Sample records for model organism streptomyces

  1. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine. (United States)

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F


    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  2. Metabolic network model guided engineering ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway to improve ascomycin production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus. (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Wang, Cheng; Song, Kejing; Wen, Jianping


    Ascomycin is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide with high immunosuppressant and antifungal activity. As the lower production in bio-fermentation, global metabolic analysis is required to further explore its biosynthetic network and determine the key limiting steps for rationally engineering. To achieve this goal, an engineering approach guided by a metabolic network model was implemented to better understand ascomycin biosynthesis and improve its production. The metabolic conservation of Streptomyces species was first investigated by comparing the metabolic enzymes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with those of 31 Streptomyces strains, the results showed that more than 72% of the examined proteins had high sequence similarity with counterparts in every surveyed strain. And it was found that metabolic reactions are more highly conserved than the enzymes themselves because of its lower diversity of metabolic functions than that of genes. The main source of the observed metabolic differences was from the diversity of secondary metabolism. According to the high conservation of primary metabolic reactions in Streptomyces species, the metabolic network model of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus was constructed based on the latest reported metabolic model of S. coelicolor A3(2) and validated experimentally. By coupling with flux balance analysis and using minimization of metabolic adjustment algorithm, potential targets for ascomycin overproduction were predicted. Since several of the preferred targets were highly associated with ethylmalonyl-CoA biosynthesis, two target genes hcd (encoding 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase) and ccr (encoding crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase) were selected for overexpression in S. hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus FS35. Both the mutants HA-Hcd and HA-Ccr showed higher ascomycin titer, which was consistent with the model predictions. Furthermore, the combined effects of the two genes were evaluated and the strain HA

  3. Artificial Intelligence versus Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Cholesterol Oxidase Production by using Streptomyces Sp. (United States)

    Pathak, Lakshmi; Singh, Vineeta; Niwas, Ram; Osama, Khwaja; Khan, Saif; Haque, Shafiul; Tripathi, C K M; Mishra, B N


    Cholesterol oxidase (COD) is a bi-functional FAD-containing oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol into 4-cholesten-3-one. The wider biological functions and clinical applications of COD have urged the screening, isolation and characterization of newer microbes from diverse habitats as a source of COD and optimization and over-production of COD for various uses. The practicability of statistical/ artificial intelligence techniques, such as response surface methodology (RSM), artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) have been tested to optimize the medium composition for the production of COD from novel strain Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500. All experiments were performed according to the five factor central composite design (CCD) and the generated data was analysed using RSM and ANN. GA was employed to optimize the models generated by RSM and ANN. Based upon the predicted COD concentration, the model developed with ANN was found to be superior to the model developed with RSM. The RSM-GA approach predicted maximum of 6.283 U/mL COD production, whereas the ANN-GA approach predicted a maximum of 9.93 U/mL COD concentration. The optimum concentrations of the medium variables predicted through ANN-GA approach were: 1.431 g/50 mL soybean, 1.389 g/50 mL maltose, 0.029 g/50 mL MgSO4, 0.45 g/50 mL NaCl and 2.235 ml/50 mL glycerol. The experimental COD concentration was concurrent with the GA predicted yield and led to 9.75 U/mL COD production, which was nearly two times higher than the yield (4.2 U/mL) obtained with the un-optimized medium. This is the very first time we are reporting the statistical versus artificial intelligence based modeling and optimization of COD production by Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500.

  4. Streptomyces colonosanans (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Bukhari, Sarah I; Khan, Tahir M; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han


    Streptomyces colonosanans MUSC 93J T , a novel strain isolated from mangrove forest soil located at Sarawak, Malaysia. The bacterium was noted to be Gram-positive and to form light yellow aerial and vivid yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. The polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy of strain MUSC 93J T and the strain showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces . Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces malachitofuscus NBRC 13059 T (99.2% sequence similarity), Streptomyces misionensis NBRC 13063 T (99.1%), and Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes NRRL 5799 T (99.1%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 93J T and closely related type strains ranged from 14.4 ± 0.1 to 46.2 ± 0.4%. The comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated MUSC 93J T exhibits a unique DNA profile. The genome of MUSC 93J T consists of 7,015,076 bp. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 69.90 mol%. The extract of strain MUSC 93J T was demonstrated to exhibit potent antioxidant activity via ABTS, metal chelating, and SOD assays. This extract also exhibited anticancer activity against human colon cancer cell lines without significant cytotoxic effect against human normal colon cells. Furthermore, the chemical analysis of the extract further emphasizes the strain is producing chemo-preventive related metabolites. Based on this polyphasic study of MUSC 93J T , it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 93J T (= DSM 102042 T = MCCC 1K02298 T ).

  5. Artificial Intelligence versus Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Cholesterol Oxidase Production by using Streptomyces Sp.

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    Lakshmi Pathak

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxidase (COD is a bi-functional FAD-containing oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol into 4-cholesten-3-one. The wider biological functions and clinical applications of COD have urged the screening, isolation and characterization of newer microbes from diverse habitats as a source of COD and optimization and over-production of COD for various uses. The practicability of statistical/ artificial intelligence techniques, such as response surface methodology (RSM, artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA have been tested to optimize the medium composition for the production of COD from novel strain Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500. All experiments were performed according to the five factor central composite design (CCD and the generated data was analysed using RSM and ANN. GA was employed to optimize the models generated by RSM and ANN. Based upon the predicted COD concentration, the model developed with ANN was found to be superior to the model developed with RSM. The RSM-GA approach predicted maximum of 6.283 U/mL COD production, whereas the ANN-GA approach predicted a maximum of 9.93 U/mL COD concentration. The optimum concentrations of the medium variables predicted through ANN-GA approach were: 1.431 g/50 mL soybean, 1.389 g/50 mL maltose, 0.029 g/50 mL MgSO4, 0.45 g/50 mL NaCl and 2.235 ml/50 mL glycerol. The experimental COD concentration was concurrent with the GA predicted yield and led to 9.75 U/mL COD production, which was nearly two times higher than the yield (4.2 U/mL obtained with the un-optimized medium. This is the very first time we are reporting the statistical versus artificial intelligence based modeling and optimization of COD production by Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500.

  6. The dynamic transcriptional and translational landscape of the model antibiotic producer Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). (United States)

    Jeong, Yujin; Kim, Ji-Nu; Kim, Min Woo; Bucca, Giselda; Cho, Suhyung; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Kim, Byung-Gee; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Sun Chang; Smith, Colin P; Cho, Byung-Kwan


    Individual Streptomyces species have the genetic potential to produce a diverse array of natural products of commercial, medical and veterinary interest. However, these products are often not detectable under laboratory culture conditions. To harness their full biosynthetic potential, it is important to develop a detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that orchestrate their metabolism. Here we integrate nucleotide resolution genome-scale measurements of the transcriptome and translatome of Streptomyces coelicolor, the model antibiotic-producing actinomycete. Our systematic study determines 3,570 transcription start sites and identifies 230 small RNAs and a considerable proportion (∼21%) of leaderless mRNAs; this enables deduction of genome-wide promoter architecture. Ribosome profiling reveals that the translation efficiency of secondary metabolic genes is negatively correlated with transcription and that several key antibiotic regulatory genes are translationally induced at transition growth phase. These findings might facilitate the design of new approaches to antibiotic discovery and development.

  7. In vitro Cellulose Rich Organic Material Degradation by Cellulolytic Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768

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    Pinky Prasad


    Full Text Available Aims: Cellulosic biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable source of fuels and is also one of the dominating waste materials in nature resulting from human activities. Keeping in view the environmental problems like disposal of large volumes of cellulosic wastes and shortage of fossil fuel in the world, the main aim of the present investigation was to characterize and study the cellulolytic activity of Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768, isolated from municipal wastes, on natural cellulosic substrates viz. straw powder, wood powder and finely grated vegetable peels.Methodology and Result: Stanier’s Basal broth with 100 mg of each of the substrates was inoculated separately with S. albospinus (MTCC No. 8768 and incubated at 37 °C for 8 days. The cellulosic substrates were re-weighed at an interval of 2 days and the difference between the initial weight and the final weight gave the amount of substratesdegraded by the isolate. It was observed that maximum degradation was observed in the grated vegetable peels (64 mg followed by straw powder (38 mg and wood powder (28 mg over a period of 8 days.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: By the selection of efficient cellulolytic microorganisms and cost-effective operational techniques, the production of useful end products from the biodegradation of the low cost enormous stock of cellulose in nature can be very beneficial.

  8. Transesterification of waste cooking oil by an organic solvent-tolerant alkaline lipase from Streptomyces sp. CS273. (United States)

    Mander, Poonam; Yoo, Hah-Young; Kim, Seung Wook; Choi, Yun Hee; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoo, Jin Cheol


    The aim of this present study was to produce a microbial enzyme that can potentially be utilized for the enzymatic transesterification of waste cooking oil. To that end, an extracellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. CS273. The molecular mass of purified lipase was estimated to be 36.55 kDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at alkaline pH 8.0 to 8.5 and temperature 40 °C, while the enzyme was stable in the pH range 7.0 ∼ 9.0 and at temperature ≤40 °C. The lipase showed highest hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl myristate (C14). The lipase activity was enhanced by several salts and detergents including NaCl, MnSo₄, and deoxy cholic acid, while phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride at concentration 10 mM inhibited the activity. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents including ethanol and methanol which are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides (ester) contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel. Applicability of the lipase in transesterification of waste cooking oil was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

  9. Overproduction of a Model Sec- and Tat-Dependent Secretory Protein Elicits Different Cellular Responses in Streptomyces lividans.

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    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available Streptomyces lividans is considered an efficient host for the secretory production of homologous and heterologous proteins. To identify possible bottlenecks in the protein production process, a comparative transcriptomic approach was adopted to study cellular responses during the overproduction of a Sec-dependent model protein (alpha-amylase and a Tat-dependent model protein (agarase in Streptomyces lividans. The overproduction of the model secretory proteins via the Sec or the Tat route in S. lividans does elicit a different major cell response in the bacterium. The stringent response is a bacterial response to nutrients' depletion, which naturally occurs at late times of the bacterial cell growth. While the induction of the stringent response at the exponential phase of growth may limit overall productivity in the case of the Tat route, the induction of that response does not take place in the case of the Sec route, which comparatively is an advantage in secretory protein production processes. Hence, this study identifies a potential major drawback in the secretory protein production process depending on the secretory route, and provides clues to improving S. lividans as a protein production host.

  10. Statistical Modelling and Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Lincomycin Production by Streptomyces lincolnensis Immobilized Cells

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    Nayera A.M. Abdelwahed


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Response surface methodology was used to optimize lincomycin production by Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL ISP-5355 in submerged fermentation. Screening of fermentation medium components to find their relative effect on lincomycin production was done using Plackett-Burman design. Malt extract, dextrin, soluble starch and (NH42SO4 were the most significant nutrient influenced on lincomycin production. Central composite design was applied to determine optimal concentrations of these factors and the effect of their mutual interactions. The interaction between soluble starch and (NH42SO4 was found to enhance the production, whereas malt extract and dextrin exhibited an influence independent from the other two factors. Using this statistical optimization method, maximum lincomycin concentration of 1345 μg/ml was obtained which represented a 40.5 % increase in titer than that acquired from the non-optimized medium. This statistically optimized medium was employed for lincomycin production through immobilization of Streptomyces lincolnensis by adsorption on synthetic cotton fibers. Immobilization technique improved the concentration to 1350 μg/ml higher than that produced from free cells cultures and could be maintained for longer than 17 days in a repeated batch system.

  11. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing


    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  12. Identification and characterization of developmental genes in streptomyces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Le


    Actinomycetes produce 70% of all known antibiotics, most of which are produced by members of the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, streptomycetes produce a plethora of other medically relevant natural products as well as industrial enzymes. Streptomyces is a multicellular mycelial organism, and has a

  13. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces [version 1; referees: 4 approved

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    Keith F. Chater


    Full Text Available About 2,500 papers dated 2014–2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of

  14. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates (United States)

    Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues


    Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

  15. Nitrite formation from organic nitrogen by Streptomyces antibioticus supporting bacterial cell growth and possible involvement of nitric oxide as an intermediate. (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Takaya, Naoki; Morita, Ayako; Nakamura, Akira; Shoun, Hirofumi


    The actinomycete Streptomyces antibioticus was shown to produce nitrite (NO-(2)) and ammonium (NH+(4)]) when aerobically incubated in an organic nitrogen-rich medium. The production of NO-(2) was synchronized with rapid cell growth, whereas most NH+(4)] was produced after cell proliferation had ceased. Intracellular formation of nitric oxide (NO) was also observed during the incubation. The production of these inorganic nitrogen compounds along with cell growth was prevented by several enzyme inhibitors (of nitric oxide synthase or nitrate reductase) or glucose. Distinct, membrane-bound nitrate reductase was induced in the NO-(2)-producing cells. Tungstate (a potent inhibitor of this enzyme) prevented the NO-(2) production and cell growth, whereas it did not prevent the NO formation. These results revealed the occurrence of novel nitrogen metabolic pathway in S. antibioticus forming NO-(2) from organic nitrogen by which rapid cell growth is possible. NO synthase, NO dioxygenase (flavohemoglobin), and dissimilatory nitrate reductase are possible enzymes responsible for the NO-(2) formation.

  16. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

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    Tan Loh eTeng Hern


    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  17. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture. (United States)

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing


    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  18. Purification and characterization of a thermostable keratinolytic serine alkaline proteinase from Streptomyces sp. strain AB1 with high stability in organic solvents. (United States)

    Jaouadi, Bassem; Abdelmalek, Badis; Fodil, Djamila; Ferradji, Fatma Zohra; Rekik, Hatem; Zaraî, Nedia; Bejar, Samir


    A keratinolytic alkaline proteinase (KERAB) was isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain AB1. Based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 29850.17Da. The NH(2)-terminal sequence of the enzyme was determined to be TQANPPSWGLDDIDQTAL. This keratinase was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DIFP), which suggests that it belongs to the serine protease family. Using keratin azure as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for keratinase activity were pH 11.5 and 75 degrees C, respectively. This keratinase was stable between 30 and 60 degrees C and pH 4 and 11 for 4 and 96 h, respectively, and thermoactivity and thermostability were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Mg(2+). Its catalytic efficiency was higher than those of SAPB-L31I/T33S/N99Y, nattokinase and subtilisin Carlsberg. KERAB exhibited stability to detergents and high resistance against organic solvents and was able to degrade feathers completely. These properties make KERAB a potential candidate for future applications in detergent formulations, dehairing during leather processing, and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. (United States)

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B; Melançon, Charles E


    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development.

  20. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial GenusStreptomyces. (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R; Currie, Cameron R


    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution. IMPORTANCE Tree-based phylogenetics and the use of species as units of diversity lie at the foundation of modern biology. In bacteria, these pillars of evolutionary theory have been called into question due to the observation of thousands of lateral gene transfer (LGT) events within and between lineages. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are exceedingly rare in the bacterial genus Streptomyces , with merely one gene acquired in Streptomyces lineages every 100,000 years. These findings stand in contrast to the current assumption of rampant genetic exchange, which has become the dominant hypothesis used to explain bacterial diversity. Our results support a more nuanced understanding of genetic exchange, with LGT impacting evolution over short timescales but playing a significant role over long timescales. Deeper understanding of LGT provides new

  1. Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New Bacterial Behaviours. (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Elliot, Marie A


    Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed 'exploration' - so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. (melanin) production in Streptomyces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to L- tyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown water- soluble pigment, as melanoid ...

  3. Selective Isolation of Acidophilic Streptomyces Strains for Glucose Isomerase Production


    Bok, Song H.; Seidman, Martin; Wopat, Paula W.


    Approximately 260 Streptomyces strains were isolated from neutral pH farmland soil and evaluated for their ability to produce glucose isomerase. The number of acidophilic Streptomyces organisms growing at pH 4.0 was low, i.e., 103 organisms per g of soil. All of the isolates showed glucose isomerase activity when they were grown in a medium containing d-xylose, an inducer for glucose isomerase. More than half of the strains tested developed heavy growth in 24 h, and many produced high titers ...

  4. Nature's combinatorial biosynthesis and recently engineered production of nucleoside antibiotics in Streptomyces. (United States)

    Chen, Shawn; Kinney, William A; Van Lanen, Steven


    Modified nucleosides produced by Streptomyces and related actinomycetes are widely used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and antiviral agents. These specialized small-molecule metabolites are biosynthesized by complex enzymatic machineries encoded within gene clusters in the genome. The past decade has witnessed a burst of reports defining the key metabolic processes involved in the biosynthesis of several distinct families of nucleoside antibiotics. Furthermore, genome sequencing of various Streptomyces species has dramatically increased over recent years. Potential biosynthetic gene clusters for novel nucleoside antibiotics are now apparent by analysis of these genomes. Here we revisit strategies for production improvement of nucleoside antibiotics that have defined mechanisms of action, and are in clinical or agricultural use. We summarize the progress for genetically manipulating biosynthetic pathways for structural diversification of nucleoside antibiotics. Microorganism-based biosynthetic examples are provided and organized under genetic principles and metabolic engineering guidelines. We show perspectives on the future of combinatorial biosynthesis, and present a working model for discovery of novel nucleoside natural products in Streptomyces.

  5. Bioflocculant production by a consortium of Streptomyces and Cellulomonas species and media optimization via surface response model. (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Green, Ezekiel; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okaiyeto, Kunle; Rumbold, Karl; Obi, Lawrence C; Okoh, Anthony I


    Species of actinobacteria previously isolated from Tyume River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and identified by 16S rDNA sequence as Cellulomonas and Streptomyces species were evaluated as a consortium for the production of bioflocculant. Sucrose, peptone and magnesium chloride were the nutritional sources which supported optimal production of bioflocculant resulting in flocculation activities of 91%, 82% and 78% respectively. Response surface design revealed sucrose, peptone and magnesium chloride as critical media components following Plackett-Burman design, while the central composite design showed optimum concentration of the critical nutritional source as 16.0 g/L (sucrose), 1.5 g/L (peptone) and 1.6g/L (magnesium chloride) yielding optimal flocculation activity of 98.9% and bioflocculant yield of 4.45 g/L. FTIR spectrometry of the bioflocculant indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, typical for heteropolysaccharide, while SEM imaging revealed an interwoven clump-like structure. The molecular weight distribution of the constituents of the bioflocculants ranged 494.81-18,300.26 Da thus, an indication of heterogeneity in composition. Additionally, the chemical analyses of the purified bioflocculant revealed the presence of polysaccharides and proteins with neutral sugar, amino sugar and uronic acids in the following concentration: 5.7 mg, 9.3mg and 17.8 mg per 100mg. The high flocculation activity of the bioflocculant suggests commercial potential. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reveromycins A and B from Streptomyces sp. 3–10: Antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro and in a strawberry food model system (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the antifungal activity of the metabolites from Streptomyces sp. 3–10, and to purify and identify the metabolites. Meanwhile, the taxonomic status of strain 3–10 was re-evaluated. The cultural filtrates of strain 3–10 in potato dextrose broth were extract...

  7. Exposure to bioaerosols during the growth season of tomatoes in an organic greenhouse using Supresivit (Trichoderma harzianum) and Mycostop (Streptomyces griseoviridis). (United States)

    Hansen, Vinni Mona; Winding, Anne; Madsen, Anne Mette


    In working environments, especially in confined spaces like greenhouses, elevated concentrations of airborne microorganisms may become a problem for workers' health. Additionally, the use of microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) may increase exposure to microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate tomato growers' exposure to naturally occurring bioaerosol components [dust, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and endotoxin] and MPCAs applied by drip irrigation. Airborne dust was collected with filter samplers and analyzed for microorganisms by plate counts and total counts using a microscope. Analysis of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and endotoxin content was performed by kinetic, chromatic Limulus amoebocyte lysate tests. The fungal strain (Trichoderma harzianum) from the biocontrol product Supresivit was identified by PCR analysis. Measurements were performed on the day of drip irrigation and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the irrigation. T. harzianum from Supresivit could be detected only on the day of treatment. Streptomyces griseoviridis, an applied MPCA, was not detected in the air during this investigation. We found that bioaerosol exposure increases during the growth season and that exposure to fungi, bacteria, and endotoxin can reach levels during the harvest period that may cause respiratory symptoms in growers. The collected data indicate that MPCAs applied by drip irrigation do not become airborne later in the season.

  8. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying


    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioremediation of acid fast red dye by Streptomyces globosus under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two different azo dyes known as acid fast red (AFR) and Congo red (CR) were examined for their decolorization by five strains of actinomycetes (Streptomyces globosus, Streptomyces alanosinicus, Streptomyces ruber, Streptomyces gancidicus, and Nocardiopsis aegyptia) under shake and static conditions. Streptomyces ...

  10. Streptomyces iconiensis sp. nov. and Streptomyces smyrnaeus sp. nov., two halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from a salt lake and saltern. (United States)

    Tatar, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat


    The taxonomic positions of two novel actinomycetes, designated strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T), were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Streptomyces. The whole-cell hydrolysates of the two strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) for strain BNT558(T) and MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6) for strain SM3501(T). Major fatty acids of the strains were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain BNT558(T) contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid, while that of strain SM3501(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified atypical aminolipids, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified glycolipids. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA were 70.2 and 69.6 mol% for strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T), respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Streptomyces and showed that they formed two distinct branches within the genus. Based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain BNT558(T) was related most closely to Streptomyces albiaxialis NRRL B-24327(T) and strain SM3501(T) was related most closely to Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi NBRC 12748(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between each of the isolates and its closest phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct species. The two isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of the other species classified in the genus Streptomyces based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic evidence, strains BNT558(T) and SM3501(T) belong to two

  11. Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya. (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria


    Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  12. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism (United States)

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko


    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  13. Polyhydroxybutyrate by Streptomyces sp.: Production and characterization. (United States)

    Krishnan, Sivakumar; Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Perumal, Palani


    A total number of 20 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from soil sediments obtained from Semmancheri coastal areas of Bay of Bengal, India and they were qualitatively screened for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on a medium containing Sudan black stain. Nine of the 20 isolates produced PHB and the quantity of PHB produced varied from 1.79 to 4.26g -L . Among the positive isolates an actinomycete isolate which was identified as Streptomyces sp. through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis (Accession No: KF667247) produced relatively higher PHB than other positive isolates. Subsequently, the growth conditions were optimized for the maximum PHB production by the chosen organism. Attempt was also made to utilize natural carbon sources such as paddy straw, wheat bran, rice bran, sugarcane molasses and oil cake for the production of PHB in an attempt to reduce the cost production of PHB. The purified PHB was analyzed by Solid-State 13 C NMR, Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopic analyses to determine the structure, crystallinity, purity and thermal stability. The present investigation has revealed that Streptomyces sp. could be a potential source for the production of PHB with desirable characteristics and could also be exploited for the industrial production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Synthetic Biology in Streptomyces Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko


    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that

  15. New carbasugars from Streptomyces lincolnensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmera, Petr; Halada, Petr; Pospíšil, Stanislav


    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 519-522 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : H-1 NMR * C-13 NMR * Streptomyces lincolnensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  16. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766). (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares


    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183 T (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475 T (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103 T (=NRRL B-65309 T  = CMAA 1378 T ) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  17. Model organisms and target discovery. (United States)

    Muda, Marco; McKenna, Sean


    The wealth of information harvested from full genomic sequencing projects has not generated a parallel increase in the number of novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Several pharmaceutical companies have realized that novel drug targets can be identified and validated using simple model organisms. After decades of service in basic research laboratories, yeasts, worms, flies, fishes, and mice are now the cornerstones of modern drug discovery programs.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of optimal conditions of oxytetracyclin production from streptomyces rimosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouaghi, Atef


    Streptomyces rimosus is an oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic producing bacteria that exhibited activities against gram positive and negative bacteria. OTC is used widely not only in medicine but also in production industry. The antibiotic production of streptomyces covers a very wide range of condition. However, antibiotic producers are particularly fastidious cultivated by proper selection of media such as carbon source. In present study we have optimised conditions of OTC production (Composition of production media, p H, shaking and temperature). The results have been shown that bran barley is the optimal media for OTC production at 28C pH5.8 at 150rpm for 5 days. For antibiotic determination, OTC was extracted with different organic solvent. Thin-layer chromatography system was used for separation and identification of OTC antibiotic. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection for the analysis of OTC is applied to the determination of OTC purification. (Author). 24 refs

  19. Chitinolytic activity of highly halotolerant Streptomyces tendae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen (15) highly halotolerant Streptomyces isolates were isolated from saline soil of Teachers College garden in Riyadh city. Chitin nitrate agar medium containing 20% (w/v) NaCl was used for the isolation purpose. These chitinolytic Streptomyces isolates were purified and sub-cultured on chitin nitrate broth medium ...

  20. Roles of small laccases from Streptomyces in lignin degradation. (United States)

    Majumdar, Sudipta; Lukk, Tiit; Solbiati, Jose O; Bauer, Stefan; Nair, Satish K; Cronan, John E; Gerlt, John A


    Laccases (EC are multicopper oxidases that can oxidize a range of substrates, including phenols, aromatic amines, and nonphenolic substrates. To investigate the involvement of the small Streptomyces laccases in lignin degradation, we generated acid-precipitable polymeric lignin obtained in the presence of wild-type Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) (SCWT) and its laccase-less mutant (SCΔLAC) in the presence of Miscanthus x giganteus lignocellulose. The results showed that strain SCΔLAC was inefficient in degrading lignin compared to strain SCWT, thereby supporting the importance of laccase for lignin degradation by S. coelicolor A3(2). We also studied the lignin degradation activity of laccases from S. coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces lividans TK24, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, and Amycolatopsis sp. 75iv2 using both lignin model compounds and ethanosolv lignin. All four laccases degraded a phenolic model compound (LM-OH) but were able to oxidize a nonphenolic model compound only in the presence of redox mediators. Their activities are highest at pH 8.0 with a low krel/Kapp for LM-OH, suggesting that the enzymes’ natural substrates must be different in shape or chemical nature. Crystal structures of the laccases from S. viridosporus T7A (SVLAC) and Amycolatopsis sp. 75iv2 were determined both with and without bound substrate. This is the first report of a crystal structure for any laccase bound to a nonphenolic β-O-4 lignin model compound. An additional zinc metal binding site in SVLAC was also identified. The ability to oxidize and/or rearrange ethanosolv lignin provides further evidence of the utility of laccase activity for lignin degradation and/or modification.

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor development demonstrates that onset of secondary metabolism coincides with hyphae differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus; Jung, Hye Ryung


    Streptomyces species produce many clinically important secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and antitumourals. They have a complex developmental cycle that makes this bacterium a multicellular prokaryotic model including programmed cell death (PCD) phenomena. There are two differentiated...

  2. Genome Integration and Excision by a New Streptomyces Bacteriophage, ϕJoe. (United States)

    Fogg, Paul C M; Haley, Joshua A; Stark, W Marshall; Smith, Margaret C M


    specificities for their integration sites. In order to provide a broad platform of integrases, we identified and validated the integrase from a newly isolated Streptomyces phage, ϕJoe. ϕJoe integrase is active in vitro and in vivo The specific recognition site for integration is present in a wide range of different actinobacteria, including Streptomyces venezuelae , an emerging model bacterium in Streptomyces research. Copyright © 2017 Fogg et al.

  3. In vivo antimalarial activity of the endophytic actinobacteria, Streptomyces SUK 10. (United States)

    Baba, Mohd Shukri; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Hassan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Latip, Jalifah; Pethick, Florence; Hunter, Iain S; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Herron, Paul R


    Endophytic bacteria, such as Streptomyces, have the potential to act as a source for novel bioactive molecules with medicinal properties. The present study was aimed at assessing the antimalarial activity of crude extract isolated from various strains of actinobacteria living endophytically in some Malaysian medicinal plants. Using the four day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice, compounds produced from three strains of Streptomyces (SUK8, SUK10, and SUK27) were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100 in an antimalarial screen using crude extracts at four different concentrations. One of these extracts, isolated from Streptomyces SUK10 obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, showed inhibition of the test organism and was further tested against P. berghei-infected mice for antimalarial activity at different concentrations. There was a positive relationship between the survival of the infected mouse group treated with 50 µg/kg body weight (bw) of ethyl acetate-SUK10 crude extract and the ability to inhibit the parasites growth. The parasite inhibition percentage for this group showed that 50% of the mice survived for more than 90 days after infection with the parasite. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic tree suggested that Streptomyces SUK10 may constitute a new species within the Streptomyces genus. As part of the drug discovery process, these promising finding may contribute to the medicinal and pharmaceutical field for malarial treatment.

  4. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    . Physiological and biochemical tests showed that the highest number of Streptomyces isolates were able to hydrolyze tyrosine was 26 (87%). This was followed by 25 (83%) for starch, 24 (80%) for urea, 21 (70%) for casein ...

  5. Streptomyces development in colonies and soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus


    Streptomyces development was analyzed under conditions resembling those in soil. The mycelial growth rate was much lower than that in standard laboratory cultures, and the life span of the previously named first compartmentalized mycelium was remarkably increased....

  6. Antibiotic Properties of the endophytic Streptomyces Spp. Isolated from the Leaves of Myanmar Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Pe; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Maung


    Three medicinal plants of Myanmar are selected in the study of endophytic microorganisms and are taxonomically classified and identified to be Sa-ba-lin (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.), Shazaungtinga- neah (Euphorbia splendens Bojer. ex Hooker) and Ma-shaw (Sauropus grandifolius Pax. and Hoffm.). The screening of endophytic microorganisms is performed according to the ISP method (International Streptomyces Projects 1993). The morphological and physicochemical properties of isolated strains are studied and identified to be the Genus Streptomyces. The test of apparent antimicrobial activity of isolated Streptomyces is done on 18 strains of pathogenic bacteria. It is found that the isolated endophytic Sireptomyces showed the significant antibacterial activity on most of the test organisms. (author)

  7. Organization Development: Strategies and Models. (United States)

    Beckhard, Richard

    This book, written for managers, specialists, and students of management, is based largely on the author's experience in helping organization leaders with planned-change efforts, and on related experience of colleagues in the field. Chapter 1 presents the background and causes for the increased concern with organization development and planned…

  8. In Situ Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Analyte-Specific Monitoring of Glucose and Ammonium in Streptomyces coelicolor Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nanna; Ödman, Peter; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili


    There are many challenges associated with in situ collection of near infrared (NIR) spectra in a fermentation broth, particularly for highly aerated and agitated fermentations with filamentous organisms. In this study, antibiotic fermentation by the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor...... was used as a model process. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were calibrated for glucose and ammonium based on NIR spectra collected in situ. To ensure that the models were calibrated based on analyte-specific information, semisynthetic samples were used for model calibration in addition...... resulting in a RMSEP of 1.1 g/L. The prediction of ammonium based on NIR spectra collected in situ was not satisfactory. A comparison with models calibrated based on NIR spectra collected off line suggested that this is caused by signal attenuation in the optical fibers in the region above 2,000 nm...

  9. Production of actinorhodin-related ''blue pigments'' by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, LV; FernandezMoreno, MA; Herrema, JK; Malpartida, F; Hopwood, DA; Dijkhuizen, L

    The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the ''blue pigment'' produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or

  10. Model Organisms Fact Sheet: Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease (United States)

    ... research organisms to explore the basic biology and chemistry of life. Scientists decide which organism to study ... and much is already known about their genetic makeup . For these and other reasons, studying model organisms ...

  11. Modelling organic particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvidat, Florian


    Organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere is investigated via the development of a new model named H 2 O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organics). First, a parameterization is developed to take into account secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene oxidation. It takes into account the effect of nitrogen oxides on organic aerosol formation and the hydrophilic properties of the aerosols. This parameterization is then implemented in H 2 O along with some other developments and the results of the model are compared to organic carbon measurements over Europe. Model performance is greatly improved by taking into account emissions of primary semi-volatile compounds, which can form secondary organic aerosols after oxidation or can condense when temperature decreases. If those emissions are not taken into account, a significant underestimation of organic aerosol concentrations occurs in winter. The formation of organic aerosols over an urban area was also studied by simulating organic aerosols concentration over the Paris area during the summer campaign of Megapoli (July 2009). H 2 O gives satisfactory results over the Paris area, although a peak of organic aerosol concentrations from traffic, which does not appear in the measurements, appears in the model simulation during rush hours. It could be due to an underestimation of the volatility of organic aerosols. It is also possible that primary and secondary organic compounds do not mix well together and that primary semi volatile compounds do not condense on an organic aerosol that is mostly secondary and highly oxidized. Finally, the impact of aqueous-phase chemistry was studied. The mechanism for the formation of secondary organic aerosol includes in-cloud oxidation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, methacrolein and methylvinylketone, formation of methyltetrols in the aqueous phase of particles and cloud droplets, and the in-cloud aging of organic aerosols. The impact of wet deposition is also studied to better estimate the

  12. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann


    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  13. Cardiac Electromechanical Models: From Cell to Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Trayanova


    Full Text Available The heart is a multiphysics and multiscale system that has driven the development of the most sophisticated mathematical models at the frontiers of computation physiology and medicine. This review focuses on electromechanical (EM models of the heart from the molecular level of myofilaments to anatomical models of the organ. Because of the coupling in terms of function and emergent behaviors at each level of biological hierarchy, separation of behaviors at a given scale is difficult. Here, a separation is drawn at the cell level so that the first half addresses subcellular/single cell models and the second half addresses organ models. At the subcelluar level, myofilament models represent actin-myosin interaction and Ca-based activation. Myofilament models and their refinements represent an overview of the development in the field. The discussion of specific models emphasizes the roles of cooperative mechanisms and sarcomere length dependence of contraction force, considered the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling law. A model of electrophysiology and Ca handling can be coupled to a myofilament model to produce an EM cell model, and representative examples are summarized to provide an overview of the progression of field. The second half of the review covers organ-level models that require solution of the electrical component as a reaction-diffusion system and the mechanical component, in which active tension generated by the myocytes produces deformation of the organ as described by the equations of continuum mechanics. As outlined in the review, different organ-level models have chosen to use different ionic and myofilament models depending on the specific application; this choice has been largely dictated by compromises between model complexity and computational tractability. The review also addresses application areas of EM models such as cardiac resynchronization therapy and the role of mechano-electric coupling in arrhythmias and

  14. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin


    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  15. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ZFIN serves as the zebrafish model organism database. It aims to: a) be the community database resource for the laboratory use of zebrafish, b) develop and support...

  16. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Picard, Willy

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  17. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima


    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  18. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 30 Streptomyces isolates (28 from soil and 2 from water) were isolated and purified from hot-springs areas in the northern part of Jordan. Four strains were thermopile. They grew at 45 and 55°C but not at 28°C. Strains were described morphologically on four different media: on glycerol yeast extract, oatmeal, yeast ...

  19. MycetomaCaused'by Actinomadura (Streptomyces) madurae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 9, 1974 ... madurose, a carbohydrate of undetermined structure. This distinguishes them from the other members of the. Streptomyces-Nocardia group. Lechevalier and Leche- valier3 .' have therefore placed them ir. a new genus,. Actinomadllra. Hence we recognise Actinomadllra madu-. Department of Dermato!ogy, ...

  20. Streptomyces spp. in the biocatalysis toolbox. (United States)

    Spasic, Jelena; Mandic, Mina; Djokic, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina


    About 20,100 research publications dated 2000-2017 were recovered searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of bioactive molecules. However, these bacteria with versatile metabolism are powerful suppliers of biocatalytic tools (enzymes) for advanced biotechnological applications such as green chemical transformations and biopharmaceutical and biofuel production. The recent technological advances, especially in DNA sequencing coupled with computational tools for protein functional and structural prediction, and the improved access to microbial diversity enabled the easier access to enzymes and the ability to engineer them to suit a wider range of biotechnological processes. The major driver behind a dramatic increase in the utilization of biocatalysis is sustainable development and the shift toward bioeconomy that will, in accordance to the UN policy agenda "Bioeconomy to 2030," become a global effort in the near future. Streptomyces spp. already play a significant role among industrial microorganisms. The intention of this minireview is to highlight the presence of Streptomyces in the toolbox of biocatalysis and to give an overview of the most important advances in novel biocatalyst discovery and applications. Judging by the steady increase in a number of recent references (228 for the 2000-2017 period), it is clear that biocatalysts from Streptomyces spp. hold promises in terms of valuable properties and applicative industrial potential.

  1. Central Carbon Metabolic Pathways in Streptomyces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Siebring, Jeroen; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dyson, Paul

    Streptomyces and other actinomycetes are fascinating soil bacteria of major economic importance. They produce 70% of antibiotics known to man and numerous other pharmaceuticals for treatment of, e.g. cancer, a range of infections, high cholesterol, or have immunosuppressive activity. It is not

  2. Some aspects of genetic control of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. P. Teplitskaya


    Full Text Available These work contain a review of basic hypotheses and experimental information in relation to the problem of antibiotic synthesis regulation by the bacteria of the Streptomyces family. Data on cluster organization of antibiotics biosynthesis genes in these microorganisms were generalized. The examples of the positive and negative specific control of antibiotic production genes were resulted. Except for it, proofs that confirm participation of a few genes of more high level in the process of initiation and expression of antibiotics biosynthesis genes also were found. In this connection А-factor role in the mechanism of cascade-organized process of streptomycin biosynthesis control, some other antibiotics and spore determinations is discussed in detail.

  3. The conceptual model of organization social responsibility


    LUO, Lan; WEI, Jingfu


    With the developing of the research of CSR, people more and more deeply noticethat the corporate should take responsibility. Whether other organizations besides corporatesshould not take responsibilities beyond their field? This paper puts forward theconcept of organization social responsibility on the basis of the concept of corporate socialresponsibility and other theories. And the conceptual models are built based on theconception, introducing the OSR from three angles: the types of organi...

  4. Protoplasting impact on polyketide activity and characterization of the interspecific fusants from Streptomyces spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, N.; Lazim, H.; Barkallah, Insaf; Abbassi, M.; Ben Hassen, A.; Limam, F.


    Streptomycetes are gram-positive, soil-inhabiting bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. These organisms exhibit an unusual, developmentally complex life cycle and produce many economically important secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, insecticides, and antitumor agents. Streptomyces species have been the subject of genetic investigation for over 50 years, with many studies focusing on the production of bioactives compounds. The protoplast formation and regeneration are important processes, and they are a major step following genetic manipulations such as fusion and DNA-mediated transformation, which can improve antibiotic production. The protoplast fusion, transformation and improved fermentation features can be used to regenerate strains with increased antibiotic activity. Local Streptomyces spp. CN207 produce a broad range of secondary metabolites which is active against bacteria and fungi. This strain was used as a donor and S. coelicolor strain M145 was used as a recipient host for protoplast fusion. The protoplast fusion resulted in increased isolation of variants with higher antibiotic activity. Recombinant Streptomyces coelicolor PF04 was increased 10 times more than the wild strain. The antimicrobial activity from PF04 strain was studied using the disc method agar. TLC analysis confirmed that the Rf of cell extract for PF04 strain is identical to antimicrobial compound of Streptomyces CN207. Our results confirm the possibility of transferring antibiotics cluster genes by fusion. In fact, many of the selective markers such as Ticarcillin, Cefalotin, Oxacillin and Cefotaxim were transferred during the protoplast fusion. PFGE analysis and DNA-hybridization confirmed the presence of homologous fragments between a wild-type Streptomyces CN207 and a recombinant S. coelicolor PF04

  5. Mining and polishing of the treasure trove in the bacterial genus streptomyces. (United States)

    Horinouchi, Sueharu


    The complex morphogenesis of the bacterial genus Streptomyces has made this genus a model prokaryote for study of multicellular differentiation, and its ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites has made it an excellent supplier of biologically active substances, including antibiotics. This review summarizes our study of these two characteristics of Streptomyces, focusing on the A-factor regulatory cascade and work derived from the A-factor study. A microbial hormone, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), triggers morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. The key steps in the A-factor regulatory cascade, including afsA, encoding the key enzyme for A-factor biosynthesis, arpA, encoding the A-factor receptor, and adpA, encoding a transcriptional activator, are elucidated. The target genes of the regulatory cascade include genes of various functions required for morphological development and secondary metabolite formation. The biosynthesis gene clusters for grixazone and hexahydroxyperylenequinone are examples. The former contains the enzymes for novel benzene ring formation and phenoxazinone formation, and the latter contains enzymes belonging to a type III polyketide synthase and a cytochrome P-450. Enzymes of various catalytic functions in Streptomyces are useful as members of an artificial gene cluster constructed in Escherichia coli for fermentative production of plant-specific flavonoids, including isoflavones and unnatural compounds.

