advances are important for innovative biological research. Development of molecular tools for DNA manipulation, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas), has revolutionized genome editing. These approaches can be used to develop potential therapeutic strategies to effectively treat heritable diseases. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made in CRISPR/Cas technology, including technical improvements and wide application in many model systems. This review describes recent advancements in genome editing with a particular focus on CRISPR/Cas, covering the underlying principles, technological optimization, and its application in zebrafish and other model organisms, disease modeling, and gene therapy used for personalized medicine.

  7. Model for Triplet State Engineering in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the position of the lowest triplet state (T1) relative to the first excited singlet state (S1) is of great importance in improving the efficiencies of organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. We have carried out model exact calculations of substituted polyene chains to understand the factors that affect the energy gap between S1 and T1. The factors studied are backbone dimerisation, different donor-acceptor substitutions and twisted geometry. The largest system studied is an eighteen carbon polyene which spans a Hilbert space of about 991 million. We show that for reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process, the best system involves substituting all carbon sites on one half of the polyene with donors and the other half with acceptors.

  8. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  9. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model...ontents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ mode...| Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Developing an Enzyme Mediated Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Post, W. M.; Wang, G.; Jagadamma, S.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schadt, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We developed the Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model in order to mechanistically model the decomposition of soil organic carbon (C). This presentation is an overview of the concept and development of the model and of the design of complementary lab-scale experiments. The model divides soil C into five pools of particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved, microbial, and enzyme organic C (Wang et al. 2012). There are three input types - cellulose, lignin, and dissolved C. Decomposition is mediated via microbial extracellular enzymes using the Michaelis-Menten equation, resulting in the production of a common pool of dissolved organic C. Parameters for the Michaelis-Menten equation are obtained through a literature review (Wang and Post, 2012a). The dissolved C is taken up by microbial biomass and proportioned according to microbial maintenance and growth, which were recalculated according to Wang and Post (2012b). The model allows dissolved C to undergo adsorption and desorption reactions with the mineral-associated C, which was also parameterized based upon a literature review and complementary laboratory experiments. In the lab, four 14C-labeled substrates (cellulose, fatty acid, glucose, and lignin-like) were incubated with either the particulate C pool, the mineral-associated C pool, or to bulk soils. The rate of decomposition was measured via the production of 14CO2 over time, along with incorporation into microbial biomass, production of dissolved C, and estimation of sorbed C. We performed steady-state and dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses under temperature increases of 1-5°C for a period of 100 y. Simulations indicated an initial decrease in soil organic C consisting of both cellulose and lignin pools. Over longer time intervals (> 6 y), however, a shrinking microbial population, a concomitant decrease in enzyme production, and a decrease in microbial carbon use efficiency together decreased CO2 production and resulted in greater

  11. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2017-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (t....../ability and thereby the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary of ability/disability to the benefit of restorying the citizen’s ability in the practices of changing the disability care....

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of Organic-Inorganic Aerosols with the Group-Contribution Model AIOMFAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2009-04-01

    Liquid aerosol particles are - from a physicochemical viewpoint - mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water and a large variety of organic compounds (Rogge et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 2007). Molecular interactions between these aerosol components lead to deviations from ideal thermodynamic behavior. Strong non-ideality between organics and dissolved ions may influence the aerosol phases at equilibrium by means of liquid-liquid phase separations into a mainly polar (aqueous) and a less polar (organic) phase. A number of activity models exists to successfully describe the thermodynamic equilibrium of aqueous electrolyte solutions. However, the large number of different, often multi-functional, organic compounds in mixed organic-inorganic particles is a challenging problem for the development of thermodynamic models. The group-contribution concept as introduced in the UNIFAC model by Fredenslund et al. (1975), is a practical method to handle this difficulty and to add a certain predictability for unknown organic substances. We present the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients), which explicitly accounts for molecular interactions between solution constituents, both organic and inorganic, to calculate activities, chemical potentials and the total Gibbs energy of mixed systems (Zuend et al., 2008). This model enables the computation of vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid (SLE) equilibria within one framework. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered eight different cations, five anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are very well represented up to high ionic strength. We show that the semi-empirical middle-range parametrization of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol-water-salt solutions enables accurate computations of vapor-liquid and liquid

  13. Prediction of organ toxicity endpoints by QSAR modeling based on precise chemical-histopathology annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, Eugene; Brennan, Richard; Khasanova, Tatiana; Sitnik, Tatiana; Serebriyskaya, Tatiana; Litvinova, Elena; Guryanov, Alexey; Nikolsky, Yuri; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Bureeva, Svetlana

    2012-09-01

    The ability to accurately predict the toxicity of drug candidates from their chemical structure is critical for guiding experimental drug discovery toward safer medicines. Under the guidance of the MetaTox consortium (Thomson Reuters, CA, USA), which comprised toxicologists from the pharmaceutical industry and government agencies, we created a comprehensive ontology of toxic pathologies for 19 organs, classifying pathology terms by pathology type and functional organ substructure. By manual annotation of full-text research articles, the ontology was populated with chemical compounds causing specific histopathologies. Annotated compound-toxicity associations defined histologically from rat and mouse experiments were used to build quantitative structure-activity relationship models predicting subcategories of liver and kidney toxicity: liver necrosis, liver relative weight gain, liver lipid accumulation, nephron injury, kidney relative weight gain, and kidney necrosis. All models were validated using two independent test sets and demonstrated overall good performance: initial validation showed 0.80-0.96 sensitivity (correctly predicted toxic compounds) and 0.85-1.00 specificity (correctly predicted non-toxic compounds). Later validation against a test set of compounds newly added to the database in the 2 years following initial model generation showed 75-87% sensitivity and 60-78% specificity. General hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity models were less accurate, as expected for more complex endpoints.

  14. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F; Raygor, Kunal P; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-02-01

    Classic models of language organization posited that separate motor and sensory language foci existed in the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) and superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), respectively, and that connections between these sites (arcuate fasciculus) allowed for auditory-motor interaction. These theories have predominated for more than a century, but advances in neuroimaging and stimulation mapping have provided a more detailed description of the functional neuroanatomy of language. New insights have shaped modern network-based models of speech processing composed of parallel and interconnected streams involving both cortical and subcortical areas. Recent models emphasize processing in "dorsal" and "ventral" pathways, mediating phonological and semantic processing, respectively. Phonological processing occurs along a dorsal pathway, from the posterosuperior temporal to the inferior frontal cortices. On the other hand, semantic information is carried in a ventral pathway that runs from the temporal pole to the basal occipitotemporal cortex, with anterior connections. Functional MRI has poor positive predictive value in determining critical language sites and should only be used as an adjunct for preoperative planning. Cortical and subcortical mapping should be used to define functional resection boundaries in eloquent areas and remains the clinical gold standard. In tracing the historical advancements in our understanding of speech processing, the authors hope to not only provide practicing neurosurgeons with additional information that will aid in surgical planning and prevent postoperative morbidity, but also underscore the fact that neurosurgeons are in a unique position to further advance our understanding of the anatomy and functional organization of language.

  15. Performance Evaluation Based on EFQM Excellence Model in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Faraji

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the performance of physical education (P.E. general office of Tehran province through model of European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM. Questionnaire approach was used in this study. Therefore validity of the 50-item EFQM questionnaire verified by the experts and the reliability also calculated in a pilot study (α=0.928. 95 questionnaires distributed between subjects (N=n and 80 questionnaires returned and concluded in the statistical analysis. From nine EFQM criteria, the highest scores were gained in key performance results (37.62% and the lowest gained in people results (27.94%. Totally, this organization achieved 337.11 pointes out of a total of 1000. Additionally, there was a strong relationship (r=0.827, p=0.001 between enablers and results (P<0.05. Based on scores gained in the criteria, improving measures in all criteria is essential for this organization, especially in the people criterion from enablers and people results criterion from results domain. Furthermore, it is believed that the physical education area is one of the best fields for application of the excellence model towards the performance excellence and gaining better results and hence, it seems that the model has a high potential in responding to problems commonly seen in sport sector.

  16. Organic complexation of rare earth elements in natural waters: Evaluating model calculations from ultrafiltration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourret, Olivier; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

    2007-06-01

    The Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and Humic Ion-Binding Models V and VI were compared for their ability to predict the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the speciation of rare earth elements (REE) in natural waters. Unlike Models V and VI, SHM is part of a speciation code that also allows us to consider dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and oxidation/reduction reactions. In this context, it is particularly interesting to test the performance of SHM. The REE specific equilibrium constants required by the speciation models were estimated using linear free-energy relationships (LFER) between the first hydrolysis constants and the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic and acetic acid. Three datasets were used for the purpose of comparison: (i) World Average River Water (Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) = 5 mg L -1), previously investigated using Model V, was reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; (ii) two natural organic-rich waters (DOC = 18-24 mg L -1), whose REE speciation has already been determined with both Model V and ultrafiltration studies, were also reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; finally, (iii) new ultrafiltration experiments were carried out on samples of circumneutral-pH (pH 6.2-7.1), organic-rich (DOC = 7-20 mg L -1) groundwaters from the Kervidy-Naizin and Petit-Hermitage catchments, western France. The results were then compared with speciation predictions provided by Model VI and SHM, successively. When applied to World Average River Water, both Model VI and SHM yield comparable results, confirming the earlier finding that a large fraction of the dissolved REE in rivers occurs as organic complexes This implies that the two models are equally valid for calculating REE speciation in low-DOC waters at circumneutral-pH. The two models also successfully reproduced ultrafiltration results obtained for DOC-rich acidic groundwaters and river waters. By contrast, the two models yielded different results when compared to

  17. Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A product-specific model for secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and composition based on equilibrium gas-particle partitioning is evaluated. The model is applied to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is best used for an SOA precursor for which a substantial fraction of the aerosol-phase oxidation products has been identified.

  18. An update on the rotenone models of Parkinson's disease: their ability to reproduce the features of clinical disease and model gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela E; Bobrovskaya, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by two major neuropathological hallmarks: the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the presence of Lewy bodies in the surviving SN neurons, as well as other regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Animal models have been invaluable tools for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of PD and testing new potential symptomatic, neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies. However, the usefulness of these models is dependent on how precisely they replicate the features of clinical PD with some studies now employing combined gene-environment models to replicate more of the affected pathways. The rotenone model of PD has become of great interest following the seminal paper by the Greenamyre group in 2000 (Betarbet et al., 2000). This paper reported for the first time that systemic rotenone was able to reproduce the two pathological hallmarks of PD as well as certain parkinsonian motor deficits. Since 2000, many research groups have actively used the rotenone model worldwide. This paper will review rotenone models, focusing upon their ability to reproduce the two pathological hallmarks of PD, motor deficits, extranigral pathology and non-motor symptoms. We will also summarize the recent advances in neuroprotective therapies, focusing on those that investigated non-motor symptoms and review rotenone models used in combination with PD genetic models to investigate gene-environment interactions.

