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Sample records for model order determination

  1. Multi-Criteria Model for Determining Order Size

    Katarzyna Jakowska-Suwalska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-criteria model for determining the order size for materials used in production has been presented. It was assumed that the consumption rate of each material is a random variable with a known probability distribution. Using such a model, in which the purchase cost of materials ordered is limited, three criteria were considered: order size, probability of a lack of materials in the production process, and deviations in the order size from the consumption rate in past periods. Based on an example, it has been shown how to use the model to determine the order sizes for polyurethane adhesive and wood in a hard-coal mine. (original abstract

  2. Ordered LOGIT Model approach for the determination of financial distress.

    Kinay, B

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, as a result of the global competition encountered, numerous companies come up against financial distresses. To predict and take proactive approaches for those problems is quite important. Thus, the prediction of crisis and financial distress is essential in terms of revealing the financial condition of companies. In this study, financial ratios relating to 156 industrial firms that are quoted in the Istanbul Stock Exchange are used and probabilities of financial distress are predicted by means of an ordered logit regression model. By means of Altman's Z Score, the dependent variable is composed by scaling the level of risk. Thus, a model that can compose an early warning system and predict financial distress is proposed.

  3. DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN RATING: FACTOR BASED ORDERED PROBIT MODELS FOR PANEL DATA ANALYSIS MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Dilek Teker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compose a new rating methodology and provide credit notches to 23 countries which of 13 are developed and 10 are emerging. There are various literature that explains the determinants of credit ratings. Following the literature, we select 11 variables for our model which of 5 are eliminated by the factor analysis. We use specific dummies to investigate the structural breaks in time and cross section such as pre crises, post crises, BRIC membership, EU membership, OPEC membership, shipbuilder country and platinum reserved country. Then we run an ordered probit model and give credit notches to the countries. We use FITCH ratings as benchmark. Thus, at the end we compare the notches of FITCH with the ones we derive out of our estimated model.

  4. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  5. Nonmathematical models for evolution of altruism, and for group selection (peck order-territoriality-ant colony-dual-determinant model-tri-determinant model).

    Darlington, P J

    1972-02-01

    Mathematical biologists have failed to produce a satisfactory general model for evolution of altruism, i.e., of behaviors by which "altruists" benefit other individuals but not themselves; kin selection does not seem to be a sufficient explanation of nonreciprocal altruism. Nonmathematical (but mathematically acceptable) models are now proposed for evolution of negative altruism in dual-determinant and of positive altruism in tri-determinant systems. Peck orders, territorial systems, and an ant society are analyzed as examples. In all models, evolution is primarily by individual selection, probably supplemented by group selection. Group selection is differential extinction of populations. It can act only on populations preformed by selection at the individual level, but can either cancel individual selective trends (effecting evolutionary homeostasis) or supplement them; its supplementary effect is probably increasingly important in the evolution of increasingly organized populations.

  6. Identification and modelling of travel behaviour determinants in order to find succesful interventions

    Jonkers, E.; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; Vonk, T.; van der Lindt, M.

    2012-01-01

    To ease some of the major problems in the field of mobility and transport a change in travel and driving behaviour is needed. At this moment, too many travellers use the car and drive at the same moment in time. In order to change travel behaviour various measures can be taken. However, often one

  7. Economic Order Quality Model for Determining the Sales Prices of Fresh Goods at Various Points in Time

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the safe consumption of goods such as food products, medicine, and vaccines is related to their freshness, consumers frequently understand less than suppliers about the freshness of goods when they purchase them. Because of this lack of information, apart from sales prices, consumers refer only to the manufacturing and expiration dates when deciding whether to purchase and how many of these goods to buy. If dealers could determine the sales price at each point in time and customers’ intention to buy goods of varying freshness, then dealers could set an optimal inventory cycle and allocate a weekly sales price for each point in time, thereby maximizing the profit per unit time. Therefore, in this study, an economic order quality model was established to enable discussion of the optimal control of sales prices. The technique for identifying the optimal solution for the model was determined, the characteristics of the optimal solution were demonstrated, and the implications of the solution’s sensitivity analysis were explained.

  8. Partially ordered models

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  9. On the model dependence of the determination of the strong coupling constant in second order QCD from e+e--annihilation into hadrons

    Achterberg, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Forstbauer, B.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Henkes, T.; Hopp, G.; Krueger, M.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bonneaud, G.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Laplanche, F.; Le Diberder, F.; Mallik, U.; Ros, E.; Veillet, J.J.; Behrend, H.J.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.

    1983-12-01

    Hadronic events obtained with the CELLO detector at PETRA are compared with second order QCD predictions using different models for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. We find that the model dependence in the determination of the strong coupling constant persists when going from first to second order QCD calculations. (orig.)

  10. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  11. Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.

    Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M

    2011-03-25

    To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.

  12. Self-Determination and Social Order

    Fabio Macioce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I will try to demonstrate that the principle of self‐determination is based on a formal and individualistic view of liberty rights. I also propose a different perspective that takes into account the relationships rather than the individual. I will show how this result can only be achieved through a different ascription of rights to individuals: in particular, I will try to demonstrate 1 that any social practices express specific values, 2 that these values are the result of historical and cultural circumstances, 3 that they are subject to an ongoing public debate, and finally 4 that only if the individual praxis is consistent with these values can it lead to recognition of rights.

  13. Declarative Modeling for Production Order Portfolio Scheduling

    Banaszak Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A declarative framework enabling to determine conditions as well as to develop decision-making software supporting small- and medium-sized enterprises aimed at unique, multi-project-like and mass customized oriented production is discussed. A set of unique production orders grouped into portfolio orders is considered. Operations executed along different production orders share available resources following a mutual exclusion protocol. A unique product or production batch is completed while following a given activity’s network order. The problem concerns scheduling a newly inserted project portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment The answers sought are: Can a given project portfolio specified by its cost and completion time be completed within the assumed time period in a manufacturing system in hand? Which manufacturing system capability guarantees the completion of a given project portfolio ordered under assumed cost and time constraints? The considered problems regard finding a computationally effective approach aimed at simultaneous routing and allocation as well as batching and scheduling of a newly ordered project portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment. The main objective is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multi-project-like and mass customized oriented production scheduling. Multiple illustrative examples are discussed.

  14. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  15. Phase and fringe order determination in wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-04-18

    A method to obtain unambiguous surface height measurements using wavelength scanning interferometry with an improved repeatability, comparable to that obtainable using phase shifting interferometry, is reported. Rather than determining the conventional fringe frequency-derived z height directly, the method uses the frequency to resolve the fringe order ambiguity, and combine this information with the more accurate and repeatable fringe phase derived z height. A theoretical model to evaluate the method's performance in the presence of additive noise is derived and shown to be in good agreement with experiments. The measurement repeatability is improved by a factor of ten over that achieved when using frequency information alone, reaching the sub-nanometre range. Moreover, the z-axis non-linearity (bleed-through or ripple error) is reduced by a factor of ten. These order of magnitude improvements in measurement performance are demonstrated through a number of practical measurement examples.

  16. Spectral imaging toolbox: segmentation, hyperstack reconstruction, and batch processing of spectral images for the determination of cell and model membrane lipid order.