  6. Taxonomic and functional diversity of Streptomyces in a forest soil. (United States)

    Bontemps, Cyril; Toussaint, Maxime; Revol, Pierre-Vincent; Hotel, Laurence; Jeanbille, Mathilde; Uroz, Stéphane; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Blaudez, Damien; Leblond, Pierre


    In this work we report the isolation and the characterization of 79 Streptomyces isolates from a French forest soil. The 16S rRNA gene phylogeny indicated that a great diversity of Streptomyces was present in this soil, with at least nine different and potentially new species. Growth plate assays showed that most Streptomyces lineages exhibit cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic capacities and potentially participate in wood decomposition. Molecular screening for a specific hydrogenase also indicated a widespread potential for atmospheric H2 uptake. Co-culture experiments with representative strains showed antagonistic effects between Streptomyces of the same population and between Streptomyces and various fungi. Interestingly, in certain conditions, growth promotion of some fungi also occurred. We conclude that in forest soil, Streptomyces populations exhibit many important functions involved in different biogeochemical cycles and also influence the structure of soil microbial communities. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  8. Formulation and Statistical Optimization of Culture Medium for Improved Production of Antimicrobial Compound by Streptomyces sp. JAJ06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polpass Arul Jose


    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. JAJ06 is a seawater-dependent antibiotic producer, previously isolated and characterised from an Indian coastal solar saltern. This paper reports replacement of seawater with a defined salt formulation in production medium and subsequent statistical media optimization to ensure consistent as well as improved antibiotic production by Streptomyces sp. JAJ06. This strain was observed to be proficient to produce antibiotic compound with incorporation of chemically defined sodium-chloride-based salt formulation instead of seawater into the production medium. Plackett-Burman design experiment was applied, and three media constituents, starch, KBr, and CaCO3, were recognised to have significant effect on the antibiotic production of Streptomyces JAJ06 at their individual levels. Subsequently, Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize these influencing medium constituents for the improved antibiotic production of Streptomyces sp. JAJ06. A total of 17 experiments were conducted towards the construction of a quadratic model and a second-order polynomial equation. Optimum levels of medium constituents were obtained by analysis of the model and numerical optimization method. When the strain JAJ06 was cultivated in the optimized medium, the antibiotic activity was increased to 173.3 U/mL, 26.8% increase as compared to the original (136.7 U/mL. This study found a useful way to cultivate Streptomyces sp. JAJ06 for enhanced production of antibiotic compound.



    Özdemir K; Berber İ; Öğün E; Atalan M


    Present study has been conducted for finding out the total protein profile of bacterial strain Streptomyces sps by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis. Total 139 isolates of Streptomyces have been isolated from the soil. Amongst all isolated strain, total 20 isolates were used for getting protein profile by SDS PAGE. Amongst all isolates, 20 isolates were selected for protein profiling and these were divided in two groups. Two strains of Streptomyces i.e. S. violaceus...

  10. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Tü6071▿


    Erxleben, Anika; Wunsch-Palasis, Julia; Grüning, Björn A.; Luzhetska, Marta; Bechthold, Andreas; Günther, Stefan


    Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 is a soil-dwelling bacterium which has a highly active isoprenoid biosynthesis. Isoprenoids are important precursors for biopharmaceutical molecules such as antibiotics or anticancer agents, e.g., landomycin. Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 produces the industrially important terpene glycosides phenalinolactones, which have antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria. The availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 allows for understanding ...

  11. The Conserved Actinobacterial Two-Component System MtrAB Coordinates Chloramphenicol Production with Sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae NRRL B-65442

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle F. Som


    Full Text Available Streptomyces bacteria make numerous secondary metabolites, including half of all known antibiotics. Production of antibiotics is usually coordinated with the onset of sporulation but the cross regulation of these processes is not fully understood. This is important because most Streptomyces antibiotics are produced at low levels or not at all under laboratory conditions and this makes large scale production of these compounds very challenging. Here, we characterize the highly conserved actinobacterial two-component system MtrAB in the model organism Streptomyces venezuelae and provide evidence that it coordinates production of the antibiotic chloramphenicol with sporulation. MtrAB are known to coordinate DNA replication and cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where TB-MtrA is essential for viability but MtrB is dispensable. We deleted mtrB in S. venezuelae and this resulted in a global shift in the metabolome, including constitutive, higher-level production of chloramphenicol. We found that chloramphenicol is detectable in the wild-type strain, but only at very low levels and only after it has sporulated. ChIP-seq showed that MtrA binds upstream of DNA replication and cell division genes and genes required for chloramphenicol production. dnaA, dnaN, oriC, and wblE (whiB1 are DNA binding targets for MtrA in both M. tuberculosis and S. venezuelae. Intriguingly, over-expression of TB-MtrA and gain of function TB- and Sv-MtrA proteins in S. venezuelae also switched on higher-level production of chloramphenicol. Given the conservation of MtrAB, these constructs might be useful tools for manipulating antibiotic production in other filamentous actinomycetes.



    Lončarić, Zdenko; Vukobratović, Marija; Ragaly, Peter; Filep, Tibor; Popović, Brigita; Karalić, Krunoslav; Vukobratović, Želimir


    Evaluation of manures, composts and growing media quality should include enough properties to enable an optimal use from productivity and environmental points of view. The aim of this paper is to describe basic structure of organic fertilizer (and growing media) evaluation model to present the model example by comparison of different manures as well as example of using plant growth experiment for calculating impact of pH and EC of growing media on lettuce plant growth. The basic structure of ...

  13. Production of Actinorhodin-Related ‘‘Blue Pigments’’ by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Herrema, Jan K.; Malpartida, Francisco; Hopwood, David A.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert


    The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the ‘‘blue pigment’’ produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or

  14. Ammonia Released by Streptomyces aburaviensis Induces Droplet Formation in Streptomyces violaceoruber. (United States)

    Schmidt, Kathrin; Spiteller, Dieter


    Streptomyces violaceoruber grown in co-culture with Streptomyces aburaviensis produces an about 17-fold higher volume of droplets on its aerial mycelium than in single-culture. Physical separation of the Streptomyces strains by either a plastic barrier or by a dialysis membrane, which allowed communication only by the exchange of volatile compounds or diffusible compounds in the medium, respectively, still resulted in enhanced droplet formation. The application of molecular sieves to bioassays resulted in the attenuation of the droplet-inducing effect of S. aburaviensis indicating the absorption of the compound. 1 H-NMR analysis of molecular-sieve extracts and the selective indophenol-blue reaction revealed that the volatile droplet-inducing compound is ammonia. The external supply of ammonia in biologically relevant concentrations of ≥8 mM enhanced droplet formation in S. violaceoruber in a similar way to S. aburaviensis. Ammonia appears to trigger droplet production in many Streptomyces strains because four out of six Streptomyces strains exposed to ammonia exhibited induced droplet production.

  15. Resveratrol and Lifespan in Model Organisms. (United States)

    Pallauf, Kathrin; Rimbach, Gerald; Rupp, Petra Maria; Chin, Dawn; Wolf, Insa M A


    Resveratrol may possess life-prolonging and health-benefitting properties, some of which may resemble the effect of caloric restriction (CR). CR appears to prolong the lifespan of model organisms in some studies and may benefit human health. However, for humans, restricting food intake for an extended period of time seems impracticable and substances imitating the beneficial effects of CR without having to reduce food intake could improve health in an aging and overweight population. We have reviewed the literature studying the influence of resveratrol on the lifespan of model organisms including yeast, flies, worms, and rodents. We summarize the in vivo findings, describe modulations of molecular targets and gene expression observed in vivo and in vitro, and discuss how these changes may contribute to lifespan extension. Data from clinical studies are summarized to provide an insight about the potential of resveratrol supplementation in humans. Resveratrol supplementation has been shown to prolong lifespan in approximately 60% of the studies conducted in model organisms. However, current literature is contradictory, indicating that the lifespan effects of resveratrol vary strongly depending on the model organism. While worms and killifish seemed very responsive to resveratrol, resveratrol failed to affect lifespan in the majority of the studies conducted in flies and mice. Furthermore, factors such as dose, gender, genetic background and diet composition may contribute to the high variance in the observed effects. It remains inconclusive whether resveratrol is indeed a CR mimetic and possesses life-prolonging properties. The limited bioavailability of resveratrol may further impede its potential effects.

  16. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens


    This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation. of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference...



    Andreea ZAMFIR


    This paper provides a knowledge-based strategic management of services model, with a view to emphasise an approach to gaining competitive advantage through knowledge, people and networking. The long-term evolution of the service organization is associated with the way in which the strategic management is practised.

  18. Modeling of Organic Effects on Aerosols Growth (United States)

    Caboussat, A.; Amundson, N. R.; He, J.; Seinfeld, J. H.


    Over the last two decades, a series of modules has been developed in the atmospheric modeling community to predict the phase transition, multistage growth phenomena, crystallization and evaporation of inorganic aerosols. In the same time, the water interactions of particles containing organic constituents have been recognized as an important factor for aerosol activation and cloud formation. However, the research on hygroscopicity of organic-containing aerosols, motivated by the organic effect on aerosol growth and activation, has gathered much less attention. We present here a new model (UHAERO), that is both efficient and rigorously computes phase separation and liquid-liquid equilibrium for organic particles, as well as the dynamics partitioning between gas and particulate phases, with emphasis on the role of water vapor in the gas-liquid partitioning. The model does not rely on any a priori specification of the phases present in certain atmospheric conditions. The determination of the thermodynamic equilibrium is based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The mass transfer between the particle and the bulk gas phase is dynamically driven by the difference between bulk gas pressure and the gas pressure at the surface of a particle. The multicomponent phase equilibrium for a closed organic aerosol system at constant temperature and pressure and for specified feeds is the solution to the liquid-liquid equilibrium problem arising from the constrained minimization of the Gibbs free energy. A geometrical concept of phase simplex (phase separation) is introduced to characterize the thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of the mass fluxes is achieved by coupling the thermodynamics of the organic aerosol particle and the determination of the mass fluxes. Numerical results show the efficiency of the model, which make it suitable for insertion in global three- dimensional air quality models. The Gibbs free energy is modeled by the UNIFAC model to illustrate

  19. Fast and reliable strain characterization of Streptomyces lividans through micro-scale cultivation. (United States)

    Koepff, Joachim; Keller, Matthias; Tsolis, Konstantinos C; Busche, Tobias; Rückert, Christian; Hamed, Mohamed B; Anné, Jozef; Kalinowski, Joern; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Economou, Anastassios; Oldiges, Marco


    Filamentous organisms of the genus Streptomyces play an important role in industrial production processes, due to their extensive secondary metabolism variability, as well as their ability to secrete efficiently large amounts of (heterologous) proteins. While genetic engineering tools are available to rapidly build up large strain libraries, the subsequent strain screening and bioprocess development still constitutes a bottleneck. This is due to the lack of reliable parallelized and accelerated cultivation techniques for morphologically challenging organisms. To address this challenge, we developed an integrated cultivation workflow for Streptomyces lividans based on a parallelized shaken 48-well microtiter-plate (MTP) cultivation device. In a first step, a feasible pre-culture method was identified and validated, revealing high comparability in subsequent main cultivations (coefficient of variation of 1.1% for in-plate replicates and 3.2% between different pre-cultures). When validating the growth performance in 1 mL MTP cultivation against an established 1,000 mL lab-scale cultivation system, highly comparable cultivation patterns were found for online (pH, dissolved oxygen), as well as for offline derived parameters (glucose uptake, cell-dry-weight, and pellet size). Additionally, the two cultivation regimes were compared with respect to transcriptional and protein secretion activity of Streptomyces, showing overall good comparability with minor, but well explainable discrepancies, most probably caused by different energy dissipation (shaking vs. stirring) and adaption effects due to different illumination conditions. Embedded within the presented cultivation workflow, the 1 mL MTP-based parallelized cultivation system seems to be a suitable screening tool for filamentous and industrial relevant organisms like Streptomyces. This can contribute to widen the field of application for these organisms and facilitate screening and early-stage bioprocess

  20. Three new amides from streptomyces sp. H7372

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Borris, Robert P.; Tran, Tammy T.; Chang, Leng Chee, E-mail: lengchee@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii Hilo, HI (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Jee, Jap Meng; Seow, Heng Fong; Cheah, Hwen-Yee [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia). Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Pathology. bImmunology Unit; Hoc, Coy Choke [University Malaysia Sabah (Malaysia). School of Science and Technology. Biotechnology Program


    Three new amides, methyl phenatate A (1), actiphenamide (2) and actiphenol 1-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with thirteen known compounds, were isolated from the organic extract of a fermentation culture of Streptomyces sp. H7372. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, and MS analyses. Cycloheximide (6) and cyclo({Delta}Ala-L-Val) (8) gave a clear zone of inhibition of Ras-Raf-1 interaction in the yeast two hybrid assay which showed high potency with 10 and 25 mm clear ZOIs on SD His{sup -} and inactive on SD His{sup +} at 2.5 mug per disk, respectively. (author)

  1. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud


    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  2. Emergent organization in a model market (United States)

    Yadav, Avinash Chand; Manchanda, Kaustubh; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna


    We study the collective behaviour of interacting agents in a simple model of market economics that was originally introduced by Nørrelykke and Bak. A general theoretical framework for interacting traders on an arbitrary network is presented, with the interaction consisting of buying (namely consumption) and selling (namely production) of commodities. Extremal dynamics is introduced by having the agent with least profit in the market readjust prices, causing the market to self-organize. In addition to examining this model market on regular lattices in two-dimensions, we also study the cases of random complex networks both with and without community structures. Fluctuations in an activity signal exhibit properties that are characteristic of avalanches observed in models of self-organized criticality, and these can be described by power-law distributions when the system is in the critical state.

  3. Biophysical Modeling of Respiratory Organ Motion (United States)

    Werner, René

    Methods to estimate respiratory organ motion can be divided into two groups: biophysical modeling and image registration. In image registration, motion fields are directly extracted from 4D ({D}+{t}) image sequences, often without concerning knowledge about anatomy and physiology in detail. In contrast, biophysical approaches aim at identification of anatomical and physiological aspects of breathing dynamics that are to be modeled. In the context of radiation therapy, biophysical modeling of respiratory organ motion commonly refers to the framework of continuum mechanics and elasticity theory, respectively. Underlying ideas and corresponding boundary value problems of those approaches are described in this chapter, along with a brief comparison to image registration-based motion field estimation.

  4. Zinc Biosorption by Waste Streptomyces fradiae Biomass: Equilibrium and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana K. Kirova


    Full Text Available Waste Streptomyces fradiae biomass from pharmaceutical industry was successfully used for Zn(II removal from aqueous solutions. In the present study process parameters (initial pH of the solution, amount of biomass, initial metal concentration, stirring speed and contact time and their influence on Zn(II biosorption were investigated and optimized. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to describe sorption behavior between the waste biomass and the Zn ions. The biosorption process was better described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with 61.09 mg g-1 maximum adsorption capacity. Lagergren and Ho models were used to analyze the kinetic data. Ho model fitted better to the experimental results.

  5. Streptomyces ziwulingensis sp. nov., isolated from grassland soil. (United States)

    Lin, Yan Bing; Wang, Xin Ye; Wang, Ting Ting; An, Shao Shan; Shi, Peng; Wei, Ge Hong


    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain F22(T), was isolated from grassland soil collected from the Ziwuling area on the Loess Plateau, China. The novel strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain F22(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces, being most closely related to Streptomyces resistomycificus NBRC 12814(T) (98.28 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces ciscaucasicus NBRC 12872(T) (98.14 %), Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753(T) (98.14 %) and Streptomyces canus NRRL B-1989(T) (98.14 %). In DNA-DNA hybridizations and comparisons of morphological and phenotypic data, strain F22(T) could be distinguished from all of its closest phylogenetic relatives. Strain F22(T) exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cylindrocarpon destructans. Based on the DNA-DNA hybridization data and morphological, phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strain F22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ziwulingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F22(T) ( = CCNWFX 0001(T) = JCM 18081(T) = ACCC41875(T)).

  6. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces and its relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Merlo, Maria Elena; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    Motivation: Streptomyces is one of the best-studied genera of the order Actinomycetales due to its great importance in medical science, ecology and the biotechnology industry. A comprehensive, detailed and robust phylogeny of Streptomyces and its relatives is needed for understanding how this group

  7. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential of Streptomyces sp . RAMPP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins etc. Among actinomycetes, genus Streptomyces is known to produce a great array of products. In the present study, we have recovered a Streptomyces species RAMPP-065 from Western ghats soil of Kudremukh, Karnataka, India and determined its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces sp. isolated from the gulf of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-nine Streptomyces isolates were recovered from sediment samples in the gulf of Aqaba/Jordan. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and yeast. Twenty eight Streptomyces isolates were active against at least one of the tested strains. The majority of ...

  9. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  10. Molecular studies on some soil-Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 8, 2013 ... Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that.

  11. Molecular studies on some soil- Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that a total number of ...

  12. Xylanolytic activities of Streptomyces sp. 1--taxonomy, production, partial purification and utilization of agricultural wastes. (United States)

    Kansoh, A L; M-Ali, A; A-el-Gammal, A


    Twenty-four different strains of Streptomyces spp. isolated from Egyptian soil were tested for their ability to produce extracellular xylanases. Of all these isolates a Streptomyces sp. that had the highest potential for xylanolytic activity was chosen. From various morphological, physiological and antagonistic properties, this isolate was found to belong to Streptomyces lividans. Factors affecting xylanase production by this organism in a basal salt medium containing purified sugar-cane bagasse xylan as a sole carbon source were examined. A noticeable increase in enzyme activity was observed in the presence of peptone or soyabean meal. However, a slight increase was noticed with ammonium sulphate. Optimum production for xylanase was achieved after five days incubation on a rotary shaker (180 rpm) at 30 degrees C. The initial pH values were around neutrality. In addition, this organism has high potential for xylanolytic activity when grown on lignocellulosic wastes including corn cobs, wheat bran, peanut shells, sawdust, wheat straw and sugar-cane-bagasse. Partial purification of the enzyme in the culture supernatant was achieved by salting out at 50-80% ammonium sulphate saturation with a purification of 9.03-fold and 57.9% recovery.

  13. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu


    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.

  14. Interrogation of Streptomyces avermitilis for efficient production of avermectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen


    Full Text Available The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to avermectins and artemisinin, respectively. Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are excellent anthelmintic and potential antibiotic agents. Because wild-type strains only produce low levels of avermectins, much research effort has focused on improvements in avermectin production to meet the ever increasing demand for such compounds. This review describes the strategies that have been widely employed and the future prospects of synthetic biology applications in avermectin yield improvement. With the help of genome sequencing of S. avermitilis and an understanding of the avermectin biosynthetic/regulatory pathways, synthetic and systems biotechnology approaches have been applied for precision engineering. We focus on the design and synthesis of biological chassis, parts, devices, and modules from diverse microbes to reconstruct and optimize their dynamic processes, as well as predict favorable effective overproduction of avermectins by a 4Ms strategy (Mine, Model, Manipulation, and Measurement.

  15. Genetic interrelations in the actinomycin biosynthetic gene clusters of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720 and Streptomyces chrysomallus ATCC11523, producers of actinomycin X and actinomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnovčić I


    Full Text Available Ivana Crnovčić,1 Christian Rückert,2 Siamak Semsary,1 Manuel Lang,1 Jörn Kalinowski,2 Ullrich Keller1 1Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin-Charlottenburg, 2Technology Platform Genomics, Center for Biotechnology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany Abstract: Sequencing the actinomycin (acm biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720, which produces actinomycin X (Acm X, revealed 20 genes organized into a highly similar framework as in the bi-armed acm C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus but without an attached additional extra arm of orthologues as in the latter. Curiously, the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus gene cluster turned out to perfectly match the single arm of the S. antibioticus gene cluster in the same order of orthologues including the the presence of two pseudogenes, scacmM and scacmN, encoding a cytochrome P450 and its ferredoxin, respectively. Orthologues of the latter genes were both missing in the principal arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster. All orthologues of the extra arm showed a G +C-contents different from that of their counterparts in the principal arm. Moreover, the similarities of translation products from the extra arm were all higher to the corresponding translation products of orthologue genes from the S. antibioticus acm X gene cluster than to those encoded by the principal arm of their own gene cluster. This suggests that the duplicated structure of the S. chrysomallus acm C biosynthetic gene cluster evolved from previous fusion between two one-armed acm gene clusters each from a different genetic background. However, while scacmM and scacmN in the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster are mutated and therefore are non-functional, their orthologues saacmM and saacmN in the S. antibioticus acm C gene cluster show no defects seemingly encoding active enzymes with functions specific for Acm X biosynthesis. Both acm

  16. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

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    Majid Zamahani


    Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.

  17. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

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    Bajić Bojana Ž.


    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  18. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Hewlett, R.H. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology); Kirby, P.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Anatomical Pathology); Robson, R.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Capetown (South Africa). Department of Microbiology)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs.

  19. Modeling global persistent organic chemicals in clouds (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lisheng; Ma, Jianmin


    A cloud model was implemented in a global atmospheric transport model to simulate cloud liquid water content and quantify the influence of clouds on gas/aqueous phase partitioning of persistent organic chemicals (POCs). Partitioning fractions of gas/aqueous and particle phases in clouds for three POCs α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyl-28 (PCB-28), and PCB-138 in a cloudy atmosphere were estimated. Results show that the partition fraction of these selected chemicals depend on cloud liquid water content (LWC) and air temperature. We calculated global distribution of water droplet/ice particle-air partitioning coefficients of the three chemicals in clouds. The partition fractions at selected model grids in the Northern Hemisphere show that α-HCH, a hydrophilic chemical, is sorbed strongly onto cloud water droplets. The computed partition fractions at four selected model grids show that α-HCH tends to be sorbed onto clouds over land (source region) from summer to early fall, and over ocean from late spring to early fall. 20-60% of α-HCH is able to be sorbed to cloud waters over mid-latitude oceans during summer days. PCB-138, one of hydrophobic POCs, on the other hand, tends to be sorbed to particles in the atmosphere subject to air temperature. We also show that, on seasonal or annual average, 10-20% of averaged PCB-28 over the Northern Hemisphere could be sorbed onto clouds, leading to reduction of its gas-phase concentration in the atmosphere.

  20. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

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    Lenni Fitri


    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  1. Morphogenesis of Streptomyces in submerged cultures. (United States)

    van Dissel, Dino; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P


    Members of the genus Streptomyces are mycelial bacteria that undergo a complex multicellular life cycle and propagate via sporulation. Streptomycetes are important industrial microorganisms, as they produce a plethora of medically relevant natural products, including the majority of clinically important antibiotics, as well as a wide range of enzymes with industrial application. While development of Streptomyces in surface-grown cultures is well studied, relatively little is known of the parameters that determine morphogenesis in submerged cultures. Here, growth is characterized by the formation of mycelial networks and pellets. From the perspective of industrial fermentations, such mycelial growth is unattractive, as it is associated with slow growth, heterogeneous cultures, and high viscosity. Here, we review the current insights into the genetic and environmental factors that determine mycelial growth and morphology in liquid-grown cultures. The genetic factors include cell-matrix proteins and extracellular polymers, morphoproteins with specific roles in liquid-culture morphogenesis, with the SsgA-like proteins as well-studied examples, and programmed cell death. Environmental factors refer in particular to those dictated by process engineering, such as growth media and reactor set-up. These insights are then integrated to provide perspectives as to how this knowledge can be applied to improve streptomycetes for industrial applications. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of saltern based Streptomyces sp. and statistical media optimization for its improved antibacterial activity

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    Pandiyan eRajeswari


    Full Text Available A moderately halotolerent Streptomyces strain, designated JAJ13 was characterized and a culture medium was statistically optimized to improve its antibacterial activity. Based on the phenotypic and molecular characteristics, strain JAJ13 was identified as a moderately halotolerant Streptomyces sp. JAJ13. Novelty of the stain JAJ13 in production of antibacterial compound was assessed by sequence analysis of KSα gene and LC-MS analysis of the active compound. Optimization of the culture medium for antibacterial compound production by the strain JAJ13 was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. Initially, a starch based basal production medium was selected out of eight different production media screened for antimicrobial compound production by Streptomyces sp. JAJ13. Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen the influential media components affecting the antibacterial compound production. Subsequently, statistical optimization of selected medium components was performed by employing the Response Surface Methodology (RSM with Box-Behnken design. The optimum initial level of CuSO4.5H2O, (NH42SO4 and K2HPO4 for the highest antibacterial activity was determined to be at 4.45 mg, 1.96 g and 1.15 g in 1 L of distilled H2O, respectively. PBD and RSM guided design of experiments resulted in a maximum antibacterial activity of 23.37 ± 2.08 mm, which is a 78.8 % increase in comparison with that obtained in the unoptimized medium. This study points the success of statistical model in developing an optimized production media for enhanced antibacterial compound production by Streptomyces sp. JAJ13.

  3. Correlative cryo-fluorescence light microscopy and cryo-electron tomography of Streptomyces. (United States)

    Koning, Roman I; Celler, Katherine; Willemse, Joost; Bos, Erik; van Wezel, Gilles P; Koster, Abraham J


    Light microscopy and electron microscopy are complementary techniques that in a correlative approach enable identification and targeting of fluorescently labeled structures in situ for three-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolution. Correlative imaging allows electron microscopic images to be positioned in a broader temporal and spatial context. We employed cryo-correlative light and electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM), combining cryo-fluorescence light microscopy and cryo-electron tomography, on vitrified Streptomyces bacteria to study cell division. Streptomycetes are mycelial bacteria that grow as long hyphae and reproduce via sporulation. On solid media, Streptomyces subsequently form distinct aerial mycelia where cell division leads to the formation of unigenomic spores which separate and disperse to form new colonies. In liquid media, only vegetative hyphae are present divided by noncell separating crosswalls. Their multicellular life style makes them exciting model systems for the study of bacterial development and cell division. Complex intracellular structures have been visualized with transmission electron microscopy. Here, we describe the methods for cryo-CLEM that we applied for studying Streptomyces. These methods include cell growth, fluorescent labeling, cryo-fixation by vitrification, cryo-light microscopy using a Linkam cryo-stage, image overlay and relocation, cryo-electron tomography using a Titan Krios, and tomographic reconstruction. Additionally, methods for segmentation, volume rendering, and visualization of the correlative data are described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide inference of regulatory networks in Streptomyces coelicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Melchor, Marlene; Charaniya, Salim; Karypis, George; Takano, Eriko; Hu, Wei-Shou


    Background: The onset of antibiotics production in Streptomyces species is co-ordinated with differentiation events. An understanding of the genetic circuits that regulate these coupled biological phenomena is essential to discover and engineer the pharmacologically important natural products made

  5. A Streptomyces-specific member of the metallophosphatase superfamily contributes to spore dormancy and interaction with Aspergillus proliferans. (United States)

    Lamp, Jessica; Weber, Maren; Cingöz, Gökhan; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Schrempf, Hildgund


    We have identified, cloned and characterized a formerly unknown protein from Streptomyces lividans spores. The deduced protein belongs to a novel member of the metallophosphatase superfamily and contains a phosphatase domain and predicted binding sites for divalent ions. Very close relatives are encoded in the genomic DNA of many different Streptomyces species. As the deduced related homologues diverge from other known phosphatase types, we named the protein MptS (metallophosphatase type from Streptomyces). Comparative physiological and biochemical investigations and analyses by fluorescence microscopy of the progenitor strain, designed mutants carrying either a disruption of the mptS gene or the reintroduced gene as fusion with histidine codons or the egfp gene led to the following results: (i) the mptS gene is transcribed in the course of aerial mycelia formation. (ii) The MptS protein is produced during the late stages of growth, (iii) accumulates within spores, (iv) functions as an active enzyme that releases inorganic phosphate from an artificial model substrate, (v) is required for spore dormancy and (vi) MptS supports the interaction amongst Streptomyces lividans spores with conidia of the fungus Aspergillus proliferans. We discuss the possible role(s) of MptS-dependent enzymatic activity and the implications for spore biology. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić


    Full Text Available Evaluation of manures, composts and growing media quality should include enough properties to enable an optimal use from productivity and environmental points of view. The aim of this paper is to describe basic structure of organic fertilizer (and growing media evaluation model to present the model example by comparison of different manures as well as example of using plant growth experiment for calculating impact of pH and EC of growing media on lettuce plant growth. The basic structure of the model includes selection of quality indicators, interpretations of indicators value, and integration of interpreted values into new indexes. The first step includes data input and selection of available data as a basic or additional indicators depending on possible use as fertilizer or growing media. The second part of the model uses inputs for calculation of derived quality indicators. The third step integrates values into three new indexes: fertilizer, growing media, and environmental index. All three indexes are calculated on the basis of three different groups of indicators: basic value indicators, additional value indicators and limiting factors. The possible range of indexes values is 0-10, where range 0-3 means low, 3-7 medium and 7-10 high quality. Comparing fresh and composted manures, higher fertilizer and environmental indexes were determined for composted manures, and the highest fertilizer index was determined for composted pig manure (9.6 whereas the lowest for fresh cattle manure (3.2. Composted manures had high environmental index (6.0-10 for conventional agriculture, but some had no value (environmental index = 0 for organic agriculture because of too high zinc, copper or cadmium concentrations. Growing media indexes were determined according to their impact on lettuce growth. Growing media with different pH and EC resulted in very significant impacts on height, dry matter mass and leaf area of lettuce seedlings. The highest lettuce

  7. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo


    Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... agricultural sector and each secondary food industry has been split into two separate industries: one producing organic products, the other producing conventional products. The substitution nests in private consumption have also been altered to emphasise the pair wise substitution between organic...... and conventional products. One of the most important regulations regarding organic production concerns the conversion period, that is the period where the farmer starts to use organic production methods until the farmland and the production are considered organic. Currently organic production methods have...

  8. Overproduction of Clavulanic Acid by UV Mutagenesis of Streptomyces clavuligerus


    Korbekandi, Hassan; Darkhal, Parisa; Hojati, Zohreh; Abedi, Daryoush; Hamedi, Javad; Pourhosein, Meraj


    Clavulanic acid is produced industrially by fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus and researches have increased its production by strain improvement, recombinant DNA technology, and media composition and growth condition optimization. The main objective of this study was to increase the level of clavulanic acid production from Streptomyces clavuligerus (DSM 738), using UV irradiation. After incubation, the spores and aerial mycelia were scraped off the agar plate by a sterile loop. After ...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

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    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  10. Streptomyces mangrovi sp. nov., an actinomycete from mangrove soil. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Huiqin; Yuan, Weidao; Wei, Hua; Chen, Yuqing; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Min; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Bao, Shixiang


    A novel aerobic actinomycete, designated HA11110(T), was isolated from a mangrove soil sample collected in Haikou, China. It formed white aerial mycelium and pale yellow substrate mycelium on Gause's synthetic agar no. 1. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cells of HA11110(T) produced straight to spiral spore chains with spiny spores. Chemotaxonomic tests showed that the cell wall contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0.16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain HA11110(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces, most closely related to Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003(T) (99.1%), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248(T) (98.8%) and Streptomyces radiopugnans R97(T) (98.8%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization studies of strain HA11110T with these three closest relatives showed relatedness values of 58.4, 49.7 and 47.2%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain HA11110(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HA11110(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7117(T)= DSM 42113(T)).

  11. Streptomyces tunisialbus sp. nov., a novel Streptomyces species with antimicrobial activity. (United States)

    Ayed, Ameni; Slama, Nedra; Mankai, Houda; Bachkouel, Sarra; ElKahoui, Salem; Tabbene, Olfa; Limam, Ferid


    A novel actinomycete strain designated S2 T was isolated from Tunisian rhizosphere soil of Lavandula officinalis. This isolate exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also antifungal activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. The isolate S2 T presents morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the members of the genus Streptomyces. Whole cell hydrolysates of S2 T were found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0 whereas the predominant menaquinones were found to be MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and three unidentified compounds. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain S2 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces netropsis DSM 40259 T with 99.86% sequence similarity. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on four house-keeping gene alleles (gyrB, recA, trpB, rpoB) showed that isolate S2 T is closely related to S. netropsis, with an MLSA distance greater than 0.007. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain S2 T and its near phylogenetic neighbour was 63.6 ± 2.3%, which is lower than the 70% threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. This isolate was also distinguished from the type strain S. netropsis DSM 40259 T , using a combination of morphological and physiological features. Based on its phenotypic and molecular properties, strain S2 T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces tunisialbus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S2 T (= JCM 32165 T  = DSM 105760 T ).

  12. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes. (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S; Hall, Robert D; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter D; Kurland, Irwin J; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura K; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd W; Viant, Mark R


    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  13. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

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    Arthur S. Edison


    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  14. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

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    Kolla J.P. Narayana


    Full Text Available Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35ºC. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that starch and yeast extract served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield.Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by single step gel filtration by Sephadex G-100. Purified chitinase of the strain exhibited a distinct protein band near 45 kDa by means of SDS-PAGE.

  15. DNA Phosphorothioate Modification Plays a Role in Peroxides Resistance in Streptomyces lividans

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    Daofeng Dai


    Full Text Available DNA phosphorothioation, conferred by dnd genes, was originally discovered in the soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces lividans, and thereafter found to exist in various bacterial genera. However, the physiological significance of this sulfur modification of the DNA backbone remains unknown in S. lividans. Our studies indicate that DNA phosphorothioation has a major role in resistance to oxidative stress in the strain. Although Streptomyces species express multiple catalase/peroxidase and organic hydroperoxide resistance genes to protect them against peroxide damage, a wild type strain of S. lividans exhibited two-fold to 10-fold higher survival, compared to a dnd- mutant, following treatment with peroxides. RNA-seq experiments revealed that, catalase and organic hydroperoxide resistance gene expression were not up-regulated in the wild type strain, suggesting that the resistance to oxidative stress was not due to the up-regulation of these genes by DNA phosphorothioation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was conducted to trace the expression of the catalase and the organic hydroperoxide resistance genes after peroxides treatments. A bunch of these genes were activated in the dnd- mutant rather than the wild type strain in response to peroxides. Moreover, the organic hydroperoxide peracetic acid was scavenged more rapidly in the presence than in the absence of phosphorothioate modification, both in vivo and in vitro. The dnd gene cluster can be up-regulated by the disulfide stressor diamide. Overall, our observations suggest that DNA phosphorothioate modification functions as a peroxide resistance system in S. lividans.

  16. Response surface methodology: A non-conventional statistical tool to maximize the throughput of Streptomyces species biomass and their bioactive metabolites. (United States)

    Latha, Selvanathan; Sivaranjani, Govindhan; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai


    Among diverse actinobacteria, Streptomyces is a renowned ongoing source for the production of a large number of secondary metabolites, furnishing immeasurable pharmacological and biological activities. Hence, to meet the demand of new lead compounds for human and animal use, research is constantly targeting the bioprospecting of Streptomyces. Optimization of media components and physicochemical parameters is a plausible approach for the exploration of intensified production of novel as well as existing bioactive metabolites from various microbes, which is usually achieved by a range of classical techniques including one factor at a time (OFAT). However, the major drawbacks of conventional optimization methods have directed the use of statistical optimization approaches in fermentation process development. Response surface methodology (RSM) is one of the empirical techniques extensively used for modeling, optimization and analysis of fermentation processes. To date, several researchers have implemented RSM in different bioprocess optimization accountable for the production of assorted natural substances from Streptomyces in which the results are very promising. This review summarizes some of the recent RSM adopted studies for the enhanced production of antibiotics, enzymes and probiotics using Streptomyces with the intention to highlight the significance of Streptomyces as well as RSM to the research community and industries.

  17. Phosphinothricin-tripeptide synthetases from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. (United States)

    Grammel, N; Schwartz, D; Wohlleben, W; Keller, U


    Phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (Pt tripeptide (Ptt), bialaphos) is a metabolite produced by Streptomyces viridochromogenes and Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It contains the unique phosphinoamino acid phosphinothricin (Pt), which after cleavage from Ptt is active as an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. We have isolated three enzymes that assemble the building block of the Ptt peptide backbone in a nonribosomal mechanism. The first enzyme, named Ptt-synthetase I (PTTS I), activates N-acetyldemethylphosphinothricin (AcDMPt) as adenylate and thioester. Pt is not activated. PTTS I can also activate N-acetylphosphinothricin (AcPt) or N-acetylglutamate as structural analogues of AcDMPT. Native PTTS I has an estimated size of 62 kDa whereas the denatured form displays a size of 76 kDa. Immunoblot analysis and determination of its N-terminal protein sequence revealed that PTTS I is identical with the gene product of phsA. The phsA gene was previously identified near the Pt-resistance gene pat in the Ptt biosynthesis gene cluster in S. viridochromogenes. Besides PTTS I, two alanine-activating enzymes (PTTS II/III) were partially purified from S. viridochromogenes with estimated native sizes of ca. 120 kDa (enzyme 1) and ca. 140 kDa (enzyme 2). Both enzymes bind alanine as a thioester via the corresponding adenylate. Level of PTTS II/III and product formation were correlated with each other in several different strains of S. viridochromogenes. These results indicate that Ptt is synthesized by three peptide synthetases, each activating one single amino acid. The data also confirm previous genetic data, which suggest that AcDMPt-Ala-Ala is the precursor of Ptt.

  18. Organization model and formalized description of nuclear enterprise information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Song Yafeng; Li Xudong


    Organization model is one of the most important models of Nuclear Enterprise Information System (NEIS). Scientific and reasonable organization model is the prerequisite that NEIS has robustness and extendibility, and is also the foundation of the integration of heterogeneous system. Firstly, the paper describes the conceptual model of the NEIS on ontology chart, which provides a consistent semantic framework of organization. Then it discusses the relations between the concepts in detail. Finally, it gives the formalized description of the organization model of NEIS based on six-tuple array. (authors)

  19. The chitinolytic activities of Streptomyces sp. TH-11. (United States)

    Hoang, Kim-Chi; Lai, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Tsong; Liau, Chun-Yi


    Chitin is an abundant biopolymer composed of units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Chitin is the main component of the shells of mollusks, the cell wall of fungi and yeast and of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. The degradation of chitin is catalyzed by chitinases that occur in a wide range of organisms. Among them, the chitinases from microorganisms are extremely important for the degradation and recycling of the carbon and nitrogen trapped in the large amount of insoluble chitin in nature. Streptomyces sp. TH-11 was isolated from the sediment of the Tou-Chien River, Taiwan. The chitinolytic enzyme activities were detected using a rapid in-gel detection method from the cell-free preparation of the culture medium of TH-11. The chitinolytic enzyme activity during prolonged liquid culturing was also analyzed by direct measurement of the chitin consumption. Decomposition of the exoskeleton of shrimps was demonstrated using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  20. The Chitinolytic Activities of Streptomyces sp. TH-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Liau


    Full Text Available Chitin is an abundant biopolymer composed of units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked by b-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Chitin is the main component of the shells of mollusks, the cell wall of fungi and yeast and of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. The degradation of chitin is catalyzed by chitinases that occur in a wide range of organisms. Among them, the chitinases from microorganisms are extremely important for the degradation and recycling of the carbon and nitrogen trapped in the large amount of insoluble chitin in nature. Streptomyces sp. TH-11 was isolated from the sediment of the Tou-Chien River, Taiwan. The chitinolytic enzyme activities were detected using a rapid in-gel detection method from the cell-free preparation of the culture medium of TH-11. The chitinolytic enzyme activity during prolonged liquid culturing was also analyzed by direct measurement of the chitin consumption. Decomposition of the exoskeleton of shrimps was demonstrated using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  1. Studies on biological reduction of chromate by Streptomyces griseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poopal, Ashwini C. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Laxman, R. Seeta, E-mail: [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India)


    Chromium is a toxic heavy metal used in various industries and leads to environmental pollution due to improper handling. The most toxic form of chromium Cr(VI) can be converted to less toxic Cr(III) by reduction. Among the actinomycetes tested for chromate reduction, thirteen strains reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), of which one strain of Streptomyces griseus (NCIM 2020) was most efficient showing complete reduction within 24 h. The organism was able to use a number of carbon sources as electron donors. Sulphate, nitrate, chloride and carbonate had no effect on chromate reduction during growth while cations such as Cd, Ni, Co and Cu were inhibitory to varying degrees. Chromate reduction was associated with the bacterial cells and sonication was the best method of cell breakage to release the enzyme. The enzyme was constitutive and did not require presence of chromate during growth for expression of activity. Chromate reduction with cell free extract (CFE) was observed without added NADH. However, addition of NAD(P)H resulted in 2-3-fold increase in activity. Chromate reductase showed optimum activity at 28 deg. C and pH 7.

  2. Streptomyces ferrugineus sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil in Thailand. (United States)

    Ruan, Chang-ying; Zhang, Li; Ye, Wan-wan; Xie, Xiu-chao; Srivibool, Rattanaporn; Duangmal, Kannika; Pathom-aree, Wasu; Deng, Zi-xin; Hong, Kui


    Bacterial strain HV38(T) was isolated from mangrove soil, which was collected from Thailand. Chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics were found to be typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain was found to form a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree and to be closely associated with the type strains of Streptomyces coeruleofuscus CGMCC 4.1667(T) (98.84 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces chromofuscus CGMCC 4.1451(T) (98.63 %) and Streptomyces albidoflavus CGMCC 4.1291(T) (98.56 %). The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H10). Its major cellular fatty acids were found to be iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:1ω8c, C16:0, anteiso-C16:1ω8c, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C16:0. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HV38(T) with S. coeruleofuscus CGMCC 4.1667(T), S. chromofuscus CGMCC 4.1451(T) and S. albidoflavus CGMCC 4.1291(T) were 32.7 ± 0.9, 21.8 ± 0.3 and 19.9 ± 0.9 %, respectively, which clearly supported the conclusion that they belong to separate genomic species. Cumulatively, the data indicated that strain HV38(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ferrugineus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HV38(T) (=CCTCC AA2014009(T )= DSM 42152(T)).