  19. Influence of the course prescription of sodium succinate on functional state and general physical working ability of footballers organism during the training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Володимирович Чернєв

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological purpose of metabotropic preparations including burshtin acid and its derivative succinate sodium copes with the number of tasks the main of which is an activation of alternative ways of energoproduction at the work of submaximal and maximal force and preliminary training of the separate links of metabolism.The task of research is to ascertain changes that take place in functional state of sportsmen during long physical loadings and optimization of the work of cardiovascular system (CVS and prophylaxis of psychical strains with the help of succinate sodium.Methods and organization of research. There were examined 84 sportsmen to ascertain changes that take place in the functional state of sportsmen during the long physical loadings and optimization of the work of CVS with the help of succinate sodium. Examinations took place during the training sessions (TS in January, February and July 2012-2013 years.Results of research and its discussion. There was studied an efficiency of the course use of succinate sodium in footballers 100 mg 3 times a day during 14 days. Energetic supply of processes of intracellular homeostasis in erythrocytes realizes by means of ATP that is created in the process of glycolysis. According to the results of research after course prescription of succinate sodium in sportsmen the content of ATP in erythrocytes increased and an amount of ADP and AMP decreased. An improvement of general metabolic situation under an influence of succinate sodium was proved by the decrease of products of reactions of peroxidation in blood plasma of footballers.These results indicated an essential antiacidotic effect of the course use of succinate sodium by footballers after loading in anaerobic and glycolytic zone of intensity. At the same time there was ascertain in our research that the use of succinate sodium had a positive effect on the dynamics of lactate content during the processes of renewal after training in aerobic

  20. Comparison of Two Stochastic Daily Rainfall Models and their Ability to Preserve Multi-year Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Chowdhury, AFM; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George; Kiem, Anthony; Parana Manage, Nadeeka

    2016-04-01

    hierarchical MC model with the semi-parametric model in preserving rainfall variability in daily, monthly, and multi-year scales. To calibrate the parameters of both models and assess their ability to preserve observed statistics, we have used ground based data from 15 raingauge stations around Australia, which consist a wide range of climate zones including coastal, monsoonal, and arid climate characteristics. In preliminary results, both models show comparative performances in preserving the multi-year variability of rainfall depth and occurrence. However, the semi-parametric model shows a tendency of overestimating the mean rainfall depth, while our model shows a tendency of overestimating the number of wet days. We will discuss further the relative merits of the both models for hydrology simulation in the presentation.

  1. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  2. Introductory lecture: atmospheric organic aerosols: insights from the combination of measurements and chemical transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Donahue, Neil M; Murphy, Benjamin N; Riipinen, Ilona; Fountoukis, Christos; Karnezi, Eleni; Patoulias, David; Skyllakou, Ksakousti

    2013-01-01

    The formation, atmospheric evolution, properties, and removal of organic particulate matter remain some of the least understood aspects of atmospheric chemistry despite the importance of organic aerosol (OA) for both human health and climate change. Here, we summarize our recent efforts to deal with the chemical complexity of the tens of thousands of organic compounds in the atmosphere using the volatility-oxygen content framework (often called the 2D-Volatility Basis Set, 2D-VBS). Our current ability to measure the ambient OA concentration as a function of its volatility and oxygen to carbon (O:C) ratio is evaluated. The combination of a thermodenuder, isothermal dilution and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) together with a mathematical aerosol dynamics model is a promising approach. The development of computational modules based on the 2D-VBS that can be used in chemical transport models (CTMs) is described. Approaches of different complexity are tested against ambient observations, showing the challenge of simulating the complex chemical evolution of atmospheric OA. The results of the simplest approach describing the net change due to functionalization and fragmentation are quite encouraging, reproducing both the observed OA levels and O : C in a variety of conditions. The same CTM coupled with source-apportionment algorithms can be used to gain insights into the travel distances and age of atmospheric OA. We estimate that the average age of OA near the ground in continental locations is 1-2 days and most of it was emitted (either as precursor vapors or particles) hundreds of kilometers away. Condensation of organic vapors on fresh particles is critical for the growth of these new particles to larger sizes and eventually to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes. The semivolatile organics currently simulated by CTMs are too volatile to condense on these tiny particles with high curvature. We show that chemical aging reactions converting these semivolatile

  3. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  4. Modeling the adsorption of weak organic acids on goethite: the ligand and charge distribution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study is presented in which the CD-MUSIC modeling approach is used in a new modeling approach that can describe the binding of large organic molecules by metal (hydr)oxides taking the full speciation of the adsorbed molecule into account. Batch equilibration experiments were performed usi

  5. Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Stapleton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC and enterococci (EN concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios.

  6. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  7. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  8. Modelling Financial Markets by Self-Organized Criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Biondo, A E; Rapisarda, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  9. Creative Thinking Ability to Increase Student Mathematical of Junior High School by Applying Models Numbered Heads Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince, Ranak

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…

  10. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  11. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  12. Correlated earthquakes in a self-organized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baiesi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that empirical time series of earthquakes exhibit long-range correlations in space and time and the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of magnitudes, we propose a simple fault model that can account for these types of scale-invariance. It is an avalanching process that displays power-laws in the event sizes, in the epicenter distances as well as in the waiting-time distributions, and also aftershock rates obeying a generalized Omori law. We thus confirm that there is a relation between temporal and spatial clustering of the activity in this kind of models. The fluctuating boundaries of possible slipping areas show that the size of the largest possible earthquake is not always maximal, and the average correlation length is a fraction of the system size. This suggests that there is a concrete alternative to the extreme interpretation of self-organized criticality as a process in which every small event can cascade to an arbitrary large one: the new picture includes fluctuating domains of coherent stress field as part of the global self-organization. Moreover, this picture can be more easily compared with other scenarios discussing fluctuating correlations lengths in seismicity.

  13. Terrestrial and marine perspectives on modeling organic matter degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Adrian B; Frey, Serita; Cabre, Anna; Ito, Takamitsu; Levine, Naomi M; Lønborg, Christian; Long, Matthew; Mauritz, Marguerite; Thomas, R Quinn; Stephens, Brandon M; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Zeng, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a major role in both terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The amount of carbon stored in these systems is far greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere, and annual fluxes of CO2 from these pools to the atmosphere exceed those from fossil fuel combustion. Understanding the processes that determine the fate of detrital material is important for predicting the effects that climate change will have on feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. However, Earth System Models (ESMs) typically utilize very simple formulations of processes affecting the mineralization and storage of detrital OM. Recent changes in our view of the nature of this material and the factors controlling its transformation have yet to find their way into models. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role and cycling of detrital OM in terrestrial and marine systems and examine how this pool of material is represented in ESMs. We include a discussion of the different mineralization pathways available as organic matter moves from soils, through inland waters to coastal systems and ultimately into open ocean environments. We argue that there is strong commonality between aspects of OM transformation in both terrestrial and marine systems and that our respective scientific communities would benefit from closer collaboration.

  14. The distribution of persistent organic pollutants in a trophically complex Antarctic ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael L.; Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Shaw, Emily C.; Cropp, Roger A.

    2017-06-01

    Despite Antarctica's isolation from human population centres, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are transported there via long range atmospheric transport and subsequently cold-trapped. The challenging nature of working in the Antarctic environment greatly limits our ability to monitor POP concentrations and understand the processes that govern the distribution of POPs in Antarctic ecosystems. Here we couple a dynamic, trophically complex biological model with a fugacity model to investigate the distribution of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in a near-shore Antarctic ecosystem. Using this model we examine the steady-state, and annual cycle of HCB concentration in the atmosphere, ocean, sediment, detritus, and 21 classes of biota that span from primary producers to apex predators. The scope and trophic resolution of our model allows us to examine POP pathways through the ecosystem. In our model the main pathway of HCB to upper trophic species is via pelagic communities, with relatively little via benthic communities. Using a dynamic ecosystem model also allows us to examine the seasonal and potential climate change induced changes in POP distribution. We show that there is a large annual cycle in concentration in the planktonic communities, which may have implications for biomagnification factors calculated from observations. We also examine the direct effects of increasing temperature on the redistribution of HCB in a changing climate and find that it is likely minor compared to other indirect effects, such as changes in atmospheric circulation, sea ice dynamics, and changes to the ecosystem itself.

  15. Olfactory ability and object memory in three mouse models of varying body weight, metabolic hormones, and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kristal R; Godbey, Steven J; Thiebaud, Nicolas; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2012-10-10

    Physiological and nutritional state can modify sensory ability and perception through hormone signaling. Obesity and related metabolic disorders present a chronic imbalance in hormonal signaling that could impact sensory systems. In the olfactory system, external chemical cues are transduced into electrical signals to encode information. It is becoming evident that this system can also detect internal chemical cues in the form of molecules of energy homeostasis and endocrine hormones, whereby neurons of the olfactory system are modulated to change animal behavior towards olfactory cues. We hypothesized that chronic imbalance in hormonal signaling and energy homeostasis due to obesity would thereby disrupt olfactory behaviors in mice. To test this idea, we utilized three mouse models of varying body weight, metabolic hormones, and visceral adiposity - 1) C57BL6/J mice maintained on a condensed-milk based, moderately high-fat diet (MHF) of 32% fat for 6 months as the diet-induced obesity model, 2) an obesity-resistant, lean line of mice due to a gene-targeted deletion of a voltage-dependent potassium channel (Kv 1.3-null), and 3) a genetic model of obesity as a result of a gene-targeted deletion of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R-null). Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice failed to find a fatty-scented hidden peanut butter cracker, based solely on olfactory cues, any faster than an unscented hidden marble, initially suggesting general anosmia. However, when these DIO mice were challenged to find a sweet-scented hidden chocolate candy, they had no difficulty. Furthermore, DIO mice were able to discriminate between fatty acids that differ by a single double bond and are components of the MHF diet (linoleic and oleic acid) in a habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Obesity-resistant, Kv1.3-null mice exhibited no change in scented object retrieval when placed on the MHF-diet, nor did they perform differently than wild-type mice in parallel habituation-dishabituation paradigms

  16. [Estimation of organic matter content of north fluvo-aquic soil based on the coupling model of wavelet transform and partial least squares].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Cang; Yang, Gui-Jun; Zhu, Jin-Shan; Gu, Xiao-He; Xu, Peng; Liao, Qin-Hong

    2014-07-01

    For improving the estimation accuracy of soil organic matter content of the north fluvo-aquic soil, wavelet transform technology is introduced. The soil samples were collected from Tongzhou district and Shunyi district in Beijing city. And the data source is from soil hyperspectral data obtained under laboratory condition. First, discrete wavelet transform efficiently decomposes hyperspectral into approximate coefficients and detail coefficients. Then, the correlation between approximate coefficients, detail coefficients and organic matter content was analyzed, and the sensitive bands of the organic matter were screened. Finally, models were established to estimate the soil organic content by using the partial least squares regression (PLSR). Results show that the NIR bands made more contributions than the visible band in estimating organic matter content models; the ability of approximate coefficients to estimate organic matter content is better than that of detail coefficients; The estimation precision of the detail coefficients fir soil organic matter content decreases with the spectral resolution being lower; Compared with the commonly used three types of soil spectral reflectance transforms, the wavelet transform can improve the estimation ability of soil spectral fir organic content; The accuracy of the best model established by the approximate coefficients or detail coefficients is higher, and the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) of the best model for approximate coefficients are 0.722 and 0.221, respectively. The R2 and RMSE of the best model for detail coefficients are 0.670 and 0.255, respectively.

  17. Cognitive processing of drawing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, F; Ska, B; Belleville, S

    1999-08-01

    This critical review examines constructional apraxia from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. To our knowledge, van Sommers (1989) is the only researcher to present a global cognitive model of drawing abilities. He organizes it into two hierarchical systems: Marr's model of visual perception and a graphic production system. The latter comprises four hierarchically organized components: depiction decisions, production strategy, contingent planning, and articulatory and economic constraints. Van Sommers' model will be discussed in light of other models and on the basis of empirical neuropsychological studies (Farah, 1984; Kosslyn & Koenig, 1992; Roncato, Sartori, Masterson, & Rumiati, 1987; van Sommers, 1989). We find that: (1) the Kosslyn and Koenig visual perception model describes more accurately the perceptual components underlying copying than the visual perception system of van Sommers' drawing model, (2) Van Sommers' arguments in favor of a depiction processing as opposed to visual imagery are not convincing, (3) Van Sommers' assumption that a production strategy is a component is unclear, and (4) articulatory and economic constraints are not cognitive components, but constraints imposed during action programming. This literature review leads to a discussion of future research topics and the specificity of constructional apraxia. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  19. Mathematical modeling of wastewater-derived biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) typically constitutes the majority of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) discharged to surface waters from advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). When considering the stringent regulations on nitrogen discharge limits in sensitive receiving waters, DON becomes problematic and needs to be reduced. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is biologically degradable by bacteria when the optimum environmental conditions are met. BDON in a two-stage trickling filter WWTP was estimated using artificial intelligence techniques, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, multilayer perceptron, radial basis neural networks (RBNN), and generalized regression neural networks. Nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, TDN, and DON data were used as input neurons. Wastewater samples were collected from four different locations in the plant. Model performances were evaluated using root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error, and coefficient of determination statistics. Modeling results showed that the R(2) values were higher than 0.85 in all four models for all wastewater samples, except only R(2) in the final effluent sample for RBNN modeling was low (0.52). Overall, it was found that all four computing techniques could be employed successfully to predict BDON.