    Aron, Miles; Browning, Richard; Carugo, Dario; Sezgin, Erdinc; Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Eggeling, Christian; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-05-12

    Spectral imaging with polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes enables the quantification of cell and model membrane physical properties, including local hydration, fluidity, and lateral lipid packing, usually characterized by the generalized polarization (GP) parameter. With the development of commercial microscopes equipped with spectral detectors, spectral imaging has become a convenient and powerful technique for measuring GP and other membrane properties. The existing tools for spectral image processing, however, are insufficient for processing the large data sets afforded by this technological advancement, and are unsuitable for processing images acquired with rapidly internalized fluorescent probes. Here we present a MATLAB spectral imaging toolbox with the aim of overcoming these limitations. In addition to common operations, such as the calculation of distributions of GP values, generation of pseudo-colored GP maps, and spectral analysis, a key highlight of this tool is reliable membrane segmentation for probes that are rapidly internalized. Furthermore, handling for hyperstacks, 3D reconstruction and batch processing facilitates analysis of data sets generated by time series, z-stack, and area scan microscope operations. Finally, the object size distribution is determined, which can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying changes in membrane properties and is desirable for e.g. studies involving model membranes and surfactant coated particles. Analysis is demonstrated for cell membranes, cell-derived vesicles, model membranes, and microbubbles with environmentally-sensitive probes Laurdan, carboxyl-modified Laurdan (C-Laurdan), Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, and Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA (FE), for quantification of the local lateral density of lipids or lipid packing. The Spectral Imaging Toolbox is a powerful tool for the segmentation and processing of large spectral imaging datasets with a reliable method for membrane segmentation and no ability in programming required. The

  17. Rapid determination of retinoic acid and its main isomers in plasma by second-order high-performance liquid chromatography data modeling.

    Teglia, Carla M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the development of a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to second-order data modeling with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) for quantification of retinoic acid and its main isomers in plasma in only 5.5 min. The compounds retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and 9,13-di-cis-retinoic acid were partially separated by use of a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (3.0 mm × 30 mm, 2.7 μm particle size) column. Overlapping not only among the target analytes but also with the plasma interferents was resolved by exploiting the second-order advantage of the multi-way calibration. A validation study led to the following results: trueness with recoveries of 98.5-105.9 % for RA, 95.7-110.1 % for 13-cis-RA, 97.1-110.8 % for 9-cis-RA, and 99.5-110.9 % for 9,13-di-cis-RA; repeatability with RSD of 3.5-3.1 % for RA, 3.5-1.5 % for 13-cis-RA, 4.6-2.7 % for 9-cis-RA, and 5.2-2.7 % for 9,13-di-cis-RA (low and high levels); and intermediate precision (inter-day precision) with RSD of 3.8-3.0 % for RA, 2.9-2.4 % for 13-cis-RA, 3.6-3.2 % for 9,13-di-cis-RA, and 3.2-2.9 % for 9-cis-RA (low and high levels). In addition, a robustness study revealed the method was suitable for monitoring patients with dermatological diseases treated with pharmaceutical products containing RA and 13-cis-RA.

  18. Optimal inventory management and order book modeling

    Baradel, Nicolas; Bouchard, Bruno; Evangelista, David; Mounjid, Othmane

    2018-01-01

    We model the behavior of three agent classes acting dynamically in a limit order book of a financial asset. Namely, we consider market makers (MM), high-frequency trading (HFT) firms, and institutional brokers (IB). Given a prior dynamic

  19. Fractional Order Models of Industrial Pneumatic Controllers

    Abolhassan Razminia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new approach for modeling of versatile controllers in industrial automation and process control systems such as pneumatic controllers. Some fractional order dynamical models are developed for pressure and pneumatic systems with bellows-nozzle-flapper configuration. In the light of fractional calculus, a fractional order derivative-derivative (FrDD controller and integral-derivative (FrID are remodeled. Numerical simulations illustrate the application of the obtained theoretical results in simple examples.

  20. Probabilistic error bounds for reduced order modeling

    Abdo, M.G.; Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.S., E-mail: abdo@purdue.edu, E-mail: wang1730@purdue.edu, E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Reduced order modeling has proven to be an effective tool when repeated execution of reactor analysis codes is required. ROM operates on the assumption that the intrinsic dimensionality of the associated reactor physics models is sufficiently small when compared to the nominal dimensionality of the input and output data streams. By employing a truncation technique with roots in linear algebra matrix decomposition theory, ROM effectively discards all components of the input and output data that have negligible impact on reactor attributes of interest. This manuscript introduces a mathematical approach to quantify the errors resulting from the discarded ROM components. As supported by numerical experiments, the introduced analysis proves that the contribution of the discarded components could be upper-bounded with an overwhelmingly high probability. The reverse of this statement implies that the ROM algorithm can self-adapt to determine the level of the reduction needed such that the maximum resulting reduction error is below a given tolerance limit that is set by the user. (author)

  1. Generalized Reduced Order Modeling of Aeroservoelastic Systems

    Gariffo, James Michael

    Transonic aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling presents a significant technical and computational challenge. Flow fields with a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow, as well as moving shock waves, can only be captured through high-fidelity CFD analysis. With modern computing power, it is realtively straightforward to determine the flutter boundary for a single structural configuration at a single flight condition, but problems of larger scope remain quite costly. Some such problems include characterizing a vehicle's flutter boundary over its full flight envelope, optimizing its structural weight subject to aeroelastic constraints, and designing control laws for flutter suppression. For all of these applications, reduced-order models (ROMs) offer substantial computational savings. ROM techniques in general have existed for decades, and the methodology presented in this dissertation builds on successful previous techniques to create a powerful new scheme for modeling aeroelastic systems, and predicting and interpolating their transonic flutter boundaries. In this method, linear ASE state-space models are constructed from modal structural and actuator models coupled to state-space models of the linearized aerodynamic forces through feedback loops. Flutter predictions can be made from these models through simple eigenvalue analysis of their state-transition matrices for an appropriate set of dynamic pressures. Moreover, this analysis returns the frequency and damping trend of every aeroelastic branch. In contrast, determining the critical dynamic pressure by direct time-marching CFD requires a separate run for every dynamic pressure being analyzed simply to obtain the trend for the critical branch. The present ROM methodology also includes a new model interpolation technique that greatly enhances the benefits of these ROMs. This enables predictions of the dynamic behavior of the system for flight conditions where CFD analysis has not been explicitly

  2. Studies of b-jets reconstruction and identification in LHCb experiment in order to determine its sensibility to a standard model Higgs decaying in bb-bar pairs

    Coco, Victor

    2008-01-01

    LHCb sensitivity to a standard model Higgs in the H + (W, Z) → bb-bar + (ll-bar, ν l l) channel has been studied. Different effects affecting jet reconstruction have been studied at generator and full simulation of the detector level. After correction di-b-jet, mass resolution is σ m /m moyen = 22%. b-jet identification procedure has been set up, selecting ∼ 80% of b-jets while rejecting ∼ 99.5% of other jets. After reducing the bb-bar + l physical background, a statistical significance of 1 is obtained for 4 years of data taking at a luminosity of 5.10 32 cm -2 s -1 . (author)

  3. XY model with higher-order exchange.

    Žukovič, Milan; Kalagov, Georgii

    2017-08-01

    An XY model, generalized by inclusion of up to an infinite number of higher-order pairwise interactions with an exponentially decreasing strength, is studied by spin-wave theory and Monte Carlo simulations. At low temperatures the model displays a quasi-long-range-order phase characterized by an algebraically decaying correlation function with the exponent η=T/[2πJ(p,α)], nonlinearly dependent on the parameters p and α that control the number of the higher-order terms and the decay rate of their intensity, respectively. At higher temperatures the system shows a crossover from the continuous Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless to the first-order transition for the parameter values corresponding to a highly nonlinear shape of the potential well. The role of topological excitations (vortices) in changing the nature of the transition is discussed.