  3. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.


    of biomass and substrate (casamino acids) concentrations, respectively. The effect of combination of fluorescence and gas analyzer data as well as of different variable selection methods was investigated. Improved prediction models were obtained by combination of data from the two sensors and by variable......Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Iovan


    Full Text Available When driving any major change within an organization, strategy and execution are intrinsic to a project’s success. Nevertheless, closing the gap between strategy and execution remains a challenge for many organizations [1]. Companies tend to focus more on execution than strategy for quick results, instead of taking the time needed to understand the parts that make up the whole, so the right execution plan can be put in place to deliver the best outcomes. A large part of this understands that business operations don’t fit neatly within the traditional organizational hierarchy. Business processes are often messy, collaborative efforts that cross teams, departments and systems, making them difficult to manage within a hierarchical structure [2]. Business process management (BPM fills this gap by redefining an organization according to its end-to-end processes, so opportunities for improvement can be identified and processes streamlined for growth, revenue and transformation. This white paper provides guidelines on what to consider when using business process applications to solve your BPM initiatives, and the unique capabilities software systems provides that can help ensure both your project’s success and the success of your organization as a whole. majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  5. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi


    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  6. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

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    Matouš Čihák


    Full Text Available Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before. Our previously published data revealed that several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are expressed during germination. Therefore, we focus here on the secondary metabolite production during this developmental stage. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic albaflavenone, the polyketide germicidin A, and chalcone are produced during germination of the model streptomycete, S. coelicolor. Interestingly, the last two compounds revealed an inhibitory effect on the germination process. The secondary metabolites originating from the early stage of microbial growth may coordinate the development of the producer (quorum sensing and/or play a role in competitive microflora repression (quorum quenching in their nature environments.

  7. The initiative on Model Organism Proteomes (iMOP) Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrimpf, Sabine P; Mering, Christian von; Bendixen, Emøke


    iMOP – the Initiative on Model Organism Proteomes – was accepted as a new HUPO initiative at the Ninth HUPO meeting in Sydney in 2010. A goal of iMOP is to integrate research groups working on a great diversity of species into a model organism community. At the Tenth HUPO meeting in Geneva...

  8. Competency modeling targeted on promotion of organizations towards VO involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermilova, E.; Afsarmanesh, H.


    During the last decades, a number of models is introduced in research, addressing different perspectives of the organizations’ competencies in collaborative networks. This paper introduces the "4C-model", developed to address competencies of organizations, involved in Virtual organizations Breeding

  9. Modeling the Explicit Chemistry of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madronich, Sasha [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The atmospheric burden of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) remains one of the most important yet uncertain aspects of the radiative forcing of climate. This grant focused on improving our quantitative understanding of SOA formation and evolution, by developing, applying, and improving a highly detailed model of atmospheric organic chemistry, the Generation of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) model. Eleven (11) publications have resulted from this grant.

  10. using stereochemistry models in teaching organic compounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    (Stereochemistry Model); the treatment had significant effect: students taught using. Stereochemistry Models ... ISSN 2227-5835. 93. Apart from the heavy conceptual demand on the memory capacity required of the ..... colors and sizes compared with the sketches on the chart that appear to be mock forms of the compounds.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  12. Assessinent of streptomycesgriseo viridis (mycostop as a biocontrol agent for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiin two cultivars of standard carnation under commercial conditions Evaluación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (MYCOSTOP en el control de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, en dos variedades de clavel estándar bajo condiciones comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Luis Miguel


    Full Text Available The research was carried out in a commercial farm, located in Madrid, Cundinamarca. The purpose of the study was to established the rate and irequency of application of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop in the control of vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Two experiments were conducted to compare three rates of application (0,025;0,05 and 0,01 g/m2 and
    three intervals of application (1,2 and 4 weeks of
    Mycostop, in two standard carnation varieties. Disease
    progress data were analized by comparing their godness of fit to Gompertz and Monomolecular epidemiological models. By using the simpler linear regression model, the rate of inlection (k and the coefficient of determination (Al were calculated.
    Inlection rates were subjected to analysis of variance.
    The results showed no satislactory control of the disease. Rates and frecuencies of applícation of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop did not show appreciable differences. Epidemiologically, "k" values were highly homogeneous among the different Mycostop treatments. Streptomyces
    griseoviridisis highly dependent upon culture media
    pH, and it grows only at a pH 016,4 or higher, with an optimal growth at a pH 7,0. No relation was detected between growth of the biocontrol organism and levels of electrical conductivity.La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel localizado en el municipio de Madrid (Cundinamarca, con el objetivo de determinar la dosis y la frecuencia de aplicación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop en el control del
    marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporom lsp. dianthi. En el campo, se realizaron dos experimentos simultáneos, para probar diferentes dosis (0,025; 0,05 y 0,1 g/m2 y frecuencias (1, 2 y 4 semanas de aplicación de
    Streptomyces griseoviridis Mycostop en dos variedades de clavel estándar. El análisis estadístico consistió en utilizar algunos

  13. The biochemical characterization of three imine-reducing enzymes from Streptosporangium roseum DSM43021, Streptomyces turgidiscabies and Paenibacillus elgii. (United States)

    Scheller, Philipp N; Nestl, Bettina M


    Recently imine reductases (IREDs) have emerged as promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of a wide variety of chiral amines. To promote their application, many novel enzymes were reported, but only a few of them were biochemically characterized. To expand the available knowledge about IREDs, we report the characterization of two recently identified (R)-selective IREDs from Streptosporangium roseum DSM43021 and Streptomyces turgidiscabies and one (S)-selective IRED from Paenibacillus elgii. The biochemical properties including pH profiles, temperature stabilities, and activities of the enzymes in the presence of organic solvents were investigated. All three enzymes showed relatively broad pH spectra with maximum activities in the neutral range. While the (R)-selective IREDs displayed only limited thermostabilities, the (S)-selective enzyme was found to be the most thermostable IRED known to date. The activity of this IRED proved also to be most tolerant towards the investigated co-solvents DMSO and methanol. We further studied activities and selectivities towards a panel of cyclic imine model substrates to compare these enzymes with other IREDs. In biotransformations, IREDs showed high conversions and the amine products were obtained with up to 99 % ee. By recording the kinetic constants for these compounds, substrate preferences of the IREDs were investigated and it was shown that the (S)-IRED favors the transformation of bulky imines contrary to the (R)-selective IREDs. Finally, novel exocyclic imine substrates were tested and also high activities and selectivities detected.

  14. Large-Scale Transposition Mutagenesis of Streptomyces coelicolor Identifies Hundreds of Genes Influencing Antibiotic Biosynthesis (United States)

    Xu, Zhong; Wang, Yemin; Chater, Keith F.; Ou, Hong-Yu; Xu, H. Howard; Deng, Zixin


    ABSTRACT Gram-positive Streptomyces bacteria produce thousands of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. To systematically investigate genes affecting secondary metabolism, we developed a hyperactive transposase-based Tn5 transposition system and employed it to mutagenize the model species Streptomyces coelicolor, leading to the identification of 51,443 transposition insertions. These insertions were distributed randomly along the chromosome except for some preferred regions associated with relatively low GC content in the chromosomal core. The base composition of the insertion site and its flanking sequences compiled from the 51,443 insertions implied a 19-bp expanded target site surrounding the insertion site, with a slight nucleic acid base preference in some positions, suggesting a relative randomness of Tn5 transposition targeting in the high-GC Streptomyces genome. From the mutagenesis library, 724 mutants involving 365 genes had altered levels of production of the tripyrrole antibiotic undecylprodigiosin (RED), including 17 genes in the RED biosynthetic gene cluster. Genetic complementation revealed that most of the insertions (more than two-thirds) were responsible for the changed antibiotic production. Genes associated with branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA metabolism, and protein modification affected RED production, and genes involved in signaling, stress, and transcriptional regulation were overrepresented. Some insertions caused dramatic changes in RED production, identifying future targets for strain improvement. IMPORTANCE High-GC Gram-positive streptomycetes and related actinomycetes have provided more than 100 clinical drugs used as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and antitumor drugs. Their genomes harbor biosynthetic genes for many more unknown compounds with potential as future drugs. Here we developed a useful genome-wide mutagenesis tool based on the transposon Tn5 for the study of secondary metabolism and its


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Kawuri


    Full Text Available Pendem village in Jembrana regency is one of the banana plantation in Bali. Now a days banana plants were attack  by  bacterial wilt disease   with the symptoms of wilting plants, brown spots on the vessel banana stems and fruit to rot and dry. Control of use of chemical fertilizers can cause bad impact on environment and also can not control the disease. Streptomyces bacteria are bacteria that are capable of producing enzymes and antibiotics that can be used as biocontrol agents of several diseases in plants. The purpose of this research is to isolate and identify the bacteria  Streptomyces  from  rhizosphere  of  banana  plants  without  symptoms  in  the  village Pendem Jembrana regency. The method of isolation of Streptomyces using Platting method, Streptomyces isolated from soil rhizosphere of banana plants without symptoms or health plant. Soil was taken by digging near rooting bananas plant about 15 cm from the ground and and the sample was growth on media Humic Vitamin Agar (HVA and Yeast Extract Malt Agar (ISP4. Identification macros-copically and microscopically and biochemical test using determination key book guide to the Classification and Identification of the Actinomycetes and Their antibiotics of Lechevalier and Waksman (1973. Result showed it was found 9 Streptomyces isolate;  Streptomyces sp.1, Streptomyces sp. 2, Streptomyces sp.3, sp.4 Streptomyces, Streptomyces sp.5 sp.6, Streptomyces sp 7, Streptomyces sp.8 and Streptomyces sp.9. Nine isolates of Streptomyces sp. will be tested against the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum ,the bacteria that causes bacterial wilt disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Najafbagy


    Full Text Available This article tries to present a model of learning organization for Iran Broadcasting Organization which is under the management of the spiritual leader of Iran. The study is based on characteristics of Peter Senge’s original learning organization namely, personal stery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking. The methodology was a survey research employed questionnaire among sample employees and managers of the Organization.Findings showed that the Organization is fairly far from an ffective learning organization.Moreover, it seems that employees’ performance in team learning and changes in mental models are more satisfactory than managers. Regarding other characteristics of learning organizations, there are similarities in learning attempts by employees and managers. The rganization lacks organizational vision, and consequently there is no shared vision in the Organization. It also is in need of organizational culture. As a kind of state-owned organization, there s no need of financial support which affect the need for learning organization. It also does not face the threat of sustainabilitybecause there is no competitive organization.Findings also show that IBO need a fundamental change in its rganizational learning process. In this context, the general idea is to unfreeze the mindset of leadership of IBO and creating a visionand organizational culture based on learning and staff development. Then gradually through incremental effective change and continual organizational learning process in dividual, team and organization levels engage in development and reinforcement of skills of personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking, should lead IBO to learning organization.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  18. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650. (United States)

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem


    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative proteomics analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor development demonstrates that onset of secondary metabolism coincides with hypha differentiation. (United States)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus; Jung, Hye R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N


    Streptomyces species produce many clinically important secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and antitumorals. They have a complex developmental cycle, including programmed cell death phenomena, that makes this bacterium a multicellular prokaryotic model. There are two differentiated mycelial stages: an early compartmentalized vegetative mycelium (first mycelium) and a multinucleated reproductive mycelium (second mycelium) arising after programmed cell death processes. In the present study, we made a detailed proteomics analysis of the distinct developmental stages of solid confluent Streptomyces coelicolor cultures using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) labeling and LC-MS/MS. A new experimental approach was developed to obtain homogeneous samples at each developmental stage (temporal protein analysis) and also to obtain membrane and cytosolic protein fractions (spatial protein analysis). A total of 345 proteins were quantified in two biological replicates. Comparative bioinformatics analyses revealed the switch from primary to secondary metabolism between the initial compartmentalized mycelium and the multinucleated hyphae.

  20. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate


    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  1. Daphnia as an Emerging Epigenetic Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kami D. M. Harris


    Full Text Available Daphnia offer a variety of benefits for the study of epigenetics. Daphnia’s parthenogenetic life cycle allows the study of epigenetic effects in the absence of confounding genetic differences. Sex determination and sexual reproduction are epigenetically determined as are several other well-studied alternate phenotypes that arise in response to environmental stressors. Additionally, there is a large body of ecological literature available, recently complemented by the genome sequence of one species and transgenic technology. DNA methylation has been shown to be altered in response to toxicants and heavy metals, although investigation of other epigenetic mechanisms is only beginning. More thorough studies on DNA methylation as well as investigation of histone modifications and RNAi in sex determination and predator-induced defenses using this ecologically and evolutionarily important organism will contribute to our understanding of epigenetics.

  2. Increasing the scale of peroxidase production by Streptomyces sp. strain BSII#1. (United States)

    Musengi, A; Khan, N; Le Roes-Hill, M; Pletschke, B I; Burton, S G


    To optimize peroxidase production by Streptomyces sp. strain BSII#1, up to 3 l culture volumes. Peroxidase production by Streptomyces sp. strain BSII#1 was optimized in terms of production temperature and pH and the use of lignin-based model chemical inducers. The highest peroxidase activity (1·30 ± 0·04 U ml(-1) ) in 10 ml culture volume was achieved in a complex production medium (pH 8·0) at 37°C in the presence of 0·1 mmol l(-1) veratryl alcohol, which was greater than those reported previously. Scale-up to 100 and 400 ml culture volumes resulted in decreased peroxidase production (0·53 ± 0·10 and 0·26 ± 0·08 U ml(-1) , respectively). However, increased aeration improved peroxidase production with the highest production achieved using an airlift bioreactor (4·76 ± 0·46 U ml(-1) in 3 l culture volume). Veratryl alcohol (0·1 mmol l(-1) ) is an effective inducer of peroxidase production by Streptomyces sp. strain BSII#1. However, improved aeration increased peroxidase production in larger volumes without the use of an inducer, surpassing induced yields in an optimized small-scale process. Only a limited number of reports in literature have focused on the up-scaling of bacterial peroxidase production. There remains opportunity for feasible large-scale production of bacterial peroxidases with potentially novel biocatalytic properties. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J. (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Saber, Wesam I A; Mohamed, Asem A


    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  4. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar


    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  5. Personality organization, five-factor model, and mental health. (United States)

    Laverdière, Olivier; Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis; Hébert, Etienne; Larochelle, Sébastien; Descôteaux, Jean


    Otto Kernberg has developed a model of personality and psychological functioning centered on the concept of personality organization. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the relationships between this model, the five-factor model, and mental health. The Personality Organization Diagnostic Form (Diguer et al., The Personality Organization Diagnostic Form-II (PODF-II), 2001), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. 1992a), and the Health-Sickness Rating Scale (Luborsky, Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1962;7:407-417) were used to assess these constructs. Results show that personality organization and personality factors are distinct but interrelated constructs and that both contribute in similar proportion to mental health. Results also suggest that the integration of personality organization and factors can provide clinicians and researchers with an enriched understanding of psychological functioning.

  6. Development of a Terpenoid-Production Platform in Streptomyces reveromyceticus SN-593. (United States)

    Khalid, Ammara; Takagi, Hiroshi; Panthee, Suresh; Muroi, Makoto; Chappell, Joe; Osada, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shunji


    Terpenoids represent the largest class of natural products, some of which are resources for pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and fuels. Generally, mass production of valuable terpenoid compounds is hampered by their low production levels in organisms and difficulty of chemical synthesis. Therefore, the development of microbial biosynthetic platforms represents an alternative approach. Although microbial terpenoid-production platforms have been established in Escherichia coli and yeast, an optimal platform has not been developed for Streptomyces species, despite the large capacity to produce secondary metabolites, such as polyketide compounds. To explore this potential, we constructed a terpenoid-biosynthetic platform in Streptomyces reveromyceticus SN-593. This strain is unique in that it harbors the mevalonate gene cluster enabling the production of furaquinocin, which can be controlled by the pathway specific regulator Fur22. We simultaneously expressed the mevalonate gene cluster and subsequent terpenoid-biosynthetic genes under the control of Fur22. To achieve improved fur22 gene expression, we screened promoters from S. reveromyceticus SN-593. Our results showed that the promoter associated with rvr2030 gene enabled production of 212 ± 20 mg/L botryococcene to levels comparable to those previously reported for other microbial hosts. Given that the rvr2030 gene encodes for an enzyme involved in the primary metabolism, these results suggest that optimized expression of terpenoid-biosynthetic genes with primary and secondary metabolism might be as important for high yields of terpenoid compounds as is the absolute expression level of a target gene(s).

  7. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila P. Trenozhnikova


    Full Text Available We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics.

  8. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70 (United States)

    Trenozhnikova, Lyudmila P.; Khasenova, Almagul K.; Balgimbaeva, Assya S.; Fedorova, Galina B.; Katrukha, Genrikh S.; Tokareva, Nina L.; Kwa, Boo H.; Azizan, Azliyati


    We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics. PMID:22536145

  9. Investigation of Antioxidative and Anticancer Potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil. (United States)

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing


    A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3-, 2.0-, and 1.8-folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic toward colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.

  10. Investigation of antioxidative and anticancer potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 isolated from Malaysia mangrove soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern


    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3, 2.0 and 1.8 folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29 and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic towards colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.

  11. Comparison of growth methods and biological activities of brazilian marine Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Granato


    Full Text Available The present work describes the study of the growth and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the extracts of the marine microorganisms Streptomyces acrymicini and Streptomyces cebimarensis, the latter a new strain. Both microorganisms were collected from coastal marine sediments of the north coast of São Paulo state. Growth was performed in a shaker and in a bioreactor using Gym medium and the broths of both microorganisms were extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Three extracts, two organic and one aqueous, from each microorganism were obtained and tested for cytotoxic and antitumor activity using the SF-295 (Central Nervous System, HCT-8 (Colon cell lines, and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The growth methods were compared and show that, although the shaker presented reasonable results, the bioreactor represents the best choice for growth of these microorganisms. The biological activity of the different extracts was evaluated and it was demonstrated that the growth methodology may influence the secondary metabolite production and the biological activity.

  12. Designing a Composite Service Organization (Through Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. A. Z. Memon


    Full Text Available Suppose we have a class of similar service organizations each of which is characterized by the same numerically measurable input/output characteristics. Even if the amount of any input does not differ in them, one or more organizations can be expected to outperform the others in one or more production aspects. Our interest lies in comparing the output efficiency levels of all service organizations. For it we use mathematical modeling, mainly linear programming to design a composite organization with new input measures which relative to a specific organization should have a higher level of efficiency with regard to all output measures. The other purpose of this paper is to evaluate the output characteristics of this proposed service organization. The paper also touches some other highly important planning features of this organization.

  13. Biosynthesis of 2'-deoxycoformycin by Streptomyces antibioticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanvey, J.C.


    The biosynthesis of 2'-deoxycoformycin by Streptomyces antibioticus has been investigated. Previous studies indicated that a purine nycleoside is the precursor for ten of the eleven carbons of deoxycoformycin. It was proposed that carbon-7 of the seven-membered, 1,3-diazepine-ring of deoxycoformycin is not derived from the purine ring but by an insertion of a one-carbon unit between N-1 and C-6 of the purine ring. Carbon-1 of D-ribose has now been identified as the precursor for carbon 7 (and 1') of deoxycoformycin. Although the tetrahydrofolate/one-carbon pool contributes one carbon units to carbons-2 and 8 of the purine ring, which become carbons-5 and 2 of deoxycoformycin, it is not involved in the formation of carbon-7. The retention of the tritium on carbon-2 of [2,8- 3 H]-adenosine in deoxycoformycin indicates that guanosine is not the nucleoside precursor of deoxycoformycin. The failure to detect the incorporation of 18 O from [6- 18 O]-inosine in deoxycoformycin suggests that inosine is not the purine nucleoside precursor of deoxycoformycin. Therefore, it is proposed that adenosine and carbon-1 and d-ribose are the carbon-nitrogen precursors of deoxycoformycin. A mechanism for the insertion of carbon-1 of d-ribose into the pyrimidine portion of the purine ring has been proposed. Using cell-free extracts of S. antibioticus, 8-ketodeoxycoformycin and 8-ketocoformycin can be converted to deoxycoformycin and coformycin, respectively. The enzyme which reduces the 8-keto groups has been characterized and partially purified

  14. (Tropical) soil organic matter modelling: problems and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.


    Soil organic matter plays an important role in many physical, chemical and biological processes. However, the quantitative relations between the mineral and organic components of the soil and the relations with the vegetation are poorly understood. In such situations, the use of models is an

  15. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei


    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  16. Social organization in the Minority Game model (United States)

    Slanina, František


    We study the role of imitation within the Minority Game model of market. The players can exchange information locally, which leads to formation of groups which act as if they were single players. Coherent spatial areas of rich and poor agents result. We found that the global effectivity is optimized at certain value of the imitation probability, which decreases with increasing memory length. The social tensions are suppressed for large imitation probability, but generally the requirements of high global effectivity and low social tensions are in conflict.

  17. Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks. Sanjay Jain Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  18. How valuable are model organisms for transposable element studies? (United States)

    Kidwell, M G; Evgen'ev, M B


    Model organisms have proved to be highly informative for many types of genetic studies involving 'conventional' genes. The results have often been successfully generalized to other closely related organisms and also, perhaps surprisingly frequently, to more distantly related organisms. Because of the wealth of previous knowledge and their availability and convenience, model organisms were often the species of choice for many of the earlier studies of transposable elements. The question arises whether the results of genetic studies of transposable elements in model organisms can be extrapolated in the same ways as those of conventional genes? A number of observations suggest that special care needs to be taken in generalizing the results from model organisms to other species. A hallmark of many transposable elements is their ability to amplify rapidly in species genomes. Rapid spread of a newly invaded element throughout a species range has also been demonstrated. The types and genomic copy numbers of transposable elements have been shown to differ greatly between some closely related species. Horizontal transfer of transposable elements appears to be more frequent than for nonmobile genes. Furthermore, the population structure of some model organisms has been subject to drastic recent changes that may have some bearing on their transposable element genomic complements. In order to initiate discussion of this question, several case studies of transposable elements in well-studied Drosophila species are presented.

  19. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čihák, M.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Šmídová, Klára; Bergman, N.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Petříčková, Kateřina; Bobek, Jan


    Roč. 8, DEC 13 (2017), č. článku 2495. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : spore germination * Streptomyces * cell signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  20. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India. Abstract. Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in ...

  1. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  2. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  3. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used .... Maxima® Hot Start PCR Master Mix (2X) in a. 50μL reaction mixture as follows: activation of ..... Planning toward the application of large scale production of CA in a bioreactor by the ...

  4. Isolation and identification of two marine-derived Streptomyces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 26, 2011 ... mycelia were determined with the ISCC-NBS centroid color charts. (US National Bureau of Standard 1976). The studies on physiological characteristics of the two marine actinomycete isolates were carried out following the methods recommended by the International Streptomyces Projects (ISP), Shirling et ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony ...

  6. Optimization of culture conditions of Streptomyces rochei (MTCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and culture conditions were studied in shaken-flask culture to induce the production of greater amounts of antimicrobial metabolites by Streptomyces rochei (10109). Antimicrobial metabolite production started after 48 h incubation and reached its optimum level at 20% inoculum size at 120 h, at which point the ...

  7. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson


    platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process...... filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs....

  8. Utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources by Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested a number of carbon and nitrogen compounds for their effect on the production of an antibacterial antibiotic by Streptomyces kananmyceticus M27. Dextrose was found to be the most suitable carbon source, though maltose, sucrose, and soluble starch gave moderate yields. (NH4)H2PO4 and yeast extract were ...

  9. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of these, 22% of the isolates exhibited activity against fungi. One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by ...

  10. Antibacterial substance produced by Streptomyces sp. No. 87

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 2, 2008 ... In consequence, novel antibiotics have been investigated intensively. At present, 4,000 antibiotic substances obtained from bacteria and fungi have been ..... Biosynthesis of oleandomycin by Streptomyces antibioticus: Influence of nutritional conditions and development of resistance. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:.

  11. Optimization of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 29, 2016 ... asparagine agar, Hickey and Tresner gar) following the directions given by the International Streptomyces Project (Shirling and. Gottlieb, 1966). Cultural characteristics such as growth importance, aerial and substrate mycelium color and diffusible pigment production, were recorded after incubation for 7, ...

  12. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... produce a vivid yellow pigment on most media except on the ISP5. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate were compared with known Actinomycetes species described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology and they suggested that SLO-105 strain belong to Streptomyces ...

  13. Identification and antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp. S72 isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test of antifungal activity for several pathogens fungi causing invasive aspergillosis and systemic candidiasis revealed that the Streptomyces sp. S72 was a good moderate antifungal compound producer against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, and had no activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ...

  14. Waste to wealth: Production of oxytetracycline using streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces speibonae OXS1 in solid-state fermentation from cocoyam peels (household kitchen wastes of agricultural produce) was investigated. The proximate analyses of peels of the two cocoyam species showed that Colocasia esculenta had higher protein (1.39%) and fibre ...

  15. Glutathione S-Transferase Isoenzymes from Streptomyces griseus (United States)

    Dhar, Kajari; Dhar, Alok; Rosazza, John P. N.


    An inducible, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) was purified from Streptomyces griseus. GST isoenzymes with pI values of 6.8 and 7.9 used standard GST substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST had subunit and native Mrs of 24 and 48, respectively, and the N-terminal sequence SMILXYWDIIRGLPAH. PMID:12514067

  16. Exploring the Biocatalytic Scope of Alditol Oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hellemond, Erik W.; Vermote, Linda; Koolen, Wilma; Sonke, Theo; Zandvoort, Ellen; Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    The substrate scope of the flavoprotein alditol oxidase (AldO) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli, was explored. While it has been established that AldO efficiently oxidizes alditols to D-aldoses. this study revealed that the enzyme is also active with a

  17. Extracellular carbohydrate metabolites from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Sedmera, Petr; Halada, Petr; Petříček, Miroslav


    Roč. 70, - (2007), s. 768-771 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/0285 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces coelicolor * cultivation * spectroscopic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2007

  18. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains


    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.


    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  19. Business Model Innovation in Incumbent Organizations: : Challenges and Success Routes


    Salama, Ahmad; Parvez, Khawar


    In this thesis major challenges of creating business models at incumbents within mature industries are identified along with a mitigation plan. Pressure is upon incumbent organizations in order to keep up with the latest rapid technological advancements, the launching of startups that almost cover every field of business and the continuous change in customers’ tastes and needs. That along with various factors either forced organizations to continually reevaluate their current business models ...

  20. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths (United States)


    key species found in the fermentation broth: ethanol, butanol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid. Correlations of the rejection...AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2007-4545 POSTPRINT REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESSING OF ORGANIC MODEL COMPOUNDS AND FERMENTATION BROTHS Robert Diltz...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 686–695Reverse osmosis processing of organic model compounds and fermentation broths

  1. Streptomyces ginkgonis sp. nov., an endophyte from Ginkgo biloba. (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Nana; Chen, Yue; Huang, Li-Li


    A novel endophytic actinomycete strain, designated KM-1-2 T , was isolated from seeds of Ginkgo biloba at Yangling, China. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomy of strain KM-1-2 T and it was found to show a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as LL-diaminopimelic acid. No diagnostic sugars were detected in whole cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H 6 ) and MK-9(H 8 ). The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G + C content of the novel strain was determined to be 72.9 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids (> 10.0 %) were identified as iso-C 14 : 0 , iso-C 16 : 0 , C 16 : 0 and C 17 : 0 cyclo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain is closely related to Streptomyces carpaticus JCM 6915 T (99.3%), Streptomyces harbinensis DSM 42076 T (98.9%) and Streptomyces cheonanensis JCM 14549 T (98.5%). DNA-DNA hybridizations with these three close relatives gave similarity values of 39.1 ± 1.9, 35.8 ± 2.3, and 47.4 ± 2.7%, respectively, which indicated that strain KM-1-2 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces. This is consistent with the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data. Cumulatively, these data suggest that strain KM-1-2 T represents a novel Streptomyces species, for which the name Streptomyces ginkgonis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain KM-1-2 T (= CCTCC AA2016004 T  = KCTC 39801 T ).

  2. Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallín Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptokinase (SK is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be

  3. Indole-3-acetic acid production by endophytic Streptomyces sp. En-1 isolated from medicinal plants. (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Xu, Xudong


    Plant-associated actinobacteria are rich sources of bioactive compounds including indole-derived molecules such as phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In view of few investigations concerning the biosynthesis of IAA by endophytic actinobacteria, this study evaluated the potential of IAA production in endophytic streptomycete isolates sourced from medicinal plant species Taxus chinensis and Artemisia annua. By HPLC analysis of IAA combined with molecular screening approach of iaaM, a genetic determinant of streptomycete IAA synthesis via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), our data showed the putative operation of IAM-mediated IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. En-1 endophytic to Taxus chinensis. Furthermore, using the co-cultivation system of model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and streptomycete, En-1 was found to be colonized intercellularly in the tissues of Arabidopsis, an alternative host, and the effects of endophytic En-1 inoculation on the model plant were also assayed. The phytostimulatory effects of En-1 inoculation suggest that IAA-producing Streptomyces sp. En-1 of endophytic origin could be a promising candidate for utilization in growth improvement of plants of economic and agricultural value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Arsovski


    Full Text Available Business environment today demands high reliable organizations in every segment to be competitive on the global market. Beside that, ICT sector is becoming irreplaceable in many fields of business, from the communication to the complex systems for process control and production. To fulfill those requirements and to develop further, many organizations worldwide are implementing business paradigm called - organizations resilience. Although resilience is well known term in many science fields, it is not well studied due to its complex nature. This paper is dealing with developing the new model for assessment and quantification of ICT dependable organizations resilience.

  5. Knowledge Loss: A Defensive Model In Nuclear Research Organization Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Bin Sulaiman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus


    Knowledge is an essential part of research based organization. It should be properly managed to ensure that any pitfalls of knowledge retention due to knowledge loss of both tacit and explicit is mitigated. Audit of the knowledge entities exist in the organization is important to identify the size of critical knowledge. It is very much related to how much know-what, know-how and know-why experts exist in the organization. This study conceptually proposed a defensive model for Nuclear Malaysia's organization memory and application of Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment (KLRA) as an important tool for critical knowledge identification. (author)

  6. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties. (United States)

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves


    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  7. Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study nanotoxicity. (United States)

    Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Cai, Yu; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun


    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.

  8. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David


    on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches...

  9. Modelling the fate of oxidisable organic contaminants in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, D.A.; Prommer, H.; Miller, C.T.


    modelling framework is illustrated by pertinent examples, showing the degradation of dissolved organics by microbial activity limited by the availability of nutrients or electron acceptors (i.e., changing redox states), as well as concomitant secondary reactions. Two field-scale modelling examples...... are discussed, the Vejen landfill (Denmark) and an example where metal contamination is remediated by redox changes wrought by injection of a dissolved organic compound. A summary is provided of current and likely future challenges to modelling of oxidisable organics in the subsurface. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science......Subsurface contamination by organic chemicals is a pervasive environmental problem, susceptible to remediation by natural or enhanced attenuation approaches or more highly engineered methods such as pump-and-treat, amongst others. Such remediation approaches, along with risk assessment...

  10. Tryptophan promotes morphological and physiological differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor. (United States)

    Palazzotto, Emilia; Renzone, Giovanni; Fontana, Pietro; Botta, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe


    The molecular mechanisms regulating tryptophan biosynthesis in actinomycetes are poorly understood; similarly, the possible roles of tryptophan in the differentiation program of microorganism life-cycle are still underexplored. To unveil the possible regulatory effect of this amino acid on gene expression, an integrated study based on quantitative teverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and proteomic approaches was performed on the actinomycete model Streptomyces coelicolor. Comparative analyses on the microorganism growth in a minimal medium with or without tryptophan supplementation showed that biosynthetic trp gene expression in S. coelicolor is not subjected to a negative regulation by the presence of the end product. Conversely, tryptophan specifically induces the transcription of trp genes present in the biosynthetic gene cluster of the calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA), a lipopeptide containing D- and L-tryptophan residues. In addition, tryptophan stimulates the transcription of the CDA gene cluster regulator cdaR and, coherently, CDA production. Surprisingly, tryptophan also promotes the production of actinorhodin, another antibiotic that does not contain this amino acid in its structure. Combined 2D-DIGE and nano liquid chromatography electrospray linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS) analyses revealed that tryptophan exerts a growth-stage-dependent global effect on S. coelicolor proteome, stimulating anabolic pathways and promoting the accumulation of key factors associated with morphological and physiological differentiation at the late growth stages. Phenotypic observations by scanning electron microscopy and spore production assays demonstrated an increased sporulation in the presence of tryptophan. Transcriptional analysis of catabolic genes kynA and kynB suggested that the actinomycete also uses tryptophan as a carbon and nitrogen source. In conclusion, this study originally provides the molecular basis underlying the stimulatory

  11. Genetic interrelations in the actinomycin biosynthetic gene clusters of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720 and Streptomyces chrysomallus ATCC11523, producers of actinomycin X and actinomycin C (United States)

    Crnovčić, Ivana; Rückert, Christian; Semsary, Siamak; Lang, Manuel; Kalinowski, Jörn; Keller, Ullrich


    Sequencing the actinomycin (acm) biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720, which produces actinomycin X (Acm X), revealed 20 genes organized into a highly similar framework as in the bi-armed acm C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus but without an attached additional extra arm of orthologues as in the latter. Curiously, the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus gene cluster turned out to perfectly match the single arm of the S. antibioticus gene cluster in the same order of orthologues including the the presence of two pseudogenes, scacmM and scacmN, encoding a cytochrome P450 and its ferredoxin, respectively. Orthologues of the latter genes were both missing in the principal arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster. All orthologues of the extra arm showed a G +C-contents different from that of their counterparts in the principal arm. Moreover, the similarities of translation products from the extra arm were all higher to the corresponding translation products of orthologue genes from the S. antibioticus acm X gene cluster than to those encoded by the principal arm of their own gene cluster. This suggests that the duplicated structure of the S. chrysomallus acm C biosynthetic gene cluster evolved from previous fusion between two one-armed acm gene clusters each from a different genetic background. However, while scacmM and scacmN in the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster are mutated and therefore are non-functional, their orthologues saacmM and saacmN in the S. antibioticus acm C gene cluster show no defects seemingly encoding active enzymes with functions specific for Acm X biosynthesis. Both acm biosynthetic gene clusters lack a kynurenine-3-monooxygenase gene necessary for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-4-methylanthranilic acid, the building block of the Acm chromophore, which suggests participation of a genome-encoded relevant monooxygenase during Acm biosynthesis in both S. chrysomallus and S

  12. Organism-level models: When mechanisms and statistics fail us (United States)

    Phillips, M. H.; Meyer, J.; Smith, W. P.; Rockhill, J. K.


    Purpose: To describe the unique characteristics of models that represent the entire course of radiation therapy at the organism level and to highlight the uses to which such models can be put. Methods: At the level of an organism, traditional model-building runs into severe difficulties. We do not have sufficient knowledge to devise a complete biochemistry-based model. Statistical model-building fails due to the vast number of variables and the inability to control many of them in any meaningful way. Finally, building surrogate models, such as animal-based models, can result in excluding some of the most critical variables. Bayesian probabilistic models (Bayesian networks) provide a useful alternative that have the advantages of being mathematically rigorous, incorporating the knowledge that we do have, and being practical. Results: Bayesian networks representing radiation therapy pathways for prostate cancer and head & neck cancer were used to highlight the important aspects of such models and some techniques of model-building. A more specific model representing the treatment of occult lymph nodes in head & neck cancer were provided as an example of how such a model can inform clinical decisions. A model of the possible role of PET imaging in brain cancer was used to illustrate the means by which clinical trials can be modelled in order to come up with a trial design that will have meaningful outcomes. Conclusions: Probabilistic models are currently the most useful approach to representing the entire therapy outcome process.

  13. Genome-scale metabolic flux analysis of Streptomyces lividans growing on a complex medium. (United States)

    D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Lule, Ivan; Vercammen, Dominique; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan F; Bernaerts, Kristel


    Constraint-based metabolic modeling comprises various excellent tools to assess experimentally observed phenotypic behavior of micro-organisms in terms of intracellular metabolic fluxes. In combination with genome-scale metabolic networks, micro-organisms can be investigated in much more detail and under more complex environmental conditions. Although complex media are ubiquitously applied in industrial fermentations and are often a prerequisite for high protein secretion yields, such multi-component conditions are seldom investigated using genome-scale flux analysis. In this paper, a systematic and integrative approach is presented to determine metabolic fluxes in Streptomyces lividans TK24 grown on a nutritious and complex medium. Genome-scale flux balance analysis and randomized sampling of the solution space are combined to extract maximum information from exometabolome profiles. It is shown that biomass maximization cannot predict the observed metabolite production pattern as such. Although this cellular objective commonly applies to batch fermentation data, both input and output constraints are required to reproduce the measured biomass production rate. Rich media hence not necessarily lead to maximum biomass growth. To eventually identify a unique intracellular flux vector, a hierarchical optimization of cellular objectives is adopted. Out of various tested secondary objectives, maximization of the ATP yield per flux unit returns the closest agreement with the maximum frequency in flux histograms. This unique flux estimation is hence considered as a reasonable approximation for the biological fluxes. Flux maps for different growth phases show no active oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway, but NADPH generation in the TCA cycle and NADPH transdehydrogenase activity are most important in fulfilling the NADPH balance. Amino acids contribute to biomass growth by augmenting the pool of available amino acids and by boosting the TCA cycle, particularly

  14. A Framework for Formal Modeling and Analysis of Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Sharpanskykh, O.; Treur, J.; P., Yolum


    A new, formal, role-based, framework for modeling and analyzing both real world and artificial organizations is introduced. It exploits static and dynamic properties of the organizational model and includes the (frequently ignored) environment. The transition is described from a generic framework of

  15. Complex intra-operonic dynamics mediated by a small RNA in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Streptomyces are predominantly soil-dwelling bacteria that are best known for their multicellular life cycle and their prodigious metabolic capabilities. They are also renowned for their regulatory capacity and flexibility, with each species encoding >60 sigma factors, a multitude of transcription factors, and an increasing number of small regulatory RNAs. Here, we describe our characterization of a conserved small RNA (sRNA, scr4677. In the model species Streptomyces coelicolor, this sRNA is located in the intergenic region separating SCO4677 (an anti-sigma factor-encoding gene and SCO4676 (a putative regulatory protein-encoding gene, close to the SCO4676 translation start site in an antisense orientation. There appears to be considerable genetic interplay between these different gene products, with wild type expression of scr4677 requiring function of the anti-sigma factor SCO4677, and scr4677 in turn influencing the abundance of SCO4676-associated transcripts. The scr4677-mediated effects were independent of RNase III (a double stranded RNA-specific nuclease, with RNase III having an unexpectedly positive influence on the level of SCO4676-associated transcripts. We have shown that both SCO4676 and SCO4677 affect the production of the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin under specific growth conditions, and that this activity appears to be independent of scr4677.

  16. Spatial arrangement of organic compounds on a model mineral surface: implications for soil organic matter stabilization. (United States)

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie A


    The complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise.

  17. Xanthusbase: adapting wikipedia principles to a model organism database. (United States)

    Arshinoff, Bradley I; Suen, Garret; Just, Eric M; Merchant, Sohel M; Kibbe, Warren A; Chisholm, Rex L; Welch, Roy D


    xanthusBase ( is the official model organism database (MOD) for the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In many respects, M.xanthus represents the pioneer model organism (MO) for studying the genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic basis of prokaryotic multicellularity, a topic that has garnered considerable attention due to the significance of biofilms in both basic and applied microbiology research. To facilitate its utility, the design of xanthusBase incorporates open-source software, leveraging the cumulative experience made available through the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project, MediaWiki (, and dictyBase (, to create a MOD that is both highly useful and easily navigable. In addition, we have incorporated a unique Wikipedia-style curation model which exploits the internet's inherent interactivity, thus enabling M.xanthus and other myxobacterial researchers to contribute directly toward the ongoing genome annotation.

  18. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David


    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological...... variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches...

  19. A self-organized criticality model for plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Newman, D.; Lynch, V.E.


    Many models of natural phenomena manifest the basic hypothesis of self-organized criticality (SOC). The SOC concept brings together the self-similarity on space and time scales that is common to many of these phenomena. The application of the SOC modelling concept to the plasma dynamics near marginal stability opens new possibilities of understanding issues such as Bohm scaling, profile consistency, broad band fluctuation spectra with universal characteristics and fast time scales. A model realization of self-organized criticality for plasma transport in a magnetic confinement device is presented. The model is based on subcritical resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. Three-dimensional nonlinear calculations based on this model show the existence of transport under subcritical conditions. This model that includes fluctuation dynamics leads to results very similar to the running sandpile paradigm

  20. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz


    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  1. Mycolic Acid-Containing Bacteria Induce Natural-Product Biosynthesis in Streptomyces Species▿ † (United States)

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Mori, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu


    Natural products produced by microorganisms are important starting compounds for drug discovery. Secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, have been isolated from different Streptomyces species. The production of these metabolites depends on the culture conditions. Therefore, the development of a new culture method can facilitate the discovery of new natural products. Here, we show that mycolic acid-containing bacteria can influence the biosynthesis of cryptic natural products in Streptomyces species. The production of red pigment by Streptomyces lividans TK23 was induced by coculture with Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596, which is a mycolic acid-containing bacterium. Only living cells induced this pigment production, which was not mediated by any substances. T. pulmonis could induce natural-product synthesis in other Streptomyces strains too: it altered natural-product biosynthesis in 88.4% of the Streptomyces strains isolated from soil. The other mycolic acid-containing bacteria, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, altered biosynthesis in 87.5 and 90.2% of the Streptomyces strains, respectively. The coculture broth of T. pulmonis and Streptomyces endus S-522 contained a novel antibiotic, which we named alchivemycin A. We concluded that the mycolic acid localized in the outer cell layer of the inducer bacterium influences secondary metabolism in Streptomyces, and this activity is a result of the direct interaction between the mycolic acid-containing bacteria and Streptomyces. We used these results to develop a new coculture method, called the combined-culture method, which facilitates the screening of natural products. PMID:21097597

  2. New and bioactive compounds from Streptomyces strains residing in the wood of Celastraceae. (United States)

    Pullen, Christian; Schmitz, Petra; Meurer, Kristina; Bamberg, Daniel D v; Lohmann, Stephanie; De Castro França, Suzelei; Groth, Ingrid; Schlegel, Brigitte; Möllmann, Ute; Gollmick, Friedrich; Gräfe, Udo; Leistner, Eckhard


    Wood from three different plants of the Celastraceae growing in their natural habitats in Brazil (Maytenus aquifolia Mart.) and South Africa [Putterlickia retrospinosa van Wyk and Mostert, P. verrucosa (E. Meyer ex Sonder) Szyszyl.] was established as a source of endophytic bacteria using a medium selective for actinomycetes. Two isolates were identified as Streptomyces setonii and S. sampsonii whereas two others were not assignable to any of the known Streptomyces species. They were preliminarily named Streptomyces Q21 and Streptomyces MaB-QuH-8. The latter strain produces a new chloropyrrol and chlorinated anthracyclinone. The chloropyrrol showed high activity against a series of multiresistent bacteria and mycobacteria.