  20. Priming and substrate quality interactions in soil organic matter models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wutzler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between different qualities of soil organic matter (SOM affecting their turnover are rarely represented in models. In this study we propose three mathematical strategies at different levels of abstraction for representing those interactions. Implementing these strategies into the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM and applying them to several scenarios of litter input show that the different levels of abstraction are applicable on different time scales. We present a simple one-parameter equation of substrate limitation applicable at decadal time scale that is straightforward to implement into other models of SOM dynamics. We show how substrate quality interactions can explain priming effects, acceleration of turnover times in FACE experiments, and the slowdown of decomposition in long-term bare fallow experiments as an effect of energy limitation of microbial biomass. The mechanisms of those interactions need to be further scrutinized empirically for a more complete understanding. Overall, substrate quality interactions offer a valuable way of understanding and quantitatively modelling SOM dynamics.

  1. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  2. Modeling organic aerosols during MILAGRO: importance of biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to assess our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly large amount of organic aerosols – OA, including primary OA (POA and secondary OA (SOA – observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006. Chemical analyses of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS indicate that organic particles found in the Mexico City basin contain a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA which have strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled here by the one-step oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes, biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene, and biomass-burning SOA precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. Conservative assumptions are made for uncertain parameters to maximize the amount of SOA produced by the model. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2 lower than the measured total OA. Fairly good agreement is found between predicted and observed POA within the city suggesting that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are reasonably captured. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are encountered for SOA, with a factor of 2–10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce within a factor of two the sharp increase in OOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations but the discrepancy increases rapidly later in the day, consistent with previous results, and is especially obvious when the column-integrated SOA mass is considered instead of the surface concentration. The increase in the missing SOA mass in the afternoon coincides with the sharp drop in POA

  3. An intelligent modeling method based on genetic algorithm for partner selection in virtual organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacuraru Raluca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of a Virtual Organization is to find the most appropriate partners in terms of expertise, cost wise, quick response, and environment. In this study we propose a model and a solution approach to a partner selection problem considering three main evaluation criteria: cost, time and risk. This multiobjective problem is solved by an improved genetic algorithm (GA that includes meiosis specific characteristics and step-size adaptation for the mutation operator. The algorithm performs strong exploration initially and exploitation in later generations. It has a high global search ability and a fast convergence rate and also avoids premature convergence. On the basis of the numerical investigations, the incorporation of the proposed enhancements has been successfully proved.

  4. Interconnected growing self-organizing maps for auditory and semantic acquisition modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue eCao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the incremental nature of knowledge acquisition, in this study we propose a growing self-organizing neural network approach for modeling the acquisition of auditory and semantic categories. We introduce an Interconnected Growing Self-Organizing Maps (I-GSOM algorithm, which takes associations between auditory information and semantic information into consideration, in this paper. Direct phonetic--semantic association is simulated in order to model the language acquisition in early phases, such as the babbling and imitation stages, in which no phonological representations exist. Based on the I-GSOM algorithm, we conducted experiments using paired acoustic and semantic training data. We use a cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training procedure to model the teaching and learning process between children and their communication partners; a reinforcing-by-link training procedure and a link-forgetting procedure are introduced to model the acquisition of associative relations between auditory and semantic information. Experimental results indicate that (1 I-GSOM has good ability to learn auditory and semantic categories presented within the training data; (2 clear auditory and semantic boundaries can be found in the network representation; (3 cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training leads to a detailed categorization as well as to a detailed clustering, while keeping the clusters that have already been learned and the network structure that has already been developed stable; and (4 reinforcing-by-link training leads to well-perceived auditory--semantic associations. Our I-GSOM model suggests that it is important to associate auditory information with semantic information during language acquisition. Despite its high level of abstraction, our I-GSOM approach can be interpreted as a biologically-inspired neurocomputational model.

  5. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property: implications for experiments, feedbacks, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to land use or climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we summarize recent understanding and propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming. Numerical models of soil carbon cycling are used to attribute carbon sources and sinks, predict climate-ecosystem feedbacks, and evaluate biofuel and sequestration strategies. Current ecosystem models rest heavily on the concept of recalcitrance and most models partition plant input into pools of different turnover time solely on the basis of plant tissue chemistry. However, recent research enabled by isotopic, spectroscopic, and molecular marker tools finds little evidence that recalcitrance or selective preservation determine the long residence time of SOM. Without the assumption that recalcitrance or molecular structure control decomposition rates, the framework of these models is no longer justified. Some improvements can be made easily; in other areas, research is needed to translate recent findings into new parameters, for example, to predict the effect of organo-mineral interactions and soil depth on decomposition rates. In this presentation, we will describe a new view of soil carbon cycling that is consistent with the new generation of observations, discuss suggested improvements to soil carbon models, and explore the implications for the vulnerability of soil organic carbon.

  6. Modeling biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Jianjun; Ge, Xinlei; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-01-01

    A revised Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with updated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and a more detailed description of SOA formation from isoprene oxidation was applied to study the spatial and temporal distribution of SOA in China in the entire year of 2013. Predicted organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon and volatile organic compounds agreed favorably with observations at several urban areas, although the high OC concentrations in wintertime in Beijing were under-predicted. Predicted summer SOA was generally higher (10-15 µg m-3) due to large contributions of isoprene (country average, 61 %), although the relative importance varies in different regions. Winter SOA was slightly lower and was mostly due to emissions of alkane and aromatic compounds (51 %). Contributions of monoterpene SOA was relatively constant (8-10 %). Overall, biogenic SOA accounted for approximately 75 % of total SOA in summer, 50-60 % in autumn and spring, and 24 % in winter. The Sichuan Basin had the highest predicted SOA concentrations in the country in all seasons, with hourly concentrations up to 50 µg m-3. Approximately half of the SOA in all seasons was due to the traditional equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile components followed by oligomerization, while the remaining SOA was mainly due to reactive surface uptake of isoprene epoxide (5-14 %), glyoxal (14-25 %) and methylglyoxal (23-28 %). Sensitivity analyses showed that formation of SOA from biogenic emissions was significantly enhanced due to anthropogenic emissions. Removing all anthropogenic emissions while keeping the biogenic emissions unchanged led to total SOA concentrations of less than 1 µg m-3, which suggests that manmade emissions facilitated biogenic SOA formation and controlling anthropogenic emissions would result in reduction of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA.

  7. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  8. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  9. Spectrophotometry and organic matter on Iapetus. 1: Composition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D.; Sagan, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Iapetus shows a greater hemispheric albedo asymmetry than any other body in the solar system. Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in the laboratory are used to identify possible compositions for the dark material on the leading hemisphere of Iapetus. The materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic residue, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. Three-component mixtures of these materials are modeled in intraparticle mixture of 25% poly-HCN, 10% Murchison residue, and 65% water ice is found to best fit the spectrum, albedo, and phase behavior of the dark material. The Murchison residue and/or water ice can be replaced by kerogen and ice tholin, respectively, and still produce very good fits. Areal and particle mixtures of poly-HCN, Titan tholin, and either ice tholin or Murchison residue are also possible models. Poly-HCN is a necessary component in almost all good models. The presence of poly-HCN can be further tested by high-resolution observations near 4.5 micrometers.

  10. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  11. Multiscale modelling of charge transport in organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny

    2010-03-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is controlled by a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. In this presentation we will show how a set of computational methods, namely molecular modelling methods to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport can be used to reproduce experimental charge mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Using case studies, we will show how such simulations can explain the relative values of electron and hole mobility and the effects of grain size, side chains and polymer molecular weight on charge mobility. Although currently applied to material systems of relatively high symmetry or well defined structure, this approach can be developed to address more complex systems such as multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers.

  12. EcoCyc: fusing model organism databases with systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Mackie, Amanda; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Fulcher, Carol; Huerta, Araceli M; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Ong, Quang; Paley, Suzanne; Schröder, Imke; Shearer, Alexander G; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Travers, Mike; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Weiss, Verena; Collado-Vides, Julio; Gunsalus, Robert P; Paulsen, Ian; Karp, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    EcoCyc (http://EcoCyc.org) is a model organism database built on the genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Expert manual curation of the functions of individual E. coli gene products in EcoCyc has been based on information found in the experimental literature for E. coli K-12-derived strains. Updates to EcoCyc content continue to improve the comprehensive picture of E. coli biology. The utility of EcoCyc is enhanced by new tools available on the EcoCyc web site, and the development of EcoCyc as a teaching tool is increasing the impact of the knowledge collected in EcoCyc.

  13. A self-organized critical model for evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Bak, P.; Jensen, M.H.; Sneppen, K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple mathematical model of biological macroevolution is presented. It describes an ecology of adapting, interacting species. Species evolve to maximize their individual fitness in their environment. The environment of any given species is affected by other evolving species; hence it is not constant in time. The ecology evolves to a ``self-organized critical`` state where periods of stasis alternate with avalanches of causally connected evolutionary changes. This characteristic intermittent behaviour of natural history, known as ``punctuated equilibrium,`` thus finds a theoretical explanation as a selforganized critical phenomenon. In particular, large bursts of apparently simultaneous evolutionary activity require no external cause. They occur as the less frequent result of the very same dynamics that governs the more frequent small-scale evolutionary activity. Our results are compared with data from the fossil record collected by J. Sepkoski, Jr., and others.

  14. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction...... of optical and plasmonic field enhancement by nanostructures in (or close to) the active layers and electrodes in OSCs. We incorporate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations alongside semi- analytical approaches, as the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and mode-coupling theory. Our simulation......-compatible method for non-periodic electrode structuring by pores of controlled dimensions, formed through anodic oxidation of sputter-deposited high-purity aluminium films [3]. [1] Kluge, C., et al. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control. Optics Express, 22 (S5), A1363. (2014) [2] Skigin, D., et al...

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility And Islamic Business Organizations: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization

  16. Azolla - A Model Organism for Plant Genomic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Long Qiu; Jun Yu

    2003-01-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation. Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture, its unique position in plant evolution, its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, and its moderate-sized genome. The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes. Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing, the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  17. Azolla—A Model Organism for Plant Genomic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-LongQiu; JunYu

    2003-01-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation.Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture,its unique position in plant evolution,its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium,Anabaena azollae,and its moderate-sized genome.The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes.Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing,the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  18. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-organized criticality in a computer network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan; Ren; Shan

    2000-02-01

    We study the collective behavior of computer network nodes by using a cellular automaton model. The results show that when the load of network is constant, the throughputs and buffer contents of nodes are power-law distributed in both space and time. Also the feature of 1/f noise appears in the power spectrum of the change of the number of nodes that bear a fixed part of the system load. It can be seen as yet another example of self-organized criticality. Power-law decay in the distribution of buffer contents implies that heavy network congestion occurs with small probability. The temporal power-law distribution for throughput might be a reasonable explanation for the observed self-similarity in computer network traffic.