  4. Dynamical models of happiness with fractional order

    Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyun; Yang, Jianying

    2010-03-01

    This present study focuses on a dynamical model of happiness described through fractional-order differential equations. By categorizing people of different personality and different impact factor of memory (IFM) with different set of model parameters, it is demonstrated via numerical simulations that such fractional-order models could exhibit various behaviors with and without external circumstance. Moreover, control and synchronization problems of this model are discussed, which correspond to the control of emotion as well as emotion synchronization in real life. This study is an endeavor to combine the psychological knowledge with control problems and system theories, and some implications for psychotherapy as well as hints of a personal approach to life are both proposed.

  5. Optimal inventory management and order book modeling

    Baradel, Nicolas

    2018-02-16

    We model the behavior of three agent classes acting dynamically in a limit order book of a financial asset. Namely, we consider market makers (MM), high-frequency trading (HFT) firms, and institutional brokers (IB). Given a prior dynamic of the order book, similar to the one considered in the Queue-Reactive models [14, 20, 21], the MM and the HFT define their trading strategy by optimizing the expected utility of terminal wealth, while the IB has a prescheduled task to sell or buy many shares of the considered asset. We derive the variational partial differential equations that characterize the value functions of the MM and HFT and explain how almost optimal control can be deduced from them. We then provide a first illustration of the interactions that can take place between these different market participants by simulating the dynamic of an order book in which each of them plays his own (optimal) strategy.

  6. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing computational cost in engineering calculations. • Reduced order modeling algorithm for multi-physics problem like assembly calculation. • Non-intrusive algorithm with random sampling. • Pattern recognition in the components with high sensitive and large variation. - Abstract: While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.

  7. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    Bang, Youngsuk, E-mail: ysbang00@fnctech.com [FNC Technology, Co. Ltd., Yongin-si (Korea, Republic of); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S., E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jessee, Matthew A., E-mail: jesseema@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur, E-mail: mertyurek@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Reducing computational cost in engineering calculations. • Reduced order modeling algorithm for multi-physics problem like assembly calculation. • Non-intrusive algorithm with random sampling. • Pattern recognition in the components with high sensitive and large variation. - Abstract: While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.

  8. Reduced-order modelling of wind turbines

    Elkington, K.; Slootweg, J.G.; Ghandhari, M.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter power system dynamics simulation(PSDS) isused to study the dynamics of large-scale power systems. It is necessary to incorporate models of wind turbine generating systems into PSDS software packages in order to analyse the impact of high wind power penetration on electrical power

  9. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    Bang, Y.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Jessee, M. A.; Mertyurek, U. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system. (authors)

  10. Reduced Order Modeling in General Relativity

    Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Reduced Order Modeling is an emerging yet fast developing filed in gravitational wave physics. The main goals are to enable fast modeling and parameter estimation of any detected signal, along with rapid matched filtering detecting. I will focus on the first two. Some accomplishments include being able to replace, with essentially no lost of physical accuracy, the original models with surrogate ones (which are not effective ones, that is, they do not simplify the physics but go on a very different track, exploiting the particulars of the waveform family under consideration and state of the art dimensional reduction techniques) which are very fast to evaluate. For example, for EOB models they are at least around 3 orders of magnitude faster than solving the original equations, with physically equivalent results. For numerical simulations the speedup is at least 11 orders of magnitude. For parameter estimation our current numbers are about bringing ~100 days for a single SPA inspiral binary neutron star Bayesian parameter estimation analysis to under a day. More recently, it has been shown that the full precessing problem for, say, 200 cycles, can be represented, through some new ideas, by a remarkably compact set of carefully chosen reduced basis waveforms (~10-100, depending on the accuracy requirements). I will highlight what I personally believe are the challenges to face next in this subarea of GW physics and where efforts should be directed. This talk will summarize work in collaboration with: Harbir Antil (GMU), Jonathan Blackman (Caltech), Priscila Canizares (IoA, Cambridge, UK), Sarah Caudill (UWM), Jonathan Gair (IoA. Cambridge. UK), Scott Field (UMD), Chad R. Galley (Caltech), Frank Herrmann (Germany), Han Hestahven (EPFL, Switzerland), Jason Kaye (Brown, Stanford & Courant). Evan Ochsner (UWM), Ricardo Nochetto (UMD), Vivien Raymond (LIGO, Caltech), Rory Smith (LIGO, Caltech) Bela Ssilagyi (Caltech) and MT (UMD & Caltech).

  11. Are Quantum Models for Order Effects Quantum?

    Moreira, Catarina; Wichert, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The application of principles of Quantum Mechanics in areas outside of physics has been getting increasing attention in the scientific community in an emergent disciplined called Quantum Cognition. These principles have been applied to explain paradoxical situations that cannot be easily explained through classical theory. In quantum probability, events are characterised by a superposition state, which is represented by a state vector in a N-dimensional vector space. The probability of an event is given by the squared magnitude of the projection of this superposition state into the desired subspace. This geometric approach is very useful to explain paradoxical findings that involve order effects, but do we really need quantum principles for models that only involve projections? This work has two main goals. First, it is still not clear in the literature if a quantum projection model has any advantage towards a classical projection. We compared both models and concluded that the Quantum Projection model achieves the same results as its classical counterpart, because the quantum interference effects play no role in the computation of the probabilities. Second, it intends to propose an alternative relativistic interpretation for rotation parameters that are involved in both classical and quantum models. In the end, instead of interpreting these parameters as a similarity measure between questions, we propose that they emerge due to the lack of knowledge concerned with a personal basis state and also due to uncertainties towards the state of world and towards the context of the questions.

  12. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  13. Multi-skyrmion solutions of a sixth order Skyrme model

    Floratos, I.