  3. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis


    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  4. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund


    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  5. Making organisms model human behavior: situated models in North-American alcohol research, since 1950. (United States)

    Ankeny, Rachel A; Leonelli, Sabina; Nelson, Nicole C; Ramsden, Edmund


    We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  7. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.


    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  8. Dilbert-Peter model of organization effectiveness: computer simulations


    Sobkowicz, Pawel


    We describe a computer model of general effectiveness of a hierarchical organization depending on two main aspects: effects of promotion to managerial levels and efforts to self-promote of individual employees, reducing their actual productivity. The combination of judgment by appearance in the promotion to higher levels of hierarchy and the Peter Principle (which states that people are promoted to their level of incompetence) results in fast declines in effectiveness of the organization. The...

  9. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction....... Diffraction by fractal metallic supergratings. Optics Express, 15(24), 15628–15636 (2007) [3] Goszczak, A. J. et al. Nanoscale Aluminum dimples for light trapping in organic thin films (submitted)...

  10. Production and Characterization of Polymeric Lignin Degradation Intermediates from Two Different Streptomyces spp. (United States)

    Borgmeyer, J R; Crawford, D L


    Previous investigations have identified a quantitatively major intermediate of lignin degradation by Streptomyces viridosporus. The intermediate, a modified lignin polymer, acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), is released as a water-soluble catabolite and has been recovered in amounts equivalent to 30% of the lignin originally present in a corn stover lignocellulose substrate after degradation by this actinomycete. In the present work, APPLs were collected at various time intervals from cultures of two highly ligninolytic Streptomyces sp. strains, S. viridosporus T7A and S. badius 252, growing on corn stover lignocellulose. APPL production was measured over time, and the chemistry of APPLs produced by each organism after different time intervals was compared. Chemical characterizations included assays for lignin, carbohydrate, and ash contents, molecular weight distributions by gel permeation chromatography, and chemical degradation analyses by permanganate oxidation, acidolysis, and alkaline ester hydrolysis. Differences between the organisms were observed in the cultural conditions required for APPL production and in the time courses of APPL accumulation. S. viridosporus produced APPL in solid-state fermentation over a 6- to 8-week incubation period, whereas S. badius produced as much or more APPL, but only in liquid culture and over a 7- to 8-day incubation period. The chemistry of the APPLs produced also differed. S. viridosporus APPL was more lignin-like than that of S. badius and was slowly modified further over time, although no change in molecular weight distribution over time was observed. In contrast, S. badius APPL was less lignin-like and increased substantially in average molecular weight over time. Results indicated that differing mechanisms of lignin metabolism may exist in these two Streptomyces sp. strains. S. viridosporus APPL probably originates from the heart of the lignin and is released largely as the result of beta-ether cleavage and

  11. Ectocarpus: a model organism for the brown algae. (United States)

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark


    The brown algae are an interesting group of organisms from several points of view. They are the dominant organisms in many coastal ecosystems, where they often form large, underwater forests. They also have an unusual evolutionary history, being members of the stramenopiles, which are very distantly related to well-studied animal and green plant models. As a consequence of this history, brown algae have evolved many novel features, for example in terms of their cell biology and metabolic pathways. They are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic groups to have independently evolved complex multicellularity. Despite these interesting features, the brown algae have remained a relatively poorly studied group. This situation has started to change over the last few years, however, with the emergence of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus as a model system that is amenable to the genomic and genetic approaches that have proved to be so powerful in more classical model organisms such as Drosophila and Arabidopsis.

  12. MeaA, a Putative Coenzyme B12-Dependent Mutase, Provides Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A for Monensin Biosynthesis in Streptomyces cinnamonensis


    Zhang, Weiwen; Reynolds, Kevin A.


    The ratio of the major monensin analogs produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis is dependent upon the relative levels of the biosynthetic precursors methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) (monensin A and monensin B) and ethylmalonyl-CoA (monensin A). The meaA gene of this organism was cloned and sequenced and was shown to encode a putative 74-kDa protein with significant amino acid sequence identity to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) (40%) and isobutyryl-CoA mutase (ICM) large subunit (36%) and small s...

  13. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3. (United States)

    do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Junior, Nelson Alves; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues


    Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  14. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento


    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  15. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna


    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...... substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling...

  16. Fumigant activity of volatiles from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1 against Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Wang, Changlu; Li, Fengjuan; Li, Zhenjing; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Qiao, Xi; Zhang, Hong


    The fumigant activity of volatiles generated by Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1 against Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon was investigated. The results showed that the mycelial growth, sporulation, and spore germination of F. moniliforme were significantly suppressed, and that membrane permeability was disrupted in the presence of the volatiles. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 31 kinds of volatile organic compound from the volatiles. Among them, two earthy-smelling substances, namely, 2-methylisoborneol (50.97%) and trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalinol (3.10%) were found. The most abundant compound, 2-methylisoborneol, exhibited inhibitory activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation. All these results suggested that S. alboflavus TD-1 can be a promising starter for the inhibition of F. moniliforme through fumigant action.

  17. A novel hydroxamic acid-containing antibiotic produced by a Saharan soil-living Streptomyces strain. (United States)

    Yekkour, A; Meklat, A; Bijani, C; Toumatia, O; Errakhi, R; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Zitouni, A; Sabaou, N


    During screening for potentially antimicrobial actinobacteria, a highly antagonistic strain, designated WAB9, was isolated from a Saharan soil of Algeria. A polyphasic approach characterized the strain taxonomically as a member of the genus Streptomyces. The strain WAB9 exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity toward various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. A PCR-based assay of genomic potential for producing bioactive metabolites revealed the presence of PKS-II gene. After 6 days of strain fermentation, one bioactive compound was extracted from the remaining aqueous phase and then purified by HPLC. The chemical structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic (UV-visible, and (1)H and (13)C NMR) and spectrometric analysis. The compound was identified to be 2-amino-N-(2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl)-N-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanamide, a novel hydroxamic acid-containing molecule. The pure molecule showed appreciable minimum inhibitory concentration values against a selection of drug-resistant bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Significance and impact of the study: This study presents the isolation of a Streptomyces strain, named WAB9, from a Saharan soil in Algeria. This strain was found to produce a new hydroxamic acid-containing molecule with interesting antimicrobial activities towards various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. Although hydroxamic acid-containing molecules are known to exhibit low toxicities in general, only real evaluations of the toxicity levels could decide on the applications for which this new molecule is potentially most appropriate. Thus, this article provides a new framework of research. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Antagonistic Effect of Streptomyces sp. BS062 against Botrytis Diseases. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sook; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik


    The use of microorganisms and their secreted molecules to prevent plant diseases is considered an attractive alternative and way to supplement synthetic fungicides for the management of plant diseases. Strain BS062 was selected based on its ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, a major causal fungus of postharvest root rot of ginseng and strawberry gray mold disease. Strain BS062 was found to be closely related to Streptomyces hygroscopicus (99% similarity) on the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Postharvest root rot of ginseng and strawberry gray mold disease caused by B. cinerea were controlled up to 73.9% and 58%, respectively, upon treatment with culture broth of Streptomyces sp. BS062. These results suggest that strain BS062 may be a potential agent for controlling ginseng postharvest root rot and strawberry gray mold disease.

  19. Convergent Transcription in the Butyrolactone Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor Confers a Bistable Genetic Switch for Antibiotic Biosynthesis (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anushree; Drews, Laurie; Mehra, Sarika; Takano, Eriko; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.; Hu, Wei-Shou


    cis-encoded antisense RNAs (cis asRNA) have been reported to participate in gene expression regulation in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Its presence in Streptomyces coelicolor has also been reported recently; however, its role has yet to be fully investigated. Using mathematical modeling we explore the role of cis asRNA produced as a result of convergent transcription in scbA-scbR genetic switch. scbA and scbR gene pair, encoding repressor–amplifier proteins respectively, mediates the synthesis of a signaling molecule, the γ-butyrolactone SCB1 and controls the onset of antibiotic production. Our model considers that transcriptional interference caused by convergent transcription of two opposing RNA polymerases results in fatal collision and transcriptional termination, which suppresses transcription efficiency. Additionally, convergent transcription causes sense and antisense interactions between complementary sequences from opposing strands, rendering the full length transcript inaccessible for translation. We evaluated the role of transcriptional interference and the antisense effect conferred by convergent transcription on the behavior of scbA-scbR system. Stability analysis showed that while transcriptional interference affects the system, it is asRNA that confers scbA-scbR system the characteristics of a bistable switch in response to the signaling molecule SCB1. With its critical role of regulating the onset of antibiotic synthesis the bistable behavior offers this two gene system the needed robustness to be a genetic switch. The convergent two gene system with potential of transcriptional interference is a frequent feature in various genomes. The possibility of asRNA regulation in other such gene-pairs is yet to be examined. PMID:21765930

  20. Towards model evaluation and identification using Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst


    Full Text Available The reduction of information contained in model time series through the use of aggregating statistical performance measures is very high compared to the amount of information that one would like to draw from it for model identification and calibration purposes. It has been readily shown that this loss imposes important limitations on model identification and -diagnostics and thus constitutes an element of the overall model uncertainty. In this contribution we present an approach using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM to circumvent the identifiability problem induced by the low discriminatory power of aggregating performance measures. Instead, a Self-Organizing Map is used to differentiate the spectrum of model realizations, obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations with a distributed conceptual watershed model, based on the recognition of different patterns in time series. Further, the SOM is used instead of a classical optimization algorithm to identify those model realizations among the Monte-Carlo simulation results that most closely approximate the pattern of the measured discharge time series. The results are analyzed and compared with the manually calibrated model as well as with the results of the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm (SCE-UA. In our study the latter slightly outperformed the SOM results. The SOM method, however, yields a set of equivalent model parameterizations and therefore also allows for confining the parameter space to a region that closely represents a measured data set. This particular feature renders the SOM potentially useful for future model identification applications.

  1. Transferable Atomic Multipole Machine Learning Models for Small Organic Molecules. (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; Andrienko, Denis; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole


    Accurate representation of the molecular electrostatic potential, which is often expanded in distributed multipole moments, is crucial for an efficient evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Here we introduce a machine learning model for multipole coefficients of atom types H, C, O, N, S, F, and Cl in any molecular conformation. The model is trained on quantum-chemical results for atoms in varying chemical environments drawn from thousands of organic molecules. Multipoles in systems with neutral, cationic, and anionic molecular charge states are treated with individual models. The models' predictive accuracy and applicability are illustrated by evaluating intermolecular interaction energies of nearly 1,000 dimers and the cohesive energy of the benzene crystal.

  2. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Hou Yijun; Lin Min; Qiao Fangli


    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of -2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed. (general)

  3. Genome Sequence of the Milbemycin-Producing Bacterium Streptomyces bingchenggensis▿


    Wang, Xiang-Jing; Yan, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Bo; An, Jing; Wang, Ji-Jia; Tian, Jun; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hua; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Yin, Min; Zhang, Ji; Gao, Ai-Li; Liu, Chong-Xi; Zhu, Zhao-Xiang; Xiang, Wen-Sheng


    Streptomyces bingchenggensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium producing the commercially important anthelmintic macrolide milbemycins. Besides milbemycins, the insecticidal polyether antibiotic nanchangmycin and some other antibiotics have also been isolated from this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis. The availability of the genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis should enable us to understand the biosynthesis of these structurally intricate antibiotics bet...

  4. CobB1 deacetylase activity in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, Karel; Felsberg, Jürgen; Kudrnáčová, E.; Bezoušková, Silvia; Šetinová, Dita; Stodůlková, Eva; Zídková, J.; Zídek, Václav


    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2012), s. 179-187 ISSN 0829-8211 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110805; GA ČR GA303/09/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sirtuin * NAD(+)dependent deacetylation activity CobB1 * Streptomyces coeliocolor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.915, year: 2012

  5. Isostreptazolin and Sannaphenol, Two New Metabolites from Streptomyces sannanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Zhao


    Full Text Available Two new compounds, isostreptazolin (1 and sannaphenol (2, were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sannanensis and their structures elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as MS, IR and UV spectroscopic data analysis. The cytotoxic activity of 1 and 2 were evaluated. Both compounds were inactive against H460 and HeLa cell lines at 100 mM.

  6. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek


    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  7. Device model investigation of bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, B. K.; Davids, P. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.


    Organic materials that have desirable luminescence properties, such as a favorable emission spectrum and high luminescence efficiency, are not necessarily suitable for single layer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) because the material may have unequal carrier mobilities or contact limited injection properties. As a result, single layer LEDs made from such organic materials are inefficient. In this article, we present device model calculations of single layer and bilayer organic LED characteristics that demonstrate the improvements in device performance that can occur in bilayer devices. We first consider an organic material where the mobilities of the electrons and holes are significantly different. The role of the bilayer structure in this case is to move the recombination away from the electrode that injects the low mobility carrier. We then consider an organic material with equal electron and hole mobilities but where it is not possible to make a good contact for one carrier type, say electrons. The role of a bilayer structure in this case is to prevent the holes from traversing the device without recombining. In both cases, single layer device limitations can be overcome by employing a two organic layer structure. The results are discussed using the calculated spatial variation of the carrier densities, electric field, and recombination rate density in the structures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Financial incentives: alternatives to the altruistic model of organ donation. (United States)

    Siminoff, L A; Leonard, M D


    Improvements in transplantation techniques have resulted in a demand for transplantable organs that far outpaces supply. Present efforts to secure organs use an altruistic system designed to appeal to a public that will donate organs because they are needed. Efforts to secure organs under this system have not been as successful as hoped. Many refinements to the altruistic model have been or are currently being proposed, such as "required request," "mandated choice," "routine notification," and "presumed consent." Recent calls for market approaches to organ procurement reflect growing doubts about the efficacy of these refinements. Market approaches generally use a "futures market," with benefits payable either periodically or when or if organs are procured. Lump-sum arrangements could include donations to surviving family or contributions to charities or to funeral costs. Possibilities for a periodic system of payments include reduced premiums for health or life insurance, or a reciprocity system whereby individuals who periodically reaffirm their willingness to donate are given preference if they require a transplant. Market approaches do raise serious ethical issues, including potential exploitation of the poor. Such approaches may also be effectively proscribed by the 1984 National Organ Transplant Act.

  9. Analysis of the Pho regulon in Streptomyces tsukubaensis. (United States)

    Ordóñez-Robles, María; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F


    Phosphate regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces has been studied due to the importance of this genus as a source of secondary metabolites with biological activity. Streptomyces tsukubaensis is the main producer of tacrolimus (or FK506), an immunosuppressant macrolide that generates important benefits for the pharmaceutical market. However, the production of tacrolimus is under a negative control by phosphate and, therefore, is important to know the molecular mechanism of this regulation. Despite its important role, there are no reports about the Pho regulon in S. tsukubaensis. In this work we combined transcriptional studies on the response to phosphate starvation with the search for PHO boxes in the whole genome sequence of S. tsukubaensis. As a result, we identified a set of genes responding to phosphate starvation and containing PHO boxes that include common Pho regulon members but also new species-specific candidates. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the functional activity of PhoP from S. tsukubaensis through complementation studies in a Streptomyces coelicolor ΔphoP strain. For this purpose, we developed an anhydrotetracycline inducible system that can be applied to the controlled expression of target genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of nitrilase promoter-derived inducible vectors for Streptomyces. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masako; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Saitoh, Yuki; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko


    An inducible expression vector, pSH19, which harbors regulatory expression system PnitA-NitR, for streptomycetes was constructed previously. Here, we have modified pSH19 to obtain shuttle vectors for Streptomyces-E. coli by introducing the replication origin of a plasmid for E. coli (ColE1) and an antibiotic-resistant gene. Six inducible shuttle vectors, pESH19cF, pESH19cR, pESH19kF, pESH19kR, pESH19aF, and pESH19aR, for Streptomyces-E. coli, were successfully developed. The stability of these vectors was examined in five different E. coli strains and Streptomyces lividans TK24. The stability test showed that the pSH19-derived shuttle vectors were stable in E. coli Stbl2 and S. lividans TK24. Heterologous expression experiments involving each of the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, nitrilase, and N-substituted formamide deformylase genes as a reporter gene showed that pESH19cF, pESH19kF, and pESH19aF possess inducible expression ability in S. lividans TK24. Thus, these vectors were found to be useful expression tools for experiments on both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial genes.

  11. Modeling of the transient mobility in disordered organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germs, W.C.; Van der Holst, J.M.M.; Van Mensfoort, S.L.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; Coehoorn, R.


    In non-steady-state experiments, the electrical response of devicesbased on disordered organic semiconductors often shows a large transient contribution due to relaxation of the out-of-equilibrium charge-carrier distribution. We have developed a model describing this process, based only on the

  12. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la serna, J. B.; Schütz, G.; Eggeling, Ch.; Cebecauer, Marek


    Roč. 4, SEP 2016 (2016), 106 ISSN 2296-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06989S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : plasma membrane * membrane organization models * heterogeneous distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  14. Editorial: Plant organ abscission: from models to crops (United States)

    The shedding of plant organs is a highly coordinated process essential for both vegetative and reproductive development (Addicott, 1982; Sexton and Roberts, 1982; Roberts et al., 2002; Leslie et al., 2007; Roberts and Gonzalez-Carranza, 2007; Estornell et al., 2013). Research with model plants, name...

  15. Modeling growth of specific spoilage organisms in tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 29, 2012 ... Tilapia is an important aquatic fish, but severe spoilage of tilapia is most likely related to the global aquaculture. The spoilage is mostly caused by specific spoilage organisms (SSO). Therefore, it is very important to use microbial models to predict the growth of SSO in tilapia. This study firstly verified.

  16. A model of virtual organization for corporate visibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the existing numerous research in business, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), examines a theoretical framework for value creation in a virtual world. Following a proposed model, a new strategic paradigm is created for corporate value; and virtual organization (VO) apply the use of ...

  17. Modeling growth of specific spoilage organisms in tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia is an important aquatic fish, but severe spoilage of tilapia is most likely related to the global aquaculture. The spoilage is mostly caused by specific spoilage organisms (SSO). Therefore, it is very important to use microbial models to predict the growth of SSO in tilapia. This study firstly verified Pseudomonas and Vibrio ...

  18. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary


    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  19. Modeling secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen


    Full Text Available Interest in the potential formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA through reactions of organic compounds in condensed aqueous phases is growing. In this study, the potential formation of SOA from irreversible aqueous-phase reactions of organic species in clouds was investigated. A new proposed aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism (AqChem is coupled with the existing gas-phase Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM and the Model to Predict the Multiphase Partitioning of Organics (MPMPO that simulate SOA formation. AqChem treats irreversible organic reactions that lead mainly to the formation of carboxylic acids, which are usually less volatile than the corresponding aldehydic compounds. Zero-dimensional model simulations were performed for tropospheric conditions with clouds present for three consecutive hours per day. Zero-dimensional model simulations show that 48-h average SOA formation is increased by 27% for a rural scenario with strong monoterpene emissions and 7% for an urban scenario with strong emissions of aromatic compounds, respectively, when irreversible organic reactions in clouds are considered. AqChem was also incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.4 with CACM/MPMPO and applied to a previously studied photochemical episode (3–4 August 2004 focusing on the eastern United States. The CMAQ study indicates that the maximum contribution of SOA formation from irreversible reactions of organics in clouds is 0.28 μg m−3 for 24-h average concentrations and 0.60 μg m−3 for one-hour average concentrations at certain locations. On average, domain-wide surface SOA predictions for the episode are increased by 9% when irreversible, in-cloud processing of organics is considered. Because aldehydes of carbon number greater than four are assumed to convert fully to the corresponding carboxylic acids upon reaction with OH in cloud droplets and this assumption may overestimate

  20. Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan


    Full Text Available Laboratory chamber data serve as the basis for constraining models of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Current models fall into three categories: empirical two-product (Odum, product-specific, and volatility basis set. The product-specific and volatility basis set models are applied here to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is most likely hindered by lack of explicit inclusion of particle-phase accretion compounds. While prospects for identification of the majority of SOA products for major volatile organic compounds (VOCs classes remain promising, for the near future empirical product or volatility basis set models remain the approaches of choice.

  1. Direct repeat sequences are essential for function of the cis-acting locus of transfer (clt) of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes plasmid pJV1. (United States)

    Franco, Bernardo; González-Cerón, Gabriela; Servín-González, Luis


    The functionality of direct and inverted repeat sequences inside the cis acting locus of transfer (clt) of the Streptomyces plasmid pJV1 was determined by testing the effect of different deletions on plasmid transfer. The results show that the single most important element for pJV1 clt function is a series of evenly spaced 9 bp long direct repeats which match the consensus CCGCACA(C/G)(C/G), since their deletion caused a dramatic reduction in plasmid transfer. The presence of these repeats in the absence of any other clt sequences allowed plasmid transfer to occur at a frequency that was at least two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained in the complete absence of clt. A database search revealed regions with a similar organization, and in the same position, in Streptomyces plasmids pSN22 and pSLS, which have transfer proteins homologous to those of pJV1.

  2. On the influence of the exposure model on organ doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Eckerl, H.


    Based on the design characteristics of the MIRD-V phantom, two sex-specific adult phantoms, ADAM and EVA were introduced especially for the calculation of organ doses resulting from external irradiation. Although the body characteristics of all the phantoms are in good agreement with those of the reference man and woman, they have some disadvantages related to the location and shape of organs and the form of the whole body. To overcome these disadvantages related to the location and shape of organs and form of the whole body. To overcome these disadvantages related to the location and shape of organs and the form of the whole body. To overcome these disadvantages and to obtain more realistic phantoms, a technique based on computer tomographic data (voxel-phantom) was developed. This technique allows any physical phantom or real body to be converted into computer files. The improvements are of special importance with regard to the skeleton, because a better modeling of the bone surfaces and separation of hard bone and bone marrow can be achieved. For photon irradiation, the sensitivity of the model on organ doses or the effective dose equivalent is important for operational radiation protection

  3. Construction and shuttling of novel bifunctional vectors for Streptomyces spp. and Escherichia coli.


    Neesen, K; Volckaert, G


    Shuttle vectors for gene transfer between Streptomyces spp. and Escherichia coli have been constructed by fusion of an artificial multicopy E. coli replicon and DNA fragments of pIJ702. Stable transfer to Streptomyces lividans was obtained. Marked differences in transformation efficiency were observed when plasmid DNA isolated from E. coli GM119 was used instead of that from strain HB101.

  4. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  5. Branching and self-organization in marine modular colonial organisms: a model. (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Armando; Lasker, Howard R; Nepomuceno, Erivelton G; Sánchez, J Dario; Woldenberg, Michael J


    Despite the universality of branching patterns in marine modular colonial organisms, there is neither a clear explanation about the growth of their branching forms nor an understanding of how these organisms conserve their shape during development. This study develops a model of branching and colony growth using parameters and variables related to actual modular structures (e.g., branches) in Caribbean gorgonian corals (Cnidaria). Gorgonians exhibiting treelike networks branch subapically, creating hierarchical mother-daughter relationships among branches. We modeled both the intrinsic subapical branching along with an ecological-physiological limit to growth or maximum number of mother branches (k). Shape is preserved by maintaining a constant ratio (c) between the total number of branches and the mother branches. The size frequency distribution of mother branches follows a scaling power law suggesting self-organized criticality. Differences in branching among species with the same k values are determined by r (branching rate) and c. Species with rr/2 or c>r>0). Ecological/physiological constraints limit growth without altering colony form or the interaction between r and c. The model described the branching dynamics giving the form to colonies and how colony growth declines over time without altering the branching pattern. This model provides a theoretical basis to study branching as a simple function of the number of branches independently of ordering- and bifurcation-based schemes.

  6. Finite-element model of the active organ of Corti (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Baumgart, Johannes


    The cochlear amplifier that provides our hearing with its extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity is thought to be the result of an active biomechanical process within the sensory auditory organ, the organ of Corti. Although imaging techniques are developing rapidly, it is not currently possible, in a fully active cochlea, to obtain detailed measurements of the motion of individual elements within a cross section of the organ of Corti. This motion is predicted using a two-dimensional finite-element model. The various solid components are modelled using elastic elements, the outer hair cells (OHCs) as piezoelectric elements and the perilymph and endolymph as viscous and nearly incompressible fluid elements. The model is validated by comparison with existing measurements of the motions within the passive organ of Corti, calculated when it is driven either acoustically, by the fluid pressure or electrically, by excitation of the OHCs. The transverse basilar membrane (BM) motion and the shearing motion between the tectorial membrane and the reticular lamina are calculated for these two excitation modes. The fully active response of the BM to acoustic excitation is predicted using a linear superposition of the calculated responses and an assumed frequency response for the OHC feedback. PMID:26888950

  7. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology. (United States)

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L


    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an 'NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems' at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more 'basal' organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri , the tunicate Ciona , and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity.

  8. Organizing the space and behavior of semantic models. (United States)

    Rubin, Timothy N; Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Willits, Jon A; Jones, Michael N

    Semantic models play an important role in cognitive science. These models use statistical learning to model word meanings from co-occurrences in text corpora. A wide variety of semantic models have been proposed, and the literature has typically emphasized situations in which one model outperforms another. However, because these models often vary with respect to multiple sub-processes (e.g., their normalization or dimensionality-reduction methods), it can be difficult to delineate which of these processes are responsible for observed performance differences. Furthermore, the fact that any two models may vary along multiple dimensions makes it difficult to understand where these models fall within the space of possible psychological theories. In this paper, we propose a general framework for organizing the space of semantic models. We then illustrate how this framework can be used to understand model comparisons in terms of individual manipulations along sub-processes. Using several artificial datasets we show how both representational structure and dimensionality-reduction influence a model's ability to pick up on different types of word relationships.

  9. IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Gastaud Maçada


    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the capacity Information Technology (IT has for generating value for organizations. Investments in IT made by organizations have increased each year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the IT Business Value for Information Intensive Organizations (IIO - e.g. banks, insurance companies and securities brokers. The research method consisted of a survey that used and combined the models from Weill and Broadbent (1998 and Gregor, Martin, Fernandez, Stern and Vitale (2006. Data was gathered using an adapted instrument containing 5 dimensions (Strategic, Informational, Transactional, Transformational and Infra-structure with 27 items. The instrument was refined by employing statistical techniques such as Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis through Structural Equations (first and second order Model Measurement. The final model is composed of four factors related to IT Business Value: Strategic, Informational, Transactional and Transformational, arranged in 15 items. The dimension Infra-structure was excluded during the model refinement process because it was discovered during interviews that managers were unable to perceive it as a distinct dimension of IT Business Value.

  10. Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.

  11. Studies on the rheology and oxygen mass transfer in the clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Gouveia


    Full Text Available In the present work rheological characteristics and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa were investigated during batch cultivations of Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 for production of clavulanic acid. The experimental rheological data could be adequately described in terms of the power law model and logistic equation. Significant changes in the rheological parameters consistency index (K and flow behavior index (n were observed with the fermentation evolution. Interesting correlations between the consistency index (K/biomass concentration (C X and the flow behavior index (n/biomass concentration were proposed. Volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa was determined by the gas balance method. Classical correlation relating the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient to the operating conditions, physical and to transport properties, including apparent viscosity (muap, could be applied to the experimental results.

  12. Mobility dependent recombination models for organic solar cells (United States)

    Wagenpfahl, Alexander


    Modern solar cell technologies are driven by the effort to enhance power conversion efficiencies. A main mechanism limiting power conversion efficiencies is charge carrier recombination which is a direct function of the encounter probability of both recombination partners. In inorganic solar cells with rather high charge carrier mobilities, charge carrier recombination is often dominated by energetic states which subsequently trap both recombination partners for recombination. Free charge carriers move fast enough for Coulomb attraction to be irrelevant for the encounter probability. Thus, charge carrier recombination is independent of charge carrier mobilities. In organic semiconductors charge carrier mobilities are much lower. Therefore, electrons and holes have more time react to mutual Coulomb-forces. This results in the strong charge carrier mobility dependencies of the observed charge carrier recombination rates. In 1903 Paul Langevin published a fundamental model to describe the recombination of ions in gas-phase or aqueous solutions, known today as Langevin recombination. During the last decades this model was used to interpret and model recombination in organic semiconductors. However, certain experiments especially with bulk-heterojunction solar cells reveal much lower recombination rates than predicted by Langevin. In search of an explanation, many material and device properties such as morphology and energetic properties have been examined in order to extend the validity of the Langevin model. A key argument for most of these extended models is, that electron and hole must find each other at a mutual spatial location. This encounter may be limited for instance by trapping of charges in trap states, by selective electrodes separating electrons and holes, or simply by the morphology of the involved semiconductors, making it impossible for electrons and holes to recombine at high rates. In this review, we discuss the development of mobility limited

  13. A taxonomy of nursing care organization models in hospitals. (United States)

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'Amour, Danielle; Tchouaket, Eric; Rivard, Michèle; Clarke, Sean; Blais, Régis


    Over the last decades, converging forces in hospital care, including cost-containment policies, rising healthcare demands and nursing shortages, have driven the search for new operational models of nursing care delivery that maximize the use of available nursing resources while ensuring safe, high-quality care. Little is known, however, about the distinctive features of these emergent nursing care models. This article contributes to filling this gap by presenting a theoretically and empirically grounded taxonomy of nursing care organization models in the context of acute care units in Quebec and comparing their distinctive features. This study was based on a survey of 22 medical units in 11 acute care facilities in Quebec. Data collection methods included questionnaire, interviews, focus groups and administrative data census. The analytical procedures consisted of first generating unit profiles based on qualitative and quantitative data collected at the unit level, then applying hierarchical cluster analysis to the units' profile data. The study identified four models of nursing care organization: two professional models that draw mainly on registered nurses as professionals to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support to nurses' professional practice, and two functional models that draw more significantly on licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and assistive staff (orderlies) to deliver nursing services and are characterized by registered nurses' perceptions that the practice environment is less supportive of their professional work. This study showed that medical units in acute care hospitals exhibit diverse staff mixes, patterns of skill use, work environment design, and support for innovation. The four models reflect not only distinct approaches to dealing with the numerous constraints in the nursing care environment, but also different degrees of approximations to an "ideal" nursing professional practice model described by some leaders in the

  14. Modeling regional secondary organic aerosol using the Master Chemical Mechanism (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Cleveland, Meredith; Ziemba, Luke D.; Griffin, Robert J.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.; Ying, Qi


    A modified near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.2) with 5727 species and 16,930 reactions and an equilibrium partitioning module was incorporated into the Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to predict the regional concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the eastern United States (US). In addition to the semi-volatile SOA from equilibrium partitioning, reactive surface uptake processes were used to simulate SOA formation due to isoprene epoxydiol, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The CMAQ-MCM-SOA model was applied to simulate SOA formation during a two-week episode from August 28 to September 7, 2006. The southeastern US has the highest SOA, with a maximum episode-averaged concentration of ∼12 μg m-3. Primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA concentrations predicted by CMAQ-MCM-SOA agree well with AMS-derived hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) urban concentrations at the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Predicted molecular properties of SOA (O/C, H/C, N/C and OM/OC ratios) at the site are similar to those reported in other urban areas, and O/C values agree with measured O/C at the same site. Isoprene epoxydiol is predicted to be the largest contributor to total SOA concentration in the southeast US, followed by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. The semi-volatile SOA components are dominated by products from β-caryophyllene oxidation, but the major species and their concentrations are sensitive to errors in saturation vapor pressure estimation. A uniform decrease of saturation vapor pressure by a factor of 100 for all condensable compounds can lead to a 150% increase in total SOA. A sensitivity simulation with UNIFAC-calculated activity coefficients (ignoring phase separation and water molecule partitioning into the organic phase) led to a 10% change in the predicted semi-volatile SOA concentrations.

  15. Lean construction as an effective organization model in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashova Elena S.


    Full Text Available In recent time, due to the sharp climatic changes, the Arctic attracts an increased interest of the world powers as a strategically important object. In 2013, the development strategy of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national security for the period up to 2020 was approved by the President. In this strategy, the socio-economic development of the region in terms of improving the quality of life, expressed in the implementation of housing and civil engineering is very important. The goal of the study is to identify effective organization model of construction in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Lean construction as a dynamically developing methodology abroad is analyzed. Characteristics of this organization model of construction meet the necessary requirements for the construction of various infrastructure objects in the Arctic. Therefore, the concept of lean construction can be an effective strategy of development of the Arctic regions of Russia as well as other Arctic countries.

  16. Understanding rare disease pathogenesis: a grand challenge for model organisms. (United States)

    Hieter, Philip; Boycott, Kym M


    In this commentary, Philip Hieter and Kym Boycott discuss the importance of model organisms for understanding pathogenesis of rare human genetic diseases, and highlight the work of Brooks et al., "Dysfunction of 60S ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) disrupts neurodevelopment and causes X-linked microcephaly in humans," published in this issue of GENETICS. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Quasi-dynamic model for an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamgbopa, Musbaudeen O.; Uzgoren, Eray


    Highlights: • Study presents a simplified transient modeling approach for an ORC under variable heat input. • The ORC model is presented as a synthesis of its models of its sub-components. • The model is compared to benchmark numerical simulations and experimental data at different stages. - Abstract: When considering solar based thermal energy input to an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), intermittent nature of the heat input does not only adversely affect the power output but also it may prevent ORC to operate under steady state conditions. In order to identify reliability and efficiency of such systems, this paper presents a simplified transient modeling approach for an ORC operating under variable heat input. The approach considers that response of the system to heat input variations is mainly dictated by the evaporator. Consequently, overall system is assembled using dynamic models for the heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and static models of the pump and the expander. In addition, pressure drop within heat exchangers is neglected. The model is compared to benchmark numerical and experimental data showing that the underlying assumptions are reasonable for cases where thermal input varies in time. Furthermore, the model is studied on another configuration and mass flow rates of both the working fluid and hot water and hot water’s inlet temperature to the ORC unit are shown to have direct influence on the system’s response

  18. Turbulence and Self-Organization Modeling Astrophysical Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Marov, Mikhail Ya


    This book focuses on the development of continuum models of natural turbulent media. It provides a theoretical approach to the solutions of different problems related to the formation, structure and evolution of astrophysical and geophysical objects. A stochastic modeling approach is used in the mathematical treatment of these problems, which reflects self-organization processes in open dissipative systems. The authors also consider examples of ordering for various objects in space throughout their evolutionary processes. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers in the fields of mechanics, astrophysics, geophysics, planetary and space science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nilsson


    Full Text Available In today's Russia many agricultural co-operatives are established from the top downwards. The national project "Development of Agroindustrial Complex" and other governmental programs initiate the formation of cooperative societies. These cooperatives are organized in accordance with the traditional cooperative model. Many of them do, however, not have any real business activities. The aim of this paper to investigate if traditional cooperatives (following principles such as collective ownership, one member one vote, equal treatment, and solidarity, etc. constitute the best organizational model for cooperatives societies under the present conditions in the Russian agriculture.

  20. Mapping model behaviour using Self-Organizing Maps

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    M. Herbst


    Full Text Available Hydrological model evaluation and identification essentially involves extracting and processing information from model time series. However, the type of information extracted by statistical measures has only very limited meaning because it does not relate to the hydrological context of the data. To overcome this inadequacy we exploit the diagnostic evaluation concept of Signature Indices, in which model performance is measured using theoretically relevant characteristics of system behaviour. In our study, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM is used to process the Signatures extracted from Monte-Carlo simulations generated by the distributed conceptual watershed model NASIM. The SOM creates a hydrologically interpretable mapping of overall model behaviour, which immediately reveals deficits and trade-offs in the ability of the model to represent the different functional behaviours of the watershed. Further, it facilitates interpretation of the hydrological functions of the model parameters and provides preliminary information regarding their sensitivities. Most notably, we use this mapping to identify the set of model realizations (among the Monte-Carlo data that most closely approximate the observed discharge time series in terms of the hydrologically relevant characteristics, and to confine the parameter space accordingly. Our results suggest that Signature Index based SOMs could potentially serve as tools for decision makers inasmuch as model realizations with specific Signature properties can be selected according to the purpose of the model application. Moreover, given that the approach helps to represent and analyze multi-dimensional distributions, it could be used to form the basis of an optimization framework that uses SOMs to characterize the model performance response surface. As such it provides a powerful and useful way to conduct model identification and model uncertainty analyses.

  1. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.


    rences: 20 [ view related records ] Citation Map Abstract: Apples and other fruits are frequently cultivated in gardens and are part of our daily diet. Uptake of pollutants into apples may therefore contribute to the human daily intake of toxic substances. In current risk assessment of polluted...... soils, regressions or models are in use, which were not intended to be used for tree fruits. A simple model for uptake of neutral organic contaminants into fruits is developed. It considers xylem and phloem transport to fruits through the stem. The mass balance is solved for the steady......-state, and an example calculation is given. The Fruit Tree Model is compared to the empirical equation of Travis and Arms (T&A), and to results from fruits, collected in contaminated areas. For polar compounds, both T&A and the Fruit Tree Model predict bioconcentration factors fruit to soil (BCF, wet weight based...

  2. Modelling erosion and its interaction with soil organic carbon. (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo


    Water driven soil erosion removes and relocates a significant quantity of soil organic carbon. In China the quantity of carbon removed from the soil through water erosion has been reported to be 180+/-80 Mt y-1 (Yue et al., 2011). Being able to effectively model the movement of such a large quantity of carbon is important for the assessment of soil quality and carbon storage in the region and further afield. A large selection of erosion models are available and much work has been done on evaluating the performance of these in developed countries (Merritt et al., 2006). Fewer studies have evaluated the application of these models on soils in developing countries. Here we evaluate and compare the performance of two of these models, WEPP (Laflen et al., 1997) and RUSLE (Renard et al., 1991), for simulations of soil erosion and deposition at the slope scale on a Chinese Red Soil under cultivation using measurements taken at the site. We also describe work to dynamically couple the movement of carbon presented in WEPP to a model of soil organic matter and nutrient turnover, ECOSSE (Smith et al., 2010). This aims to improve simulations of both erosion and carbon cycling by using the simulated rates of erosion to alter the distribution of soil carbon, the depth of soil and the clay content across the slopes, changing the simulated rate of carbon turnover. This, in turn, affects the soil carbon available to be eroded in the next timestep, so improving estimates of carbon erosion. We compare the simulations of this coupled modelling approach with those of the unaltered ECOSSE and WEPP models to determine the importance of coupling erosion and turnover models on the simulation of carbon losses at catchment scale.

  3. Ecotoxicological modelling of cosmetics for aquatic organisms: A QSTR approach. (United States)

    Khan, K; Roy, K


    In this study, externally validated quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models were developed for toxicity of cosmetic ingredients on three different ecotoxicologically relevant organisms, namely Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas following the OECD guidelines. The final models were developed by partial least squares (PLS) regression technique, which is more robust than multiple linear regression. The obtained model for P. subcapitata shows that molecular size and complexity have significant impacts on the toxicity of cosmetics. In case of P. promelas and D. magna, we found that the largest contribution to the toxicity was shown by hydrophobicity and van der Waals surface area, respectively. All models were validated using both internal and test compounds employing multiple strategies. For each QSTR model, applicability domain studies were also performed using the "Distance to Model in X-space" method. A comparison was made with the ECOSAR predictions in order to prove the good predictive performances of our developed models. Finally, individual models were applied to predict toxicity for an external set of 596 personal care products having no experimental data for at least one of the endpoints, and the compounds were ranked based on a decreasing order of toxicity using a scaling approach.

  4. An Instructional Development Model for Global Organizations: The GOaL Model. (United States)

    Hara, Noriko; Schwen, Thomas M.


    Presents an instructional development model, GOaL (Global Organization Localization), for use by global organizations. Topics include gaps in language, culture, and needs; decentralized processes; collaborative efforts; predetermined content; multiple perspectives; needs negotiation; learning within context; just-in-time training; and bilingual…

  5. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by aqueous solutions of novel alkalophillic Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. biomass (United States)

    Saurav, Kumar; Kannabiran, Krishnan


    Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive biomass of microbial organisms is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. The search of marine actinobacteria with potential heavy metal biosorption ability resulted in the identification of a novel alkalophilic Streptomyces VITSVK5 species. The biosorption property of Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. was investigated by absorbing heavy metals Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb). Physiochemical characteristics and trace metal concentration analysis of the backwater showed the concentrations of different metals were lead 13±2.1 μg L-1, cadmium 3.1±0.3μg L-1, zinc 8.4±2.6μg L-1 and copper 0.3±0.1μg L-1, whereas mercury was well below the detection limit. The effect of pH and biomass dosage on removal efficiency of heavy metal ions was also investigated. The optimum pH for maximal biosorption was 4.0 for Cd (II) and 5.0 for Pb (II) with 41% and 84% biosorption respectively. The biosorbent dosage was optimized as 3 g L-1 for both the trace metals. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum results indicated the chemical interactions of hydrogen atoms in carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-CHOH) and amine (-NH2) groups of biomass with the metal ions. This could be mainly involved in the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) onto Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. The results of our study revealed Streptomyces metabolites could be used to develop a biosorbent for adsorbing metal ions from aqueous environments.