  20. Comparing and modelling land use organization in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Maxime; Picornell, Miguel; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G.; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; San Miguel, Maxi; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of geolocated information and communication technologies opens the possibility of exploring how people use space in cities, bringing an important new tool for urban scientists and planners, especially for regions where data are scarce or not available. Here we apply a functional network approach to determine land use patterns from mobile phone records. The versatility of the method allows us to run a systematic comparison between Spanish cities of various sizes. The method detects four major land use types that correspond to different temporal patterns. The proportion of these types, their spatial organization and scaling show a strong similarity between all cities that breaks down at a very local scale, where land use mixing is specific to each urban area. Finally, we introduce a model inspired by Schelling's segregation, able to explain and reproduce these results with simple interaction rules between different land uses. PMID:27019730

  1. Comparing and modeling land use organization in cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    The advent of geolocated ICT technologies opens the possibility of exploring how people use space in cities, bringing an important new tool for urban scientists and planners, especially for regions where data is scarce or not available. Here we apply a functional network approach to determine land use patterns from mobile phone records. The versatility of the method allows us to run a systematic comparison between Spanish cities of various sizes. The method detects four major land use types that correspond to different temporal patterns. The proportion of these types, their spatial organization and scaling show a strong similarity between all cities that breaks down at a very local scale, where land use mixing is specific to each urban area. Finally, we introduce a model inspired by Schelling's segregation, able to explain and reproduce these results with simple interaction rules between different land uses.

  2. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models.

  3. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANNING SPECIFIC TO PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Florin Tudor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In public services, the political component of the marketing environment has a major importance, as all decisions adopted within central administration influence both the objectives and measures implemented by units of local government and other public service providers. Any discontinuity in the activity of such entities might result in neglecting the real needs of citizens and slowing the reform process in the public sector. Therefore, all initiatives of public organizations must have a unitary goal and integrate harmoniously within a single process. A tool from the management-marketing literature that both contributes to this purpose and leads to an increased customer satisfaction and organizational performance is strategic marketing planning. This paper presents, firstly, requirements and particularities of this process in the public sector, focusing on the need for bottom-up planning, meaning from the functional levels of public service organizations, to the corporate level, where strategic decisions are taken. To achieve this goal, there should be included in the planning process the clients and other audiences, which can provide useful information about the services they want, the quality or the accessibility thereof, and news about the services they need in the future. There are also mentioned the factors that can influence the quality of strategic marketing planning in public services domain: the importance of marketing within the organization, marketing knowledge of employees in marketing departments and/or of management personnel, the efficiency of activities within the organization, and the manager’s marketing vision. In the final part of the paper there are presented the stages of the conceptual model of strategic marketing planning in public services field: (1 accepting the idea of bottom-up planning, (2 avoid or eliminate discrepancies between measures taken at high levels and executions carried out at operational

  4. Training of Student’s Learning Ability in Alkane Teaching of Organic Chemistry%有机化学烷烃教学中学生学习能力培养探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芬; 张永伍; 袁国春

    2016-01-01

    The teaching aims were to cultivate student’s self-study ability, induction ability and draw inferences ability through the teaching of alkane, students can preliminarily master and form learning methods of organic compounds, which will guide the learning of all kinds of organic compounds in the future. The learning of Organic Chemistry is becoming more and more easy through this way of teaching with the development of students’ learning, Organic Chemistry system is more and more complete, the students’ interest is higher and higher.%通过对烷烃这一章的教学,旨在培养学生的自学能力、归纳能力、举一反三的能力,学生能初步掌握学习各类有机化合物的学习方法,形成一套学习有机化合物的方法,以指导今后各类有机化合物的学习。通过这种教学方式发现随着学生学习的不断深入,有机化学学起来变得越来越容易,有机知识系统越来越完整,学生学习的兴趣越来越高。

  5. The Relationship between School Leaders' Perceptions of High Involvement Model Characteristics in Their Organizations and Their Attitudes towards the Use of the Change Toolkit to Facilitate Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between school leaders' perceptions regarding High Involvement Model variables as components of their organizations, including power, knowledge, information, leadership, instructional guidance, rewards, and resources, and the leaders' ability to successfully use the IBM…

  6. [Transferability of Hyperspectral Model for Estimating Soil Organic Matter Concerned with Soil Moisture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-yun; Qi, Kun; Liu, Yao-lin; He, Jian-hua; Jiang, Qing-hu

    2015-06-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing, known as the state-of-the-art technology in the field of remote sensing, can be used to retrieve physical and chemical properties of surface objects based on the interactions between electromagnetic waves and the objects. Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the most important parameters used in the assessment of soil fertility. Quick estimation of SOM with hyperspectral remote sensing technique can provide essential soil data to support the development of precision agriculture. The presence of external parameters, however, may affect the modeling precision, and further handicap the transfer ability of existing model. With the aim to study the effects of soil moisture on the Vis/NIR estimation of soil organic matter, and the capacity of direct standardization(DS)algorithm in the calibration transfer, 95 soil samples collected in the Jianghan plain were rewetted and air-dried. Reflectance of these samples at 13 moisture levels was measured. Results show that the model calibrated using air-dried samples has the highest prediction accuracy. This model, however, was not suitable for SOM prediction of the rewetted samples. Prediction bias and RPD improved from -8.34-3.32 g x kg(-1) and 0.64-2.04 to 0 and 7.01, when DS algorithm was applied to the spectra of the rewetted samples. DS algorithm has been proven to be effective in removing the effects of soil moisture on the Vis/NIR estimation of SOM, ensuring a transferrable model for SOM prediction with soil samples at different moisture levels.

  7. Explore the structural model design competition and innovation Abilities of Students%结构模型设计竞赛与大学生创新能力培养的探讨①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦玲

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyzes the present situation of contemporary university student’s innovation ability, put forward to organize students to participate in structural model design competition is a main way to enhance the innovation ability. Based on the structural model design competition, introduces the process of the whole game, points out the significance of model design competition to foster students innovative ability.%该文介绍并分析了当代大学生创新能力的现状,提出组织大学生参加结构模型设计竞赛是提高创新能力的一种主要途径。文中以结构模型设计竞赛为依托,介绍了整个比赛的过程,指出模型设计竞赛对培养大学生创新能力的意义。

  8. The role of ability, motivation, and opportunity to work in the transition from work to early retirement--testing and optimizing the Early Retirement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    Determinants in the domains health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors may influence early retirement through three central explanatory variables, namely, the ability, motivation, and opportunity to work. Based on the literature, we created the Early Retirement Model. This study aims to investigate whether data support the model and how it could be improved. Employees aged 58-62 years (N=1862), who participated in the first three waves of the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) were included. Determinants were assessed at baseline, central explanatory variables after one year, and early retirement after two years. Structural equation modeling was applied. Testing the Early Retirement Model resulted in a model with good fit. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors were related to the ability, motivation and/or opportunity to work (significant β range: 0.05-0.31). Lower work ability (β=-0.13) and less opportunity to work (attitude colleagues and supervisor about working until age 65: β=-0.24) predicted early retirement, whereas the motivation to work (work engagement) did not. The model could be improved by adding direct effects of three determinants on early retirement, ie, support of colleagues and supervisor (β=0.14), positive attitude of the partner with respect to early retirement (β=0.15), and not having a partner (β=-0.13). The Early Retirement Model was largely supported by the data but could be improved. The prolongation of working life might be promoted by work-related interventions focusing on health, work ability, the social work climate, social norms on prolonged careers, and the learning environment.

  9. ORGANIZING SCENARIO VARIABLES BY APPLYING THE INTERPRETATIVE STRUCTURAL MODELING (ISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Estima de Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The scenario building method is a thought mode - taken to effect in an optimized, strategic manner - based on trends and uncertain events, concerning a large variety of potential results that may impact the future of an organization.In this study, the objective is to contribute towards a possible improvement in Godet and Schoemaker´s scenario preparation methods, by employing the Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM as a tool for the analysis of variables.Given this is an exploratory theme, bibliographical research with tool definition and analysis, examples extraction from literature and a comparison exercise of referred methods, were undertaken.It was verified that ISM may substitute or complement the original tools for the analysis of variables of scenarios per Godet and Schoemaker’s methods, given the fact that it enables an in-depth analysis of relations between variables in a shorter period of time, facilitating both structuring and construction of possible scenarios.Key-words: Strategy. Future studies. Interpretative Structural Modeling.

  10. Self-Organization of Aging in a Modified Penna Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Ok; Shim, Sugie

    The Penna model for biological aging is modified so that the fertility of each individual is determined by means of the number of activated mutations at that time. A new concept of "good" mutation, which makes an individual to mature enough to reproduce, is introduced. It is assumed that each individual can reproduce only during adulthood, which is determined by the number of activated mutations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations using the modified model show that the ranges of the reproductive age are broadened as time goes by, thus showing self-organization in the biological aging to the direction of the maximum self-conservation. In addition, the population, the survival rate, and the average life span were calculated and analyzed by changing the number of new mutations at birth. It is observed that the higher is the considered number of new mutations at birth, the shorter is the obtained average life span. The mortality functions are also calculated and they showed the exponential increase in adulthood, satisfying the Gompertz law.

  11. Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.

    1994-10-01

    The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.

  12. Preparation of liposomal amiodarone and investigation of its cardiomyocyte-targeting ability in cardiac radiofrequency ablation rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuge Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhuge,1,* Zhi-Feng Zheng,1,* Mu-Qing Xie,2 Lin Li,2 Fang Wang,1 Feng Gao2,3 1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The objective of this study was to develop an amiodarone hydrochloride (ADHC-loaded liposome (ADHC-L formulation and investigate its potential for cardiomyocyte targeting after cardiac radiofrequency ablation (CA in vivo. The ADHC-L was prepared by thin-film method combined with ultrasonication and extrusion. The preparation process was optimized by Box–Behnken design with encapsulation efficiency as the main evaluation index. The optimum formulation was quantitatively obtained with a diameter of 99.9±0.4 nm, a zeta potential of 35.1±10.9 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency of 99.5%±13.3%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes were spherical particles with integrated bilayers and well dispersed with high colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies were investigated in rats after intravenous administration, which revealed that compared with free ADHC treatment, ADHC-L treatment showed a 5.1-fold increase in the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over a period of 24 hours (AUC0–24 h and an 8.5-fold increase in mean residence time, suggesting that ADHC-L could facilitate drug release in a more stable and sustained manner while increasing the circulation time of ADHC, especially in the blood. Biodistribution studies of ADHC-L demonstrated that ADHC concentration in the heart was 4.1 times higher after ADHC-L treatment in CA rat model compared with ADHC-L sham-operated treatment at 20 minutes postinjection. Fluorescence imaging studies further proved that the heart

  13. The impact of mathematical models of teaching materials on square and rectangle concepts to improve students' mathematical connection ability and mathematical disposition in middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrizal, Irfan Mufti; Dachlan, Jarnawi Afghani

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine design of mathematical models of teaching materials to improve students' mathematical connection ability and mathematical disposition in middle school through experimental studies. The design in this study was quasi-experimental with non-equivalent control group type. This study consisted of two phases, the first phase was identify students' learning obstacle on square and rectangle concepts to obtain the appropriate design of teaching materials, beside that there were internalization of the values or characters expected to appear on students through the teaching materials. Second phase was experiments on the effectiveness and efficiency of mathematical models of teaching materials to improve students' mathematical connection ability and mathematical disposition. The result of this study are 1) Students' learning obstacle that have identified was categorized as an epistemological obstacle. 2) The improvement of students' mathematical connection ability and mathematical disposition who used mathematical teaching materials is better than the students who used conventional learning.

  14. Research on the water resources regulation ability model of dams in the Huai He River Basin considering ecological and management factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Y.; Liu, H. C.; Li, L. H.; Yu, G. G.; Liu, J.