    2001-08-01

    In this thesis, we study some of the classical properties of an extension of the Skyrme model defined by adding a sixth order derivative term to the Lagrangian. In chapter 1, we review the physical as well as the mathematical motivation behind the study of the Skyrme model and in chapter 2, we give a brief summary of various extended Skyrme models that have been proposed over the last few years. We then define a new sixth order Skyrme model by introducing a dimensionless parameter λ that denotes the mixing between the two higher order terms, the Skyrme term and the sixth order term. In chapter 3 we compute numerically the multi-skyrmion solutions of this extended model and show that they have the same symmetries with the usual skyrmion solutions. In addition, we analyse the dependence of the energy and radius of these classical solutions with respect to the coupling constant λ. We compare our results with experimental data and determine whether this modified model can provide us with better theoretical predictions than the original one. In chapter 4, we use the rational map ansatz, introduced by Houghton, Manton and Sutcliffe, to approximate minimum energy multi-skyrmion solutions with B ≤ 9 of the SU(2) model and with B ≤ 6 of the SU(3) model. We compare our results with the ones obtained numerically and show that the rational map ansatz works just as well for the generalised model as for the pure Skyrme model, at least for B ≤ 5. In chapter 5, we use a generalisation of the rational map ansatz, introduced by loannidou, Piette and Zakrzewski, to construct analytically some topologically non-trivial solutions of the extended model in SU(3). These solutions are spherically symmetric and some of them can be interpreted as bound states of skyrmions. Finally, we use the same ansatz to construct low energy configurations of the SU(N) sixth order Skyrme model. (author)

  14. Reduced order model of draft tube flow

    Rudolf, P; Štefan, D

    2014-01-01

    Swirling flow with compact coherent structures is very good candidate for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), i.e. for decomposition into eigenmodes, which are the cornerstones of the flow field. Present paper focuses on POD of steady flows, which correspond to different operating points of Francis turbine draft tube flow. Set of eigenmodes is built using a limited number of snapshots from computational simulations. Resulting reduced order model (ROM) describes whole operating range of the draft tube. ROM enables to interpolate in between the operating points exploiting the knowledge about significance of particular eigenmodes and thus reconstruct the velocity field in any operating point within the given range. Practical example, which employs axisymmetric simulations of the draft tube flow, illustrates accuracy of ROM in regions without vortex breakdown together with need for higher resolution of the snapshot database close to location of sudden flow changes (e.g. vortex breakdown). ROM based on POD interpolation is very suitable tool for insight into flow physics of the draft tube flows (especially energy transfers in between different operating points), for supply of data for subsequent stability analysis or as an initialization database for advanced flow simulations

  15. 49 CFR 397.219 - Waiver determination and order.

    2010-10-01

    ... rational basis; (3) Whether the highway routing designation of the State, political subdivision thereof, or... readily identifiable by the Administrator as one who may be affected by the order. A copy of each order is... with § 397.223, an order issued under this section constitutes the final agency decision regarding...

  16. Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models

    Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.

  17. Determining order-up-to levels under periodic review for compound binomial (intermittent) demand

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for determining order-up-to levels for intermittent demand items in a periodic review system. Contrary to existing methods, we exploit the intermittent character of demand by modelling lead time demand as a compound binomial process. in an extensive numerical study using

  18. Next-To-Leading Order Determination of Fragmentation Functions

    Bourhis, L; Guillet, J P; Werlen, M

    2001-01-01

    We analyse LEP and PETRA data on single inclusive charged hadron cross-sections to establish new sets of Next-to-Leading order Fragmentation Functions. Data on hadro-production of large-$p_{\\bot}$ hadrons are also used to constrain the gluon Fragmentation Function. We carry out a critical comparison with other NLO parametrizations.

  19. Ordering dynamics of microscopic models with nonconserved order parameter of continuous symmetry

    Zhang, Z.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    crystals. For both models, which have a nonconserved order parameter, it is found that the linear scale, R(t), of the evolving order, following quenches to below the transition temperature, grows at late times in an effectively algebraic fashion, R(t)∼tn, with exponent values which are strongly temperature......Numerical Monte Carlo temperature-quenching experiments have been performed on two three-dimensional classical lattice models with continuous ordering symmetry: the Lebwohl-Lasher model [Phys. Rev. A 6, 426 (1972)] and the ferromagnetic isotropic Heisenberg model. Both models describe a transition...... from a disordered phase to an orientationally ordered phase of continuous symmetry. The Lebwohl-Lasher model accounts for the orientational ordering properties of the nematic-isotropic transition in liquid crystals and the Heisenberg model for the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition in magnetic...

  20. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  1. Model selection criteria : how to evaluate order restrictions

    Kuiper, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers often have ideas about the ordering of model parameters. They frequently have one or more theories about the ordering of the group means, in analysis of variance (ANOVA) models, or about the ordering of coefficients corresponding to the predictors, in regression models.A researcher might

  2. Model Order Reduction for Non Linear Mechanics

    Pinillo, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    Context: Automotive industry is moving towards a new generation of cars. Main idea: Cars are furnished with radars, cameras, sensors, etc… providing useful information about the environment surrounding the car. Goals: Provide an efficient model for the radar input/output. Reducing computational costs by means of big data techniques.

  3. Reduced Order Modeling Methods for Turbomachinery Design

    2009-03-01

    and Ma- terials Conference, May 2006. [45] A. Gelman , J. B. Carlin, H. S. Stern, and D. B. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis. New York, NY: Chapman I& Hall...Macian- Juan , and R. Chawla, “A statistical methodology for quantif ca- tion of uncertainty in best estimate code physical models,” Annals of Nuclear En

  4. Determining nonsmooth first order terms from partial boundary measurements

    Knudsen, Kim; Salo, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    We extend results of Dos Santos Ferreira-Kenig-Sjöstrand-Uhlmann(arXiv:math.AP/0601466) to less smooth coefficients, and we show that measurements on part of the boundary for the magnetic Schrödinger operator determine uniquely the magnetic field related to a H¨older continuous potential. We give...

  5. Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.

    Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fike, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maddix, Danielle [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mussoni, Erin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balajewicz, Maciej [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.

  6. Predicting inpatient clinical order patterns with probabilistic topic models vs conventional order sets.

    Chen, Jonathan H; Goldstein, Mary K; Asch, Steven M; Mackey, Lester; Altman, Russ B

    2017-05-01

    Build probabilistic topic model representations of hospital admissions processes and compare the ability of such models to predict clinical order patterns as compared to preconstructed order sets. The authors evaluated the first 24 hours of structured electronic health record data for > 10 K inpatients. Drawing an analogy between structured items (e.g., clinical orders) to words in a text document, the authors performed latent Dirichlet allocation probabilistic topic modeling. These topic models use initial clinical information to predict clinical orders for a separate validation set of > 4 K patients. The authors evaluated these topic model-based predictions vs existing human-authored order sets by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, precision, and recall for subsequent clinical orders. Existing order sets predict clinical orders used within 24 hours with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81, precision 16%, and recall 35%. This can be improved to 0.90, 24%, and 47% ( P  sets tend to provide nonspecific, process-oriented aid, with usability limitations impairing more precise, patient-focused support. Algorithmic summarization has the potential to breach this usability barrier by automatically inferring patient context, but with potential tradeoffs in interpretability. Probabilistic topic modeling provides an automated approach to detect thematic trends in patient care and generate decision support content. A potential use case finds related clinical orders for decision support. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  7. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...... in the semiconductor industry. Circuit simulation proceeds by using Maxwell’s equations to create a mathematical model of the circuit. The boundary element method is then used to discretize the equations, and the variational form of the equations are then solved on the graph network....

  8. Partial Orders and Fully Abstract Models for Concurrency

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on different closures of sets of labelled partial orders, simple algebraic language...