  6. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes (United States)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  7. Production of gold nanoparticles by Streptomyces djakartensis isolate B-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Biglari


    Full Text Available  Objective(s: Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (NGPs is environmentally safer than chemical and physical procedures. This method requires no use of toxic solvents and synthesis of dangerous products and is environmentally safe. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of NGPs using Streptomyces djakartensis isolate B-5. Materials and Methods: NGPs were biosynthesized by reducing aqueous gold chloride solution via a Streptomyces isolate without the need for any additive for protecting nanoparticles from aggregation. We characterized the responsible Streptomycete; its genome DNA was isolated, purified and 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR. The amplified isolate was sequenced; using the BLAST search tool from NCBI, the microorganism was identified to species level. Results: Treating chloroauric acid solutions with this bacterium resulted in reduction of gold ions and formation of stable NGPs. TEM and SEM electro micrographs of NGPs indicated size range from 2- 25 nm with average of 9.09 nm produced intracellular by the bacterium. SEM electro micrographs revealed morphology of spores and mycelia. The amplified PCR fragment of 16S rRNA gene was cloned and sequenced from both sides; it consisted of 741 nucleotides. According to NCBI GenBank, the bacterium had 97.1% homology with Streptomyces djakartensis strain RT-49. The GenBank accession number for partial 16S rRNA gene was recorded as JX162550. Conclusion: Optimized application of such findings may create applications of Streptomycetes for use as bio-factories in eco-friendly production of NGPs to serve in demanding industries and related biomedical areas. Research in this area should also focus on the unlocking the full mechanism of NGPs biosynthesis by Streptomycetes.

  8. Biodegradation of degradable plastic polyethylene by phanerochaete and streptomyces species. (United States)

    Lee, B; Pometto, A L; Fratzke, A; Bailey, T B


    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placing a sheet of plastic into a drying oven at 70 degrees C under atmospheric pressure and air for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 days. The effect of 2-, 4-, and 8-week longwave UV irradiation at 365 nm on plastic biodegradability was also investigated. For shake flask cultures, plastics were chemically disinfected and incubated-shaken at 125 rpm at 37 degrees C in 0.6% yeast extract medium (pH 7.1) for Streptomyces spp. and at 30 degrees C for the fungus in 3% malt extract medium (pH 4.5) for 4 weeks along with an uninoculated control for each treatment. Weight loss data were inconclusive because of cell mass accumulation. For almost every 70 degrees C heat-treated film, the Streptomyces spp. demonstrated a further reduction in percent elongation and polyethylene molecular weight average when compared with the corresponding uninoculated control. Significant (P reductions were demonstrated for the 4- and 8-day heat-treated films by all three bacteria. Heat-treated films incubated with P. chrysosporium consistently demonstrated higher percent elongation and molecular weight average than the corresponding uninoculated controls, but were lower than the corresponding zero controls (heat-treated films without 4-week incubation). The 2- and 4-week UV-treated films showed the greatest biodegradation by all three bacteria. Virtually no degradation by the fungus was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating bacterial degradation of these oxidized polyethylenes in pure


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Now, most economic organizations use different information systems types in order to facilitate their activity. There are different methodologies, methods and techniques that can be used to design information systems. In this paper, I propose to present the advantages of using the object oriented modelling at the information system design of an economic organization. Thus, I have modelled the activity of a photo studio, using Visual Paradigm for UML as a modelling tool. For this purpose, I have identified the use cases for the analyzed system and I have presented the use case diagram. I have, also, realized the system static and dynamic modelling, through the most known UML diagrams.

  10. Free and Immobilized Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces phaeochromogenes1 (United States)

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Smiley, Karl L.


    Properties were determined of the glucose isomerase from Streptomyces phaeochromogenes NRRL B-3559. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum of 80 C and a pH optimum of about 8. The effect of various buffers on activity of the enzyme and the optimum pH were studied. Michaelis constants for glucose and Mg2+ were 0.25 and 0.025 m, respectively. Co2+ enhanced enzyme activity. A functional polyacrylamide-entrapped glucose isomerase was prepared. The conditions for entrapment and use of the bound enzyme were examined. PMID:5575565

  11. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry. (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M


    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  12. Mesoscopic kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of organic photovoltaic device characteristics (United States)

    Kimber, Robin G. E.; Wright, Edward N.; O'Kane, Simon E. J.; Walker, Alison B.; Blakesley, James C.


    Measured mobility and current-voltage characteristics of single layer and photovoltaic (PV) devices composed of poly{9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis[N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)]bis(N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene)diamine} (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) have been reproduced by a mesoscopic model employing the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) approach. Our aim is to show how to avoid the uncertainties common in electrical transport models arising from the need to fit a large number of parameters when little information is available, for example, a single current-voltage curve. Here, simulation parameters are derived from a series of measurements using a self-consistent “building-blocks” approach, starting from data on the simplest systems. We found that site energies show disorder and that correlations in the site energies and a distribution of deep traps must be included in order to reproduce measured charge mobility-field curves at low charge densities in bulk PFB and F8BT. The parameter set from the mobility-field curves reproduces the unipolar current in single layers of PFB and F8BT and allows us to deduce charge injection barriers. Finally, by combining these disorder descriptions and injection barriers with an optical model, the external quantum efficiency and current densities of blend and bilayer organic PV devices can be successfully reproduced across a voltage range encompassing reverse and forward bias, with the recombination rate the only parameter to be fitted, found to be 1×107 s-1. These findings demonstrate an approach that removes some of the arbitrariness present in transport models of organic devices, which validates the KMC as an accurate description of organic optoelectronic systems, and provides information on the microscopic origins of the device behavior.

  13. Genome Editing and Its Applications in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Ma


    Full Text Available Technological advances are important for innovative biological research. Development of molecular tools for DNA manipulation, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas, has revolutionized genome editing. These approaches can be used to develop potential therapeutic strategies to effectively treat heritable diseases. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made in CRISPR/Cas technology, including technical improvements and wide application in many model systems. This review describes recent advancements in genome editing with a particular focus on CRISPR/Cas, covering the underlying principles, technological optimization, and its application in zebrafish and other model organisms, disease modeling, and gene therapy used for personalized medicine.

  14. Genome Editing and Its Applications in Model Organisms. (United States)

    Ma, Dongyuan; Liu, Feng


    Technological advances are important for innovative biological research. Development of molecular tools for DNA manipulation, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas), has revolutionized genome editing. These approaches can be used to develop potential therapeutic strategies to effectively treat heritable diseases. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made in CRISPR/Cas technology, including technical improvements and wide application in many model systems. This review describes recent advancements in genome editing with a particular focus on CRISPR/Cas, covering the underlying principles, technological optimization, and its application in zebrafish and other model organisms, disease modeling, and gene therapy used for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing an Enzyme Mediated Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition Model (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Post, W. M.; Wang, G.; Jagadamma, S.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schadt, C. W.


    We developed the Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model in order to mechanistically model the decomposition of soil organic carbon (C). This presentation is an overview of the concept and development of the model and of the design of complementary lab-scale experiments. The model divides soil C into five pools of particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved, microbial, and enzyme organic C (Wang et al. 2012). There are three input types - cellulose, lignin, and dissolved C. Decomposition is mediated via microbial extracellular enzymes using the Michaelis-Menten equation, resulting in the production of a common pool of dissolved organic C. Parameters for the Michaelis-Menten equation are obtained through a literature review (Wang and Post, 2012a). The dissolved C is taken up by microbial biomass and proportioned according to microbial maintenance and growth, which were recalculated according to Wang and Post (2012b). The model allows dissolved C to undergo adsorption and desorption reactions with the mineral-associated C, which was also parameterized based upon a literature review and complementary laboratory experiments. In the lab, four 14C-labeled substrates (cellulose, fatty acid, glucose, and lignin-like) were incubated with either the particulate C pool, the mineral-associated C pool, or to bulk soils. The rate of decomposition was measured via the production of 14CO2 over time, along with incorporation into microbial biomass, production of dissolved C, and estimation of sorbed C. We performed steady-state and dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses under temperature increases of 1-5°C for a period of 100 y. Simulations indicated an initial decrease in soil organic C consisting of both cellulose and lignin pools. Over longer time intervals (> 6 y), however, a shrinking microbial population, a concomitant decrease in enzyme production, and a decrease in microbial carbon use efficiency together decreased CO2 production and resulted in greater

  16. Thermodynamic Modeling of Organic-Inorganic Aerosols with the Group-Contribution Model AIOMFAC (United States)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.


    Liquid aerosol particles are - from a physicochemical viewpoint - mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water and a large variety of organic compounds (Rogge et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 2007). Molecular interactions between these aerosol components lead to deviations from ideal thermodynamic behavior. Strong non-ideality between organics and dissolved ions may influence the aerosol phases at equilibrium by means of liquid-liquid phase separations into a mainly polar (aqueous) and a less polar (organic) phase. A number of activity models exists to successfully describe the thermodynamic equilibrium of aqueous electrolyte solutions. However, the large number of different, often multi-functional, organic compounds in mixed organic-inorganic particles is a challenging problem for the development of thermodynamic models. The group-contribution concept as introduced in the UNIFAC model by Fredenslund et al. (1975), is a practical method to handle this difficulty and to add a certain predictability for unknown organic substances. We present the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients), which explicitly accounts for molecular interactions between solution constituents, both organic and inorganic, to calculate activities, chemical potentials and the total Gibbs energy of mixed systems (Zuend et al., 2008). This model enables the computation of vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid (SLE) equilibria within one framework. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered eight different cations, five anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are very well represented up to high ionic strength. We show that the semi-empirical middle-range parametrization of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol-water-salt solutions enables accurate computations of vapor-liquid and liquid

  17. Development of the Croatian model of organ donation and transplantation (United States)

    Živčić-Ćosić, Stela; Bušić, Mirela; Župan, Željko; Pelčić, Gordana; Anušić Juričić, Martina; Jurčić, Željka; Ivanovski, Mladen; Rački, Sanjin


    During the past ten years, the efforts to improve and organize the national transplantation system in Croatia have resulted in a steadily growing donor rate, which reached its highest level in 2011, with 33.6 utilized donors per million population (p.m.p.). Nowadays, Croatia is one of the leading countries in the world according to deceased donation and transplantation rates. Between 2008 and 2011, the waiting list for kidney transplantation decreased by 37.2% (from 430 to 270 persons waiting for a transplant) and the median waiting time decreased from 46 to 24 months. The Croatian model has been internationally recognized as successful and there are plans for its implementation in other countries. We analyzed the key factors that contributed to the development of this successful model for organ donation and transplantation. These are primarily the appointment of hospital and national transplant coordinators, implementation of a new financial model with donor hospital reimbursement, public awareness campaign, international cooperation, adoption of new legislation, and implementation of a donor quality assurance program. The selection of key factors is based on the authors' opinions; we are open for further discussion and propose systematic research into the issue. PMID:23444248


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An exploration study of natural resources soil bacteria antibiotic-producer, Streptomyces spp. was done in two steps. The first step was isolation of Streptomyces and the second involved testing their inhibition activities against five strains diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Soil samples were collected from ten forest areas in Bali. As many as 55 isolates were collected with various macroscopic dan microscopic characters. Most isolates (eight Streptomyces isolates were collected from forest area in Penulisan, Kintamani (RTK. 20. The diversities of isolates are influenced by environment condition. All Streptomyces isolated were tested against five strains diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to check antibiotic activity for inhibit growth of E. coli. Streptomycine was used as a control. The result showed that the largest inhibition zones of Streptomyces against E. coli strains EHEC, ETEC, EIEC, EPEC and DAEC were produced by Streptomyces PK5 (48,67 ± 0,58 mm, Streptomyces GAA4 (29,00 ± 2,00 mm, Streptomyces GBK3 (42,67 ± 2,08 mm, Streptomyces SkBB5 (29,00 ± 2,65 mm and Streptomyces GM3 (33,67 ± 3,21 mm respectively.

  19. Modeling of Electronic Properties in Organic Semiconductor Device Structures (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Chuang

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently become viable for a wide range of electronic devices, some of which have already been commercialized. With the mechanical flexibility of organic materials and promising performance of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and organic bulk heterojunction devices, OSCs have been demonstrated in applications such as radio frequency identification tags, flexible displays, and photovoltaic cells. Transient phenomena play decisive roles in the performance of electronic devices and OFETs in particular. The dynamics of the establishment and depletion of the conducting channel in OFETs are investigated theoretically. The device structures explored resemble typical organic thin-film transistors with one of the channel contacts removed. By calculating the displacement current associated with charging and discharging of the channel in these capacitors, transient effects on the carrier transport in OSCs may be studied. In terms of the relevant models it is shown that the non-linearity of the process plays a key role. The non-linearity arises in the simplest case from the fact that channel resistance varies during the charging and discharging phases. Traps can be introduced into the models and their effects examined in some detail. When carriers are injected into the device, a conducting channel is established with traps that are initially empty. Gradual filling of the traps then modifies the transport characteristics of the injected charge carriers. In contrast, dc measurements as they are typically performed to characterize the transport properties of organic semiconductor channels investigate a steady state with traps partially filled. Numerical and approximate analytical models of the formation of the conducting channel and the resulting displacement currents are presented. For the process of transient carrier extraction, it is shown that if the channel capacitance is partially or completely discharged through the channel

  20. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis. (United States)

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar


    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  1. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron


    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  2. Modeling the adsorption of weak organic acids on goethite : the ligand and charge distribution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, J.D.


    A detailed study is presented in which the CD-MUSIC modeling approach is used in a new modeling approach that can describe the binding of large organic molecules by metal (hydr)oxides taking the full speciation of the adsorbed molecule into account. Batch equilibration experiments were

  3. Organic polyaromatic hydrocarbons as sensitizing model dyes for semiconductor nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyi; Galoppini, Elena


    The study of interfacial charge-transfer processes (sensitization) of a dye bound to large-bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors, including TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2), is continuing to attract interest in various areas of renewable energy, especially for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The scope of this Review is to describe how selected model sensitizers prepared from organic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been used over the past 15 years to elucidate, through a variety of techniques, fundamental aspects of heterogeneous charge transfer at the surface of a semiconductor. This Review does not focus on the most recent or efficient dyes, but rather on how model dyes prepared from aromatic hydrocarbons have been used, over time, in key fundamental studies of heterogeneous charge transfer. In particular, we describe model chromophores prepared from anthracene, pyrene, perylene, and azulene. As the level of complexity of the model dye-bridge-anchor group compounds has increased, the understanding of some aspects of very complex charge transfer events has improved. The knowledge acquired from the study of the described model dyes is of importance not only for DSSC development but also to other fields of science for which electronic processes at the molecule/semiconductor interface are relevant.

  4. LSOT: A Lightweight Self-Organized Trust Model in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Liu


    Full Text Available With the advances in automobile industry and wireless communication technology, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. Trust management plays an important role in VANETs. However, it is still at the preliminary stage and the existing trust models cannot entirely conform to the characteristics of VANETs. This work proposes a novel Lightweight Self-Organized Trust (LSOT model which contains trust certificate-based and recommendation-based trust evaluations. Both the supernodes and trusted third parties are not needed in our model. In addition, we comprehensively consider three factor weights to ease the collusion attack in trust certificate-based trust evaluation, and we utilize the testing interaction method to build and maintain the trust network and propose a maximum local trust (MLT algorithm to identify trustworthy recommenders in recommendation-based trust evaluation. Furthermore, a fully distributed VANET scenario is deployed based on the famous Advogato dataset and a series of simulations and analysis are conducted. The results illustrate that our LSOT model significantly outperforms the excellent experience-based trust (EBT and Lightweight Cross-domain Trust (LCT models in terms of evaluation performance and robustness against the collusion attack.

  5. Transpeptidase Activity of Streptomyces D-Alanyl-D Carboxypeptidases (United States)

    Pollock, J. J.; Ghuysen, J. M.; Linder, R.; Salton, M. R. J.; Perkins, H. R.; Nieto, M.; Leyh-Bouille, M.; Frere, J. M.; Johnson, K.


    In the presence of Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala as donor, and either D-[14C]alanine, [14C]-glycine, or meso-[3H]diaminopimelic acid as acceptor, the DD carboxypeptidases from Streptomyces R61 and R39 catalyze a transpeptidation reaction with the release of terminal D-alanine from the donor and the formation of either Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-[14C]Ala, Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-[14C] Gly, or Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-meso- [3H]diaminopimelic acid. The reaction appears to be a true transpeptidation, and is not simply a “reversal of hydrolysis”. Transpeptidation is inhibited by pencillin at concentrations that inhibit hydrolysis (carboxypeptidase action) of the donor peptide. There are differences in the specificity profiles of the Streptomyces enzymes for acceptor molecules:only the R61 enzyme used [14C]Gly-Gly as acceptor; transfer of Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala to this acceptor resulted in the formation of Nα,Nε-diacetyl-Lys-D-Ala-[14C] Gly-Gly, with the synthesis of a (D-Ala-Gly) peptide bond in an endoposition. Images PMID:4501580

  6. Overproduction of Clavulanic Acid by UV Mutagenesis of Streptomyces clavuligerus. (United States)

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Darkhal, Parisa; Hojati, Zohreh; Abedi, Daryoush; Hamedi, Javad; Pourhosein, Meraj


    Clavulanic acid is produced industrially by fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus and researches have increased its production by strain improvement, recombinant DNA technology, and media composition and growth condition optimization. The main objective of this study was to increase the level of clavulanic acid production from Streptomyces clavuligerus (DSM 738), using UV irradiation. After incubation, the spores and aerial mycelia were scraped off the agar plate by a sterile loop. After passing through a cotton wool, the serially diluted spore suspension was spread on GYM- agar containing caffeine. The plates were irradiated with UV light, wrapped in aluminum foil and incubated. The colonies were sub-cultured again to express the mutations. An aliquot of the spore suspension prepared from the resulted culture was poured in GYM agar plates and incubated. The plates were overlaid with nutrient-agar containing penicillin G and Klebsiela pneumoniae, and incubated. The inhibition zone diameter was measured and compared with the wild type colony. Repeating this procedure, the overproducer mutants were selected. Concentration of clavulanic acid was determined by HPLC analysis. It was concluded that secondary metabolites, mainly antibiotics containing clavulanic acid, were produced about 6-7 days after the growth, and concentration of clavulanic acid was increased up to two-folds after UV mutagenesis.

  7. Chitinolytic activity of endophytic Streptomyces and potential for biocontrol. (United States)

    Quecine, M C; Araujo, W L; Marcon, J; Gai, C S; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A


    Biological sources for the control of plant pathogenic fungi remain an important objective for sustainable agricultural practices. Actinomycetes are used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture owing to their great diversity in enzyme production. In the present study, therefore, we evaluated chitinase production by endophytic actinomycetes and the potential of this for control of phytopathogenic fungi. Endophytic Streptomyces were grown on minimum medium supplemented with chitin, and chitinase production was quantified. The strains were screened for any activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes by a dual-culture in vitro assay. The correlation between chitinase production and pathogen inhibition was calculated and further confirmed on Colletotrichum sublineolum cell walls by scanning electron microscopy. This paper reports a genetic correlation between chitinase production and the biocontrol potential of endophytic actinomycetes in an antagonistic interaction with different phytopathogens, suggesting that this control could occur inside the host plant. A genetic correlation between chitinase production and pathogen inhibition was demonstrated. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of endophytic Streptomyces and its potential as a biocontrol agent. The implications and applications of these data for biocontrol are discussed.

  8. Molecular Identification of Streptomyces producing antibiotics and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa A. Al_husnan


    Full Text Available Five strains of Streptomyces, namely S, N, W, E and C (designations should be mentioned in detail here isolated from the rhizosphere soil cultivated with palm Alajua (date, pressed dates, AlMedina city, Saudi Arabia, were induced to produce antibiotics. Antimicrobial activities were determined on solid medium supplemented with starch. The detection was based on the formation of transparent zones around colonies. The results indicated that isolates had antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. DNA extracted from five isolates was used as template for 16s rDNA gene amplification. The expected PCR size was 1.5 kbp;1.6 kbp; 1.25 kbp; 1.25kbp and 1.0 k bp for S, N, W, E and C isolates respectively using universal 16s rDNA gene primers using direct PCR. The isolates varied morphologically on the basis of spore color, aerial and substrate mycelium formation, and production of diffusible pigment. Isolates were tested under a microscope by using slide culture technique. The results indicate that the soil of this region is source of Streptomyces having antibacterial and antifungal activity and thus better utilization of these microorganisms as biological control agents.

  9. StreptomycesInforSys: A web-enabled information repository. (United States)

    Jain, Chakresh Kumar; Gupta, Vidhi; Gupta, Ashvarya; Gupta, Sanjay; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Sarethy, Indira P


    Members of Streptomyces produce 70% of natural bioactive products. There is considerable amount of information available based on polyphasic approach for classification of Streptomyces. However, this information based on phenotypic, genotypic and bioactive component production profiles is crucial for pharmacological screening programmes. This is scattered across various journals, books and other resources, many of which are not freely accessible. The designed database incorporates polyphasic typing information using combinations of search options to aid in efficient screening of new isolates. This will help in the preliminary categorization of appropriate groups. It is a free relational database compatible with existing operating systems. A cross platform technology with XAMPP Web server has been used to develop, manage, and facilitate the user query effectively with database support. Employment of PHP, a platform-independent scripting language, embedded in HTML and the database management software MySQL will facilitate dynamic information storage and retrieval. The user-friendly, open and flexible freeware (PHP, MySQL and Apache) is foreseen to reduce running and maintenance cost.

  10. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea


    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  11. Models of charge pair generation in organic solar cells. (United States)

    Few, Sheridan; Frost, Jarvist M; Nelson, Jenny


    Efficient charge pair generation is observed in many organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunctions, despite nominal electron-hole binding energies which greatly exceed the average thermal energy. Empirically, the efficiency of this process appears to be related to the choice of donor and acceptor materials, the resulting sequence of excited state energy levels and the structure of the interface. In order to establish a suitable physical model for the process, a range of different theoretical studies have addressed the nature and energies of the interfacial states, the energetic profile close to the heterojunction and the dynamics of excited state transitions. In this paper, we review recent developments underpinning the theory of charge pair generation and phenomena, focussing on electronic structure calculations, electrostatic models and approaches to excited state dynamics. We discuss the remaining challenges in achieving a predictive approach to charge generation efficiency.

  12. Self-Organized Criticality Theory Model of Thermal Sandpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiao-Dong; Qu Hong-Peng; Xu Jian-Qiang; Han Zui-Jiao


    A self-organized criticality model of a thermal sandpile is formulated for the first time to simulate the dynamic process with interaction between avalanche events on the fast time scale and diffusive transports on the slow time scale. The main characteristics of the model are that both particle and energy avalanches of sand grains are considered simultaneously. Properties of intermittent transport and improved confinement are analyzed in detail. The results imply that the intermittent phenomenon such as blobs in the low confinement mode as well as edge localized modes in the high confinement mode observed in tokamak experiments are not only determined by the edge plasma physics, but also affected by the core plasma dynamics. (paper)

  13. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  14. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.


    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  15. Mathematical modeling of wastewater-derived biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen. (United States)

    Simsek, Halis


    Wastewater-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) typically constitutes the majority of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) discharged to surface waters from advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). When considering the stringent regulations on nitrogen discharge limits in sensitive receiving waters, DON becomes problematic and needs to be reduced. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is biologically degradable by bacteria when the optimum environmental conditions are met. BDON in a two-stage trickling filter WWTP was estimated using artificial intelligence techniques, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, multilayer perceptron, radial basis neural networks (RBNN), and generalized regression neural networks. Nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, TDN, and DON data were used as input neurons. Wastewater samples were collected from four different locations in the plant. Model performances were evaluated using root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error, and coefficient of determination statistics. Modeling results showed that the R(2) values were higher than 0.85 in all four models for all wastewater samples, except only R(2) in the final effluent sample for RBNN modeling was low (0.52). Overall, it was found that all four computing techniques could be employed successfully to predict BDON.

  16. tmRNA of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus during the growth and in the presence of antibiotics. (United States)

    Palecková, Petra; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel


    Streptomycetes are soil microorganisms with the potential to produce a broad spectrum of secondary metabolities. The production of antibiotics is accompanied by a decrease in protein synthesis, which raises the question of how these bacteria survived the transition from the primary to the secondary metabolism. Translating ribosomes incapable to properly elongate or terminate polypeptide chain activate bacterial trans-translation system. Abundance and stability of the tmRNA during growth of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus producing kirromycin and streptomycin, respectively, was analysed. The level of tmRNA is mostly proportional to the activity of the translational system. We demonstrate that the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of produced antibiotics to the cultures from the beginning of the exponential phase of growth leads to an increase in tmRNA levels and to an incorporation of amino acids into the tag-peptides at trans-translation of stalled ribosomes. These findings suggest that produced antibiotics induce tmRNA that facilitate reactivation of stalled complex of ribosomes and maintain viability. The effect of antibiotics that inhibit the cell-wall turnover, DNA, RNA or protein synthesis on the level of tmRNA was examined. Antibiotics interfering with ribosomal target sites are more effective at stimulation of the tmRNA level in streptomycetes examined than those affecting the synthesis of DNA, RNA or the cell wall. © 2008 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces formicae KY5, the formicamycin producer. (United States)

    Holmes, Neil A; Devine, Rebecca; Qin, Zhiwei; Seipke, Ryan F; Wilkinson, Barrie; Hutchings, Matthew I


    Here we report the complete genome of the new species Streptomyces formicae KY5 isolated from Tetraponera fungus growing ants. S. formicae was sequenced using the PacBio and 454 platforms to generate a single linear chromosome with terminal inverted repeats. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to correct base changes resulting from the high error rate associated with PacBio. The genome is 9.6 Mbps, has a GC content of 71.38% and contains 8162 protein coding sequences. Predictive analysis shows this strain encodes at least 45 gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including a type 2 polyketide synthase encoding cluster for the antibacterial formicamycins. Streptomyces formicae KY5 is a new, taxonomically distinct Streptomyces species and this complete genome sequence provides an important marker in the genus of Streptomyces. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Focused Review: Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potentials of Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng Ser


    Full Text Available Human life expectancy is rapidly increasing with an associated increasing burden of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, there is limited progress in finding effective treatment for these conditions. For this reason, members of the genus Streptomyces have been explored extensively over the past decades as these filamentous bacteria are highly efficient in producing bioactive compounds with human health benefits. Being ubiquitous in nature, streptomycetes can be found in both terrestrial and marine environments. Previously, two Streptomyces strains (MUSC 137T and MUM 256 isolated from mangrove sediments in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines on bioactivity screening. These results illustrate the importance of streptomycetes from underexplored regions aside from the terrestrial ecosystem. Here we provide the insights and significance of Streptomyces species in the search of anticancer and/or chemopreventive agents and highlight the impact of next generation sequencing on drug discovery from the Streptomyces arsenal.

  19. Evaluation of the toxicity of Streptomyces aburaviensis (R9) towards various agricultural pests (United States)

    The culture filtrate fraction extracted with dichloromethane from Streptomyces aburaviensis -R9 strain grown on glucose-peptone-molasses (GPM) broth was bioassayed for its effect on phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeosoprioids, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum,...

  20. A species-specific method for detecting pathogenic Streptomyces species from soil and potato tubers in Argentina

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    Viviana A. Barrera

    Full Text Available Potato common scab is caused by several soil-inhabiting pathogenic Streptomyces species. In the present study, a species-specific PCR method was used to detect Streptomyces species in potato tuber lesions and soils. Total genomic DNA from soil samples from six locations and tuber samples from four potato cultivars (Spunta, Shepody, Innovator and Russet Burbank were assessed. Streptomyces scabies, Streptomyces acidiscabies, and Streptomyces turgidiscabies were detected in soybean, tobacco and potato soils and in all potato varieties except Russet Burbank. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed the identification. The method proposed proved to be time-saving and cost effective for the rapid detection of Streptomyces species. This is the first report of the detection of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies in soils and potato tubers from Argentina.

  1. Control of tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae. (United States)

    Cundliffe, Eric


    Tylosin biosynthesis is controlled in cascade fashion by multiple transcriptional regulators, acting positively or negatively, in conjunction with a signalling ligand that acts as a classical inducer. The roles of regulatory gene products have been characterized by a combination of gene expression analysis and fermentation studies, using engineered strains of S. fradiae in which specific genes were inactivated or overexpressed. Among various novel features of the regulatory model, involvement of the signalling ligand is not essential for tylosin biosynthesis.

  2. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep


    have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  3. C. elegans avoids toxin-producing Streptomyces using a seven transmembrane domain chemosensory receptor


    Tran, Alan; Tang, Angelina; O'Loughlin, Colleen T; Balistreri, Anthony; Chang, Eric; Coto Villa, Doris; Li, Joy; Varshney, Aruna; Jimenez, Vanessa; Pyle, Jacqueline; Tsujimoto, Bryan; Wellbrook, Christopher; Vargas, Christopher; Duong, Alex; Ali, Nebat


    Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator?prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced...

  4. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties


    Houssam M. Atta


    Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9...

  5. Phytotoxin produced by the netted scab pathogen, Streptomyces turgidiscabies strain 65, isolated in Sweden


    Natsume, Masahiro; Nagagata, Asaho; Aittamaa, Marja; Okaniwa, Naoko; Somervuo, Panu; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Kreuze, Jan F.; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Bang, Hans; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Valkonen, Jari P. T.


    Streptomyces spp. are a highly diverse group of bacteria most of which are soil-inhabiting saprophytes. A few are plant pathogens that produce a family of phytotoxins called thaxtomins and cause significant economic losses, e.g., by reducing the marketability of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). In northern Europe, S. scabies, S. turgidiscabies and S. europaeiscabiei are the most common plant pathogenic species. In this study, a Streptomyces strain isolated from a netted scab lesion on a tub...

  6. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

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    Andrea Sottoriva


    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  7. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain. (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino


    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  8. A geometrical model for DNA organization in bacteria.

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    Mathias Buenemann

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have revealed that bacteria, such as C. crescentus, show a remarkable spatial ordering of their chromosome. A strong linear correlation has been found between the position of genes on the chromosomal map and their spatial position in the cellular volume. We show that this correlation can be explained by a purely geometrical model. Namely, self-avoidance of DNA, specific positioning of one or few DNA loci (such as origin or terminus together with the action of DNA compaction proteins (that organize the chromosome into topological domains are sufficient to get a linear arrangement of the chromosome along the cell axis. We develop a Monte-Carlo method that allows us to test our model numerically and to analyze the dependence of the spatial ordering on various physiologically relevant parameters. We show that the proposed geometrical ordering mechanism is robust and universal (i.e. does not depend on specific bacterial details. The geometrical mechanism should work in all bacteria that have compacted chromosomes with spatially fixed regions. We use our model to make specific and experimentally testable predictions about the spatial arrangement of the chromosome in mutants of C. crescentus and the growth-stage dependent ordering in E. coli.

  9. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment. (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil


    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  10. Spectrophotometry and organic matter on Iapetus. 1: Composition models (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D.; Sagan, Carl


    Iapetus shows a greater hemispheric albedo asymmetry than any other body in the solar system. Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in the laboratory are used to identify possible compositions for the dark material on the leading hemisphere of Iapetus. The materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic residue, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. Three-component mixtures of these materials are modeled in intraparticle mixture of 25% poly-HCN, 10% Murchison residue, and 65% water ice is found to best fit the spectrum, albedo, and phase behavior of the dark material. The Murchison residue and/or water ice can be replaced by kerogen and ice tholin, respectively, and still produce very good fits. Areal and particle mixtures of poly-HCN, Titan tholin, and either ice tholin or Murchison residue are also possible models. Poly-HCN is a necessary component in almost all good models. The presence of poly-HCN can be further tested by high-resolution observations near 4.5 micrometers.

  11. Self-Organized Criticality in an Anisotropic Earthquake Model (United States)

    Li, Bin-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Jun


    We have made an extensive numerical study of a modified model proposed by Olami, Feder, and Christensen to describe earthquake behavior. Two situations were considered in this paper. One situation is that the energy of the unstable site is redistributed to its nearest neighbors randomly not averagely and keeps itself to zero. The other situation is that the energy of the unstable site is redistributed to its nearest neighbors randomly and keeps some energy for itself instead of reset to zero. Different boundary conditions were considered as well. By analyzing the distribution of earthquake sizes, we found that self-organized criticality can be excited only in the conservative case or the approximate conservative case in the above situations. Some evidence indicated that the critical exponent of both above situations and the original OFC model tend to the same result in the conservative case. The only difference is that the avalanche size in the original model is bigger. This result may be closer to the real world, after all, every crust plate size is different. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11675096 and 11305098, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. GK201702001, FPALAB-SNNU under Grant No. 16QNGG007, and Interdisciplinary Incubation Project of SNU under Grant No. 5

  12. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Streptomyces spp. with Antibacterial Activity from Northwest of Iran

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    Hadi Maleki


    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptomyces are a group of prokaryotes that are usually found in all types of ecosystems including water and soil. This group of bacteria is noteworthy as antibiotic producers; so the isolation and characterization of new species seemed to be crucial in introduction of markedly favorable antibiotics. Therefore, in this study we aim to isolate and characterize novel strains of Streptomyces with high antibiotic production capability. Methods: To achieve this goal, from 140 isolates collected throughout northwest of Iran, 12 selected Streptomyces isolates which exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria were subjected to PCR reaction for identification via 16S rDNA gene and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD pattern analysis. Results: Analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics and the 16S rDNA gene sequence indicated that all 12 selected isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Moreover, screening of the isolates with regard to their antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria as well as their classification using RAPD analysis revealed that G614C1 and K36C5 isolates have considerable antimicrobial activity and high similarity to Streptomyces coelicolor and Sreptomyces albogriseolus, respectively. Conclusion: Since many isolates in this study showed inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria, soil of northwest of Iran could be used as a rich source to be explored for novel Streptomyces strains with high potency of antibiotic production.

  13. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

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    Cheryl P. Andam


    Full Text Available We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.

  14. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

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    Miki Yamamoto-Hino


    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  15. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization. (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya


    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome sequencing and population genomics in non-model organisms. (United States)

    Ellegren, Hans


    High-throughput sequencing technologies are revolutionizing the life sciences. The past 12 months have seen a burst of genome sequences from non-model organisms, in each case representing a fundamental source of data of significant importance to biological research. This has bearing on several aspects of evolutionary biology, and we are now beginning to see patterns emerging from these studies. These include significant heterogeneity in the rate of recombination that affects adaptive evolution and base composition, the role of population size in adaptive evolution, and the importance of expansion of gene families in lineage-specific adaptation. Moreover, resequencing of population samples (population genomics) has enabled the identification of the genetic basis of critical phenotypes and cast light on the landscape of genomic divergence during speciation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility And Islamic Business Organizations: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad


    Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization

  18. Transgenesis in non-model organisms: the case of Parhyale. (United States)

    Kontarakis, Zacharias; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios


    One of the most striking manifestations of Hox gene activity is the morphological and functional diversity of arthropod body plans, segments, and associated appendages. Among arthropod models, the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis satisfies a number of appealing biological and technical requirements to study the Hox control of tissue and organ morphogenesis. Parhyale embryos undergo direct development from fertilized eggs into miniature adults within 10 days and are amenable to all sorts of embryological and functional genetic manipulations. Furthermore, each embryo develops a series of specialized appendages along the anterior-posterior body axis, offering exceptional material to probe the genetic basis of appendage patterning, growth, and differentiation. Here, we describe the methodologies and techniques required for transgenesis-based gain-of-function studies of Hox genes in Parhyale embryos. First, we introduce a protocol for efficient microinjection of early-stage Parhyale embryos. Second, we describe the application of fast and reliable assays to test the activity of the Minos DNA transposon in embryos. Third, we present the use of Minos-based transgenesis vectors to generate stable and transient transgenic Parhyale. Finally, we describe the development and application of a conditional heat-inducible misexpression system to study the role of the Hox gene Ultrabithorax in Parhyale appendage specialization. Beyond providing a useful resource for Parhyalists, this chapter also aims to provide a road map for researchers working on other emerging model organisms. Acknowledging the time and effort that need to be invested in developing transgenic approaches in new species, it is all worth it considering the wide scope of experimentation that opens up once transgenesis is established.

  19. Tissue mechanics, animal models, and pelvic organ prolapse: a review. (United States)

    Abramowitch, Steven D; Feola, Andrew; Jallah, Zegbeh; Moalli, Pamela A


    Pelvic floor disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, and fecal incontinence affect a large number of women each year. The pelvic floor can be thought of as a biomechanical structure due to the complex interaction between the vagina and its supportive structures that are designed to withstand the downward descent of the pelvic organs in response to increases in abdominal pressure. Although previous work has highlighted the biochemical changes that are associated with specific risk factors (i.e. parity, menopause, and genetics), little work has been done to understand the biomechanical changes that occur within the vagina and its supportive structures to prevent the onset of these pelvic floor disorders. Human studies are often limited due to the challenges of obtaining large tissue samples and ethical concerns. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the use of animal models and their importance in understanding how different risk factors affect the biomechanical properties of the vagina and its supportive structures. In this review paper, we will discuss the different animal models that have been previously used to characterize the biomechanical properties of the vagina: including non-human primates, rodents, rabbits, and sheep. The anatomy and preliminary biomechanical findings are discussed along with the importance of considering experimental conditions, tissue anisotropy, and viscoelasticity when characterizing the biomechanical properties of vaginal tissue. Although there is not a lot of biomechanics research related to the vagina and pelvic floor, the future is exciting due to the significant potential for scientific findings that will improve our understanding of these conditions and hopefully lead to improvements in the prevention and treatment of pelvic disorders.

  20. Alternative approaches for modeling gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile organic chemicals: model development and comparison. (United States)

    Götz, Christian W; Scheringer, Martin; MacLeod, Matthew; Roth, Christine M; Hungerbühler, Konrad


    We present a novel model of gas-particle partitioning based on polyparameter linear free energy relationships (ppLFERs) that is capable of representing a broad range of aerosol properties. We apply the model to semivolatile organic chemicals including PCBs, DDT, and polar pesticides, and compare it to a widely adopted model based on the octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)). For nonpolar chemicals and cases where sorption to aerosols is dominated by absorption into organic matter, the two models are highly correlated and both are appropriate. Significant differences between the models are found for (a) polar chemicals and (b) aerosols with low organic matter content. The explicit description of polar interactions in the ppLFER approach implies stronger interactions between chemicals and aerosols than the K(OA)-based model, which describes polar interactions only implicitly and to a limited extent. Practical application of the ppLFER-based model to a wide range of chemicals is currently limited by data gaps in measured Abraham solvation parameters and uncertainties in estimation methods.

  1. HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. (United States)

    Xu, R; Falardeau, J; Avis, T J; Tambong, J T


    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay targeting the trpB gene for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. Four primer pairs and a fluorescent probe were designed and evaluated for specificity in identifying S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. The specificity of the HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 46 bacterial strains, 23 Streptomyces strains and 23 non-Streptomyces bacterial species. Specific and strong fluorescence signals were detected from all nine strains of S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. No fluorescence signal was detected from 14 strains of other Streptomyces species and all non-Streptomyces strains. The identification was corroborated by the melting curve analysis that was performed immediately after the amplification step. Eight of the nine S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains exhibited a unique melting peak, at Tm of 69·1°C while one strain, Warba-6, had a melt peak at Tm of 65·4°C. This difference in Tm peaks could be attributed to a guanine to cytosine mutation in strain Warba-6 at the region spanning the donor HybProbe. The reported HybProbes assay provides a more specific tool for accurate identification of S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains. This study reports a novel assay based on HybProbes chemistry for rapid and accurate identification of the potato common scab pathogens. Since the HybProbes chemistry requires two probes for positive identification, the assay is considered to be more specific than conventional PCR or TaqMan real-time PCR. The developed assay would be a useful tool with great potential in early diagnosis and detection of common scab pathogens of potatoes in infected plants or for surveillance of potatoes grown in soil environment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Identification and Utility of FdmR1 as a Streptomyces Antibiotic Regulatory Protein Activator for Fredericamycin Production in Streptomyces griseus ATCC 49344 and Heterologous Hosts▿ †


    Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Shen, Ben


    The fredericamycin (FDM) A biosynthetic gene cluster, cloned previously from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 49344, contains three putative regulatory genes, fdmR, fdmR1, and fdmR2. Their deduced gene products show high similarity to members of the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family (FdmR1) or to MarR-like regulators (FdmR and FdmR2). Here we provide experimental data supporting FdmR1 as a SARP-type activator. Inactivation of fdmR1 abolished FDM biosynthesis, and FDM productio...

  3. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae. (United States)

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon


    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  4. Purification and characterization of an intracellular peroxidase from Streptomyces cyaneus.


    Mliki, A; Zimmermann, W


    An intracellular peroxidase (EC from Streptomyces cyaneus was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 185,000 and was composed of two subunits of equal size. It had an isoelectric point of 6.1. The enzyme had a peroxidase activity toward o-dianisidine with a Km of 17.8 microM and a pH optimum of 5.0. It also showed catalase activity with a Km of 2.07 mM H2O2 and a pH optimum of 8.0. The purified enzyme did not catalyze C alpha-C beta bond cleavage of 1,3-dihydr...