    2016-08-01

    Research that assesses the scheduling ability of dams gamers a great deal of attention due to the global water resource crisis. These studies can provide useful and practical suggestions for scheduling the water resources of dams to solve problems, such as addressing ecological water needs and so on. Recent studies have primarily evaluated the schedule ability of dams according to their quantifiable attributes, such as water quantity, flow velocity, etc. However, the ecological and management status can directly determine the possibility and efficiency of a dam's water resource scheduling. This paper presents an evaluation model to assess the scheduling capacity of dams that takes into consideration ecological and management factors. In the experiment stage, this paper takes the Sha Ying river of the Huai He River Basin as an example to evaluate the scheduling ability of its dams. The results indicate that the proposed evaluation model can provide more precise and practical suggestions.

  15. A Study of Some Leading Organ Transplant Models in Health Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uzuntarla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most effective treatment method for patients with organ failure is an organ transplant. Although numerous patients are waiting to get organ transplants, the inadequacy in the supply of organs has become a chronic health problem around the whole world. Countries have made various regulations in their health systems that increase the supply of organs and, as a result, various organ transplantation models have been established. Organ transplantation models applied in Spain, the USA, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey have been examined in this study.

  16. Accurate representation of organized convection in CFSv2 via a stochastic lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, B. B.; Khouider, B.; Krishna, R. P. M. M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Majda, A.

    2016-12-01

    General circulation models (GCM) show limitations of various sorts in their representation of synoptic and intra-seasonal variability associated with tropical convective systems apart from the success of superparameterization and cloud system permitting global models. This systematic deficiency is believed to be due to the inadequate treatment of organized convection by the underlying cumulus parameterizations, which have the quasi-equilibrium assumption as a common denominator. By its nature, this assumption neglects the continuous interactions across scales between convection and the large scale dynamics. By design, the stochastic multicloud model (SMCM) mimics the interactions between the three cloud types, congestus, deep, and stratiform, that are observed to play a central role across multiple scales in the dynamics and physical structure of tropical convective systems. It is based on a stochastic lattice model, overlaid over each GCM grid box, where an order parameter taking the values 0,1,2,3 at each lattice site according to whether the site is clear sky or occupied by a congestus, deep, or stratiform cloud, respectively. As such the SMCM mimics the unresolved variability due to cumulus convection and the interactions across multiple scales of organized convective systems, following the philosophy of superparameterization. Here, we discuss the implementation of the SMCM in NCEP Climate Forecast System model (CFS), version-2, through the use of a simple parametrization of adiabatic heating and moisture sink due to cumulus clouds based on their observed vertical profiles (a.k.a Q1 and Q2). Much like the success of superparameterization but without the burden of high computational cost, a 20 year run showed tremendous improvements in the ability of the CFS-SMCM model to represent synoptic and intraseasonal variability associated with organized convection as well as a few minor improvements in the simulated climatology when compared to the control CFSv2 model

  17. The Effect of Generate Argument’ Instruction Model to Increase Reasoning Ability of Seventh Grade Students on Interactions of Living Thing with their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawanti, Y.; Siahaan, P.; Widodo, A.

    2017-02-01

    This study aim to examine the effect of generates an argument instruction model to increase students’ thinking skills, especially reasoning ability in lesson material of interactions of living thing with their environment. The study use weak experimental method with and the design is One-group pretest-posttest design. Sample in this study consists of 34 junior high school students of Seventh Grade in one of the junior high school in Ciamis. The instrument used to collect data is the essay questions of reasoning ability test according to reasoning Marzano’s framework which consist of the eight indicators that are comparing, classifying, induction, deduction, constructing support, analyzing perspectives, analyzing errors, and abstraction. In generally, the results show there is an increase in the students’ reasoning ability is significantly (Sig = 0.000). In addition, an increase in the ability of reasoning also viewed based on gender, and the result show there is not significantly (Sig = 0.168) the difference of reasoning ability between male student and female student. Increasing the ability of reasoning divided into two categories that is middle and low category.

  18. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobas, Frank A P C; Burkhard, Lawrence P; Doucette, William J; Sappington, Keith G; Verbruggen, Eric M J; Hope, Bruce K; Bonnell, Mark A; Arnot, Jon A; Tarazona, Jose V

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This article reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, invertebrate, mammal, and avian species and for entire terrestrial food webs, including some that consider spatial factors. Limitations and gaps in terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling include the lack of QSARs for biotransformation and dietary assimilation efficiencies for terrestrial species; the lack of models and QSARs for important terrestrial species such as insects, amphibians and reptiles; the lack of standardized testing protocols for plants with limited development of plant models; and the limited chemical domain of existing bioaccumulation models and QSARs (e.g., primarily applicable to nonionic organic chemicals). There is an urgent need for high-quality field data sets for validating models and assessing their performance. There is a need to improve coordination among laboratory, field, and modeling efforts on bioaccumulative substances in order to improve the state of the science for challenging substances.

  19. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years, resul

  20. Understanding Planning Ability Measured by the Tower of London: An Evaluation of Its Internal Structure by Latent Variable Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Boonstra, A. Marije

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) is a widely used instrument for assessing planning ability. Inhibition and (spatial) working memory are assumed to contribute to performance on the TOL, but findings about the relationship between these cognitive processes are often inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of specific properties of TOL problems on cognitive…

  1. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years, resul

  2. Rasch Model Analysis on the Effectiveness of Early Evaluation Questions as a Benchmark for New Students Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Norhana; Kamal, Noorfazila; Ayob, Afida; Sarbani, Nizaroyani; Tsuey, Chong Sheau; Misran, Norbahiah; Husain, Hafizah

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of the early evaluation questions conducted to determine the academic ability of the new students in the Department of Electrical, Electronics and Systems Engineering. Questions designed are knowledge based--on what the students have learned during their pre-university level. The results show students have…

  3. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years,

  4. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks in global change scenarios: a CarboSOIL application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Rojas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, as a consequence of the increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration, may significantly affect both soil organic C storage and soil capacity for C sequestration. In this research we develop a methodology to predict soil organic C (SOC contents and changes under global change scenarios. CarboSOIL model is a new component of the land evaluation decision support system MicroLEIS, which was designed to assist decision makers to face specific agro-ecological problems. CarboSOIL, developed as a GIS tool to predict SOC contents at different depths, was previously trained and tested in two Mediterranean areas: Andalusia (SW Spain and Valencia (E Spain. The model was applied under different IPPC scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1 according to different global climate models (BCCR-BCM2, CNRMCM3 and ECHAM5 and output data were linked to spatial datasets (soil and land use to quantify SOC stocks. CarboSOIL model has proved its ability to predict the short-, medium- and long-term trends (2040s, 2070s and 2100s of SOC dynamics and sequestration under projected future scenarios of climate change. Results showed an overall trend towards decreasing of SOC stocks in the upper soil sections (0–25 cm and 25–50 cm for most soil types and land uses, but predicted SOC stocks tend to increase in the deeper soil section (50–75 cm. Soil types as Arenosols, Planosols and Solonchaks and land uses as "permanent crops" and "open spaces with little or no vegetation" would be severely affected by climate change with large decreases of SOC stocks, in particular under the medium-high emission scenario A2 by 2100. The information developed in this study might support decision-making in land management and climate adaptation strategies in Mediterranean regions and the methodology could be applied to other Mediterranean areas with available soil, land use and climate data.

  5. 对农业技术自组织推广能力提升问题的理论探讨%Theoretical Study on Promotion of Self-organizing Generalization Abilities in Agricultural Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄周

    2011-01-01

    The self-organizing generalization abilities in agricultural technology include the self-organizing raise of funds,the self-organizing promotion of people competence, the self-organizing transportation of information, the self-organizing management of risk, the self-organizing establishment of organizations and so on. With the advancing construction of modern agriculture, the transformation of the government's "other-organizing" generalization idea as well as the acquirement of perpetual developing motion in agriculture, there is practical requirement of the promotion of the self-organizing generalization abilities. Meanwhile, the characteristic of dissipative structure along with the co-existence of competition and cooperation among the components in this generalization system provides possibility for its formation.Therefore, we need to strengthen the characteristic of dissipative structure and develop the competition and cooperation among the internal components to promote the self-organizing generalization abilities in agricultural technology.%农业技术自组织推广能力包括推广的资金自组织筹运、人员素质自组织提升、信息自组织收送、风险自组织处理、组织自组织缔结等能力.现代农业建设的推进、政府"他组织"推广思路的转变和农业持久发展动力的获得,对自组织推广能力的提升提出了客观要求;而推广体系的耗散结构特征及其内部组分间竞争与协同的存在,为其形成提供了可能性.应从耗散结构特征的强化及内部组分间竞争与协同的促成等,提升农业技术自组织推广能力.

  6. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  7. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  8. Self-Organized Criticality, Plasticity and Sensorimotor Coupling. Explorations with a Neurorobotic Model in a Behavioural Preference Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Barandiaran, Xabier E.; Bedia, Manuel G.; Seron, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic) and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a) non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b) internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c) strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self-organized critically includes

  9. Self-organized criticality, plasticity and sensorimotor coupling. Explorations with a neurorobotic model in a behavioural preference task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aguilera

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self-organized

  10. Self-organized criticality, plasticity and sensorimotor coupling. Explorations with a neurorobotic model in a behavioural preference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Bedia, Manuel G; Seron, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic) and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a) non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b) internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c) strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self-organized critically includes

  11. 3D modeling of organic haze in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, François

    2017-05-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto on July 14, 2015, revealed the presence of haze in Pluto's atmosphere that were formed by CH4/N2 photochemistry at high altitudes in Pluto's atmosphere, as on Titan and Triton. In order to help the analysis of the observations and further investigate the formation of organic haze and its evolution at global scales, we have implemented a simple parameterization of the formation of organic haze in our Pluto General Circulation Model. The production of haze in our model is based on the different steps of aerosol formation as understood on Titan and Triton: photolysis of CH4 in the upper atmosphere by Lyman-α UV radiation, production of various gaseous species, and conversion into solid particles through accumulation and aggregation processes. The simulations use properties of aerosols similar to those observed in the detached haze layer on Titan. We compared two reference simulations ran with a particle radius of 50 nm: with, and without South Pole N2 condensation. We discuss the impact of the particle radius and the lifetime of the precursors on the haze distribution. We simulate CH4 photolysis and the haze formation up to 600 km above the surface. Results show that CH4 photolysis in Pluto's atmosphere in 2015 occurred mostly in the sunlit summer hemisphere with a peak at an altitude of 250 km, though the interplanetary source of Lyman-α flux can induce some photolysis even in the Winter hemisphere. We obtained an extensive haze up to altitudes comparable with the observations, and with non-negligible densities up to 500 km altitude. In both reference simulations, the haze density is not strongly impacted by the meridional circulation. With No South Pole N2 condensation, the maximum nadir opacity and haze extent is obtained at the North Pole. With South Pole N2 condensation, the descending parcel of air above the South Pole leads to a latitudinally more homogeneous haze density with a slight density peak at the South

  12. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  13. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  14. Evaluation of approaches focused on modelling of organic carbon stocks using the RothC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koco, Štefan; Skalský, Rastislav; Makovníková, Jarmila; Tarasovičová, Zuzana; Barančíková, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    The aim of current efforts in the European area is the protection of soil organic matter, which is included in all relevant documents related to the protection of soil. The use of modelling of organic carbon stocks for anticipated climate change, respectively for land management can significantly help in short and long-term forecasting of the state of soil organic matter. RothC model can be applied in the time period of several years to centuries and has been tested in long-term experiments within a large range of soil types and climatic conditions in Europe. For the initialization of the RothC model, knowledge about the carbon pool sizes is essential. Pool size characterization can be obtained from equilibrium model runs, but this approach is time consuming and tedious, especially for larger scale simulations. Due to this complexity we search for new possibilities how to simplify and accelerate this process. The paper presents a comparison of two approaches for SOC stocks modelling in the same area. The modelling has been carried out on the basis of unique input of land use, management and soil data for each simulation unit separately. We modeled 1617 simulation units of 1x1 km grid on the territory of agroclimatic region Žitný ostrov in the southwest of Slovakia. The first approach represents the creation of groups of simulation units based on the evaluation of results for simulation unit with similar input values. The groups were created after the testing and validation of modelling results for individual simulation units with results of modelling the average values of inputs for the whole group. Tests of equilibrium model for interval in the range 5 t.ha-1 from initial SOC stock showed minimal differences in results comparing with result for average value of whole interval. Management inputs data from plant residues and farmyard manure for modelling of carbon turnover were also the same for more simulation units. Combining these groups (intervals of initial