  9. Antiferromagnetic order in the Hubbard model on the Penrose lattice

    Koga, Akihisa; Tsunetsugu, Hirokazu

    2017-12-01

    We study an antiferromagnetic order in the ground state of the half-filled Hubbard model on the Penrose lattice and investigate the effects of quasiperiodic lattice structure. In the limit of infinitesimal Coulomb repulsion U →+0 , the staggered magnetizations persist to be finite, and their values are determined by confined states, which are strictly localized with thermodynamics degeneracy. The magnetizations exhibit an exotic spatial pattern, and have the same sign in each of cluster regions, the size of which ranges from 31 sites to infinity. With increasing U , they continuously evolve to those of the corresponding spin model in the U =∞ limit. In both limits of U , local magnetizations exhibit a fairly intricate spatial pattern that reflects the quasiperiodic structure, but the pattern differs between the two limits. We have analyzed this pattern change by a mode analysis by the singular value decomposition method for the fractal-like magnetization pattern projected into the perpendicular space.

  10. A reduced order model of a quadruped walking system

    Sano, Akihito; Furusho, Junji; Naganuma, Nobuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Trot walking has recently been studied by several groups because of its stability and realizability. In the trot, diagonally opposed legs form pairs. While one pair of legs provides support, the other pair of legs swings forward in preparation for the next step. In this paper, we propose a reduced order model for the trot walking. The reduced order model is derived by using two dominant modes of the closed loop system in which the local feedback at each joint is implemented. It is shown by numerical examples that the obtained reduced order model can well approximate the original higher order model. (author)

  11. Fractional-order in a macroeconomic dynamic model

    David, S. A.; Quintino, D. D.; Soliani, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we applied the Riemann-Liouville approach in order to realize the numerical simulations to a set of equations that represent a fractional-order macroeconomic dynamic model. It is a generalization of a dynamic model recently reported in the literature. The aforementioned equations have been simulated for several cases involving integer and non-integer order analysis, with some different values to fractional order. The time histories and the phase diagrams have been plotted to visualize the effect of fractional order approach. The new contribution of this work arises from the fact that the macroeconomic dynamic model proposed here involves the public sector deficit equation, which renders the model more realistic and complete when compared with the ones encountered in the literature. The results reveal that the fractional-order macroeconomic model can exhibit a real reasonable behavior to macroeconomics systems and might offer greater insights towards the understanding of these complex dynamic systems.

  12. NMR determination of the order parameter in proton and deuteron glasses

    Blinc, R.; Dolinsek, J.; Zalar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inhomogeneous broadening of the ND + deuteron, O-D--O deuteron and 87 Rb quadrapole perturbed NMR spectra in Rb 0.56 (ND 4 ) 0.44 D 2 PO 4 is used for a direct determination of the Edwards-Anderson pseudo-spin glass order parameter. The data provide strong support for a model where the basic difference between magnetic spin glasses and proton or deuteron glasses is the presence of an inherent random field resulting from substitutional disorder which linearly couples to the O-D--O pseudo spins. In these systems we do not deal with a transition from a paraelectric to a pseudo-spin glass phase but rather with a transition from an ergodic pseudo-spin glass phase with a single order parameter q to a non-ergodic pseudo-spin glass phase with an infinite number of order parameters. (author). 11 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Higher-order RANS turbulence models for separated flows

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Higher-order Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are developed to overcome the shortcomings of second-moment RANS models in predicting separated flows....

  14. Data-Driven Model Order Reduction for Bayesian Inverse Problems

    Cui, Tiangang; Youssef, Marzouk; Willcox, Karen

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in using MCMC for the solution of inverse problems is the repeated evaluation of computationally expensive numerical models. We develop a data-driven projection- based model order reduction technique to reduce

  15. The second-order decomposition model of nonlinear irregular waves

    Yang, Zhi Wen; Bingham, Harry B.; Li, Jin Xuan

    2013-01-01

    into the first- and the second-order super-harmonic as well as the second-order sub-harmonic components by transferring them into an identical Fourier frequency-space and using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. In order to evaluate the present model, a variety of monochromatic waves and the second...

  16. Spiking and bursting patterns of fractional-order Izhikevich model

    Teka, Wondimu W.; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha

    2018-03-01

    Bursting and spiking oscillations play major roles in processing and transmitting information in the brain through cortical neurons that respond differently to the same signal. These oscillations display complex dynamics that might be produced by using neuronal models and varying many model parameters. Recent studies have shown that models with fractional order can produce several types of history-dependent neuronal activities without the adjustment of several parameters. We studied the fractional-order Izhikevich model and analyzed different kinds of oscillations that emerge from the fractional dynamics. The model produces a wide range of neuronal spike responses, including regular spiking, fast spiking, intrinsic bursting, mixed mode oscillations, regular bursting and chattering, by adjusting only the fractional order. Both the active and silent phase of the burst increase when the fractional-order model further deviates from the classical model. For smaller fractional order, the model produces memory dependent spiking activity after the pulse signal turned off. This special spiking activity and other properties of the fractional-order model are caused by the memory trace that emerges from the fractional-order dynamics and integrates all the past activities of the neuron. On the network level, the response of the neuronal network shifts from random to scale-free spiking. Our results suggest that the complex dynamics of spiking and bursting can be the result of the long-term dependence and interaction of intracellular and extracellular ionic currents.

  17. Investigation of Effectiveness of Order Review and Release Models in Make to Order Supply Chain

    Kundu Kaustav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays customisation becomes more common due to vast requirement from the customers for which industries are trying to use make-to-order (MTO strategy. Due to high variation in the process, workload control models are extensively used for jobshop companies which usually adapt MTO strategy. Some authors tried to implement workload control models, order review and release systems, in non-repetitive manufacturing companies, where there is a dominant flow in production. Those models are better in shop floor but their performances are never been investigated in high variation situations like MTO supply chain. This paper starts with the introduction of particular issues in MTO companies and a general overview of order review and release systems widely used in the industries. Two order review and release systems, the Limited and Balanced models, particularly suitable for flow shop system are applied to MTO supply chain, where the processing times are difficult to estimate due to high variation. Simulation results show that the Balanced model performs much better than the Limited model if the processing times can be estimated preciously.

  18. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and Monod biotransformation models

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K S , this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. The authors present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K S and in the zero-order approximation the error is K S /S. They then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K S , it may be better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of K S for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, the authors apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set

  19. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  20. REGIONAL FIRST ORDER PERIODIC AUTOREGRESSIVE MODELS FOR MONTHLY FLOWS

    Ceyhun ÖZÇELİK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available First order periodic autoregressive models is of mostly used models in modeling of time dependency of hydrological flow processes. In these models, periodicity of the correlogram is preserved as well as time dependency of processes. However, the parameters of these models, namely, inter-monthly lag-1 autocorrelation coefficients may be often estimated erroneously from short samples, since they are statistics of high order moments. Therefore, to constitute a regional model may be a solution that can produce more reliable and decisive estimates, and derive models and model parameters in any required point of the basin considered. In this study, definitions of homogeneous region for lag-1 autocorrelation coefficients are made; five parametric and non parametric models are proposed to set regional models of lag-1 autocorrelation coefficients. Regional models are applied on 30 stream flow gauging stations in Seyhan and Ceyhan basins, and tested by criteria of relative absolute bias, simple and relative root of mean square errors.