  5. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.


    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  6. Bioactive metabolite production by Streptomyces albolongus in favourable environment

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    Myn Uddin


    Full Text Available Objectives: Demand for new antibiotic is rising up due to continuous resistance risk against conventional antibiotic.This attempt was taken to find out a novel antimicrobial metabolite.Methods: Chili field antagonistic actinomycetes Streptomyces albolongus was isolated and tested for optimum antimicrobialmetabolite production. Primary screening was done by selective media and antibiotic assay was done by agarcup plate method. Fermented product was recovered by separating funnel using suitable solvent.Results: Maximum antimicrobial metabolite production was found at temperature 35°C and pH 9.0 and on 6th day ofincubation. The medium consisting of corn steep liquor (0.2%, glucose (1.0%, NaCl (0.5%, K2HPO4 (0.1% was screenedout as suitable medium for maximum antimicrobial production. Sucrose was found as the best carbon source amongfour sources. The antimicrobial metabolite was found to be stable at pH and temperature up to 11.0 and 100°C respectively.The active agent was best extracted with chloroform. The antimicrobial spectrum of the metabolite was wideand shows activity against Shigella dysenteriae (AE14612, Shigella sonnei (CRL, ICDDR, B, Salmonella typhi (AE14296,Vibrio cholerae (AE14748, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRL, ICDDR, B, Bacillus cereus (BTCC19, Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC6538, Bacillus subtilis (BTTC17 and Bacillus megaterium (BTTC18.Conclusions: The findings of antibacterial activity of S. albolongus against several species of human pathogens includingboth Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicated that our produced material might be an alternative antimicrobialsubstance to control human diseases. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2: 75-82Key words: Streptomyces albolongus, antimicrobial metabolite, optimum production, antimicrobial spectrum

  7. Development of a statistical shape model of multi-organ and its performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Misaki; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi; Nawano, Shigeru


    Existing statistical shape modeling methods for an organ can not take into account the correlation between neighboring organs. This study focuses on a level set distribution model and proposes two modeling methods for multiple organs that can take into account the correlation between neighboring organs. The first method combines level set functions of multiple organs into a vector. Subsequently it analyses the distribution of the vectors of a training dataset by a principal component analysis and builds a multiple statistical shape model. Second method constructs a statistical shape model for each organ independently and assembles component scores of different organs in a training dataset so as to generate a vector. It analyses the distribution of the vectors of to build a statistical shape model of multiple organs. This paper shows results of applying the proposed methods trained by 15 abdominal CT volumes to unknown 8 CT volumes. (author)

  8. KICS: A Model of Motivational Leadership in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani


    Full Text Available This pure research gave birth to a Model of Motivational Leadership – KICS: which embraces knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy. It is a synergistic  proposition based on the theory of emotional intelligence as the index of competencies needed for effective leadership. It opened with a general discussion on traditional models of leadership, then the roles of knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy as they relate to motivational leadership. Issues of emotional intelligence clusters and synthesis of the model’s elements were discussed, emphasizing how KICS-based motivational leadership skills can be developed and sustained. Motivational leadership entails exciting people’s imaginations and inspiring them to move in a desired direction. It takes more than simple power to motivate and lead in organizations. Realizing that unity and cohesiveness are built from personal bonds, the best leaders ensure to deepen their rapport with employees and colleagues which enhances organizational performance. This pure research argues that the synergy of related emotional intelligence competencies can lead to motivational leadership behaviour. Knowledge is critical to leadership because there are different types of leadership and different situations require different kinds of knowledge, and the person possessing the knowledge demanded by a certain situation in most cases, tends to become the best leader. A knowledgeable person is one who is trained to consider his actions to undertake them deliberately, in a disciplined manner. Added to this ability is the intelligence to endure in a chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion and difficulty, all combined in producing a motivational leader. Knowledge tends to be procedural in nature and to operate outside of focal awareness. It also reflects the structure of the situation more closely than it does in the structure of formal disciplinary knowledge. The survey research design

  9. Elimination kinetic model for organic chemicals in earthworms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, N.; Dimitrov, S.; Georgieva, D.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Hankard, P.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Li, H.; Mekenyan, O.


    Mechanistic understanding of bioaccumulation in different organisms and environments should take into account the influence of organism and chemical depending factors on the uptake and elimination kinetics of chemicals. Lipophilicity, metabolism, sorption (bioavailability) and biodegradation of

  10. The twin arginine protein transport pathway exports multiple virulence proteins in the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies. (United States)

    Joshi, Madhumita V; Mann, Stefan G; Antelmann, Haike; Widdick, David A; Fyans, Joanna K; Chandra, Govind; Hutchings, Matthew I; Toth, Ian; Hecker, Michael; Loria, Rosemary; Palmer, Tracy


    Summary Streptomyces scabies is one of a group of organisms that causes the economically important disease potato scab. Analysis of the S. scabies genome sequence indicates that it is likely to secrete many proteins via the twin arginine protein transport (Tat) pathway, including several proteins whose coding sequences may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer and share a common ancestor with proteins in other plant pathogens. Inactivation of the S. scabies Tat pathway resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes including slower growth rate and increased permeability of the cell envelope. Comparison of the extracellular proteome of the wild type and DeltatatC strains identified 73 predicted secretory proteins that were present in reduced amounts in the tatC mutant strain, and 47 Tat substrates were verified using a Tat reporter assay. The DeltatatC strain was almost completely avirulent on Arabidopsis seedlings and was delayed in attaching to the root tip relative to the wild-type strain. Genes encoding 14 candidate Tat substrates were individually inactivated, and seven of these mutants were reduced in virulence compared with the wild-type strain. We conclude that the Tat pathway secretes multiple proteins that are required for full virulence.

  11. Biosynthesis of the earthy odorant geosmin by a bifunctional Streptomyces coelicolor enzyme (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaoyang; He, Xiaofei; Cane, David E.


    Geosmin (1) is responsible for the characteristic odor of moist soil, as well as off-flavors in drinking water and foodstuffs (ref. 1 and 2). Geosmin is generated from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP, 2) by an enzyme that in the soil organism Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is encoded by the SCO6073 gene (ref. 3) We have now shown that the recombinant N-terminal half of this protein catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent cyclization of FPP to germacradienol (3) and germacrene D (4), while the highly homologous C-terminal domain, previously thought to be catalytically silent, catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent conversion of germacradienol to geosmin (1). Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the N- and C-terminal domain each harbors a distinct, independently functioning active site. A mutation in the N-terminal domain of germacradienol–geosmin synthase of a catalytically essential serine to alanine results in the conversion of FPP (2) to a mixture of sesquiterpenes that includes an aberrant product identified as isolepidozene (6), previously suggested to be an enzyme-bound intermediate in the cyclization of FPP to germacradienol. PMID:17873868

  12. The effect of surfactant on fermentation of kitasamycin in Streptomyces kitasatoensis. (United States)

    Zheng, Qianli; Gao, Shuhong


    Soybean oil is an important carbon source in kitasamycin fermentation by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. In this study, three different surfactants, Tween 80, Tween 85, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were added in the fermentation medium to improve soybean oil utilization. Results indicated that all of these surfactants promote kitasamycin biosynthesis. When 0.5 g/L SDS was added at the beginning of fermentation, kitasamycin production increased by 55% and A 5 content improved by 12%, compared with the control treatment (i.e., no surfactant added). Oil consumption rate and lipase activity were also improved in the presence of SDS, producing more organic acids benefiting kitasamycin biosynthesis. High butyric acid concentration in the fermentation medium containing SDS repressed C-3 acetylation and promoted A 5 component accumulation. Additionally, utilization of oil components by S. kitasatoensis was altered. Specifically, linoleic acid was primarily used in the fermentation process with SDS, whereas oleic acid was primarily used in the fermentation process where no surfactant had been added. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A Study of Some Leading Organ Transplant Models in Health Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uzuntarla


    Full Text Available The most effective treatment method for patients with organ failure is an organ transplant. Although numerous patients are waiting to get organ transplants, the inadequacy in the supply of organs has become a chronic health problem around the whole world. Countries have made various regulations in their health systems that increase the supply of organs and, as a result, various organ transplantation models have been established. Organ transplantation models applied in Spain, the USA, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey have been examined in this study.

  14. Unique Function of the Bacterial Chromosome Segregation Machinery in Apically Growing Streptomyces - Targeting the Chromosome to New Hyphal Tubes and its Anchorage at the Tips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kois-Ostrowska


    Full Text Available The coordination of chromosome segregation with cell growth is fundamental to the proliferation of any organism. In most unicellular bacteria, chromosome segregation is strictly coordinated with cell division and involves ParA that moves the ParB nucleoprotein complexes bi- or unidirectionally toward the cell pole(s. However, the chromosome organization in multiploid, apically extending and branching Streptomyces hyphae challenges the known mechanisms of bacterial chromosome segregation. The complex Streptomyces life cycle involves two stages: vegetative growth and sporulation. In the latter stage, multiple cell divisions accompanied by chromosome compaction and ParAB assisted segregation turn multigenomic hyphal cell into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, the requirement for active chromosome segregation is unclear in the absence of canonical cell division during vegetative growth except in the process of branch formation. The mechanism by which chromosomes are targeted to new hyphae in streptomycete vegetative growth has remained unknown until now. Here, we address the question of whether active chromosome segregation occurs at this stage. Applied for the first time in Streptomyces, labelling of the chromosomal replication initiation region (oriC and time-lapse microscopy, revealed that in vegetative hyphae every copy of the chromosome is complexed with ParB, whereas ParA, through interaction with the apical protein complex (polarisome, tightly anchors only one chromosome at the hyphal tip. The anchor is maintained during replication, when ParA captures one of the daughter oriCs. During spore germination and branching, ParA targets one of the multiple chromosomal copies to the new hyphal tip, enabling efficient elongation of hyphal tube. Thus, our studies reveal a novel role for ParAB proteins during hyphal tip establishment and extension.

  15. Unique Function of the Bacterial Chromosome Segregation Machinery in Apically Growing Streptomyces - Targeting the Chromosome to New Hyphal Tubes and its Anchorage at the Tips. (United States)

    Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Strzałka, Agnieszka; Lipietta, Natalia; Tilley, Emma; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Herron, Paul; Jakimowicz, Dagmara


    The coordination of chromosome segregation with cell growth is fundamental to the proliferation of any organism. In most unicellular bacteria, chromosome segregation is strictly coordinated with cell division and involves ParA that moves the ParB nucleoprotein complexes bi- or unidirectionally toward the cell pole(s). However, the chromosome organization in multiploid, apically extending and branching Streptomyces hyphae challenges the known mechanisms of bacterial chromosome segregation. The complex Streptomyces life cycle involves two stages: vegetative growth and sporulation. In the latter stage, multiple cell divisions accompanied by chromosome compaction and ParAB assisted segregation turn multigenomic hyphal cell into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, the requirement for active chromosome segregation is unclear in the absence of canonical cell division during vegetative growth except in the process of branch formation. The mechanism by which chromosomes are targeted to new hyphae in streptomycete vegetative growth has remained unknown until now. Here, we address the question of whether active chromosome segregation occurs at this stage. Applied for the first time in Streptomyces, labelling of the chromosomal replication initiation region (oriC) and time-lapse microscopy, revealed that in vegetative hyphae every copy of the chromosome is complexed with ParB, whereas ParA, through interaction with the apical protein complex (polarisome), tightly anchors only one chromosome at the hyphal tip. The anchor is maintained during replication, when ParA captures one of the daughter oriCs. During spore germination and branching, ParA targets one of the multiple chromosomal copies to the new hyphal tip, enabling efficient elongation of hyphal tube. Thus, our studies reveal a novel role for ParAB proteins during hyphal tip establishment and extension.

  16. Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for the management of chickpea wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Jahanshir


    Full Text Available In this study, about 112 isolates of Streptomyces were isolated from chickpea rhizospheric soils. Among the isolated strains, five showed strong inhibitory effects against chickpea Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in vitro using plate assay and selected for further studies. The selected strains were identified as Streptomyces spp. based on morphological and biochemical characterization as well as 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Our results assigned them to strains related to genus of Streptomyces. In vitro, antagonistic effects of Streptomyces strains against the disease were evaluated through the dual-culture method, volatile and non-volatile metabolites, siderophore, protease and chitinase production. All bacterial strains inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen ranging from 26 to 44.2% in dual culture assay. The non-volatile extract of five of the Streptomyces strains inhibited more than 50% growth of the pathogen, whereas volatile compounds were less effective on mycelial growth inhibition (20.2 to 33.4%. The ability of the biocontrol agents to produce siderophore and protease were varied, whereas, production of chitinase was detected for all strains. Results of the greenhouse assay indicated that all biocontrol agents reduced disease severity (ranging from 38.7 to 54.8%. Accordingly, strain KS62 showed higher control efficacy (54.8%. In addition, the biomass of chickpea plants (plant height and dry weight significantly increased in plants treated with Streptomyces strains compared to non-bacterized control. The results of this study showed that it may be possible to manage chickpea Fusarium wilt disease effectively by using Streptomyces species, as biocontrol agents. Therefore, evaluating their efficiency under field conditions is needed.

  17. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary. (United States)

    Comfort, Nathaniel


    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner's time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one's sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such 'mixed mechanisms' in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a 'transparent' and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham's architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham's model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing.

  18. Modeling adsorption and reactions of organic molecules at metal surfaces. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Scheffler, Matthias


    CONSPECTUS: The understanding of adsorption and reactions of (large) organic molecules at metal surfaces plays an increasingly important role in modern surface science and technology. Such hybrid inorganic/organic systems (HIOS) are relevant for many applications in catalysis, light-emitting diodes, single-molecule junctions, molecular sensors and switches, and photovoltaics. Obviously, the predictive modeling and understanding of the structure and stability of such hybrid systems is an essential prerequisite for tuning their electronic properties and functions. At present, density-functional theory (DFT) is the most promising approach to study the structure, stability, and electronic properties of complex systems, because it can be applied to both molecules and solids comprising thousands of atoms. However, state-of-the-art approximations to DFT do not provide a consistent and reliable description for HIOS, which is largely due to two issues: (i) the self-interaction of the electrons with themselves arising from the Hartree term of the total energy that is not fully compensated in approximate exchange-correlation functionals, and (ii) the lack of long-range part of the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The self-interaction errors sometimes lead to incorrect description of charge transfer and electronic level alignment in HIOS, although for molecules adsorbed on metals these effects will often cancel out in total energy differences. Regarding vdW interactions, several promising vdW-inclusive DFT-based methods have been recently demonstrated to yield remarkable accuracy for intermolecular interactions in the gas phase. However, the majority of these approaches neglect the nonlocal collective electron response in the vdW energy tail, an effect that is particularly strong in condensed phases and at interfaces between different materials. Here we show that the recently developed DFT+vdW(surf) method that accurately accounts for the collective electronic

  19. On agent cooperation : The relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den


    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  20. On agent cooperation : the relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.


    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  1. Modelling and Optimization of Organization of Workplaces in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a practical example of improvement of foundry production systems in terms of post-finishing of nodular iron castings produced in the conditions of bulk production for automotive industry. The attention was paid to high labour-intensive efforts, which are difficult to be subjected to mechanization and automation. The times of actions related to grinding processing of castings in three grinding positions connected with a belt conveyor were estimated with the use of a time study method. A bottleneck as well as limiting factors were specified in a system. A number of improvements were proposed, aimed at improving work organization on the castings post-finishing line. An analysis of work ergonomics at the workplace was made in order to eliminate unnecessary and onerous for the employee actions. A model of production system using the Arena software, on which a simulation experiment was conducted, was drawn up in order to visualize the analysed phenomena. The effects of the project were shown on graphs comparing times, costs, work ergonomics and overall efficiency of production equipment indicator.

  2. Pristinamycin I biosynthesis in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis: molecular characterization of the first two structural peptide synthetase genes. (United States)

    de Crécy-Lagard, V; Blanc, V; Gil, P; Naudin, L; Lorenzon, S; Famechon, A; Bamas-Jacques, N; Crouzet, J; Thibaut, D


    Two genes involved in the biosynthesis of the depsipeptide antibiotics pristinamycins I (PI) produced by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis were cloned and sequenced. The 1.7-kb snbA gene encodes a 3-hydroxypicolinic acid:AMP ligase, and the 7.7-kb snbC gene encodes PI synthetase 2, responsible for incorporating L-threonine and L-aminobutyric acid in the PI macrocycle. snbA and snbC, which encode the two first structural enzymes of PI synthesis, are not contiguous. Both genes are located in PI-specific transcriptional units, as disruption of one gene or the other led to PI-deficient strains producing normal levels of the polyunsaturated macrolactone antibiotic pristinamycin II, also produced by S. pristinaespiralis. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the SnbA protein is a member of the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily and that the SnbC protein contains two amino acid-incorporating modules and a C-terminal epimerization domain. A model for the initiation of PI synthesis analogous to the established model of initiation of fatty acid synthesis is proposed. PMID:9006024

  3. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials (United States)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  4. A bio-mathematical model for parallel organs and its use in ranking radiation treatment plans. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Wenhui; Bai, Han; Chang, Li; Qin, Jiyong; Hou, Yu


    To develop a new bio-mathematical model, named LQ-based parallel-organ model, that can overcome the limitation of interpreting the simple dose-volume information so as to rank the radio- toxicity of parallel organs in the same patient. A parallel organ consists of Function Subunits (FSUs), with each FSU being equal and representative in functional status. Based on the Linear-Quadratic model (LQ model), we had derived a bio-mathematical model to calculate the survival cell number for radiation dose response. We then compared the cell survival number for the ranking of treatment plans for the same patient. Ninety 3D plans from forty-five randomly selected lung cancer patients were generated using the ELEKTA precise 2.12 treatment planning system. The LQ-based parallel-organ model was tested against the widely used Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model (LKB model). There was no distinct statistical difference in plan ranking between using the LQ-based parallel-organ model and the LKB model (P = 0.475). Ranking plans by the V(x), Mean Lung Dose (MLD) and the LQ-based parallel-organ model shows that there was no distinct statistical difference between V(5), V(10), V(20), MLD and the LQ-based parallel-organ model, respectively (all Ps > 0.05). The proposed LQ-based parallel-organ model was found to be efficient and reliable for ranking treatment plans for the same patient.

  5. Sourcing organization and management model in spare parts business : Case study


    Kilpeläinen, Kimmo


    The aim of this study was to find the best sourcing organization and management model in the spare parts business, co-operating with global sourcing in division-structured organization. The first phase of the research was done using quantitative research methods. The organization models A, B, and C were built based on the findings from literature review and an internal survey in the global spare parts organization. The internal survey covered answers from 14 countries inside case study co...

  6. Mature and emerging organic markets: Modelling consumer attitude and behaviour with Partial Least Square Approach


    Meyer-Höfer, Marie von; Jaik, Evelyn Olea; Bravo, Carlos Padilla; Spiller, Achim


    Although the organic food sector has been the subject of research for around 20 years, little is known about consumer behaviour when comparing developed and emerging organic food markets using causal research models. Thus, by developing a behavioural model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this research article is to investigate the main determinants of organic food consumption in a mature (Germany) and an emerging (Chile) organic market. Subjects aged 18 or above wer...

  7. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole


    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  8. Genetic background affects pathogenicity island function and pathogen emergence in Streptomyces. (United States)

    Zhang, Yucheng; Jiang, Guangde; Ding, Yousong; Loria, Rosemary


    With few exceptions, thaxtomin A (ThxA), a nitrated diketopiperazine, is the pathogenicity determinant for plant-pathogenic Streptomyces species. In Streptomyces scabiei (syn. S. scabies), the ThxA biosynthetic cluster is located within a 177-kb mobile pathogenicity island (PAI), called the toxicogenic region (TR). In S. turgidiscabies, the ThxA biosynthetic cluster is located within a 674-kb pathogenicity island (PAIst). The emergence of new plant pathogens occurs in this genus, but not frequently. This raises the question of whether the mobilization of these pathogenicity regions, through mating, is widespread and whether TR and PAIst can confer plant pathogenicity. We showed that ThxA biosynthetic clusters on TR and PAIst were transferred into strains from five non-pathogenic Streptomyces species through mating with S. scabiei and S. turgidiscabies. However, not all of the transconjugants produced ThxA and exhibited the virulence phenotype, indicating that the genetic background of the recipient strains affects the functionality of the ThxA biosynthetic cluster and therefore would be expected to affect the emergence of novel pathogenic Streptomyces species. Thxs have been patented as natural herbicides, but have yet to be commercialized. Our results also demonstrated the potential of the heterologous production of ThxA as a natural and biodegradable herbicide in non-pathogenic Streptomyces species. © 2018 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Do tradeoffs structure antibiotic inhibition, resistance, and resource use among soil-borne Streptomyces? (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel C; Kinkel, Linda L


    Tradeoffs among competing traits are believed to be crucial to the maintenance of diversity in complex communities. The production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors and resistance to antibiotic inhibition are two traits hypothesized to be critical to microbial fitness in natural habitats, yet data on costs or tradeoffs associated with these traits are limited. In this work we characterized tradeoffs between antibiotic inhibition or resistance capacities and growth efficiencies or niche widths for a broad collection of Streptomyces from soil. Streptomyces isolates tended to have either very little or very high inhibitory capacity. In contrast, Streptomyces isolates were most commonly resistant to antibiotic inhibition by an intermediate number of other isolates. Streptomyces with either very high antibiotic inhibitory or resistance capacities had less efficient growth and utilized a smaller number of resources for growth (smaller niche width) than those with low inhibition or resistance capacities, suggesting tradeoffs between antibiotic inhibitory or resistance and resource use phenotypes. This work suggests that life-history tradeoffs may be crucial to the maintenance of the vast diversity of antibiotic inhibitory and resistance phenotypes found among Streptomyces in natural communities.

  10. Organics. (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.


    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Organizers. (United States)

    Callison, Daniel


    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  12. A review of modelling the interaction between natural organic matter and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.


    This report reviews techniques available to model the interaction between natural organic matter (mainly fulvic and humic acids) and metal cations and protons. A comprehensive overview over the properties of natural organic matter is given and experimental techniques are presented briefly. Two major concepts of modelling have been identified: discrete ligand models and continuous distribution model. Different modelling approaches like Discrete Ligand Models (s.s.), Random-Structure Model, Affinity Spectra, Statistical Distribution Models, Continuous Stability Function Models and surface sorption models and their advantages/disadvantages are discussed. (author)

  13. Characterization of the integration and modular excision of the integrative conjugative element PAISt in Streptomyces turgidiscabies Car8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C Huguet-Tapia

    Full Text Available PAISt is a large genomic island located in the chromosome of the plant pathogen Streptomyces turgidiscabies Car8. The island carries clustered virulence genes, transfers to other Streptomyces species, and integrates by site-specific recombination at the 8 bp palindrome TTCATGAA. The palindrome is located at the 3' end of the bacitracin resistance gene (bacA. We demonstrate that PAISt is able to excise in modules by recombination of one internal and two flanking palindromic direct repeats. The gene intSt located at the 3( end of PAISt encodes a tyrosine recombinase. Site-specific recombination activity of intSt was tested and confirmed by heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor. Comparative analysis of PAISt homologues in Streptomyces scabies 87-22 and Streptomyces acidiscabies 84-104 indicates that these islands have been fixed by sequence erosion of intSt and the recombination sites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  15. Identification of biosynthetic gene clusters from metagenomic libraries using PPTase complementation in a Streptomyces host. (United States)

    Bitok, J Kipchirchir; Lemetre, Christophe; Ternei, Melinda A; Brady, Sean F


    The majority of environmental bacteria are not readily cultured in the lab, leaving the natural products they make inaccessible using culture-dependent discovery methods. Cloning and heterologous expression of DNA extracted from environmental samples (environmental DNA, eDNA) provides a means of circumventing this discovery bottleneck. To facilitate the identification of clones containing biosynthetic gene clusters, we developed a model heterologous expression reporter strain Streptomyces albus::bpsA ΔPPTase. This strain carries a 4΄-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase)-dependent blue pigment synthase A gene, bpsA, in a PPTase deletion background. eDNA clones that express a functional PPTase restore production of the blue pigment, indigoidine. As PPTase genes often occur in biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), indigoidine production can be used to identify eDNA clones containing BGCs. We screened a soil eDNA library hosted in S. albus::bpsA ΔPPTase and identified clones containing non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS) and mixed NRPS/PKS biosynthetic gene clusters. One NRPS gene cluster was shown to confer the production of myxochelin A to S. albus::bpsA ΔPPTase. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Identification of a novel DFA I-producing inulin fructotransferase from Streptomyces davawensis. (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Yu, Shuhuai; Huang, Danyang; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng


    In this work, a novel gene encoding DFA I-forming inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) from Streptomyces davawensis SK39.001 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified, identified, and characterized. The results showed that this IFTase (DFA I-forming) is a trimer (molecular weight of 125KDa) consisting of three identical subunits (the molecular weight as assayed by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40KDa). At pH 5.5 and 40°C, the maximum specific activity (approximately 100Umg -1 ) was achieved. Moreover, the enzyme was stable up to 70°C. K m and V max were 2.89±0.2mM and 1.94±0.9mMmin -1 , respectively. For exploring putative active sites and probable catalytic mechanisms, homology modelling and molecular docking methods after site-directed mutagenesis were applied to IFTase (DFA I-forming). The results revealed that D183 and E194 were potential catalytic residues of the purified enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of keratinase production and enzyme activity using response surface methodology with Streptomyces sp7. (United States)

    Tatineni, Radhika; Doddapaneni, Kiran Kumar; Potumarthi, Ravi Chandra; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu


    A two-step response surface methodology (RSM) study was conducted for the optimization of keratinase production and enzyme activity from poultry feather by Streptomyces sp7. Initially different combinations of salts were screened for maximal production of keratinase at a constant pH of 6.5 and feather meal concentration of 5 g/L. A combination of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, and NaCl gave a maximum yield of keratinase (70.9 U/mL) production. In the first step of the RSM study, the selected five variables (feather meal, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, NaCl, and pH) were optimized by a 25 full-factorial rotatable central composite design (CCD) that resulted in 95 U/mL of keratinase production. The results of analysis of variance and regression of a second-order model showed that the linear effects of feather meal concentration (pNaCl (penzyme activity. These optima were pH 11.0, 45 degrees C, and 300 rpm.

  18. Thermal stability and conformational changes of transglutaminase from a newly isolated Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (United States)

    Cui, Li; Du, Guocheng; Zhang, Dongxu; Chen, Jian


    Thermal stability and conformational changes of transglutaminase (TGase) from a newly isolated Streptomyces hygroscopicus were investigated in this study. The inactivation kinetics of the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was fitted using one-step inactivation model. It was much more stable under 40 degrees C. The half-lives for the MTGase at 50 degrees C and 60 degrees C were only 20 min and 8 min, respectively. Spectroscopic studies of the enzyme suggested conformational transition from ordered secondary structural elements (alpha/beta-protein) to unordered structure during thermal denaturation. Some polyols could improve the thermal stability of the enzyme. Among the polyols examined, the prolonged half-lives of 40 min at 50 degrees C and 20 min at 60 degrees C were gained by adding 10% glycerol. The results of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed a distinct transition peak with a significant greater Tm and DeltaH for the MTGase mixed with polyols in comparison with the control, which indicated that the polyols could maintain the natural structure of the enzyme to some extent. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of cross-linked casein confirmed that the stabilizers could protect the MTGase from thermal denaturation.

  19. Expanding the chemical space for natural products by Aspergillus-Streptomyces co-cultivation and biotransformation (United States)

    Wu, Changsheng; Zacchetti, Boris; Ram, Arthur F.J.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Claessen, Dennis; Hae Choi, Young


    Actinomycetes and filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds, with applications as antimicrobials, anticancer agents or agrochemicals. Their genomes contain a far larger number of gene clusters for natural products than originally anticipated, and novel approaches are required to exploit this potential reservoir of new drugs. Here, we show that co-cultivation of the filamentous model microbes Streptomyces coelicolor and Aspergillus niger has a major impact on their secondary metabolism. NMR-based metabolomics combined with multivariate data analysis revealed several compounds that correlated specifically to co-cultures, including the cyclic dipeptide cyclo(Phe-Phe) and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, both of which were produced by A. niger in response to S. coelicolor. Furthermore, biotransformation studies with o-coumaric acid and caffeic acid resulted in the production of the novel compounds (E)-2-(3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl)-phenol and (2E,4E)-3-(2-carboxy-1-hydroxyethyl)-2,4-hexadienedioxic acid, respectively. This highlights the utility of microbial co-cultivation combined with NMR-based metabolomics as an efficient pipeline for the discovery of novel natural products. PMID:26040782

  20. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin


    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  1. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton


    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  2. Isolation, Identification and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Streptomyces flavogriseus, strain ACTK2 from Soil Sample of Kodagu, Karnataka State (India). (United States)

    Khandan Dezfully, Nooshin; Gottravalli Ramanayaka, Janardhana


    The search for novel antibiotics continues to be of immense importance in research programs around the world for pharmaceutical, industrial and agricultural applications. Filamentous soil bacteria, belonging to the Streptomyces genus, are widely used as an important biological tool for their ability to produce a wide range of novel secondary metabolites, such as "antibiotics". The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify a strain of Streptomyces with high antibiotic production capability. The soil sample was collected randomly from the agricultural land of Kushalnagar Taluk of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India. The ACTK2 strain was isolated by serial dilution method and identified based on cultural, morphological, microscopic, biochemical and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene parameters. The isolated ACTK2 was analyzed for antimicrobial activities by perpendicular streak and disc diffusion methods, against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), Gram-negative Escherichia. coli (MTCC 729), Enterococcus aerogenes (MTCC 2829) and filamentous fungi (Trichoderma harizianum (MTCC6046), Fusarium proliferatum (MTCC 9375). Further, an antimicrobial metabolite from the ACTK2 strain was extracted by solvent extraction method, using n-butanol. The production of the antimicrobial compound by the ACTK2 strain was optimized by using different nutritional media and cultural conditions. The strain Streptomyces flavogriseus designated as ACTK2 (Accession number KC990785) isolated from the soil sample of Kushalnagar Taluk, Kodagu, Karnataka, India, exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms. The optimum growth and antimicrobial compound production by strain ACTK2 was found to be a maximal pH 8, in the shaker incubator at 28ºC, for a period of 10 days. The crude n-butanol extract of the ACTK2 strain of S. flavogriseus showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against the

  3. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere (United States)

    Sagan, C.


    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.


    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza


    Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization's work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be identified using proper

  5. Dual chamber stent prevents organ malperfusion in a model of donation after cardiac death. (United States)

    Tillman, Bryan W; Chun, Youngjae; Cho, Sung Kwon; Chen, Yanfei; Liang, Nathan; Maul, Timothy; Demetris, Anthony; Gu, Xinzhu; Wagner, William R; Tevar, Amit D


    The paradigm for donation after cardiac death subjects donor organs to ischemic injury. A dual-chamber organ perfusion stent would maintain organ perfusion without affecting natural cardiac death. A center lumen allows uninterrupted cardiac blood flow, while an external chamber delivers oxygenated blood to the visceral vessels. A prototype organ perfusion stent was constructed from commercial stents. In a porcine model, the organ perfusion stent was deployed, followed by a simulated agonal period. Oxygenated blood perfused the external stent chamber. Organ perfusion was compared between controls (n = 3) and organ perfusion stent (n = 6). Finally, a custom, nitinol, dual chamber organ perfusion stent was fabricated using a retrievable "petal and stem" design. Endovascular organ perfusion stent deployment achieved visceral isolation without adverse impact on cardiac parameters. Visceral oxygen delivery was 4.8-fold greater compared with controls. During the agonal period, organs in organ perfusion stent-treated animals appeared well perfused in contrast with the malperfused controls. A custom nitinol and polyurethane organ perfusion stent was recaptured easily with simple sheath advancement. An organ perfusion stent maintained organ perfusion during the agonal phase in a porcine model of donation after cardiac death organ donation without adversely affecting cardiac function. Ultimately, the custom retrievable design of this study may help resolve the critical shortage of donor organs for transplant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for the spatial and temporal expression of actIII in Streptomyces coelicolor. (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Errington, Jeff


    Polyketides constitute a large group of structurally diverse natural products with useful biological activities. Insights into their biosynthetic mechanisms are crucial for developing new structures. One of the most studied model polyketide is the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin, produced by Streptomyces coelicolor. This aromatic polyketide is synthesized by minimal type II polyketide synthases and tailoring enzymes. The ActIII actinorhodin ketoreductase is a key tailoring enzyme in actinorhodin biosynthesis. Previous papers have reported contradictory findings for localization of the protein in the cytoplasmic fraction or associated with the cell wall. We have now used green fluorescent protein as a reporter to analyse the spatial and temporal expression of actIII (SCO5086) in S. coelicolor under actinorhodin producing and non-producing conditions. We provide evidence in support of ActIII being a cytosolic protein, with limited if any association with the membrane or cell wall.

  7. Modelling the fate of persistent organic pollutants in Europe: parameterisation of a gridded distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevedouros, Konstantinos; MacLeod, Matthew; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman, Andrew J.


    A regionally segmented multimedia fate model for the European continent is described together with an illustrative steady-state case study examining the fate of γ-HCH (lindane) based on 1998 emission data. The study builds on the regionally segmented BETR North America model structure and describes the regional segmentation and parameterisation for Europe. The European continent is described by a 5 deg. x 5 deg. grid, leading to 50 regions together with four perimetric boxes representing regions buffering the European environment. Each zone comprises seven compartments including; upper and lower atmosphere, soil, vegetation, fresh water and sediment and coastal water. Inter-regions flows of air and water are described, exploiting information originating from GIS databases and other georeferenced data. The model is primarily designed to describe the fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) within the European environment by examining chemical partitioning and degradation in each region, and inter-region transport either under steady-state conditions or fully dynamically. A test case scenario is presented which examines the fate of estimated spatially resolved atmospheric emissions of lindane throughout Europe within the lower atmosphere and surface soil compartments. In accordance with the predominant wind direction in Europe, the model predicts high concentrations close to the major sources as well as towards Central and Northeast regions. Elevated soil concentrations in Scandinavian soils provide further evidence of the potential of increased scavenging by forests and subsequent accumulation by organic-rich terrestrial surfaces. Initial model predictions have revealed a factor of 5-10 underestimation of lindane concentrations in the atmosphere. This is explained by an underestimation of source strength and/or an underestimation of European background levels. The model presented can further be used to predict deposition fluxes and chemical inventories, and it

  8. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania (United States)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren


    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  9. A phase model of intergenerational learning in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerpott, F.H.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.; Voelpel, S.C.

    Demographic changes challenge organizations to qualify employees across all career stages and to ensure the transfer of company-specific knowledge between experienced and young workers. Human resource development programs for employees from different generations may help address these challenges.

  10. Modeling the Structure and Effectiveness of Intelligence Organizations: Dynamic Information Flow Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrman, Robert; Carley, Kathleen


    This paper describes the Dynamic Information Flow Simulation (DIFS), an abstract model for analyzing the structure and function of intelligence support organizations and the activities of entities within...

  11. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  12. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  13. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida


    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed r......Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  14. Involvement of alanine 103 residue in kinetic and physicochemical properties of glucose isomerases from Streptomyces species. (United States)

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Rhimi, Moez; Bejar, Samir


    The Ala103 to Gly mutation, introduced within the glucose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. SK (SKGI) decreased its catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) toward D-glucose from 7.1 to 3 mM(-1) min(-1). The reverse counterpart replacement Gly103Ala introduced into the glucose isomerase of Streptomyces olivochromogenes (SOGI) considerably improved its catalytic efficiency to be 6.7 instead of 3.2 mM(-1) min(-1). This later mutation also increased the half-life time of the enzyme from 70 to 95 min at 80 degrees C and mainly modified its pH profile. These results provide evidence that the residue Ala103 plays an essential role in the kinetic and physicochemical properties of glucose isomerases from Streptomyces species.

  15. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian


    projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters......Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... concentrations of neomycin (20, 50, and 100 μg ml−1). Promoter strengths varied up to 12-fold, in small increments of activity increase, as determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR. This collection of promoters of various strengths can be useful for the fine-tuning of gene expression in genetic engineering...

  16. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on aluminum biosorption by a mycelial biomass (Streptomyces rimosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassist, Amina; Lounici, Hakim; Abdi, Nadia; Mameri, Nabil


    This work focused on kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on aluminum biosorption by Streptomyces rimosus biomass. Infrared spectroscopy analysis shows that S. rimosus present some groups: hydroxyl, methyl, carboxyl, amine, thiol and phosphate. The maximum biosorption capacity of S. rimosus biomass was found to be 11.76 mg g -1 for the following optimum conditions: particle size,]250-560] μm, pH 4-4.25, biomass content of 25 g L -1 , agitation of 250 rpm and temperature of 25 deg. C. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherms at free pH (pH i 4) and fixed pH (pH f 4). Langmuir model is the most adequate. With fixed pH, the maximum biosorption capacity is enhanced from 6.62 mg g -1 to 11.76 mg g -1 . The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o ) showed the feasibility, endothermic and spontaneous nature of the biosorption at 10-80 deg. C. The activation energy (Ea) was determined as 52.18 kJ mol -1 using the Arrhenius equation and the rate constant of pseudo-second-order model (the most adequate kinetic model). The mean free energy was calculated as 12.91 kJ mol -1 using the D-R isotherm model. The mechanism of Al(III) biosorption on S. rimosus could be a chemical ion exchange and carboxyl groups are mainly involved in this mechanism.

  17. Organism and population-level ecological models for ... (United States)

    Ecological risk assessment typically focuses on animal populations as endpoints for regulatory ecotoxicology. Scientists at USEPA are developing models for animal populations exposed to a wide range of chemicals from pesticides to emerging contaminants. Modeled taxa include aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and birds, and employ a wide range of methods, from matrix-based projection models to mechanistic bioenergetics models and spatially explicit population models. not applicable

  18. Aspartate aminotransferase and tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae. (United States)

    Lee, S H; Lee, K J


    Aspartate aminotransferase as well as valine dehydrogenase and threonine dehydratase was required for the biosynthesis of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702. The biosynthesis of these enzymes and tylosin production were repressed by high concentrations of ammonium ions. The change in specific tylosin production rates in batch cultures with different initial concentrations of ammonium ions showed patterns similar to those of the specific production rates of aspartate aminotransferase, valine dehydrogenase, and threonine dehydratase. Aspartate aminotransferase has been purified by acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and preparative electrophoresis chromatographies. The purified enzyme (120 kDa) consisted of two subunits identical in molecular mass (54 kDa) and showed homogeneity, giving one band with a pI of 4.2 upon preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was specific for L-aspartate in the forward reaction; the Km values were determined to be 2.7 mM for L-aspartate, 0.7 mM for 2-oxyglutarate, 12.8 mM for L-glutamate, and 0.15 mM for oxaloacetate. The enzyme was somewhat thermostable, having a maximum activity at 55 degrees C, and had a broad pH optimum that ranged from 5.5 to 8.0. The mode of action was a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images PMID:8481008

  19. Solubility and crystallization of xylose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus (United States)

    Vuolanto, Antti; Uotila, Sinikka; Leisola, Matti; Visuri, Kalevi


    We have studied the crystallization and crystal solubility of xylose isomerase (XI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus. In this paper, we show a rational approach for developing a large-scale crystallization process for XI. Firstly, we measured the crystal solubility in salt solutions with respect to salt concentration, temperature and pH. In ammonium sulfate the solubility of XI decreased logarithmically when increasing the salt concentration. Surprisingly, the XI crystals had a solubility minimum at low concentration of magnesium sulfate. The solubility of XI in 0.17 M magnesium sulfate was less than 0.5 g l -1. The solubility of XI increased logarithmically when increasing the temperature. We also found a solubility minimum around pH 7. This is far from the isoelectric point of XI (pH 3.95). Secondly, based on the solubility study, we developed a large-scale crystallization process for XI. In a simple and economical cooling crystallization of XI from 0.17 M magnesium sulfate solution, the recovery of crystalline active enzyme was over 95%. Moreover, we developed a process for production of uniform crystals and produced homogenous crystals with average crystal sizes between 12 and 360 μm.

  20. Release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, R.L.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Reponen, Tiina


    The release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated agar an ceiling tile surfaces was studied under controlled environmental condition in a newly developed aerosolization chamber. The experiments revealed tha both spores and cell fragments can be simultaneously released from the colonized surface by relatively gentle air currents of 0.3 m s -1 . A 100x increase of the air velocity can result in a 50-fold increase in the number of released propagules. The aerosolization rate depends strongly on the typ and roughness of the contaminated surface. Up to 90% of available actinomycete propagules can become airborne during the first 10 min of th release process. Application of vibration to the surface did not reveal an influence on the aerosolization process of S. albus propagules under th tested conditions. This study has shown that propagules in the fine particle size range can be released in large amounts from contaminated surfaces Measurement of the number of S. albus fragments in the vicinity of contaminated area, as an alternative to conventional air or surface sampling appears to be a promising approach for quantitative exposure assessment

  1. Biological treatment of colored wastewater by Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7. (United States)

    Buntić, A V; Pavlović, M D; Šiler-Marinković, S S; Dimitrijević-Branković, S I


    This study aims to investigate the biological processes related to the biodegradable potential of growing microbial cells for contaminated water treatment. Thus, the use of the Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7 (CKS7) has been evaluated for decolorizing efficiency of a solution containing a cationic triphenylmethane dye, crystal violet. The color reduction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis, through changes in their absorption spectrum and comparing the results with those of the respective controls. It was found that the CKS7 performed well and reached up to 100% effectiveness. The required process parameters have been apparently mild and include the reaction temperature of 27-30 °C, 10% inoculum size, under shaking conditions, whereas the time course of decolorization had been concentration dependent. A possible mechanism for removing dye from the working medium was accomplished in two steps: the binding of the dye on the bacterial cell surface, in addition to the dye biodegradation by the bacterial intracellular enzymes. After one cycle of the complete dye removal, the adapted culture was successfully reused for the same purpose. The phytotoxicity analysis revealed that non-toxic compounds were present in decolorized medium, indicating that the CKS7 bacteria seem to be a promising application for contaminated water treatment.