  15. Development and evaluation of a new sorption model for organic cations in soil: contributions from organic matter and clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2013-12-17

    This study evaluates a newly proposed cation-exchange model that defines the sorption of organic cations to soil as a summed contribution of sorption to organic matter (OM) and sorption to phyllosilicate clay minerals. Sorption to OM is normalized to the fraction organic carbon (fOC), and sorption to clay is normalized to the estimated cation-exchange capacity attributed to clay minerals (CECCLAY). Sorption affinity is specified to a fixed medium composition, with correction factors for other electrolyte concentrations. The model applies measured sorption coefficients to one reference OM material and one clay mineral. If measured values are absent, then empirical relationships are available on the basis of molecular volume and amine type in combination with corrective increments for specific polar moieties. The model is tested using new sorption data generated at pH 6 for two Eurosoils, one enriched in clay and the other, OM, using 29 strong bases (pKa > 8). Using experimental data on reference materials for all tested compounds, model predictions for the two soils differed on average by only -0.1 ± 0.4 log units from measured sorption affinities. Within the chemical applicability domain, the model can also be applied successfully to various reported soil sorption data for organic cations. Particularly for clayish soils, the model shows that sorption of organic cations to clay minerals accounts for more than 90% of the overall affinity.

  16. ZFNGenome: A comprehensive resource for locating zinc finger nuclease target sites in model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytas Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs have tremendous potential as tools to facilitate genomic modifications, such as precise gene knockouts or gene replacements by homologous recombination. ZFNs can be used to advance both basic research and clinical applications, including gene therapy. Recently, the ability to engineer ZFNs that target any desired genomic DNA sequence with high fidelity has improved significantly with the introduction of rapid, robust, and publicly available techniques for ZFN design such as the Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN method. The motivation for this study is to make resources for genome modifications using OPEN-generated ZFNs more accessible to researchers by creating a user-friendly interface that identifies and provides quality scores for all potential ZFN target sites in the complete genomes of several model organisms. Description ZFNGenome is a GBrowse-based tool for identifying and visualizing potential target sites for OPEN-generated ZFNs. ZFNGenome currently includes a total of more than 11.6 million potential ZFN target sites, mapped within the fully sequenced genomes of seven model organisms; S. cerevisiae, C. reinhardtii, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, D. rerio, C. elegans, and H. sapiens and can be visualized within the flexible GBrowse environment. Additional model organisms will be included in future updates. ZFNGenome provides information about each potential ZFN target site, including its chromosomal location and position relative to transcription initiation site(s. Users can query ZFNGenome using several different criteria (e.g., gene ID, transcript ID, target site sequence. Tracks in ZFNGenome also provide "uniqueness" and ZiFOpT (Zinc Finger OPEN Targeter "confidence" scores that estimate the likelihood that a chosen ZFN target site will function in vivo. ZFNGenome is dynamically linked to ZiFDB, allowing users access to all available information about zinc finger reagents, such as the

  17. Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler--Generating condensed-phase models of humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Axel; Solc, Roland; Tunega, Daniel; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in the environment and have manifold functions. While their composition is well known, information on the chemical structure and three-dimensional conformation is scarce. Here we describe the Vienna Soil-Organic-Matter Modeler, which is an online tool to generate condensed phase computer models of humic substances (http://somm.boku.ac.at). Many different models can be created that reflect the diversity in composition and conformations of the constituting molecules. To exemplify the modeler, 18 different models are generated based on two experimentally determined compositions, to explicitly study the effect of varying e.g. the amount of water molecules in the models or the pH. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the models, which were subsequently analyzed in terms of structure, interactions and dynamics, linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic composition of the systems. We are convinced that this new tool opens the way for a wide range of in silico studies on soil organic matter.

  18. Modeling adsorption and reactions of organic molecules at metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: The understanding of adsorption and reactions of (large) organic molecules at metal surfaces plays an increasingly important role in modern surface science and technology. Such hybrid inorganic/organic systems (HIOS) are relevant for many applications in catalysis, light-emitting diodes, single-molecule junctions, molecular sensors and switches, and photovoltaics. Obviously, the predictive modeling and understanding of the structure and stability of such hybrid systems is an essential prerequisite for tuning their electronic properties and functions. At present, density-functional theory (DFT) is the most promising approach to study the structure, stability, and electronic properties of complex systems, because it can be applied to both molecules and solids comprising thousands of atoms. However, state-of-the-art approximations to DFT do not provide a consistent and reliable description for HIOS, which is largely due to two issues: (i) the self-interaction of the electrons with themselves arising from the Hartree term of the total energy that is not fully compensated in approximate exchange-correlation functionals, and (ii) the lack of long-range part of the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The self-interaction errors sometimes lead to incorrect description of charge transfer and electronic level alignment in HIOS, although for molecules adsorbed on metals these effects will often cancel out in total energy differences. Regarding vdW interactions, several promising vdW-inclusive DFT-based methods have been recently demonstrated to yield remarkable accuracy for intermolecular interactions in the gas phase. However, the majority of these approaches neglect the nonlocal collective electron response in the vdW energy tail, an effect that is particularly strong in condensed phases and at interfaces between different materials. Here we show that the recently developed DFT+vdW(surf) method that accurately accounts for the collective electronic

  19. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner’s time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one’s sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such ‘mixed mechanisms’ in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a ‘transparent’ and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham’s architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham’s model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing. PMID:19720327

  20. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-09-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner's time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one's sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such 'mixed mechanisms' in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a 'transparent' and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham's architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham's model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing.

  1. Data-driven modeling reveals cell behaviors controlling self-organization during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Christopher R; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Igoshin, Oleg A; Shimkets, Lawrence J

    2017-06-06

    Collective cell movement is critical to the emergent properties of many multicellular systems, including microbial self-organization in biofilms, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. However, even the best-studied systems lack a complete picture of how diverse physical and chemical cues act upon individual cells to ensure coordinated multicellular behavior. Known for its social developmental cycle, the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus uses coordinated movement to generate three-dimensional aggregates called fruiting bodies. Despite extensive progress in identifying genes controlling fruiting body development, cell behaviors and cell-cell communication mechanisms that mediate aggregation are largely unknown. We developed an approach to examine emergent behaviors that couples fluorescent cell tracking with data-driven models. A unique feature of this approach is the ability to identify cell behaviors affecting the observed aggregation dynamics without full knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms. The fluorescent cell tracking revealed large deviations in the behavior of individual cells. Our modeling method indicated that decreased cell motility inside the aggregates, a biased walk toward aggregate centroids, and alignment among neighboring cells in a radial direction to the nearest aggregate are behaviors that enhance aggregation dynamics. Our modeling method also revealed that aggregation is generally robust to perturbations in these behaviors and identified possible compensatory mechanisms. The resulting approach of directly combining behavior quantification with data-driven simulations can be applied to more complex systems of collective cell movement without prior knowledge of the cellular machinery and behavioral cues.

  2. Modelling and Optimization of Organization of Workplaces in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a practical example of improvement of foundry production systems in terms of post-finishing of nodular iron castings produced in the conditions of bulk production for automotive industry. The attention was paid to high labour-intensive efforts, which are difficult to be subjected to mechanization and automation. The times of actions related to grinding processing of castings in three grinding positions connected with a belt conveyor were estimated with the use of a time study method. A bottleneck as well as limiting factors were specified in a system. A number of improvements were proposed, aimed at improving work organization on the castings post-finishing line. An analysis of work ergonomics at the workplace was made in order to eliminate unnecessary and onerous for the employee actions. A model of production system using the Arena software, on which a simulation experiment was conducted, was drawn up in order to visualize the analysed phenomena. The effects of the project were shown on graphs comparing times, costs, work ergonomics and overall efficiency of production equipment indicator.

  3. Modelling Competences for Partner Selection in Service-Oriented Virtual Organization Breeding Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    In the context of globalization and dynamic markets, collaboration among organizations is a condition sine qua non for organizations, especially small and medium enterprises, to remain competitive. Virtual organizations have been proposed as an organizational structure adapted to collaboration among organizations. The concept of Virtual Organization Breeding Environment (VOBE) has been proposed as a means to support the creation and operation of virtual organizations. With the rise of the service-oriented architecture (SOA), the concept of service-oriented VOBE (SOVOBE) has been proposed as a VOBE systematically organized around the concept of services. In the context of SOVOBEs, novel competence models supporting both service orientation and collaboration among organizations have to be developed to support efficiently partner selection, a key aspect of VO creation. In this paper, such a competence model is presented. Our competence model consists of a competence description model, a competence verification m...

  4. Explosives: Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Copper Azide as the Primary Explosive with Low Electrostatic Sensitivity and Excellent Initiation Ability (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyou; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Shan; Song, Naimeng; Chen, Yifa; Tong, Wenchao; Han, Yuzhen; Yang, Li; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    On page 5837, L. Yang, B. Wang, and co-workers describe a metal-organic framework (MOF) templating method to synthesize copper azide uniformly anchored in a 3D interconnected carbon matrix and evenly spaced by the electron-conductive joints. This strategy sheds light on the preparation of powerful yet safe primary explosives and fulfills the need for controllable explosive systems.

  5. Dissecting Ubiquitin Folding Using the Self-Organized Polymer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Govardhan; Thirumalai, D

    2015-08-27

    Folding of Ubiquitin (Ub), a functionally important protein found in eukaryotic organisms, is investigated at low and neutral pH at different temperatures using simulations of the coarse-grained self-organized-polymer model with side chains (SOP-SC). The melting temperatures (Tm's), identified with the peaks in the heat capacity curves, decrease as pH decreases, in qualitative agreement with experiments. The calculated radius of gyration, showing dramatic variations with pH, is in excellent agreement with scattering experiments. At Tm, Ub folds in a two-state manner at low and neutral pH. Clustering analysis of the conformations sampled in equilibrium folding trajectories at Tm, with multiple transitions between the folded and unfolded states, shows a network of metastable states connecting the native and unfolded states. At low and neutral pH, Ub folds with high probability through a preferred set of conformations resulting in a pH-dependent dominant folding pathway. Folding kinetics reveal that Ub assembly at low pH occurs by multiple pathways involving a combination of nucleation-collapse and diffusion collision mechanism. The mechanism by which Ub folds is dictated by the stability of the key secondary structural elements responsible for establishing long-range contacts and collapse of Ub. Nucleation collapse mechanism holds if the stability of these elements are marginal, as would be the case at elevated temperatures. If the lifetimes associated with these structured microdomains are on the order of hundreds of microseconds, then Ub folding follows the diffusion-collision mechanism with intermediates, many of which coincide with those found in equilibrium. Folding at neutral pH is a sequential process with a populated intermediate resembling that sampled at equilibrium. The transition state structures, obtained using a Pfold analysis, are homogeneous and globular with most of the secondary and tertiary structures being native-like. Many of our findings for

  6. Models,Characteristics and Upgrade of Rural Tourism Industrial Organizations in Beijing Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli; GENG

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces theoretical basis of researches on industrial organizations of rural tourism.It sums up major models of industrial organizations of rural tourism in Beijing suburbs.Then,it presents benefits and major problems of different models,sums up characteristics of development of rural tourism industrial organizations in Beijing suburbs.Finally,it comes up with recommendations for upgrade and development of rural tourism industrial organizations in Beijing suburbs.