  1. BAYESIAN PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN A MIXED-ORDER MODEL OF BOD DECAY. (U915590)

    We describe a generalized version of the BOD decay model in which the reaction is allowed to assume an order other than one. This is accomplished by making the exponent on BOD concentration a free parameter to be determined by the data. This "mixed-order" model may be ...

  2. A variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion

    Liu Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to develop a variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion. Previous investigations have indicated that the medium structure, fractal dimension or porosity may change with time or space during solute transport processes, results in time or spatial dependent anomalous diffusion phenomena. Hereby, this study makes an attempt to introduce a variable-order fractal derivative diffusion model, in which the index of fractal derivative depends on temporal moment or spatial position, to characterize the above mentioned anomalous diffusion (or transport processes. Compared with other models, the main advantages in description and the physical explanation of new model are explored by numerical simulation. Further discussions on the dissimilitude such as computational efficiency, diffusion behavior and heavy tail phenomena of the new model and variable-order fractional derivative model are also offered.

  3. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    Lellmann, Jan; Morel, Jean-Michel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2013-01-01

    features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE

  4. A simplified parsimonious higher order multivariate Markov chain model

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a simplified parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model (SPHOMMCM) is presented. Moreover, parameter estimation method of TPHOMMCM is give. Numerical experiments shows the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM.

  5. A tridiagonal parsimonious higher order multivariate Markov chain model

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a tridiagonal parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model (TPHOMMCM). Moreover, estimation method of the parameters in TPHOMMCM is give. Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM.

  6. First-order regional seismotectonic model for South Africa

    Singh, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A first-order seismotectonic model was created for South Africa. This was done using four logical steps: geoscientific data collection, characterisation, assimilation and zonation. Through the definition of subunits of concentrations of earthquake...

  7. Mechanical model for filament buckling and growth by phase ordering.

    Rey, Alejandro D; Abukhdeir, Nasser M

    2008-02-05

    A mechanical model of open filament shape and growth driven by phase ordering is formulated. For a given phase-ordering driving force, the model output is the filament shape evolution and the filament end-point kinematics. The linearized model for the slope of the filament is the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal decomposition, where the buckling corresponds to concentration fluctuations. Two modes are predicted: (i) sequential growth and buckling and (ii) simultaneous buckling and growth. The relation among the maximum buckling rate, filament tension, and matrix viscosity is given. These results contribute to ongoing work in smectic A filament buckling.

  8. Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows

    Ramesh, Kiran

    is hypothesized, and verified with experimental and computational data, that LEV formation always occurs at the same critical value of LESP irrespective of motion kinematics. Further, the applicability of the LESP criterion in influencing the occurrence of LEV formation is demonstrated. To model the growth and convection of leading-edge vortices, the unsteady thin-airfoil theory is augmented with discrete-vortex shedding from the leading edge. The LESP criterion is used to predict and modulate the shedding of leading-edge vorticity. Comparisons with experiments and CFD for test-cases with different airfoils, Reynolds numbers and motion kinematics, show that the method performs remarkably well in predicting force coefficients and flowfields for unsteady flows. The use of a single empirical parameter - the critical LESP value, allows the determination of onset, growth and termination of leading-edge vortex shedding. In the final part of the research, the discrete-vortex model is extended to flows where the freestream velocity is varying or small in comparison with motion velocity. With this extension, the method is made applicable to a larger set of 2D flows such as perching and hovering maneuvers, gusts, and sinusoidally varying freestream. Abstractions of perching and hovering are designed as test cases and used to validate the low-order model's performance in highly-unsteady, vortex-dominated flows. Alongside development of the low-order methodology, several features of unsteady flows are studied and analyzed with the aid of CFD and experiments. While remaining computationally inexpensive and retaining the essential flow-physics, the method is seen to be successful in prediction of both force coefficients and flow histories.

  9. Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Modeling, Analysis and Simulation

    Petráš, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    "Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation" presents a study of fractional-order chaotic systems accompanied by Matlab programs for simulating their state space trajectories, which are shown in the illustrations in the book. Description of the chaotic systems is clearly presented and their analysis and numerical solution are done in an easy-to-follow manner. Simulink models for the selected fractional-order systems are also presented. The readers will understand the fundamentals of the fractional calculus, how real dynamical systems can be described using fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, how such equations can be solved, and how to simulate and explore chaotic systems of fractional order. The book addresses to mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and other scientists interested in chaos phenomena or in fractional-order systems. It can be used in courses on dynamical systems, control theory, and applied mathematics at graduate or postgraduate level. ...

  10. Lagrangian generic second order traffic flow models for node

    Asma Khelifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sheds light on higher order macroscopic traffic flow modeling on road networks, thanks to the generic second order models (GSOM family which embeds a myriad of traffic models. It has been demonstrated that such higher order models are easily solved in Lagrangian coordinates which are compatible with both microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The generalized GSOM model is reformulated in the Lagrangian coordinate system to develop a more efficient numerical method. The difficulty in applying this approach on networks basically resides in dealing with node dynamics. Traffic flow characteristics at node are different from that on homogeneous links. Different geometry features can lead to different critical research issues. For instance, discontinuity in traffic stream can be an important issue for traffic signal operations, while capacity drop may be crucial for lane-merges. The current paper aims to establish and analyze a new adapted node model for macroscopic traffic flow models by applying upstream and downstream boundary conditions on the Lagrangian coordinates in order to perform simulations on networks of roads, and accompanying numerical method. The internal node dynamics between upstream and downstream links are taken into account of the node model. Therefore, a numerical example is provided to underscore the efficiency of this approach. Simulations show that the discretized node model yields accurate results. Additional kinematic waves and contact discontinuities are induced by the variation of the driver attribute.

  11. 46 CFR 201.3 - Authentication of rules, orders, determinations and decisions of the Administration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authentication of rules, orders, determinations and decisions of the Administration. 201.3 Section 201.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....3 Authentication of rules, orders, determinations and decisions of the Administration. All rules...

  12. Average inactivity time model, associated orderings and reliability properties

    Kayid, M.; Izadkhah, S.; Abouammoh, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a new model called 'average inactivity time model'. This new model is specifically applicable to handle the heterogeneity of the time of the failure of a system in which some inactive items exist. We provide some bounds for the mean average inactivity time of a lifespan unit. In addition, we discuss some dependence structures between the average variable and the mixing variable in the model when original random variable possesses some aging behaviors. Based on the conception of the new model, we introduce and study a new stochastic order. Finally, to illustrate the concept of the model, some interesting reliability problems are reserved.

  13. Testing static tradeoff theiry against pecking order models of capital ...

    We test two models with the purpose of finding the best empirical explanation for corporate financing choice of a cross section of 27 Nigerian quoted companies. The models were developed to represent the Static tradeoff Theory and the Pecking order Theory of capital structure with a view to make comparison between ...

  14. Data-Driven Model Order Reduction for Bayesian Inverse Problems

    Cui, Tiangang

    2014-01-06

    One of the major challenges in using MCMC for the solution of inverse problems is the repeated evaluation of computationally expensive numerical models. We develop a data-driven projection- based model order reduction technique to reduce the computational cost of numerical PDE evaluations in this context.