  2. Purification and Characterization of Streptomyces griseus Catechol O-Methyltransferase (United States)

    Dhar, Kajari; Rosazza, John P. N.


    A soluble (100,000 × g supernatant) methyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of the methyl group of S-adenosyl-l-methionine to catechols was present in cell extracts of Streptomyces griseus. A simple, general, and rapid catechol-based assay method was devised for enzyme purification and characterization. The enzyme was purified 141-fold by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and successive chromatography over columns of DEAE-cellulose, DEAE-Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-200. The purified cytoplasmic enzyme required 10 mM magnesium for maximal activity and was catalytically optimal at pH 7.5 and 35°C. The methyltransferase had an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa for both the native and denatured protein, with a pI of 4.4. Novel N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were determined as DFVLDNEGNPLENNGGYXYI and RPDFXLEPPYTGPXKARIIRYFY, respectively. For this enzyme, the Km for 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin was 500 ± 21.5 μM, and that for S-adenosyl-l-methionine was 600 ± 32.5 μM. Catechol, caffeic acid, and 4-nitrocatechol were methyltransferase substrates. Homocysteine was a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, with a Ki of 224 ± 20.6 μM. Sinefungin and S-adenosylhomocysteine inhibited methylation, and the enzyme was inactivated by Hg2+, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:11055938

  3. Regioselective hydroxylation of isoflavones by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680. (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Seo, Su-Hyun; Choi, Kwon-Young; Cha, Minho; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad; Kim, June-Hyung; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ih Seop; Kim, Byung-Gee


    Screening of bacterial whole cells was performed for regioselective hydroxylation of daidzein and genistein. Among the strains examined, Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 showed high ortho-dihydroxylation activity to produce 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone and 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone from daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), respectively. Using 100 mg cells (wet wt.) and 1% (v/v) Triton X100 in 1 ml of total reaction volume, where 100 microl of the substrate solution (0.5 mM in 10% (v/v) mixed solvent of DMSO:MeOH = 3:7) was added to 900 microl of potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.2), a 16% molar conversion yield of 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone was obtained from 0.5 mM daidzein after 24 h of reaction time at 28 degrees C and 200 rpm. Ketoconazole significantly (ca. 90%) inhibited the ortho-hydroxylation activity of daidzein, suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes putatively play roles in regiospecific daidzein hydroxylation. The analysis of the reaction products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and (1)H NMR.

  4. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheir DH


    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6 was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Kh. Bakhitova


    Full Text Available The problem of effectivization of design organization in oil and gas industry is being investigated in terms of system modeling. A method of forming production functions of design organization is considered and used for substantiation of cost, expenses, budget of design organization, as well as the mechanism of transparent interaction, cooperation, coordination and control of field development.

  6. Comparison of activity coefficient models for atmospheric aerosols containing mixtures of electrolytes, organics, and water (United States)

    Tong, Chinghang; Clegg, Simon L.; Seinfeld, John H.

    Atmospheric aerosols generally comprise a mixture of electrolytes, organic compounds, and water. Determining the gas-particle distribution of volatile compounds, including water, requires equilibrium or mass transfer calculations, at the heart of which are models for the activity coefficients of the particle-phase components. We evaluate here the performance of four recent activity coefficient models developed for electrolyte/organic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols. Two of the models, the CSB model [Clegg, S.L., Seinfeld, J.H., Brimblecombe, P., 2001. Thermodynamic modelling of aqueous aerosols containing electrolytes and dissolved organic compounds. Journal of Aerosol Science 32, 713-738] and the aerosol diameter dependent equilibrium model (ADDEM) [Topping, D.O., McFiggans, G.B., Coe, H., 2005. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: part 2—including organic compounds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 1223-1242] treat ion-water and organic-water interactions but do not include ion-organic interactions; these can be referred to as "decoupled" models. The other two models, reparameterized Ming and Russell model 2005 [Raatikainen, T., Laaksonen, A., 2005. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2475-2495] and X-UNIFAC.3 [Erdakos, G.B., Change, E.I., Pandow, J.F., Seinfeld, J.H., 2006. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3. Atmospheric Environment 40, 6437-6452], include ion-organic interactions; these are referred to as "coupled" models. We address the question—Does the inclusion of a treatment of ion-organic interactions substantially improve the performance of the coupled models over

  7. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen


    Full Text Available In this work, existing and modified activity coefficient models are examined in order to assess their capabilities to describe the properties of aqueous solution droplets relevant in the atmosphere. Five different water-organic-electrolyte activity coefficient models were first selected from the literature. Only one of these models included organics and electrolytes which are common in atmospheric aerosol particles. In the other models, organic species were solvents such as alcohols, and important atmospheric ions like NH4+ could be missing. The predictions of these models were compared to experimental activity and solubility data in aqueous single electrolyte solutions with 31 different electrolytes. Based on the deviations from experimental data and on the capabilities of the models, four predictive models were selected for fitting of new parameters for binary and ternary solutions of common atmospheric electrolytes and organics. New electrolytes (H+, NH4+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- and organics (dicarboxylic and some hydroxy acids were added and some modifications were made to the models if it was found useful. All new and most of the existing parameters were fitted to experimental single electrolyte data as well as data for aqueous organics and aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for organic activities in binary solutions and for organic and electrolyte activities in aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. This reduces model capabilities in predicting solubilities. After the parameters were fitted, deviations from measurement data were calculated for all fitted models, and for different data types. These deviations and the calculated property values were compared with those from other non-electrolyte and organic-electrolyte models found in the literature. Finally, hygroscopic growth factors were calculated for four 100 nm organic-electrolyte particles and these predictions were compared to

  8. Chitinase production by Streptomyces viridificans: its potential in fungal cell wall lysis. (United States)

    Gupta, R; Saxena, R K; Chaturvedi, P; Virdi, J S


    Streptomyces viridificans was found to be a good chitinase producer among nine species of Streptomyces screened. Minimum levels of constitutive enzyme were observed with both simple and complex carbon substrate. Arabinose doubled the enzyme production amongst the various pentoses and hexoses used with chitin. However, with glucose end-product inhibition and catabolite repression were observed. The enzyme tolerated a wide range of temperature (30-55 degrees C) and pH (3-7.5). Among various divalent cations Mn2+ and Hg2+ completely inhibited the purified enzyme while beta-mercaptoethanol stimulated its activity. Crude and purified enzyme had potential for cell wall lysis of many fungal pathogens tested.

  9. Modeling and Computation of Thermodynamic Equilibrium for Mixtures of Inorganic and Organic Species (United States)

    Caboussat, A.; Amundson, N. R.; He, J.; Martynenko, A. V.; Seinfeld, J. H.


    A series of modules has been developed in the atmospheric modeling community to predict the phase transition, crystallization and evaporation of inorganic aerosols. Modules for the computation of the thermodynamics of pure organic-containing aerosols have been developed more recently; however, the modeling of aerosols containing mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds has gathered less attention. We present here a model (UHAERO), that is flexible, efficient and rigorously computes the thermodynamic equilibrium of atmospheric particles containing inorganic and organic compounds. It is applied first to mixtures of inorganic electrolytes and dicarboxylic acids, and then to thermodynamic equilibria including crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation. The model does not rely on any a priori specification of the phases present in certain atmospheric conditions. The multicomponent phase equilibrium for a closed organic aerosol system at constant temperature and pressure and for specified feeds is the solution to the equilibrium problem arising from the constrained minimization of the Gibbs free energy. For mixtures of inorganic electrolytes and dissociated organics, organic salts appear at equilibrium in the aqueous phase. In the general case, liquid-liquid phase separations happen and electrolytes dissociate in both aqueous and organic liquid phases. The Gibbs free energy is modeled by the UNIFAC model for the organic compounds, the PSC model for the inorganic constituents and a Pitzer model for interactions. The difficulty comes from the accurate estimation of interactions in the modeling of the activity coefficients. An accurate and efficient method for the computation of the minimum of energy is used to compute phase diagrams for mixtures of inorganic and organic species. Numerical results show the efficiency of the model for mixtures of inorganic electrolytes and organic acids, which make it suitable for insertion in global three-dimensional air quality

  10. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo


    description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces...

  11. Financial Organization Information Security System Development using Modeling, IT assets and Accounts Classification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Zaytsev


    Full Text Available This article deals with processes of modeling, IT assets and account classification. Key principles of these processes configuration are pointed up. Also a model of Russian Federation banking system organization is developed.

  12. Computer kinetic modelling of radionuclide accumulation in Marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintella, H.M.; Santimateo, D.; Paschoa, A.S.


    Continuous System Modelling Program (CSMP) is used to simulate the first step of the kinetic of a radionuclide in a food chain by using the exponential model of accumulation from water-to-algae based on data found in the literature. The use of computer modelling as a tool for environmental studies is discussed as far as economical advantages and future applications are concerned

  13. Model to the evolution of the organic matter in the pampa's soil. Relation with cultivation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriulo, Adrian; Mary, Bruno; Guerif, Jerome; Balesdent, Jerome


    The objective of the work is to present a model to describe the evolution of the organic matter in soils of the Argentine's pampa. This model can be utilised to evaluate the evolution of the soil's fertility in the agricultural production at this moment. Three kinds of assay were done. The determination of organic carbon made possible to prove the Henin-Dupuis model and a derived model

  14. Enhancement of organic acids production from model kitchen waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for organic acids production from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste using response surface methodology (RSM). Fermentation was carried out using 250 ml shake flask which was incubated using an orbital shaker set at 200 rpm. Fermented kitchen wastes were ...

  15. The Learning Organization: A Model for Educational Change. (United States)

    Brown, Rexford


    Analyzes public school bureaucracy and ways to reform institutions into learning communities that value shared knowledge and learning experiences. Describes how a bureaucratic organizational structure impairs learning. Proposes the "learning organization" in which adults learn alongside students, planning is decentralized, families are…

  16. A Model System of Bibliographic Organization for Library Science Literature. (United States)

    Corrigan, Philip R. D.

    The first section establishes a working definition of library science and outlines the existing publications patterns of library science information. The existing system of bibliographic organization is examined in detail and services provided in the U.S.S.R. are described as an example of a systematic attempt at world coverage. In late 1967,…

  17. Model-based remote sensing algorithms for particulate organic carbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrographic data, including particulate organic carbon (POC) from the Northeastern Gulf of. Mexico (NEGOM) ... along the Gulf Coast. The Northeastern Gulf of. Mexico (NEGOM), Louisiana–Texas Shelf Physi- cal Oceanography Program (LATEX), and hypoxia ..... shelf based on 32 months of moored current meter data;.

  18. Streptogramin B biosynthesis in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis and Streptomyces virginiae: molecular characterization of the last structural peptide synthetase gene. (United States)

    de Crécy-Lagard, V; Saurin, W; Thibaut, D; Gil, P; Naudin, L; Crouzet, J; Blanc, V


    Streptomyces pristinaespiralis and S. virginiae both produce closely related hexadepsipeptide antibiotics of the streptogramin B family. Pristinamycins I and virginiamycins S differ only in the fifth incorporated precursor, di(mono)methylated amine and phenylalanine, respectively. By using degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from internal sequences of the purified S. pristinaespiralis SnbD and SnbE proteins, the genes from two streptogramin B producers, S. pristinaespiralis and S. virginiae, encoding the peptide synthetase involved in the activation and incorporation of the last four precursors (proline, 4-dimethylparaaminophenylalanine [for pristinamycin I(A)] or phenylalanine [for virginiamycin S], pipecolic acid, and phenylglycine) were cloned. Analysis of the sequence revealed that SnbD and SnbE are encoded by a unique snbDE gene. SnbDE (4,849 amino acids [aa]) contains four amino acid activation domains, four condensation domains, an N-methylation domain, and a C-terminal thioesterase domain. Comparison of the sequences of 55 amino acid-activating modules from different origins confirmed that these sequences contain enough information for the performance of legitimate predictions of their substrate specificity. Partial sequencing (1,993 aa) of the SnbDE protein of S. virginiae allowed comparison of the proline and aromatic acid activation domains of the two species and the identification of coupled frameshift mutations. PMID:9303382

  19. Is there a global model of learning organizations? An empirical, cross-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shipton, H.; Zhou, Q.; Mooi, E.A.


    This paper develops and tests a learning organization model derived from HRM and dynamic capability literatures in order to ascertain the model's applicability across divergent global contexts. We define a learning organization as one capable of achieving on-going strategic renewal, arguing based on

  20. The Family FIRO Model: A Modest Proposal for Organizing Family Treatment. (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Colangelo, Nicholas


    Presents a model for organizing family issues and family treatment. Schutz's Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) model is offered as a framework for organizing family issues into inclusion, control, and affection categories, constituting a logical hierarchy of core issues to be dealt with in treating multiproblem families. (JAC)

  1. Peningkatan Keterampilan Pengambilan Keputusan Dan Penguasaan Konsep IPA Melalui Model Pembelajaran Advance Organizer Di Sekolah Dasar




    Peningkatan Keterampilan Pengambilan Keputusan dan Penguasaan Konsep IPA melalui Model Pembelajaran Advance Organizer di Sekolah Dasar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan peningkatan keterampilan pengambilan keputusan dan pemahaman konsep IPA siswa sebagai dampak dari implementasi model Advance Organizer. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuasi eksperimen dengan desain Non equivalent (Pre-Test and Post- Test) Control Groups Design. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas V pada ...

  2. Genome-scale metabolic network guided engineering of Streptomyces tsukubaensis for FK506 production improvement. (United States)

    Huang, Di; Li, Shanshan; Xia, Menglei; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang


    FK506 is an important immunosuppressant, which can be produced by Streptomyces tsukubaensis. However, the production capacity of the strain is very low. Hereby, a computational guided engineering approach was proposed in order to improve the intracellular precursor and cofactor availability of FK506 in S. tsukubaensis. First, a genome-scale metabolic model of S. tsukubaensis was constructed based on its annotated genome and biochemical information. Subsequently, several potential genetic targets (knockout or overexpression) that guaranteed an improved yield of FK506 were identified by the recently developed methodology. To validate the model predictions, each target gene was manipulated in the parent strain D852, respectively. All the engineered strains showed a higher FK506 production, compared with D852. Furthermore, the combined effect of the genetic modifications was evaluated. Results showed that the strain HT-ΔGDH-DAZ with gdhA-deletion and dahp-, accA2-, zwf2-overexpression enhanced FK506 concentration up to 398.9 mg/L, compared with 143.5 mg/L of the parent strain D852. Finally, fed-batch fermentations of HT-ΔGDH-DAZ were carried out, which led to the FK506 production of 435.9 mg/L, 1.47-fold higher than the parent strain D852 (158.7 mg/L). Results confirmed that the promising targets led to an increase in FK506 titer. The present work is the first attempt to engineer the primary precursor pathways to improve FK506 production in S. tsukubaensis with genome-scale metabolic network guided metabolic engineering. The relationship between model prediction and experimental results demonstrates the rationality and validity of this approach for target identification. This strategy can also be applied to the improvement of other important secondary metabolites.

  3. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in a 3-Dimensional Regional Air Quality Model (United States)

    Michelangeli, D.; Xia, A.; Makar, P.


    An adaptation of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield method of Odum et al. [1996] has been used as a framework for the SOA formation, with extrapolation to low NOx/hydrocarbon ratios conditions, and including a parameterization for oligomer formation. The modified methodology includes: (1) extrapolation of the parameters used for the SOA formation from the oxidation of toluene to low NOx/HC ratio—resembling ambient atmospheric conditions; (2) a simplified parameterization scheme for the formation of the oligomers, which comprise half of the total SOA mass in the test conditions examined, (3) temperature dependencies inherent in vaporization enthalpy; (4) interactions with primary organic aerosols (POA) and (5) compound interaction through the application of a modified UNIFAC method, including water uptake due to the existence of the SOA. In comparison with previous work, the oligomers-formation scheme helps improve the predicted SOA mass concentrations compared to observations. The SOA module is implemented into a regional air quality model (MC2AQ) in the domain of Northeastern United States and Southern Ontario and Quebec during the month of July 1999. The model results are then evaluated against observational data from the IMPROVE network. Generally, the predicted POA are reasonably described at different monitoring sites. Moreover, the concentrations of the SOA and total organic aerosol (TOA) at the rural areas are close to the observed data; however, the SOA concentrations are underpredicted at a selected urban site, which leads to the underprediction of the TOA at the urban site. This is partly due to the lumping of the chemical mechanism for the SOA formation in the urban atmosphere. Moreover, the overall gas/particle partitioning is analyzed during the study period at two representative sites. The results showed that temperature has a stronger effect on SOA formation than the presence of POA, and low temperature is favored to the formation of the SOA

  4. Democracy versus dictatorship in self-organized models of financial markets (United States)

    D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.


    Models to mimic the transmission of information in financial markets are introduced. As an attempt to generate the demand process, we distinguish between dictatorship associations, where groups of agents rely on one of them to make decision, and democratic associations, where each agent takes part in the group decision. In the dictatorship model, agents segregate into two distinct populations, while the democratic model is driven towards a critical state where groups of agents of all sizes exist. Hence, both models display a level of organization, but only the democratic model is self-organized. We show that the dictatorship model generates less-volatile markets than the democratic model.

  5. Characterization of Streptomyces netropsis Showing a Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang


    Full Text Available Control of nematode has become difficult owing to the restricted use of effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide, and other non-fumigant nematicides. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop microbial nematicide to replace chemical nematicides. In this study, the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of fermentation broths of 2,700 actinomycete strains were tested for their nematicidal activity against second stage of juveniles (J2s of Meloidogyne incognita. As the results, only the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of AN110065, at 20% equivalent to 10% fermentation broth, showed strong nematicidal activity with 78.9% of mortality 24 h after treatment and 94.1% of mortality at 72 h. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strain sequence was 99.78% identical to Streptomyces netropsis. The extract of S. netropsis AN110065 fermentation broth was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate and butanol and then the ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers were investigated for their nematicidal activity against the M. incognita. At 1,000 mg/ml, ethyl acetate layer showed the strongest activity of 83.5% of juvenile mortality 72 h after treatment. The pot experiment using the fermentation broth of AN110065 on tomato plant against M. incognita displayed that it evidently suppressed gall formation at a 10-fold diluent treatment. The tomato plants treated with the fermentation broth of S. netropsis AN110065 did not show any phytotoxicity. The results suggest that S. netropsis AN110065 has a potential to serve as microbial nematicide in organic agriculture.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Galactofuranose-Specific β-D-Galactofuranosidase from Streptomyces Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Matsunaga

    Full Text Available β-D-galactofuranose (Galf is a component of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates and its transferase has been well analyzed. However, no β-D-galactofuranosidase (Galf-ase gene has been identified in any organism. To search for a Galf-ase gene we screened soil samples and discovered a strain, identified as a Streptomyces species by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis, that exhibits Galf-ase activity for 4-nitrophenyl β-D-galactofuranoside (pNP-β-D-Galf in culture supernatants. By draft genome sequencing of the strain, named JHA19, we found four candidate genes encoding Galf-ases. Using recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, we found that three out of four candidates displayed the activity of not only Galf-ase but also α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Araf-ase, whereas the other one showed only the Galf-ase activity. This novel Galf-specific hydrolase is encoded by ORF1110 and has an optimum pH of 5.5 and a Km of 4.4 mM for the substrate pNP-β-D-Galf. In addition, this enzyme was able to release galactose residue from galactomannan prepared from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, suggesting that natural polysaccharides could be also substrates. By the BLAST search using the amino acid sequence of ORF1110 Galf-ase, we found that there are homolog genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, indicating that Galf-specific Galf-ases widely exist in microorganisms.

  7. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre


    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Mycemycin Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012 and Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.235

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangying Song


    Full Text Available Mycemycins A–E are new members of the dibenzoxazepinone (DBP family, derived from the gntR gene-disrupted deep sea strain Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012Δ1741 and the soil strain Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.235. In this paper, we report the identification of the gene clusters and pathways’ inference for mycemycin biosynthesis in the two strains. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome sequences of S. olivaceus FXJ8.012Δ1741 and S. sp. FXJ1.235 predicted two divergent mycemycin gene clusters, mym and mye, respectively. Heterologous expression of the key enzyme genes of mym and genetic manipulation of mye as well as a feeding study in S. sp. FXJ1.235 confirmed the gene clusters and led to the proposed biosynthetic pathways for mycemycins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on DBP biosynthetic gene clusters and pathways.

  9. Models for governing relationships in healthcare organizations: Some empirical evidence. (United States)

    Romiti, Anna; Del Vecchio, Mario; Grazzini, Maddalena


    Recently, most European countries have undergone integration processes through mergers and strategic alliances between healthcare organizations. The present paper examined three cases within the Italian National Health Service in order to determine how different organizations, within differing institutional contexts, govern an healthcare integration process. Furthermore, we explored the possibility that the governance mode, usually seen as alternatives (i.e., merger or alliance), could be considered as a separate step in the development of a more suitable integration process. Multiple case studies were used to compare different integration approaches. Specifically, three cases were considered, of which two were characterized by collaborative processes and the other by a merger. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers involved in the processes. Each case presents different governing modes, structures, and mechanisms for achieving integration. The role played by the institutional context also led to different results with unique advantages and disadvantages. Three main conclusions are discussed: (a) Alliances and mergers can be interpreted as different steps in a path leading to a better integration; (b) The alignment between institutional/political time horizon and the time needed for the organizations to achieve an integration process lead to a better integration; (c) Trust plays an important role in integration process operating at different levels that of institutional and organizational level and that built between people.

  10. Fluostatins M-Q Featuring a 6-5-6-6 Ring Skeleton and High Oxidized A-Rings from Marine Streptomyces sp. PKU-MA00045. (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tan; Xiao, Hua; Wang, Guiyang; Zhou, Mengjie; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Yingtao; Liu, Dong; Chen, Minghua; Cheng, Wei; Yang, Donghui; Ma, Ming


    Aromatic polyketides from marine actinomycetes have received increasing attention due to their unusual structures and potent bioactivities. Compared to their terrestrial counterparts, marine aromatic polyketides have been less discovered and their structural and biological diversities are far from being fully investigated. In this study, we employed a PCR-based genome mining method to discover aromatic polyketides in our marine bacteria collection. Five new atypical angucyclinones, fluostatins M-Q ( 1 - 5 ) featuring a unique 6-5-6-6 ring skeleton, were discovered from one "positive" Streptomyces sp. PKU-MA00045. The structures of fluostatins M-Q ( 1 - 5 ) were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and the crystallographic structure of fluostatin P ( 4 ), which contains the most oxidized A-ring, was solved by X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα radiation. Compared to the published 16 fluostatin analogues, fluostatins M-Q ( 1 - 5 ) contained a different methoxy group attached at C-7 and hydroxy group attached at C-4, enriching the structural diversity of aromatic polyketides from marine actinomycetes. Genome sequencing of Streptomyces sp. PKU-MA00045 revealed the biosynthetic gene cluster of fluostatins M-Q ( 1 - 5 ), which contained different genes and gene organizations compared to known fluostatin gene clusters, facilitating the investigation of the biosynthesis of the unique 6-5-6-6 ring skeleton in all fluostatins.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Zorbamycin-Binding Protein ZbmA, the Primary Self-Resistance Element in Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D. [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Bigelow, Lance [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Changsoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuff, Marianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lohman, Jeremy R. [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Chang, Chin-Yuan [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Ma, Ming [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Yang, Dong [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Clancy, Shonda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Babnigg, Gyorgy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Joachimiak, Andrzej [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, George N. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Shen, Ben [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States)


    The bleomycins (BLMs), tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycin, and zorbamycin (ZBM) are members of the BLM family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics. The BLM-producing Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and the TLM-producing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158 both possess at least two self-resistance elements, an N-acetyltransferase and a binding protein. The N-acetyltransferase provides resistance by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotic that is required for activity, while the binding protein confers resistance by sequestering the metal-bound antibiotic and preventing drug activation via molecular oxygen. We recently established that the ZBM producer, Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892, lacks the N-acetyltransferase resistance gene and that the ZBM-binding protein, ZbmA, is sufficient to confer resistance in the producing strain. To investigate the resistance mechanism attributed to ZbmA, we determined the crystal structures of apo and Cu(II)-ZBM-bound ZbmA at high resolutions of 1.90 and 1.65 angstrom, respectively. A comparison and contrast with other structurally characterized members of the BLM-binding protein family revealed key differences in the protein ligand binding environment that fine-tunes the ability of ZbmA to sequester metal-bound ZBM and supports drug sequestration as the primary resistance mechanism in the producing organisms of the BLM family of antitumor antibiotics.

  12. Dynamic root uptake model for neutral lipophilic organics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan


    and output to stem with the transpiration stream plus first-order metabolism and dilution by exponential growth. For chemicals with low or intermediate lipophilicity (log Kow , 2), there was no relevant difference between dynamic model and equilibrium approach. For lipophilic compounds, the dynamic model...

  13. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Organism of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Paulus


    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has been utilized to model human brain diseases. In most of these invertebrate transgenic models, some aspects of human disease are reproduced. Although investigation of rodent models has been of significant impact, invertebrate models offer a wide variety of experimental tools that can potentially address some of the outstanding questions underlying neurological disease. This review considers what has been gleaned from invertebrate models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, metabolic diseases such as Leigh disease, Niemann-Pick disease and ceroid lipofuscinoses, tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy as well as CNS injury. It is to be expected that genetic tools in Drosophila will reveal new pathways and interactions, which hopefully will result in molecular based therapy approaches.

  14. Protein acetylation involved in streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. (United States)

    Ishigaki, Yuji; Akanuma, Genki; Yoshida, Minoru; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Kosono, Saori; Ohnishi, Yasuo


    Protein acetylation, the reversible addition of an acetyl group to lysine residues, is a protein post-translational modification ubiquitous in living cells. Although the involvement of protein acetylation in the regulation of primary metabolism has been revealed, the function of protein acetylation is largely unknown in secondary metabolism. Here, we characterized protein acetylation in Streptomyces griseus, a streptomycin producer. Protein acetylation was induced in the stationary and sporulation phases in liquid and solid cultures, respectively, in S. griseus. By comprehensive acetylome analysis, we identified 134 acetylated proteins with 162 specific acetylated sites. Acetylation was found in proteins related to primary metabolism and translation, as in other bacteria. However, StrM, a deoxysugar epimerase involved in streptomycin biosynthesis, was identified as a highly acetylated protein by 2-DE-based proteomic analysis. The Lys70 residue, which is critical for the enzymatic activity of StrM, was the major acetylation site. Thus, acetylation of Lys70 was presumed to abolish enzymatic activity of StrM. In accordance with this notion, an S. griseus mutant producing the acetylation-mimic K70Q StrM hardly produced streptomycin, though the K70Q mutation apparently decreased the stability of StrM. A putative lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) SGR1683 in S. griseus, as well as the Escherichia coli KAT YfiQ, acetylated Lys70 of StrM in vitro. Furthermore, absolute quantification analysis estimated that 13% of StrM molecules were acetylated in mycelium grown in solid culture for 3days. These results indicate that StrM acetylation is of biological significance. We propose that StrM acetylation functions as a limiter of streptomycin biosynthesis in S. griseus. Protein acetylation has been extensively studied not only in eukaryotes, but also in prokaryotes. The acetylome has been analyzed in more than 14 bacterial species. Here, by comprehensive acetylome analysis, we showed

  15. Phosphinothricin tripeptide synthetases in Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü494. (United States)

    Schwartz, Dirk; Grammel, Nicolas; Heinzelmann, Eva; Keller, Ullrich; Wohlleben, Wolfgang


    The tripeptide backbone of phosphinothricin (PT) tripeptide (PTT), a compound with herbicidal activity from Streptomyces viridochromogenes, is assembled by three stand-alone peptide synthetase modules. The enzyme PhsA (66 kDa) recruits the PT-precursor N-acetyl-demethylphosphinothricin (N-Ac-DMPT), whereas the two alanine residues of PTT are assembled by the enzymes PhsB and PhsC (129 and 119 kDa, respectively). During or after assembly, the N-Ac-DMPT residue in the peptide is converted to PT by methylation and deacetylation. Both phsB and phsC appear to be cotranscribed together with two other genes from a single promoter and they are located at a distance of 20 kb from the gene phsA, encoding PhsA, in the PTT biosynthesis gene cluster of S. viridochromogenes. PhsB and PhsC represent single nonribosomal peptide synthetase elongation modules lacking a thioesterase domain. Gene inactivations, genetic complementations, determinations of substrate specificity of the heterologously produced proteins, and comparison of PhsC sequence with the amino terminus of the alanine-activating nonribosomal peptide synthetase PTTSII from S. viridochromogenes confirmed the role of the two genes in the bialanylation of Ac-DMPT. The lack of an integral thioesterase domain in the PTT assembly system points to product release possibly involving two type II thioesterase genes (the1 and the2) located in the PTT gene cluster alone or in conjunction with an as yet unknown mechanism of product release.

  16. Streptomyces somaliensis mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Soltani Nejad


    Full Text Available Objective(s: The development of reliable and ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nano-metals is an important aspect in the field of nanotechnology. Nano-metals are a special group of materials with broad area of applications. Materials and Methods: In this study, extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs performed by use of the gram positive soil Streptomycetes. Streptomycetes isolated from rice fields of Guilan Province, Iran (5 isolates. Initial characterization of SNPs was performed by visual change color. To determine the bacterium taxonomical identity, its colonies characterized morphologically by use of scanning electron microscope. The PCR molecular analysis of active isolate represented its identity partially. In this regard, 16S rDNA of isolate G was amplified using universal bacterial primers FD1 and RP2. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was then conducted using NCBI GenBank database using BLAST. Also SNPs were characterized by, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD. Results: From all 5 collected Streptomyces somaliensis isolates, isolate G showed highest extracellular synthesis of SNPs via in vitro. SNPs were formed immediately by the addition of (AgNO3 solution (1 mM. UV-visible spectrophotometry for measuring surface plasmon resonance showed a single absorption peak at 450 nm, which confirmed the presence of SNPs. TEM revealed the extracellular formation of spherical silver nanoparticles in the size range of 5-35 nm. Conclusions: The biological approach for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical and physical synthesis methods. So, a simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to synthesize AgNPs using Streptomycetes.

  17. Exploration of two epimerase homologs in Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952. (United States)

    Singh, Bijay; Oh, Tae Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung


    Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 is a potent producer of the therapeutically important antitumor drug, doxorubicin. S. peucetius contains two deoxythymidine diphospho (dTDP)-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose 3,5-epimerase-encoding genes, dnmU and rmbC, in its genome. While dnmU from the doxorubicin biosynthesis gene cluster is involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-L-daunosamine, rmbC is involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose, a precursor of cell wall biosynthesis. The proteins encoded by dnmU and rmbC share 47 % identity and 64 % similarity with each other. Both enzymes converted the same substrate, dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose, into dTDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose in vitro. However, when disruption of dnmU or rmbC was carried out, neither gene in S. peucetius compensated for each other's loss of function in vivo. These results demonstrated that although dnmU and rmbC encode for similar functional proteins, their native roles in their respective biosynthetic pathways in vivo are specific and independent of one other. Moreover, the disruption of rmbC resulted in fragmented mycelia that quickly converted into gray pigmented spores. Additionally, the production of doxorubicin, a major product of S. peucetius, appeared to be abolished after the disruption of rmbC, demonstrating its pleiotropic effect. This adverse effect might have switched on the genes encoding for spore formation, arresting the expression of many genes and, thereby, preventing the production of other metabolites.

  18. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station (United States)

    Steele, Marianne


    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  19. The master regulator PhoP coordinates phosphate and nitrogen metabolism, respiration, cell differentiation and antibiotic biosynthesis: comparison in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces avermitilis. (United States)

    Martín, Juan F; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Liras, Paloma


    Phosphate limitation is important for production of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites in Streptomyces. Phosphate control is mediated by the two-component system PhoR-PhoP. Following phosphate depletion, PhoP stimulates expression of genes involved in scavenging, transport and mobilization of phosphate, and represses the utilization of nitrogen sources. PhoP reduces expression of genes for aerobic respiration and activates nitrate respiration genes. PhoP activates genes for teichuronic acid formation and reduces expression of genes for phosphate-rich teichoic acid biosynthesis. In Streptomyces coelicolor, PhoP repressed several differentiation and pleiotropic regulatory genes, which affects development and indirectly antibiotic biosynthesis. A new bioinformatics analysis of the putative PhoP-binding sequences in Streptomyces avermitilis was made. Many sequences in S. avermitilis genome showed high weight values and were classified according to the available genetic information. These genes encode phosphate scavenging proteins, phosphate transporters and nitrogen metabolism genes. Among of the genes highlighted in the new studies was aveR, located in the avermectin gene cluster, encoding a LAL-type regulator, and afsS, which is regulated by PhoP and AfsR. The sequence logo for S. avermitilis PHO boxes is similar to that of S. coelicolor, with differences in the weight value for specific nucleotides in the sequence.

  20. First report of Streptomyces stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Michigan (United States)

    Streptomyces scabies has been reported as the predominant cause of potato scab in Michigan. In a 2007 survey of common scab in Michigan, however, isolates were collected from a field that did not fit the description for S. scabies. Tests using species-specific PCR primers indicated isolates were S. ...

  1. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Ryan M.; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J.


    precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor...... expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts....

  2. Removal of copper ions from dilute solutions by Streptomyces noursei mycelium. Comparison with yeast biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kujan, Petr; Prell, Aleš; Šafář, Hynek; Sobotka, Miroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš; Holler, Pavel


    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2005), s. 309-313 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces noursei * copper * yeast biomass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  3. Antagonistic activity of antibiotic producing Streptomyces sp. against fish and human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Hossain


    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to isolate Streptomyces sp. from soil samples of two different regions of Bangladesh and evaluate their antagonistic activity against fish and human pathogenic bacteria. A total of 10 isolates were identified as Streptomyces sp. based on several morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. Cross streak method was used to observe the antagonistic activity of the Streptomyces sp. isolates against different fish pathogens belonging to the genus Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Edwardsiella and human clinical isolates belonging to the genus Klebsiella, Salmonella and Streptococcus. Seven Streptomyces sp. isolates showed antagonism against both fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Four isolates viz., N24, N26, N28 and N47 showed broad spectrum of antagonistic activity (80-100% against all genera of fish and human pathogenic bacteria. The isolate N49 exhibited highest spectrum of antagonism against all fish pathogens (90-100% but comparatively lower degree of antagonism against human pathogens (50-60%. Rest of the two isolates (N21 and N23 showed variability in their antagonism. Results showed that broad spectrum antibiotic(s could be developed from the isolates N24, N26, N28 and N47against several human and fish pathogens. The isolate N49 could be a potential source of antibiotic, especially for fish pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Construction of thiostrepton-inducible, high-copy-number expression vectors for use in Streptomyces spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; White, Janet; Thompson, Charles J.; Bibb, Mervyn J.


    A high-copy-number plasmid expression vector (pIJ6021) was constructed that contains a thiostrepton-inducible promoter, PtipA, from Streptomyces lividans 66. The promoter and ribosome-binding site of tipA lie immediately upstream from a multiple cloning site (MCS) which begins with a NdeI site

  5. Transcription analysis of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) rrnA operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezel, G P; Krab, I M; Douthwaite, S


    Transcription start sites and processing sites of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) rrnA operon have been investigated by a combination of in vivo and in vitro transcription analyses. The data from these approaches are consistent with the existence of four in vivo transcription sites, correspondi...

  6. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of a novel haem-binding protein of Streptomyces reticuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Peijian; Groves, Matthew R; Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra D; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío


    Streptomyces reticuli is a soil-growing Gram-positive bacteria that has been shown to secrete a novel haem-binding protein known as HbpS. Sequence analysis reveals that homologues of HbpS are found in a wide variety of bacteria, including different Actinobacteria and the Gram-negative Vibrio cholera

  7. RNase III-Binding-mRNAs Revealed Novel Complementary Transcripts in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šetinová, D.; Šmídová, K.; Pohl, P.; Music, I.; Bobek, Jan


    Roč. 8, JAN 15 2018 (2018), č. článku 2693. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cis-antisense RNA * RNase III * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  8. Antimicrobial activities of the Streptomyces ceolicolor strain AOB KF977550 isolated from a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele T. Odumosu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for important antibiotic producing species of the genus Streptomyces from a tropical estuary. Five bacterial strains were isolated from the Lagos lagoon and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Streptomyces albogriseolus, S. aureus, S. coelicolor, S. albus, and S. pseudogriseolus. Ethyl acetate extracts of Streptomyces spp. fermented broths were evaluated against laboratory strains of MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA 144 m, Bacillus coagulans UL001, and Escherichia coli as well as the standard strains Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 8308, Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 27853 and Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311 using the well diffusion method. The presence of secondary metabolites was determined and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A broad spectrum of activity was only observed for S. coelicolor on all of the tested bacteria except S. typhi, ant GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 secondary metabolites with relevant antibiotic properties. The result of this study suggest that Lagos Lagoon is a potential source and reservoir of novel antibiotics. Keywords: Streptomyces, Antibiotics, Resistance, Secondary Metabolites

  9. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I


    , which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...

  10. Functional expression of the ectoine hydroxylase gene (thpD) from Streptomyces chrysomallus in Halomonas elongata. (United States)

    Prabhu, Julia; Schauwecker, Florian; Grammel, Nicolas; Keller, Ullrich; Bernhard, Michael


    The formation of hydroxyectoine in the industrial ectoine producer Halomonas elongata was improved by the heterologous expression of the ectoine hydroxylase gene, thpD, from Streptomyces chrysomallus. The efficient conversion of ectoine to hydroxyectoine was achieved by the concerted regulation of thpD by the H. elongata ectA promoter.

  11. Functional Expression of the Ectoine Hydroxylase Gene (thpD) from Streptomyces chrysomallus in Halomonas elongata


    Prabhu, Julia; Schauwecker, Florian; Grammel, Nicolas; Keller, Ullrich; Bernhard, Michael


    The formation of hydroxyectoine in the industrial ectoine producer Halomonas elongata was improved by the heterologous expression of the ectoine hydroxylase gene, thpD, from Streptomyces chrysomallus. The efficient conversion of ectoine to hydroxyectoine was achieved by the concerted regulation of thpD by the H. elongata ectA promoter.

  12. Complete genome sequence and analysis of the Streptomyces aureofaciens phage mu1/6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farkasovská, J.; Klucar, L.; Vlček, Čestmír; Kokavec, J.; Godány, A.


    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 347-358 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : phage * genome * streptomyces Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  13. [cDNA library constructing and specific antigen expression of Streptomyces thermohydroscopicus]. (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Ling-ling; Liu, Shuo; Ling, Yuan; Ma, Lie; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Li-jiao; He, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Ming-jing; Wang, Xiao-ge


    To construct a cDNA library from Streptomyces thermohydroscopicus and screen genes with virulence, obtain the recombinant fusion virulence proteins by prokaryotic expression system. The Streptomyces thermohydroscopicus cDNA library was constructed by switching mechanism at 5'end of RNA transcript approach. A total of 1020 clones randomly selected from the cDNA library were sequenced and these expressed sequence tags (EST) were further analyzed for the screen of antigen-specific genes. The two candidate genes were subcloned into expression vector pET-28a. The recombinants were transformed into BL2 and proteins were expressed by the induction of isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). A high-quality cDNA library from Streptomyces thermohydroscopicus was constructed and a set of 978 valid sequences were obtained. Clustering and assembly of these cDNA sequences resulted in 347 unique genes, among which 2 potential antigen-specific genes were highly allied with outer membrane lipoprotein (51%) and transferring-binding protein B (42%) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype (APP). The open reading frame (ORF) of the two candidate genes are 1554 bp and 726 bp, which coded two peptides with 517 and 241 amino acids, respectively. The molecular weights of the recombinant fusion proteins were 63 000 and 30 000. The cDNA library of Streptomyces thermohydroscopicus reached the quality requirement of gene library. EST database in the library would greatly facilitate further screening of virulence genes.

  14. Glucosylglycerate Is an Osmotic Solute and an Extracellular Metabolite Produced by Streptomyces caelestis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Halada, Petr; Petříček, Miroslav; Sedmera, Petr


    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 451-456 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces caelestis * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun K. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available In an attempt to screen out new potent antibiotic producers from soil, Streptomyces hygroscopicus D1.5 was isolated and was found antagonistic to both bacteria and fungi. It could utilise arginine as nitrogen source and glycerol as carbon source at 0.75 g/l and 11.5 g/l level, respectively for maximum antibiotic yield.

  16. Transfer-messenger RNA controls the translation of cell-cycle and stress proteins in Streptomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, Sharief; Zehl, Martin; Bialek, Sylwia


    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation mechanism is highly conserved in bacteria and functions primarily as a system for the rescue of stalled ribosomes and the removal of aberrantly produced proteins. Here, we show that in the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces...

  17. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University


    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  18. A Waking Review: Old and Novel Insights into the Spore Germination in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, Jan; Šmídová, Klára; Čihák, M.