  7. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  8. Self care ability of women with diabetes who suffered from peripheral neuropathy and its related needs based on Orem’s self-care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khosravan SH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes is associated with many complications that one of these complications is neuropathy. This disease is more common in women. In cases of self-care deficit and not meeting its related needs, the disease can lead to complications and even death. This study was done to determine the self care ability of diabetes women with peripheral neuropathy and its related need based on Orem self care model. Materials and Method: This cross - sectional study was conducted on women with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who referred to diabetes clinic in one of the hospitals in Gonabad in 2014. 120 patients were selected by convenience sampling. Patients’ neuropathy was determined by Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. Then, data were gathered through using self care needs assessment questionnaire and self care ability questionnaire based on Orem self care model. Data analysis was done through using descriptive statistical test and chi-square test with in SPSS 17. Results: The self care ability of 71.7 percent of patients was weak (33.72 ± 8.48 and according to needs assessment and in domains of knowledge, attitude and performance, 10.8, 0.8 and 52.5 percent of subjects were weak respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings, the self care ability of diabetic women with peripheral neuropathy was weak. The domain of performance was weaker than attitude and knowledge domains concerning the self care ability. Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement of necessary measures for improving the patients’ self care ability based on their needs.

  9. The prediction of the level of personality organization on reduction of psychiatric symptoms and improvement of work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies during a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Keinänen, Matti; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa; Härkänen, Tommi

    2017-09-01

    How level of personality organization (LPO) predicts psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies is poorly known. We investigated the importance of the LPO on the benefits of short-term versus long-term psychotherapies. A cohort study based on 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder was allocated to long-term (LPP) and short-term (SPP) psychodynamic psychotherapy, and solution-focused therapy (SFT). The LPO was assessed by interview at baseline and categorized into neuroses and higher level borderline. Outcome was assessed at baseline and 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up, using self-report and interview-based measures of symptoms and work ability. For patients receiving SPP, improvement in work ability, symptom reduction, and the remission rate were more considerable in patients with neuroses than in higher level borderline patients, whereas LPP or SFT showed no notable differences in effectiveness in the two LPO groups. In patients with neuroses, improvement was more considerable in the short-term therapy groups during the first year of follow-up, and in higher level borderline patients LPP was more effective after 3 years of follow-up. The remission rate, defined as both symptom reduction and lack of auxiliary treatment, was higher in LPP than in SPP for both the LPO groups considered. In neuroses, short-term psychotherapy was associated with a more rapid reduction of symptoms and increase in work ability, whereas LPP was more effective for longer follow-ups in both LPO groups. Further large-scale studies are needed. Level of personality organization is relevant for selection between short- and long-term psychotherapies. Short-term therapy gives faster benefits for neurotic patients but not for patients with higher level borderline personality organization. Sustained remission from symptoms is more probable after long-term than short-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  11. Improving Organizations by Replacing the "Mechanical" Model with the "Organic" one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently viewed as artificial structures. However, in our opinion, organizations seem to match a biological structure much better. This paper explores this new approach with some interesting conclusions and results: organizations aim at perpetual exis-tence and continuous adaptation. We advance the ideas of organizational "instincts", organizational pathology and organizational optimization using genetic algorithms. In competitive markets, organizations are in a natural selection process, which actually is part of a natural genetic algorithm. This process may be simulated in an artificial multidisciplinary optimization environment, based on minimizing a Total Costs and Risks objective function. Unlike the gradient optimization methods, the genetic algorithms may be applied to such problems with thousands of degrees of freedom. This opens the way to the organizational structure optimization through genetic algorithms.

  12. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  13. Design of control adaptability system model for TV media organization structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-dong; WANG Ya-lin; MA Tao

    2008-01-01

    To resolve the control adaptability problem of TV media in complex competitive environment, a con-trol system model of TV media organization structure was designed. Based on the designed system model for TV media organization structure, the relations among the main factors of the system constitution, missions, organi-zing decision entity, and carrying bodies were analyzed. By means of applying multi-objective decision method and complex control system theory, and combining the integration model of TV media organization structure, the basic model was concluded and the corresponding parameters were designed. The current organization process of TV media is analyzed by this model, which comes to the adaptability appearance with different parameters. The results indicate that the model can estimate current TV media organization structure for the chain appearance of communications and the correlation between platforms and policy-making agencies.

  14. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... participate in the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model for a period beginning in 2011 and ending...://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission... Accountable Care Organization Model or the application process. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background...

  15. 76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...: This notice extends the deadlines for the submission of the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model...-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission Deadline: Applications must be postmarked on or before August 19, 2011. The Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model ] Application is available...

  16. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  17. Widening the gap between measurement and modelling of secondary organic aerosol properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Good

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The link between measured sub-saturated hygroscopicity and cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol particles produced by the chamber photo-oxidation of α-pinene in the presence or absence of ammonium sulphate seed aerosol was investigated using two models of varying complexity. A simple single hygroscopicity parameter model and a more complex model (incorporating surface effects were used to assess the detail required to predict the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN activity from the sub-saturated water uptake. Sub-saturated water uptake measured by three hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA instruments was used to determine the water activity for use in the models. The predicted CCN activity was compared to the measured CCN activation potential using a continuous flow CCN counter.

    Reconciliation using the more complex model formulation with measured cloud activation could be achieved widely different assumed surface tension behavior of the growing droplet; this was entirely determined by the instrument used as the source of water activity data. This unreliable derivation of the water activity as a function of solute concentration from sub-saturated hygroscopicity data indicates a limitation in the use of such data in predicting cloud condensation nucleus behavior of particles with a significant organic fraction. Similarly, the ability of the simpler single parameter model to predict cloud activation behaviour was dependent on the instrument used to measure sub-saturated hygroscopicity and the relative humidity used to provide the model input. However, agreement was observed for inorganic salt solution particles, which were measured by all instruments in agreement with theory.

    The difference in HTDMA data from validated and extensively used instruments means that it cannot be stated with certainty the detail required to predict the CCN activity from sub-saturated hygroscopicity. In order to

  18. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Eleanor E.; Paustian, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions.

  19. Equivalence of a Measurement Model of Cognitive Abilities in U.S. Standardization and Australian Neuroscience Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Holdnack, James A.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Cook, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    A psychological measurement model provides an explicit definition of (a) the theoretical and (b) the numerical relationships between observed scores and the latent variables that underlie the observed scores. Examination of the metric invariance of a measurement model involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the model relating…

  20. A 360° Vision for Virtual Organizations Characterization and Modelling: Two Intentional Level Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego-Roche, Luz-María; Rieu, Dominique; Front, Agnès

    Nowadays, organizations aiming to be successful in an increasingly competitive market tend to group together into virtual organizations. Designing the information system (IS) of such virtual organizations on the basis of the IS of those participating is a real challenge. The IS of a virtual organization plays an important role in the collaboration and cooperation of the participants organizations and in reaching the common goal. This article proposes criteria allowing virtual organizations to be identified and classified at an intentional level, as well as the information necessary for designing the organizations’ IS. Instantiation of criteria for a specific virtual organization and its participants, will allow simple graphical models to be generated in a modelling tool. The models will be used as bases for the IS design at organizational and operational levels. The approach is illustrated by the example of the virtual organization UGRT (a regional stockbreeders union in Tabasco, Mexico).

  1. Modelling organic crystal structures using distributed multipole and polarizability-based model intermolecular potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah L; Leslie, Maurice; Welch, Gareth W A; Habgood, Matthew; Price, Louise S; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G; Day, Graeme M

    2010-08-14

    Crystal structure prediction for organic molecules requires both the fast assessment of thousands to millions of crystal structures and the greatest possible accuracy in their relative energies. We describe a crystal lattice simulation program, DMACRYS, emphasizing the features that make it suitable for use in crystal structure prediction for pharmaceutical molecules using accurate anisotropic atom-atom model intermolecular potentials based on the theory of intermolecular forces. DMACRYS can optimize the lattice energy of a crystal, calculate the second derivative properties, and reduce the symmetry of the spacegroup to move away from a transition state. The calculated terahertz frequency k = 0 rigid-body lattice modes and elastic tensor can be used to estimate free energies. The program uses a distributed multipole electrostatic model (Q, t = 00,...,44s) for the electrostatic fields, and can use anisotropic atom-atom repulsion models, damped isotropic dispersion up to R(-10), as well as a range of empirically fitted isotropic exp-6 atom-atom models with different definitions of atomic types. A new feature is that an accurate model for the induction energy contribution to the lattice energy has been implemented that uses atomic anisotropic dipole polarizability models (alpha, t = (10,10)...(11c,11s)) to evaluate the changes in the molecular charge density induced by the electrostatic field within the crystal. It is demonstrated, using the four polymorphs of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine C(15)H(12)N(2)O, that whilst reproducing crystal structures is relatively easy, calculating the polymorphic energy differences to the accuracy of a few kJ mol(-1) required for applications is very demanding of assumptions made in the modelling. Thus DMACRYS enables the comparison of both known and hypothetical crystal structures as an aid to the development of pharmaceuticals and other speciality organic materials, and provides a tool to develop the modelling of the

  2. Solute transport model for trace organic neutral and charged compounds through nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Uk; Drewes, Jörg E; Scott Summers, R; Amy, Gary L

    2007-09-01

    Rejection of trace organic compounds, including disinfection by-products (DBPs) and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), by high-pressure membranes has become a focus of public interest internationally in both drinking water treatment and wastewater reclamation/reuse. The ability to simulate, or even predict, the rejection of these compounds by high-pressure membranes, encompassing nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), will improve process economics and expand membrane applications. The objective of this research is to develop a membrane transport model to account for diffusive and convective contributions to solute transport and rejection. After completion of cross-flow tests and diffusion cell tests with target compounds, modeling efforts were performed in accordance with a non-equilibrium thermodynamic transport equation. Comparing the percentages of convection and diffusion contributions to transport, convection is dominant for most compounds, but diffusion is important for more hydrophobic non-polar compounds. Convection is also more dominant for looser membranes (i.e., NF). In addition, higher initial compound concentrations and greater J(0)/k ratios contribute to solute fluxes more dominated by convection. Given the treatment objective of compound rejection, compound transport and rejection trends are inversely related.

  3. Gene prediction using the Self-Organizing Map: automatic generation of multiple gene models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Terry J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many current gene prediction methods use only one model to represent protein-coding regions in a genome, and so are less likely to predict the location of genes that have an atypical sequence composition. It is likely that future improvements in gene finding will involve the development of methods that can adequately deal with intra-genomic compositional variation. Results This work explores a new approach to gene-prediction, based on the Self-Organizing Map, which has the ability to automatically identify multiple gene models within a genome. The current implementation, named RescueNet, uses relative synonymous codon usage as the indicator of protein-coding potential. Conclusions While its raw accuracy rate can be less than other methods, RescueNet consistently identifies some genes that other methods do not, and should therefore be of interest to gene-prediction software developers and genome annotation teams alike. RescueNet is recommended for use in conjunction with, or as a complement to, other gene prediction methods.