  15. Latent Partially Ordered Classification Models and Normal Mixtures

    Tatsuoka, Curtis; Varadi, Ferenc; Jaeger, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Latent partially ordered sets (posets) can be employed in modeling cognitive functioning, such as in the analysis of neuropsychological (NP) and educational test data. Posets are cognitively diagnostic in the sense that classification states in these models are associated with detailed profiles of cognitive functioning. These profiles allow for…

  16. Next-to-leading order corrections to the valon model

    A seminumerical solution to the valon model at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the Laguerre polynomials is presented. We used the valon model to generate the structure of proton with respect to the Laguerre polynomials method. The results are compared with H1 data and other parametrizations.

  17. Partial-Order Reduction for GPU Model Checking

    Neele, T.; Wijs, A.; Bosnacki, D.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Artho, C; Legay, A.; Peled, D.

    2016-01-01

    Model checking using GPUs has seen increased popularity over the last years. Because GPUs have a limited amount of memory, only small to medium-sized systems can be verified. For on-the-fly explicit-state model checking, we improve memory efficiency by applying partial-order reduction. We propose

  18. Hybrid Reduced Order Modeling Algorithms for Reactor Physics Calculations

    Bang, Youngsuk

    Reduced order modeling (ROM) has been recognized as an indispensable approach when the engineering analysis requires many executions of high fidelity simulation codes. Examples of such engineering analyses in nuclear reactor core calculations, representing the focus of this dissertation, include the functionalization of the homogenized few-group cross-sections in terms of the various core conditions, e.g. burn-up, fuel enrichment, temperature, etc. This is done via assembly calculations which are executed many times to generate the required functionalization for use in the downstream core calculations. Other examples are sensitivity analysis used to determine important core attribute variations due to input parameter variations, and uncertainty quantification employed to estimate core attribute uncertainties originating from input parameter uncertainties. ROM constructs a surrogate model with quantifiable accuracy which can replace the original code for subsequent engineering analysis calculations. This is achieved by reducing the effective dimensionality of the input parameter, the state variable, or the output response spaces, by projection onto the so-called active subspaces. Confining the variations to the active subspace allows one to construct an ROM model of reduced complexity which can be solved more efficiently. This dissertation introduces a new algorithm to render reduction with the reduction errors bounded based on a user-defined error tolerance which represents the main challenge of existing ROM techniques. Bounding the error is the key to ensuring that the constructed ROM models are robust for all possible applications. Providing such error bounds represents one of the algorithmic contributions of this dissertation to the ROM state-of-the-art. Recognizing that ROM techniques have been developed to render reduction at different levels, e.g. the input parameter space, the state space, and the response space, this dissertation offers a set of novel

  19. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian

    2014-01-01

    it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state......, its context within an organisation and the effects on security as outcomes of a theorem proving analysis....

  20. Marginal and Interaction Effects in Ordered Response Models

    Debdulal Mallick

    2009-01-01

    In discrete choice models the marginal effect of a variable of interest that is interacted with another variable differs from the marginal effect of a variable that is not interacted with any variable. The magnitude of the interaction effect is also not equal to the marginal effect of the interaction term. I present consistent estimators of both marginal and interaction effects in ordered response models. This procedure is general and can easily be extended to other discrete choice models. I ...

  1. The power of non-determinism in higher-order implicit complexity

    Kop, Cynthia Louisa Martina; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the power of non-determinism in purely functional programming languages with higher-order types. Specifically, we consider cons-free programs of varying data orders, equipped with explicit non-deterministic choice. Cons-freeness roughly means that data constructors cannot occur...... in function bodies and all manipulation of storage space thus has to happen indirectly using the call stack. While cons-free programs have previously been used by several authors to characterise complexity classes, the work on non-deterministic programs has almost exclusively considered programs of data order...... 0. Previous work has shown that adding explicit non-determinism to consfree programs taking data of order 0 does not increase expressivity; we prove that this—dramatically—is not the case for higher data orders: adding non-determinism to programs with data order at least 1 allows...

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF REDUCED ORDER MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Mandelli, D.; Alfonsi, A.; Talbot, P.; Wang, C.; Maljovec, D.; Smith, C.; Rabiti, C.; Cogliati, J.

    2016-10-01

    The RISMC project is developing new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Computational Risk Analysis (CRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactors primary and secondary systems, but also external event temporal evolution and component/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem being addressed, but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, seconds-hours-years). As part of the RISMC CRA approach, a large amount of computationally-expensive simulation runs may be required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis using brute-force methods may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated to assist the computational issue is the use of reduced order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RISMC analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulation runs; for this analysis improvement we used surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This article focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to RISMC analyses in order to generate, analyze, and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (microseconds instead of hours/days).

  3. Venus gravity and topography: 60th degree and order model

    Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.

  4. Ordering parameters of three-dimensional ordered quantum-dot lattices determined by anomalous x-ray diffraction

    Lechner, R.T.; Springholz, G.; Stangl, J.; Raab, A.; Bauer, G.; Schuelli, T.U.; Holy, V.; Metzger, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) quantum dot structures can be obtained, e.g., by the growth of self-assembled quantum dot multilayers in which vertically and laterally ordered dot superstructures are formed as a result of the elastic interlayer dot interactions between the dots. This not only results in a significant narrowing of the size distribution, but different 3D interlayer correlations can be obtained by changes in the spacer thickness, as has been demonstrated for the PbSe/PbEuTe quantum dot material system. Apart from microscopic techniques, x-ray diffraction is a very powerful tool to characterize the ordering in such 3D assembled quantum dot structures. However, the analysis of the diffraction spectra is usually complicated by the weak scattering contrast between the self-assembled quantum dots and the surrounding matrix material. In the present work, we therefore employ anomalous x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation to drastically enhance the chemical contrast in such multilayers by tuning the wavelength close to an inner shell absorption resonance. This technique is applied to determine the ordering of differently stacked self-assembled PbSe quantum dot lattices fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. In this case, the x-ray wavelength is tuned to the Pb M-shell at 5.1 Aato enhance the scattering contrast between the PbSe dots and the matrix material in comparison to the results obtained using conventional x-ray wavelengths around 1.5 Aa. As a result, it is shown that the lateral ordering is significantly better for 3D trigonal PbSe dot superlattices as compared to those with 3D hexagonal dot arrangement. (author)

  5. Reduced order modeling of flashing two-phase jets

    Gurecky, William, E-mail: william.gurecky@utexas.edu; Schneider, Erich, E-mail: eschneider@mail.utexas.edu; Ballew, Davis, E-mail: davisballew@utexas.edu

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Accident simulation requires ability to quickly predict two-phase flashing jet's damage potential. • A reduced order modeling methodology informed by experimental or computational data is described. • Zone of influence volumes are calculated for jets of various upstream thermodynamic conditions. - Abstract: In the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor, the escaping coolant produces a highly energetic flashing jet with the potential to damage surrounding structures. In LOCA analysis, the goal is often to evaluate many break scenarios in a Monte Carlo style simulation to evaluate the resilience of a reactor design. Therefore, in order to quickly predict the damage potential of flashing jets, it is of interest to develop a reduced order model that relates the damage potential of a jet to the pressure and temperature upstream of the break and the distance from the break to a given object upon which the jet is impinging. This work presents framework for producing a Reduced Order Model (ROM) that may be informed by measured data, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, or a combination of both. The model is constructed by performing regression analysis on the pressure field data, allowing the impingement pressure to be quickly reconstructed for any given upstream thermodynamic condition within the range of input data. The model is applicable to both free and fully impinging two-phase flashing jets.