    Roč. 8, NOV 13 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku 2205. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : dormancy * germination * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  19. The mutagenic effect of streptomyces and aspergillus niger with fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengjun; Zhou Shuxin; Fang Xiaoming


    The authors describe the effect of irradiation on some Streptomyces and Aspergillus niger with fast neutron. The death rate(%), production rate(%, W/V), and heredities were determined and analysed. Particularly, five variant types of Strepto. griseous No.1 will be researched in depth

  20. Heterologous expression of pentalenene synthase (PSS) from Streptomyces UC5319 in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melillo, Elena; Muntendam, Remco; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver


    For the first time, the pentalenene synthase (PSS) gene from Streptomyces UC5319 was expressed in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, a native producer of astaxanthin. For the expression of the gene and the concurrent knock out of the native crtE or crtYB genes, two new vectors were engineered and used

  1. Cultivation System Using Glass Beads Immersed in Liquid Medium Facilitates Studies of Streptomyces Differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, Liem Duy; Kalachová, Ladislava; Novotná, Jana; Holub, Martin; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Thompson, Ch.,J.; Weiser, Jaroslav


    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2005), s. 2848-2852 ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/00/1252; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/1014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cultivation system * streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2005

  2. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamed E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  3. Modeling of iodine radiation chemistry in the presence of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Fariborz; Evans, Greg J.


    A kinetic-based model was developed that simulates the radiation chemistry of iodine in the presence of organic compounds. The model's mechanistic description of iodine chemistry and generic semi-mechanistic reactions for various classes of organics, provided a reasonable representation of experimental results. The majority of the model and experimental results of iodine volatilization rates were in agreement within an order of magnitude

  4. Modeling and Simulating Moral Emotions in Organizations: exploring its impact on collaboration


    Teran Villegas, Oswaldo Ramon; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Gaudou, Benoit


    International audience; The paper presents how moral sensitivity and emotions are modeled in organizational setting by using the SocLab formal framework. Additionally simulation results, including an interesting tendency for a Free Rider model, will be given. SocLab is a platform for the modeling, simulation and analysis of cooperation relationships within social organizations - and more generally Sys-tems of Organized Action. Taking into account the fact that decision-making processes are no...

  5. Modeling the acid-base chemistry of organic solutes in Adirondack, New York, lakes (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Lehtinen, Michael D.; Sullivan, Timothy J.


    Data from the large and diverse Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate four simple organic acid analog models in an effort to quantify the influence of naturally occurring organic acids on lake water pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The organic acid analog models were calibrated to observations of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic anion (An-) concentrations from a reduced data set representing 1128 individual lake samples, expressed as 41 observations of mean pH, in intervals of 0.1 pH units from pH 3.9 to 7.0. Of the four organic analog approaches examined, including the Oliver et al. (1983) model, as well as monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic representations, the triprotic analog model yielded the best fit (r2 = 0.92) to the observed data. Moreover, the triprotic model was qualitatively consistent with observed patterns of change in organic solute charge density as a function of pH. A low calibrated value for the first H+ dissociation constant (pKal = 2.62) and the observation that organic anion concentrations were significant even at very low pH (acidic functional groups. Inclusion of organic acidity in model calculations resulted in good agreement between measured and predicted values of lake water pH and ANC. Assessments to project the response of surface waters to future changes in atmospheric deposition, through the use of acidification models, will need to include representations of organic acids in model structure to make accurate predictions of pH and ANC.

  6. Self-organized critical model for protein folding (United States)

    Moret, M. A.


    The major factor that drives a protein toward collapse and folding is the hydrophobic effect. At the folding process a hydrophobic core is shielded by the solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. We study the fractal behavior of 5526 protein structures present in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Power laws of protein mass, volume and solvent-accessible surface area are measured independently. The present findings indicate that self-organized criticality is an alternative explanation for the protein folding. Also we note that the protein packing is an independent and constant value because the self-similar behavior of the volumes and protein masses have the same fractal dimension. This power law guarantees that a protein is a complex system. From the analyzed data, q-Gaussian distributions seem to fit well this class of systems.

  7. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces. (United States)

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F


    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, βtub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Construction of the co-expression plasmids of fostriecin polyketide synthases and heterologous expression in Streptomyces. (United States)

    Su, Chun; Zhao, Xinqing; Qiu, Rongguo; Tang, Li


    Polyketides are bioactive natural products with diverse bioactivities, and heterologous production of polyketides in easily engineered microbial hosts is preferred for the production of structurally diverse and the therapeutically active polyketides. In this study, heterologous expression of the biosynthetic genes encoding type I polyketide synthases (PKS) involved in biosynthesis of fostriecin, a unique phosphate monoester polyketide antibiotic, was attempted. Fostriecin PKS (Fos-PKS) biosynthetic gene cluster in a total of 48.4 kb were cloned downstream of the act I promoter in two compatible Streptomyces vectors using Red/ET recombination. The co-expression plasmids were sequentially transferred into Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor. Active transcription of the polyketide genes was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, and the metabolites were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The recombinant strains S. lividans TK24/p6-fosAB-p4-fosCDEF and S. coelicolor M512/p6-fosAB-p4-fosCDEF were obtained for heterologous expression in Streptomyces. Pigmentation was observed in the recombinant strains, whereas the control strain with empty vector displayed no change in pigment production. Active transcription of the polyketide genes was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis and subsequent sequencing. The present study is the first attempt to overexpress Fos-PKS biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces. More studies on heterologous expression of the fostriecin biosynthetic gene cluster would be beneficial for further understanding the mechanisms of its structural as well as the potential pharmaceutically effect.

  9. Streptomyces humi sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from soil of a mangrove forest. (United States)

    Zainal, Nurullhudda; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok-Keng; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan


    A novel Streptomyces strain, MUSC 119(T), was isolated from a soil collected from a mangrove forest. Cells of MUSC 119(T) stained Gram-positive and formed light brownish grey aerial mycelium and grayish yellowish brown substrate mycelium on ISP 2 medium. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain MUSC 119(T), which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan consisted of LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, glycolipids, diphosphatidylglycerol and four phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The cell wall sugars were glucose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain MUSC119(T) to be closely related to Streptomyces rhizophilus JR-41(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity), S. panaciradicis 1MR-8(T) (98.9 %), S. gramineus JR-43(T) (98.8 %) and S. graminisoli JR-19(T) (98.7 %). These results suggest that MUSC 119(T) should be placed within the genus Streptomyces. DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 119(T) to closely related strains ranged from 14.5 ± 1.3 to 27.5 ± 0.7 %. The G+C content was determined to be 72.6 mol %. The polyphasic study of MUSC 119(T) showed that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. humi is MUSC 119(T) (=DSM 42174(T) = MCCC 1K00505(T)).

  10. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taqi Amini


    Full Text Available Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy planning with regard to competitiveness and performance in large organizations and outlines a comprehensive model for strategy planning in profit organizations. These elements include environment, top management, organization structure and market oriented strategy. Professional question of this study has a particularly important role in formulating relations of this model. These elements are well positioned to evaluate the impact of market-oriented strategy planning on organizations and their expected impacts on organization performance. A well-organized questionnaire to help organizations with their planning is proposed in this survey. Based on the proposed questionnaire, data obtained from Tehran food industry experts and analyzed by using SEM method. Results accepted eight hypotheses and rejected one.

  11. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.


    Solute hydrophobicity, polarizability, aromaticity and the presence of H-bond donor/acceptor groups have been identified as important solute properties that affect the adsorption on activated carbon. However, the adsorption mechanisms related to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon loading on a specific activated carbon (F400) for solutes reflecting a wide range of solute properties. In order to improve prediction accuracy, groups (bins) of solutes with similar solute properties were defined and solute removals were predicted for each bin separately. With these individual linear models, coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.61 to 0.84 were obtained. With the mechanistic approach used in developing this predictive model, a strong relation with adsorption mechanisms is established, improving the interpretation and, ultimately, acceptance of the model. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Electromagnetic Model Reliably Predicts Radar Scattering Characteristics of Airborne Organisms (United States)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Chilson, Phillip B.


    The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes. Using the method of moments implemented in the WIPL-D software package, we show for the first time that such electromagnetic modeling techniques (typically applied to man-made objects) can accurately predict organismal radio scattering characteristics from an anatomical model: here the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis). The simulated scattering properties of the bat agree with controlled measurements and radar observations made during a field study of bats in flight. This numerical technique can produce the full angular set of quantitative polarimetric scattering characteristics, while eliminating many practical difficulties associated with physical measurements. Such a modeling framework can be applied for bird, bat, and insect species, and will help drive a shift in radar biology from a largely qualitative and phenomenological science toward quantitative estimation of animal densities and taxonomic identification.

  13. Models of Organization and Governance at the Community College. (United States)

    Silverman, Michael

    In order to provide the best management model for the effective and efficient operation of community colleges, it is useful to look briefly at management theories. The three principle theories in use in corporate management are: (1) theory X, involving an autocratic supervisor allowing for minimal group influence; (2) theory Y, in which…

  14. Modeling charge transfer at organic donor-acceptor semiconductor interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.; Brocks, G.


    We develop an integer charge transfer model for the potential steps observed at interfaces between donor and acceptor molecular semiconductors. The potential step can be expressed as the difference between the Fermi energy pinning levels of electrons on the acceptor material and holes on the donor

  15. An Incremental Model for Cloud Adoption: Based on a Study of Regional Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Erturk


    Full Text Available Many organizations that use cloud computing services intend to increase this commitment. A survey was distributed to organizations in Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand to understand their adoption of cloud solutions, in comparison with global trends and practices. The survey also included questions on the benefits and challenges, and which delivery model(s they have adopted and are planning to adopt. One aim is to contribute to the cloud computing literature and build on the existing adoption models. This study also highlights additional aspects applicable to various organizations (small, medium, large and regional. Finally, recommendations are provided for related future research projects.

  16. Plasma modified PLA electrospun membranes for actinorhodin production intensification in Streptomyces coelicolor immobilized-cell cultivations. (United States)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; Sutera, Alberto; Botta, Luigi; Fontana, Rosa Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe


    Most of industrially relevant bioproducts are produced by submerged cultivations of actinomycetes. The immobilization of these Gram-positive filamentous bacteria on suitable porous supports may prevent mycelial cell-cell aggregation and pellet formation which usually negatively affect actinomycete submerged cultivations, thus, resulting in an improved biosynthetic capability. In this work, electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) membranes, subjected or not to O 2 -plasma treatment (PLA-plasma), were used as support for immobilized-cell submerged cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor M145. This strain produces different bioactive compounds, including the blue-pigmented actinorhodin (ACT) and red-pigmented undecylprodigiosin (RED), and constitutes a model for the study of antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. Wet contact angles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the increased wettability of PLA-plasma due to the formation of polar functional groups such as carboxyl and hydroxyl moieties. Scanning electron microscope observations, carried out at different incubation times, revealed that S. coelicolor immobilized-cells created a dense "biofilm-like" mycelial network on both kinds of PLA membranes. Cultures of S. coelicolor immobilized-cells on PLA or PLA-plasma membranes produced higher biomass (between 1.5 and 2 fold) as well as higher levels of RED and ACT than planktonic cultures. In particular, cultures of immobilized-cells on PLA and PLA-plasma produced comparable levels of RED that were approximatively 4 and 5 fold higher than those produced by planktonic cultures, respectively. In contrast, levels of ACT produced by immobilized-cell cultures on PLA and PLA-plasma were different, being 5 and 10 fold higher than those of planktonic cultures, respectively. Therefore, this is study demonstrated the positive influence of PLA membrane on growth and secondary metabolite production in S. coelicolor and also revealed that O 2 -plasma treated PLA membranes

  17. Biosynthesis of components with antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. using Streptomyces hygroscopicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Jelena M.


    Full Text Available Losses of apple fruit during storage are mainly caused by fungal phytopathogens. Traditionally, postharvest fungal disease is controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the harmful impact on environment as well as human health largely limits their application. To reduce these problems in agrochemicals usage, new compounds for plant protection, which are eco-friendly, should be developed. The aim of this study is optimization of medium composition in terms of glucose, soybean meal and phosphates content, by applying response surface methodology, for the production of agents with antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. For biosynthesis was used strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors on three levels and three repetitions in the central point. Antifungal activity of the obtained cultivation mediums against Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger was determined, in vitro, using the diffusion - disc method. For determination optimal medium components desirability function was used. Achieved model predicts that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (40.93 mm against test microorganisms is produced when the initial content of glucose, soybean meal and phosphates are 47.77 g/l, 24.54 g/l and 0.98 g/l, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional three sets of optimization were made. The chosen method for optimization of medium components was efficient, relatively simple and time and material saving. Obtained results can be used for the further techno-economic analysis of the process to select optimal medium composition for industrial application.

  18. Novel extracellular PHB depolymerase from Streptomyces ascomycinicus: PHB copolymers degradation in acidic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available The ascomycin-producer strain Streptomyces ascomycinicus has been proven to be an extracellular poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB degrader. The fkbU gene, encoding a PHB depolymerase (PhaZ Sa , has been cloned in E. coli and Rhodococcus sp. T104 strains for gene expression. Gram-positive host Rhodococcus sp. T104 was able to produce and secrete to the extracellular medium an active protein form. PhaZ Sa was purified by two hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps, and afterwards was biochemically as well as structurally characterized. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 48.4 kDa, and displayed highest activity at 45°C and pH 6, thus being the first PHB depolymerase from a gram-positive bacterium presenting an acidic pH optimum. The PHB depolymerase activity of PhaZ Sa was increased in the presence of divalent cations due to non-essential activation, and also in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and PEG 3350. Protein structure was analyzed, revealing a globular shape with an alpha-beta hydrolase fold. The amino acids comprising the catalytic triad, Ser(131-Asp(209-His(269, were identified by multiple sequence alignment, chemical modification of amino acids and site-directed mutagenesis. These structural results supported the proposal of a three-dimensional model for this depolymerase. PhaZ Sa was able to degrade PHB, but also demonstrated its ability to degrade films made of PHB, PHBV copolymers and a blend of PHB and starch (7∶3 proportion wt/wt. The features shown by PhaZ Sa make it an interesting candidate for industrial applications involving PHB degradation.

  19. Magnetic field is the dominant factor to induce the response of Streptomyces avermitilis in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation. (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Gao, Hong; Shang, Peng; Zhou, Xianlong; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Ying; Chen, Difei; Ren, Biao; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin


    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T) inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites. S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD(245 nm). The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity. We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

  20. Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces in home dust and air: associations with moldiness and other home/family characteristics (United States)

    Abstract Aims: (1) To investigate the dustborne and airborne bacterial concentrations of three emerging moisture-related bacteria: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces, and Mycobacterium. (2) To study the association between these bacteria concentrations and Environmenta...

  1. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi


    The growth stoichiometry of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was determined in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations using a chemically defined medium. This strain produces adipoyl-7-aminocleacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) when...

  2. Phragmites australis as a model organism for studying plant invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyerson, L. A.; Cronin, J. T.; Pyšek, Petr


    Roč. 18, č. 9 (2016), s. 2421-2431 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15414S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : common reed * model species * global climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available In recent years a special attention is given to various aspects and problems of development of business and steady social and economic growth of modern Russia. In this context, a big scientific and practical interest is the all-round analysis of various barriers arising on a way of this process. A significant role belongs to specific threats of formation and modeling movement of the personnel in enterprises.

  4. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.


    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  5. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Guenet, Bertrand; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Bastrikov, Vladislav; De Vos, Bruno; Gielen, Bert; Gleixner, Gerd; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Kaiser, Klaus; Kothawala, Dolly; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peñuelas, Josep; Schrumpf, Marion; Vicca, Sara; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walmsley, David; Janssens, Ivan A.


    Current land surface models (LSMs) typically represent soils in a very simplistic way, assuming soil organic carbon (SOC) as a bulk, and thus impeding a correct representation of deep soil carbon dynamics. Moreover, LSMs generally neglect the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to rivers, leading to overestimations of the potential carbon sequestration on land. This common oversimplified processing of SOC in LSMs is partly responsible for the large uncertainty in the predictions of the soil carbon response to climate change. In this study, we present a new soil carbon module called ORCHIDEE-SOM, embedded within the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which is able to reproduce the DOC and SOC dynamics in a vertically discretized soil to 2 m. The model includes processes of biological production and consumption of SOC and DOC, DOC adsorption on and desorption from soil minerals, diffusion of SOC and DOC, and DOC transport with water through and out of the soils to rivers. We evaluated ORCHIDEE-SOM against observations of DOC concentrations and SOC stocks from four European sites with different vegetation covers: a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, a grassland, and a cropland. The model was able to reproduce the SOC stocks along their vertical profiles at the four sites and the DOC concentrations within the range of measurements, with the exception of the DOC concentrations in the upper soil horizon at the coniferous forest. However, the model was not able to fully capture the temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations. Further model improvements should focus on a plant- and depth-dependent parameterization of the new input model parameters, such as the turnover times of DOC and the microbial carbon use efficiency. We suggest that this new soil module, when parameterized for global simulations, will improve the representation of the global carbon cycle in LSMs, thus helping to constrain the predictions of the future SOC response to global

  6. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models. (United States)

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana


    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Evidence for indigenous Streptomyces populations in a marine environment determined with a 16S rRNA probe.


    Moran, M A; Rutherford, L T; Hodson, R E


    A 16S rRNA genus-specific probe was used to determine whether Streptomyces populations are an indigenous component of marine sediment bacterial communities. Previous debates have suggested that marine Streptomyces isolates are derived not from resident populations but from spores of terrestrial species which have been physically transported to marine ecosystems but remain dormant until isolation. Rigorously controlled hybridization of rRNA extracted from coastal marsh sediments with the genus...

  8. Basic model for the prediction of 137Cs concentration in the organisms of detritus food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru


    In order to predict 137 Cs concentrations in marine organisms for monitoring, a basic model for the prediction of nuclide levels in marine organisms of detritus food chain was studied. The equilibrated values of ( 137 Cs level in organism)/( 137 Cs level in seawater) derived from calculation agreed with the observed data, indicating validity of modeling conditions. The result of simulation by this basic model showed the following conclusions. 1) ''Ecological half-life'' of 137 Cs in organisms of food chain were 35 and 130 days for detritus feeder and benthic teleosts, respectively, indicating that there was no difference of the ecological half lives in organisms between in detritus food chain and in other food chains. 2) The 137 Cs concentration in organisms showed a peak at 18 and 100 days in detritus and detritus feeder, respectively, after the introduction of 137 Cs into environmental seawater. Their concentration ratios to 137 Cs peak level in seawater were within a range of 2.7-3.8, indicating insignificant difference in the response to 137 Cs change in seawater between in the organisms of detritus food chain and of other food chain. 3) The basic model studies makes it available that the prediction of 137 Cs level in organisms of food chain can be simulated in coastal ecosystem. (author)

  9. Indonesian Private University Lecturer Performance Improvement Model to Improve a Sustainable Organization Performance (United States)



    Lecturer performance will affect the quality and carrying capacity of the sustainability of an organization, in this case the university. There are many models developed to measure the performance of teachers, but not much to discuss the influence of faculty performance itself towards sustainability of an organization. This study was conducted in…

  10. Modelling soil organic carbon in Danish agricultural soils suggests low potential for future carbon sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is in active exchange with the atmosphere. The amount of organic carbon (OC) input into the soil and SOC turnover rate are important for predicting the carbon (C) sequestration potential of soils subject to changes in land-use and climate. The C-TOOL model was developed...

  11. Risk management in organic coffee supply chains : testing the usefulness of critical risk models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusselaers, J.F.; Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.


    This report documents the findings of the analysis of the supply chain of organic coffee from Uganda to the Netherlands using a Chain Risk Model (CRM). The CRM considers contamination of organic coffee with chemicals as a threat for the supply chain, and analyses the consequences of contamination in

  12. Modelling energy level alignment at organic interfaces and density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Vazquez, Patricia


    A review of our theoretical understanding of the band alignment at organic interfaces is presented with particular emphasis on the metal/organic (MO) case. The unified IDIS (induced density of interface states) and the ICT (integer charge transfer) models are reviewed and shown to describe...

  13. GH30 Glucuronoxylan-Specific Xylanase from Streptomyces turgidiscabies C56. (United States)

    Maehara, Tomoko; Yagi, Haruka; Sato, Tomoko; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Zui; Kamino, Kei; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; St John, Franz; Yaoi, Katsuro; Kaneko, Satoshi


    Endoxylanases are important enzymes in bioenergy research because they specifically hydrolyze xylan, the predominant polysaccharide in the hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulosic biomass. For effective biomass utilization, it is important to understand the mechanism of substrate recognition by these enzymes. Recent studies have shown that the substrate specificities of bacterial and fungal endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 (GH30) were quite different. While the functional differences have been described, the mechanism of substrate recognition is still unknown. Therefore, a gene encoding a putative GH30 endoxylanase was cloned from Streptomyces turgidiscabies C56, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. GH30 glucuronoxylan-specific xylanase A of Streptomyces turgidiscabies ( St Xyn30A) showed hydrolytic activity with xylans containing both glucuronic acid and the more common 4- O -methyl-glucuronic acid side-chain substitutions but not on linear xylooligosaccharides, suggesting that this enzyme requires the recognition of glucuronic acid side chains for hydrolysis. The St Xyn30A limit product structure was analyzed following a secondary β-xylosidase treatment by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. The hydrolysis products from both glucuronoxylan and 4- O -methylglucuronoxylan by St Xyn30A have these main-chain substitutions on the second xylopyranosyl residue from the reducing end. Because previous structural studies of bacterial GH30 enzymes and molecular modeling of St Xyn30A suggested that a conserved arginine residue (Arg296) interacts with the glucuronic acid side-chain carboxyl group, we focused on this residue, which is conserved at subsite -2 of bacterial but not fungal GH30 endoxylanases. To help gain an understanding of the mechanism of how St Xyn30A recognizes glucuronic acid substitutions, Arg296 mutant enzymes were studied. The glucuronoxylan hydrolytic activities of Arg296 mutants

  14. Current progress in public health models addressing the critical organ shortage. (United States)

    Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Villani, Vincenzo; Madariaga, Maria Lucia L; Shalhoub, Joseph; Michel, Sebastian G


    Since its inauguration in 1954, the field of modern transplantation has made great strides in surgical technique, the prevention of acute and chronic rejection, the minimization of immunosuppression-related side-effects and transplant tolerance. As such, organ transplantation is used worldwide as a curative, life-saving treatment for people with end-stage organ failure. However, the successes of organ transplantation have resulted in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists far exceeding the number of organs available, with growing numbers of patients dying while awaiting transplants. In order to address this critical organ shortage, a number of legislative changes have been implemented worldwide to increase the number of individuals registering as organ donors. These have included presumed consent donation, incentivized organ donation, commercial organ transplantation and mandated choice models. This article will address these public health policies in turn. The implementation of these strategies and the evidence for their efficacy will be evaluated. Based on this, we have identified that well-supported transplant coordinators approaching next-of-kin, incentives and public health campaigns are key factors that increase organ donation. Finally we propose a modified mandated choice model that may be an alternative option to maximize the number of available organs for transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal structure and inhibition studies of transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraense. (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Te; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Wang, Jiou Ming; Wu, Tung Kung; Wang, Yu-Kuo; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Li, TienHsiung Thomas


    The crystal structure of the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) zymogen from Streptomyces mobaraense has been determined at 1.9-Å resolution using the molecular replacement method based on the crystal structure of the mature MTGase. The overall structure of this zymogen is similar to that of the mature form, consisting of a single disk-like domain with a deep active cleft at the edge of the molecule. A major portion of the prosequence (45 additional amino acid residues at the N terminus of the mature transglutaminase) folds into an L-shaped structure, consisting of an extended N-terminal segment linked with a one-turn short helix and a long α-helix. Two key residues in the short helix of the prosequence, Tyr-12 and Tyr-16, are located on top of the catalytic triad (Cys-110, Asp-301, and His-320) to block access of the substrate acyl donors and acceptors. Biochemical characterization of the mature MTGase, using N-α-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-glutaminylglycine as a substrate, revealed apparent K(m) and k(cat)/K(m) values of 52.66 mM and 40.42 mM(-1) min(-1), respectively. Inhibition studies using the partial prosequence SYAETYR and homologous sequence SQAETYR showed a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism with IC(50) values of 0.75 and 0.65 mM, respectively, but no cross-linking product formation. Nevertheless, the prosequence homologous oligopeptide SQAETQR, with Tyr-12 and Tyr-16 each replaced with Gln, exhibited inhibitory activity with the formation of the SQAETQR-monodansylcadaverine fluorophore cross-linking product (SQAETQR-C-DNS). MALDI-TOF tandem MS analysis of SQAETQR-C-DNS revealed molecular masses corresponding to those of (N)SQAETQ(C)-C-DNS and C-DNS-(N)QR(C) sequences, suggesting the incorporation of C-DNS onto the C-terminal Gln residue of the prosequence homologous oligopeptide. These results support the putative functional roles of both Tyr residues in substrate binding and inhibition.

  16. Identification of glucose kinase-dependent and -independent pathways for carbon control of primary metabolism, development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor by quantitative proteomics. (United States)

    Gubbens, Jacob; Janus, Marleen M; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S; van Wezel, Gilles P


    Members of the soil-dwelling prokaryotic genus Streptomyces are indispensable for the recycling of complex polysaccharides, and produce a wide range of natural products. Nutrient availability is a major determinant for the switch to development and antibiotic production in streptomycetes. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR), a main signalling pathway underlying this phenomenon, was so far considered fully dependent on the glycolytic enzyme glucose kinase (Glk). Here we provide evidence of a novel Glk-independent pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor, using advanced proteomics that allowed the comparison of the expression of some 2000 proteins, including virtually all enzymes for central metabolism. While CCR and inducer exclusion of enzymes for primary and secondary metabolism and precursor supply for natural products is mostly mediated via Glk, enzymes for the urea cycle, as well as for biosynthesis of the γ-butyrolactone Scb1 and the responsive cryptic polyketide Cpk are subject to Glk-independent CCR. Deletion of glkA led to strong downregulation of biosynthetic proteins for prodigionins and calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA) in mannitol-grown cultures. Repression of bldB, bldN, and its target bldM may explain the poor development of S. coelicolor on solid-grown cultures containing glucose. A new model for carbon catabolite repression in streptomycetes is presented. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Horizontal Transfer of the Plant Virulence Gene, nec1, and Flanking Sequences among Genetically Distinct Streptomyces Strains in the Diastatochromogenes Cluster (United States)

    Bukhalid, R. A.; Takeuchi, T.; Labeda, D.; Loria, R.


    Evidence for the horizontal transfer of a pathogenicity island (PAI) carrying the virulence gene nec1 and flanking sequences among Streptomyces strains in the Diastatochromogenes cluster is presented. Plant-pathogenic, thaxtomin-producing Streptomyces strains, previously classified as S. scabiei based on the conventionally used phenotypic characteristics, were found to be genetically distinct from the type strain of S. scabiei based on DNA relatedness and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Pairwise DNA-DNA hybridizations between some of these strains and the S. scabiei type strain were as low as 36%, a value much below what is conventionally accepted for species identity (70%). The sequence of the nec1 gene, however, was identical in all the S. scabiei and S. scabiei-like strains tested, irrespective of their DNA relatedness to the type strain of S. scabiei, their geographic origin, or the isolation host. Furthermore, a 26-kb DNA fragment including and flanking nec1 was also conserved among these strains based on restriction and Southern analyses. These data indicate that the etiology of potato scab is more complex than previously recognized; this result has important implications for potato scab management strategies. Previous research has suggested that horizontal transfer of a PAI was the mechanism for evolution of pathogenicity in S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies, species that lie outside of the Diastatochromogenes cluster. Data presented here support this model and indicate that PAI transfer also has occurred frequently in species closely related to S. scabiei. PMID:11823214

  18. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Y.V.


    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  19. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev A.R.


    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with arterial hypertension based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  20. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev A.R.


    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with chronic heart failure based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  1. Developing a Decision Model for Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Proposal Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, Lyle M; Marentette, Lenore A; Long, A. M


    This research uses decision analysis to develop a structured, repeatable and most importantly defensible decision model for the evaluation of proposed IED defeat solutions submitted to the Joint IED Defeat Organization (JIEDDO...

  2. Effects of Some Neurobiological Factors in a Self-organized Critical Model Based on Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liming; Zhang Yingyue; Chen Tianlun


    Based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism, we investigate the effect of changing the efficacy of the synapse, the transmitting time-delayed, and the relative refractoryperiod on the self-organized criticality in our neural network model.

  3. Methylation of 23S rRNA caused by tlrA (ermSF), a tylosin resistance determinant from Streptomyces fradiae. (United States)

    Zalacain, M; Cundliffe, E


    Ribosomes from Streptomyces griseofuscus expressing tlrA, a resistance gene isolated from the tylosin producer Streptomyces fradiae, are resistant to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in vitro. The tlrA product was found to be a methylase that introduces two methyl groups into a single base within 23S rRNA, generating N6,N6-dimethyladenine at position 2058. This activity is therefore similar to the ermE resistance mechanism in Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythraeus). Images PMID:2753855

  4. Model of lifetime prediction - Study of the behaviour of polymers and organic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, X.


    The team 'Aging of Organic Materials' of the Process and Engineering Laboratory in Mechanics and Materials (Arts et Metiers, ParisTech) has developed the model of lifetime prediction for the prediction of the behaviour of polymers and organic composites. This model has already given evidence of a real predictive mean for various industrial applications, as for instance the prediction of a rupture under the coupled effect of a mechanical load and a chemical degradation. (O.M.)



    Catalina Maria GEORGESCU; Tudor NISTORESCU


    An interdisciplinary approach which combines the theoretical, empirical and conceptual dimensions, the present study tries to offer a new work perspective on the assessment and modeling of the relation between the management of public organizations and the political environment. The theoretical research was centered on reviewing the literature on the relation between the management of public organizations and the political environment. The empirical research was materialized by modeling with ...

  6. A model for using self-organized agents to visually map environmental profiles


    Oyekan, John; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng


    In this work, we investigate the possibility of using inspiration from the self-organizing property of organisms in nature for providing visual representation of an invisible pollutant profile. We present a novel mathematical model of the bacterium and use it to find pollutants in the environment. This model has the capability of exploring the environment to search for sparsely distributed pollutants or food sources and then subsequently exploiting them upon discovery. We also combine the bac...

  7. Enhanced Viability in Organizations: An Approach to Expanding the Requirements of the Viable System Model


    Elezi, Fatos;Schmidt, Michael;Tommelein, Iris D.;Lindemann, U.


    The Viable System Model (VSM) is a functional model of organizational structures whose implementation results in a presumably viable system. Despite scientific arguments and successful implementations in organizations, the VSM is still not widely used in practice. A reason may be that the VSM as defined by Beer addresses only the structural domain of the control (management) system in an organization and appears to miss some prerequisites for viability. Aiming for a more comprehensive approac...

  8. Development and evaluation of a skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, V.; Mueller, K.; Ridi, R.; Cordes, N.; Beuningen, D. van; Koehn, F.M.; Ring, J.; Mayerhofer, A.


    Background and purpose: the reaction of tissues to ionizing radiation involves alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions mediated by cellular adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an artificial skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects. Material and methods: a human co-culture system consisting of the spontaneously immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and primary HDFa fibroblasts embedded into a collagen sponge was established. This skin organ model has been characterized and evaluated for its suitability for radiobiological investigations. For that purpose, expression of β 1 -integrin following irradiation was compared in the skin organ model and in HaCaT monolayer cells (FACScan and immunohistochemistry). Furthermore, the influence of ionizing radiation on DNA fragmentation was investigated in the skin organ model (TUNEL assay). Results: the novel skin organ model showed characteristics of human skin as demonstrated by cytokeratin and Ki-67 immunoreactivity and by electron microscopy. A single dose of 5 Gy X-irradiation induced an upregulation of β 1 -integrin expression both in the skin organ model and in HaCaT cells. Following irradiation, β 1 -integrin immunoreactivity was intensified in the upper layers of the epidermis equivalent whereas it was almost absent in the deeper layers. Additionally, irradiation of the skin organ model also caused a marked increase of DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: these results demonstrate that the novel skin organ model is suitable to investigate cellular radiation effects under three-dimensional conditions. This allows to investigate radiation effects which cannot be demonstrated in monolayer cell cultures. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Galibus


    Full Text Available We analyze the existing DS from the point of security and construct a two-level hierarchy of models. Such approach allows us to separate the abstraction (architecture level and the concrete (component level of ISS. The core set of methods, i. e. authentication and key exchange protocols, corresponds to the abstraction level and is defined as security infrastructure (SI. The final security parameters optimization and additional mechanisms such as authorization, routing and data auditing of the protection mechanisms are configured on the component level of the DS. In addition, we outline the systematic step-by-step ISS configuration method.

  10. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosols over Europe: Impact of Activity Coefficients and Viscosity (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Couvidat, F.


    Semi-volatile organic species (SVOC) can condense on suspended particulate materials (PM) in the atmosphere. The modeling of condensation/evaporation of SVOC often assumes that gas-phase and particle-phase concentrations are at equilibrium. However, recent studies show that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) may not be accurately represented by an equilibrium approach between the gas and particle phases, because organic aerosols in the particle phase may be very viscous. The condensation in the viscous liquid phase is limited by the diffusion from the surface of PM to its core. Using a surrogate approach to represent SVOC, depending on the user's choice, the secondary organic aerosol processor (SOAP) may assume equilibrium or model dynamically the condensation/evaporation between the gas and particle phases to take into account the viscosity of organic aerosols. The model is implemented in the three-dimensional chemistry-transport model of POLYPHEMUS. In SOAP, activity coefficients for organic mixtures can be computed using UNIFAC for short-range interactions between molecules and AIOMFAC to also take into account the effect of inorganic species on activity coefficients. Simulations over Europe are performed and POLYPHEMUS/SOAP is compared to POLYPHEMUS/H2O, which was previously used to model SOA using the equilibrium approach with activity coefficients from UNIFAC. Impacts of the dynamic approach on modeling SOA over Europe are evaluated. The concentrations of SOA using the dynamic approach are compared with those using the equilibrium approach. The increase of computational cost is also evaluated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Maria GEORGESCU


    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach which combines the theoretical, empirical andconceptual dimensions, the present study tries to offer a new workperspective on the assessment and modeling of the relation between themanagement of public organizations and the political environment. Thetheoretical research was centered on reviewing the literature on the relationbetween the management of public organizations and the politicalenvironment. The empirical research was materialized by modeling with theregression technique of several aspects integrated to the relations betweenthe management of human resources within public organizations in theeducation field and the external political environment.

  12. Relevance of the ICRP biokinetic model for dietary organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.


    Ingested dietary tritium can participate in metabolic processes, and become synthesized into organically bound tritium in the tissues and organs. The distribution and retention of the organically bound tritium throughout the body are much different than tritium in the body water. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 56 (1989) has a biokinetic model to calculate dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium. The model predicts that the dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium is about 2.3 times higher than from the ingestion of the same activity of tritiated water. Under steady-state conditions, the calculated dose rate (using the first principle approach) from the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium can be twice that from the ingestion of tritiated water. For an adult, the upper-bound dose estimate for the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium is estimated to be close to 2.3 times higher than that of tritiated water. Therefore, given the uncertainty in the dose calculation with respect to the actual relevant dose, the ICRP biokinetic model for organically bound tritium is sufficient for dosimetry for adults. (author)

  13. Laos Organization Name Using Cascaded Model Based on SVM and CRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Shaopeng


    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of Laos organization name, this paper proposes a two layer model based on conditional random field (CRF and support vector machine (SVM for Laos organization name recognition. A layer of model uses CRF to recognition simple organization name, and the result is used to support the decision of the second level. Based on the driving method, the second layer uses SVM and CRF to recognition the complicated organization name. Finally, the results of the two levels are combined, And by a subsequent treatment to correct results of low confidence recognition. The results show that this approach based on SVM and CRF is efficient in recognizing organization name through open test for real linguistics, and the recalling rate achieve 80. 83%and the precision rate achieves 82. 75%.

  14. A Topographically and anatomically unified phantom model for organ dose determination in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Ermakov, I.; Masarskyi, L.; Saltukova, L.


    The effective dose equivalent is used as a risk-related factor for assessing radiation impact on patients. In order to assess the effective dose equivalent, data on organ doses in several organs are needed. For calculation of the collective effective dose equivalent, data on the sex and size distribution of the exposed population are also needed. A realistic phantom model based on the Alderson-Rando anatomical phantom has been developed for these purposes. The phantom model includes 22 organs and takes into account the deflections due to sex, height, weight and other anatomical features. Coordinates of the outer contours of inner organs are given in different slabs of the phantom. The images of cross sections of different slabs realistically depict the distribution of the organs in the phantom. Statistics about height and weight distribution as a function of the age of the Finnish population are also given. (orig.)

  15. The CERIF Model As the Core of a Research Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Jeffery


    Full Text Available A CERIF-CRIS consists of base entities with records describing components of the research and link entities describing relationships among records in the base entities. As an example, three base entities may contain records describing a person, a publication and a project while two link entities relate respectively the person to the publication in role author and the person to the project in role project leader. This powerful linking or inter-relating capability includes temporal as well as role aspects and inter-relates dynamically and flexibly all the components of R&D. The CERIF model can be extended to inter-relate appropriate information from legacy information systems in an organisation, such as those covering accounting, human resources, project management, assets, stock control, etc. A CERIF-CRIS can thus provide a flexible low-cost integration comparable with an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning System, particularly in an organisation with R&D as its primary business.

  16. Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov., a Novel Mangrove Soil Actinobacterium with Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Potentials. (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Palanisamy, Uma D; Abd Malek, Sri N; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han


    A novel strain, Streptomyces antioxidans MUSC 164(T) was recovered from mangrove forest soil located at Tanjung Lumpur, Malaysia. The Gram-positive bacterium forms yellowish-white aerial and brilliant greenish yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy status of strain MUSC 164(T). The strain showed a spectrum of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the identified polar lipids consisted of aminolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and lipid. The cell wall sugars consist of galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10.0%) were identified as iso-C15: 0 (34.8%) and anteiso-C15: 0(14.0%). Phylogenetic analysis identified that closely related strains for MUSC 164(T) as Streptomyces javensis NBRC 100777(T) (99.6% sequence similarity), Streptomyces yogyakartensis NBRC 100779(T) (99.6%) and Streptomyces violaceusniger NBRC 13459(T) (99.6%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 164(T) and closely related type strains ranged from 23.8 ± 0.3% to 53.1 ± 4.3%. BOX-PCR fingerprints comparison showed that MUSC 164(T) exhibits a unique DNA profile, with DNA G + C content determined to be 71.6 mol%. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 164(T), it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 164(T) (=DSM 101523(T) = MCCC 1K01590(T)). The extract of MUSC 164(T) showed potent antioxidative and neuroprotective activities against hydrogen peroxide. The chemical analysis of the extract revealed that the strain produces pyrazines and phenolic

  17. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model. (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P


    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill


    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop


    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  19. Modification of SWAT model for simulation of organic matter in Korean watersheds. (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Wook; Gyeong Yoon, Chun


    The focus of water quality modeling of Korean streams needs to be shifted from dissolved oxygen to algae or organic matter. In particular, the structure of water quality models should be modified to simulate the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which is a key factor in calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in Korea, using 5-day BOD determined in the laboratory (Bottle BOD(5)). Considering the limitations in simulating organic matter under domestic conditions, we attempted to model total organic carbon (TOC) as well as BOD by using a watershed model. For this purpose, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified and extended to achieve better correspondence between the measured and simulated BOD and TOC concentrations. For simulated BOD in the period 2004-2008, the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient increased from a value of -2.54 to 0.61. Another indicator of organic matter, namely, the simulated TOC concentration showed that the modified SWAT adequately reflected the observed values. The improved model can be used to predict organic matter and hence, may be a potential decision-making tool for TMDLs. However, it needs further testing for longer simulation periods and other catchments.

  20. A model to incorporate organ deformation in the evaluation of dose/volume relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Jaffray, D.; Wong, J.; Brabbins, D.; Martinez, A. A.


    Purpose: Measurements of internal organ motion have demonstrated that daily organ deformation exists during the course of radiation treatment. However, a model to evaluate the resultant dose delivered to a daily deformed organ remains a difficult challenge. Current methods which model such organ deformation as rigid body motion in the dose calculation for treatment planning evaluation are incorrect and misleading. In this study, a new model for treatment planning evaluation is introduced which incorporates patient specific information of daily organ deformation and setup variation. The model was also used to retrospectively analyze the actual treatment data measured using daily CT scans for 5 patients with prostate treatment. Methods and Materials: The model assumes that for each patient, the organ of interest can be measured during the first few treatment days. First, the volume of each organ is delineated from each of the daily measurements and cumulated in a 3D bit-map. A tissue occupancy distribution is then constructed with the 50% isodensity representing the mean, or effective, organ volume. During the course of treatment, each voxel in the effective organ volume is assumed to move inside a local 3D neighborhood with a specific distribution function. The neighborhood and the distribution function are deduced from the positions and shapes of the organ in the first few measurements using the biomechanics model of viscoelastic body. For each voxel, the local distribution function is then convolved with the spatial dose distribution. The latter includes also the variation in dose due to daily setup error. As a result, the cumulative dose to the voxel incorporates the effects of daily setup variation and organ deformation. A ''variation adjusted'' dose volume histogram, aDVH, for the effective organ volume can then be constructed for the purpose of treatment evaluation and optimization. Up to 20 daily CT scans and daily portal images for 5 patients with prostate