  4. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  5. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2015-10-01

    Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization's work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be identified using proper

  6. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  7. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  8. Bulk δ(15) N measurements of organic-rich rock samples by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry with enhanced oxidation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wennian; Feng, Lianjun; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Wei

    2017-01-15

    Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) has been widely used for nitrogen isotope ratio determination in various organic and inorganic samples. However, the extent of the redox reaction in the EA reaction tube can greatly affect the accuracy and precision of measurements, especially in the case of complex geological samples. It is therefore necessary to determine the appropriate reaction conditions to reach a high recovery of nitrogen by complete combustion or thermal decomposition and quantitative reduction. The conventional Dumas dual-inlet method was used to determine the bulk nitrogen isotope composition of SGR-1 (an organic-rich standard sample), which then was analyzed by EA/IRMS under different EA reaction conditions to study the influence of the redox environment on the δ(15) N measurements. The measured data together with the results reported by previous researchers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the nitrogen extraction for organic-rich rock samples. Our results demonstrated that with the Dumas dual-inlet method more oxidizing agent (CuO) addition to SGR-1 would yield a higher nitrogen content of 0.91% than the recommended content (0.81%) although a δ(15) N value of 17.39 ± 0.09‰ was consistent with the recommended value by USGS. Using EA/IRMS, when more O2 was injected in the reaction tube, a high nitrogen content (0.92 ± 0.01%) and a δ(15) N value (17.43 ± 0.17‰) close to that of the Dumas dual-inlet method were obtained. The addition of V2 O5 or CuO in a continuous-flow system of EA/IRMS could not effectively enable the complete combustion of SGR-1. When measuring the nitrogen isotope composition of organic-rich rock sample dominated by reduced substances with EA/IRMS, greater O2 injection will enable more complete combustion to obtain reliable nitrogen yields compared with the addition of V2 O5 or CuO. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  10. 以能力素质模型引导本科培养方案设置%Guide undergraduate Training Plan set up with Ability Quality Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兴宇

    2013-01-01

      目前,针对现阶段大学生本科培养与就业单位需求脱节的现象,通过引入能力素质模型理论,以能力素质模型引导本科培养方案设置,实质性提升大学生个人价值。%  At present, according to the phenomenon the college students undergraduate cultivation and employment units demand disjointed, through the ability quality model theory is introduced to guide undergraduate training plan set up with ability quality model, and to promote substantively college students' personal value.

  11. Effects of Shenlong Decoction on Learning and Memory Abilities as well as SOD and MDA in Brain-aging Model Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi; Wang Fawei; Yang Minghui; Zheng Qingping; Wang Youjing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Brain aging (dementia) model mice were made by cervical subcutaneous injection of D-galactose solution.Learning and memory abilities were detected with water maze test and superoxide dismulase(SOD)activities and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents in the liver and brain were determined after intragastrical administration of Shenlong Decoction (参龙汤) for 6 weeks. The results indicated that the swimming time was shortened and the correct swimming times increased, SOD activity raised and MDA content decreased in the three Shenlong Decoction groups with different doses as compared with the model group. It is concluded that Shenlong Decoction has the effects of anti-free radical injuries and improving the learning and memory abilities of the brain-aging mice induced by D-galactose.

  12. Modeling soil organic matter reallocation in soil enhanced by fungal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaïa, G.; Falconer, R. E.; Otten, W.

    2012-04-01

    Soil, as a huge carbon reservoir having a large interface with the atmosphere, has a major role in understanding global carbon cycle. Yet, its structure gives rise to an extremely complex ecosystem in which chemical fluxes are difficult to describe. Amongst microbial organisms that inhabit soil, fungi represent an entire kingdom of life that has developed its own strategy to adapt its environment. They are thus known to have a particular importance for the reallocation of carbon (and other elements) as they are able to build a mycelium structure that can spread over several meters and through which nutrients can be translocated. This study, based on simulations, is dedicated to enlighten the role of fungal colonization to generate an ecosystem in which coexists disperse biological hotspots. The simulation environment is reconstructed from thresholded computed tomography images of soil samples. Soil organic matter acting as a resource for fungi is assumed to occur first in a particulate solid state (POM). It is degraded into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through enzymatic activity of fungi. Fungal uptake converts DOC into an internal resource that diffuses through the mycelium and helps it for further colonization. The fungal model is an adaptation of a previously developed model. In addition to internal resource, it accounts for two states of biomass: non-insulated and insulated. One is converted into the other by insulation which is the analog of an ageing process. Being insulated, the interaction rates of the biomass with the environment (degradation and uptake) become slower and the ability to diffuse in the pore space is lost. This aims at producing a more stable state of the mycelium when all resource has been consumed. Spatially simulations reveal a transient state in POM-fungi interaction characterized by a large spread of DOC in the pore space. It is then followed by an enhanced fungal growth toward these areas. Finally a steady state occurs in which DOC

  13. [Structure-functional organization of eukaryotic high-affinity copper importer CTR1 determines its ability to transport copper, silver and cisplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A N; Zatulovskiĭ, E A; Puchkova, L V

    2012-01-01

    It was shown recently, that high affinity Cu(I) importer eukaryotic protein CTR1 can also transport in vitro abiogenic Ag(I) ions and anticancer drug cisplatin. At present there is no rational explanation how CTR1 can transfer platinum group, which is different by coordination properties from highly similar Cu(I) and Ag(I). To understand this phenomenon we analyzed 25 sequences of chordate CTR1 proteins, and found out conserved patterns of organization of N-terminal extracellular part of CTR1 which correspond to initial metal binding. Extracellular copper-binding motifs were qualified by their coordination properties. It was shown that relative position of Met- and His-rich copper-binding motifs in CTR1 predisposes the extracellular CTR1 part to binding of copper, silver and cisplatin. Relation between tissue-specific expression of CTR1 gene, steady-state copper concentration, and silver and platinum accumulation in organs of mice in vivo was analyzed. Significant positive but incomplete correlation exists between these variables. Basing on structural and functional peculiarities of N-terminal part of CTR1 a hypothesis of coupled transport of copper and cisplatin has been suggested, which avoids the disagreement between CTR1-mediated cisplatin transport in vitro, and irreversible binding of platinum to Met-rich peptides.

  14. Modeling the neurodynamic organizations and interactions of teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ronald H; Galloway, Trysha L

    2016-01-01

    Across-brain neurodynamic organizations arise when teams perform coordinated tasks. We describe a symbolic electroencephalographic (EEG) approach that identifies when team neurodynamic organizations occur and demonstrate its utility with scientific problem solving and submarine navigation tasks. Each second, neurodynamic symbols (NS) were created showing the 1-40 Hz EEG power spectral densities for each team member. These data streams contained a performance history of the team's across-brain neurodynamic organizations. The degree of neurodynamic organization was calculated each second from a moving window average of the Shannon entropy over the task. Decreased NS entropy (i.e., greater neurodynamic organization) was prominent in the ~16 Hz EEG bins during problem solving, while during submarine navigation, the maximum NS entropy decreases were ~10 Hz and were associated with establishing the ship's location. Decreased NS entropy also occurred in the 20-40 Hz bins of both teams and was associated with uncertainty or stress. The highest mutual information levels, calculated from the EEG values of team dyads, were associated with decreased NS entropy, suggesting a link between these two measures. These studies show entropy and mutual information mapping of symbolic EEG data streams from teams can be useful for identifying organized across-brain team activation patterns.

  15. 构建有机实验教学新体系,培养学生创新能力%Structuring New System of Organic Experiment Teaching, Educating Innovation Ability of Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹琴

    2014-01-01

    Organic Chemistry was a basic experiment course of chemical specialty in normal universities.The emphasis of organic chemistry experiment teaching was not only basic experiment skill practice , but also innovation ability education to students.In response to the drawbacks of organic chemistry experiment in the teaching content and evaluation methods, the innovation ability promotion methods of students by were provided to structure new experiment teaching content systems and improve experiment teaching evaluation methods.%《有机化学实验》是高师院校化学专业的一门基础实验课。有机化学实验教学不仅要注重学生基本实验技能的训练,还要注重学生创新能力的培养。本文针对有机化学对实验教学内容和评价方式存在的弊端,进一步构建实验教学内容新体系及实验教学评价新方法,促使学生创新能力的提升。

  16. Biobased surfactant-like molecules from organic wastes: the effect of waste composition and composting process on surfactant properties and on the ability to solubilize Tetrachloroethene (PCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Giorgia; Chen, Xiaosong; Jawitz, James W; Tambone, Fulvia; Genevini, Pierluigi; Faoro, Franco; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    In this work, four surfactant-like humic acids (HAs) obtained from garden lignocellulose wastes and kitchen food wastes mixed with garden-lignocellulose wastes, both before and after composting, were tested for surfactant properties and the ability to solubilize tetrachloroethene (PCE). The waste-derived HAs showed good surfactant properties, lowering the water surface tension from 74 mN m(-1) to 45.4 +/- 4.4 mN m(-1), with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 1.54 +/- 1.68 g L(-1), which is lower than many synthetic ionic surfactants. CMC was affected by both waste origin and composting processes. The addition of food waste and composting reduced CMC by adding alkyl-C (measured by CP MAS 13C NMR) and N- and S-HA contents (amide molecules), so that a multistep regression was found [CMC = 24.6 - 0.189 alkyl C - 2.64 (N + S); R2 = 0.77, P < 0.10, n = 6]. The four HAs solubilized PCE at the rate of 0.18-0.47 g PCE/g aqueous biosurfactant. These results were much higher than those reported in the literature for a commercial HA (0.026 g/g), but they were in line with those measured in this work for nonionic surfactants such as Tween-80 (0.69 g/g) and Triton X-100 (1.08 g/g).

  17. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants.

  18. Development and evaluation of predictive model for bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients of neutral organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangcai; Yuan, Quan; Yu, Haiying; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Hong, Huachang

    2017-04-01

    The binding of organic chemicals to serum albumin can significantly reduce their unbound concentration in blood and affect their biological reactions. In this study, we developed a new QSAR model for bovine serum albumin (BSA) - water partition coefficients (KBSA/W) of neutral organic chemicals with large structural variance, logKBSA/W values covering 3.5 orders of magnitude (1.19-4.76). All chemical geometries were optimized by semi-empirical PM6 algorithm. Several quantum chemical parameters that reflect various intermolecular interactions as well as hydrophobicity were selected to develop QSAR model. The result indicates the regression model derived from logKow, the most positive net atomic charges on an atom, Connolly solvent excluded volume, polarizability, and Abraham acidity could explain the partitioning mechanism of organic chemicals between BSA and water. The simulated external validation and cross validation verifies the developed model has good statistical robustness and predictive ability, thus can be used to estimate the logKBSA/W values for chemicals in application domain, accordingly to provide basic data for the toxicity assessment of the chemicals.

  19. Estimation of ability and item parameters in mathematics testing by using the combination of 3PLM/ GRM and MCM/ GPCM scoring model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadyo Abadyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the superiority of scoring by utilizing the combination of MCM/GPCM model in comparison to 3PLM/GRM model within a mixed-item format of Mathematics tests. To achieve the purpose, the impact of two scoring models was investigated based on the test length, the sample size, and the M-C item proportion within the mixed-item format test and the investigation was conducted on the aspects of: (1 estimation of ability and item parameters, (2 optimalization of TIF, (3 standard error rates, and (4 model fitness on the data. The investigation made use of simulated data that was generated based on fixed effects factorial design 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 and 5 replications resulting in 270 data sets. The data were analyzed by means of fixed effect MANOVA on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the ability and RMSE and Root Mean Square Deviation (RNSD of the itemparameters in order to identify the significant main effects at level of a = .05; on the other hand, the interaction effects were incorporated into the error term for statistical testing. The -2LL statistics were also used in order to evaluate the moel fitness on the data set. The results of the study show that the combination of MCM/GPCM model provide higher accurate estimation than that of 3PLM/GRM model. In addition, the test information given by the combination of MCM/GPCM model is three times hhigher than that of 3PLM/GRM model although the test information cannot offer a solid conclusion in relation to the sample size and the M-C item proportion on each test length which provides the optimal score of thest information. Finally, the differences of fit statistics between the two models of scoring determine the position of MCM/GPCM model rather than that of 3PLM/GRM model.

  20. On the Implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for modeled organic aerosol mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current chemical transport models assume that organic aerosol (OA)-forming compounds partition mostly to a water-poor, organic-rich phase in accordance with their vapor pressures. However, in the southeast United States, a significant fraction of ambient organic compounds are wat...