  6. Reverse time migration by Krylov subspace reduced order modeling

    Basir, Hadi Mahdavi; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Firouz-Abadi, Roohollah Dehghani; Gholamy, Shaban Ali

    2018-04-01

    Imaging is a key step in seismic data processing. To date, a myriad of advanced pre-stack depth migration approaches have been developed; however, reverse time migration (RTM) is still considered as the high-end imaging algorithm. The main limitations associated with the performance cost of reverse time migration are the intensive computation of the forward and backward simulations, time consumption, and memory allocation related to imaging condition. Based on the reduced order modeling, we proposed an algorithm, which can be adapted to all the aforementioned factors. Our proposed method benefit from Krylov subspaces method to compute certain mode shapes of the velocity model computed by as an orthogonal base of reduced order modeling. Reverse time migration by reduced order modeling is helpful concerning the highly parallel computation and strongly reduces the memory requirement of reverse time migration. The synthetic model results showed that suggested method can decrease the computational costs of reverse time migration by several orders of magnitudes, compared with reverse time migration by finite element method.

  7. Impact of Physics Parameterization Ordering in a Global Atmosphere Model

    Donahue, Aaron S.; Caldwell, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is noncommutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the intermodel spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of k-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro/microphysics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Fractional Order Epidemic Model of Childhood Diseases

    Fazal Haq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional order Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR epidemic model of childhood disease is considered. Laplace–Adomian Decomposition Method is used to compute an approximate solution of the system of nonlinear fractional differential equations. We obtain the solutions of fractional differential equations in the form of infinite series. The series solution of the proposed model converges rapidly to its exact value. The obtained results are compared with the classical case.

  9. The Ising model coupled to 2d orders

    Glaser, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    In this article we make first steps in coupling matter to causal set theory in the path integral. We explore the case of the Ising model coupled to the 2d discrete Einstein Hilbert action, restricted to the 2d orders. We probe the phase diagram in terms of the Wick rotation parameter β and the Ising coupling j and find that the matter and the causal sets together give rise to an interesting phase structure. The couplings give rise to five different phases. The causal sets take on random or crystalline characteristics as described in Surya (2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 132001) and the Ising model can be correlated or uncorrelated on the random orders and correlated, uncorrelated or anti-correlated on the crystalline orders. We find that at least one new phase transition arises, in which the Ising spins push the causal set into the crystalline phase.

  10. Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling

    Wiebe, R.; Perez, R.A.; Spottswood, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties. (paper)

  11. Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling

    Wiebe, R.; Perez, R. A.; Spottswood, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties.

  12. A delta-rule model of numerical and non-numerical order processing.

    Verguts, Tom; Van Opstal, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Numerical and non-numerical order processing share empirical characteristics (distance effect and semantic congruity), but there are also important differences (in size effect and end effect). At the same time, models and theories of numerical and non-numerical order processing developed largely separately. Currently, we combine insights from 2 earlier models to integrate them in a common framework. We argue that the same learning principle underlies numerical and non-numerical orders, but that environmental features determine the empirical differences. Implications for current theories on order processing are pointed out. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Model order reduction for complex high-tech systems

    Lutowska, A.; Hochstenbach, M.E.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Michielsen, B.; Poirier, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient model order reduction (MOR) technique for interconnected systems. This MOR technique preserves block structures and zero blocks and exploits separate MOR approximations for the individual sub-systems in combination with low rank approximations for the

  14. Next-to-leading order corrections to the valon model

    Next-to-leading order corrections to the valon model. G R BOROUN. ∗ and E ESFANDYARI. Physics Department, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149, Iran. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: grboroun@gmail.com; boroun@razi.ac.ir. MS received 17 January 2014; revised 31 October 2014; accepted 21 November 2014.

  15. Temporal order of RNase IIIb and loss-of-function mutations during development determines phenotype in pleuropulmonary blastoma / DICER1 syndrome: a unique variant of the two-hit tumor suppression model [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Mark Brenneman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB is the most frequent pediatric lung tumor and often the first indication of a pleiotropic cancer predisposition, DICER1 syndrome, comprising a range of other individually rare, benign and malignant tumors of childhood and early adulthood. The genetics of DICER1-associated tumorigenesis are unusual in that tumors typically bear neomorphic missense mutations at one of five specific “hotspot” codons within the RNase IIIb domain of DICER 1, combined with complete loss of function (LOF in the other allele. We analyzed a cohort of 124 PPB children for predisposing DICER1 mutations and sought correlations with clinical phenotypes. Over 70% have inherited or de novo germline LOF mutations, most of which truncate the DICER1 open reading frame. We identified a minority of patients who have no germline mutation, but are instead mosaic for predisposing DICER1 mutations. Mosaicism for RNase IIIb domain hotspot mutations defines a special category of DICER1 syndrome patients, clinically distinguished from those with germline or mosaic LOF mutations by earlier onsets and numerous discrete foci of neoplastic disease involving multiple syndromic organ sites. A final category of PBB patients lack predisposing germline or mosaic mutations and have sporadic (rather than syndromic disease limited to a single PPB tumor bearing tumor-specific RNase IIIb and LOF mutations. We propose that acquisition of a neomorphic RNase IIIb domain mutation is the rate limiting event in DICER1-associated tumorigenesis, and that distinct clinical phenotypes associated with mutational categories reflect the temporal order in which LOF and RNase IIIb domain mutations are acquired during development.

  16. Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low dimensional bilinear state representation, enables the reproduction of the heat transfer dynamics along the collector tube for system analysis. Moreover, presented as a reduced order bilinear state space model, the well established control theory for this class of systems can be applied. The approximation efficiency has been proven by several simulation tests, which have been performed considering parameters of the Acurex field with real external working conditions. Model accuracy has been evaluated by comparison to the analytical solution of the hyperbolic distributed model and its semi discretized approximation highlighting the benefits of using the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, model sensitivity to the different parameters of the gaussian interpolation has been studied.

  17. Integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnetic model

    Guo Jiafeng; Yan Zhaowen; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2009-01-01

    The Heisenberg supermagnet model is an integrable supersymmetric system and has a close relationship with the strong electron correlated Hubbard model. In this paper, we investigate the integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnet models with two different constraints: (i) S 2 =3S-2I for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(U(2)xU(1)) and (ii) S 2 =S for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(L(1/1)xU(1)). In terms of the gauge transformation, their corresponding gauge equivalent counterparts are derived.

  18. Accelerating transient simulation of linear reduced order models.

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Keiter, Eric Richard; Bond, Brad

    2011-10-01

    Model order reduction (MOR) techniques have been used to facilitate the analysis of dynamical systems for many years. Although existing model reduction techniques are capable of providing huge speedups in the frequency domain analysis (i.e. AC response) of linear systems, such speedups are often not obtained when performing transient analysis on the systems, particularly when coupled with other circuit components. Reduced system size, which is the ostensible goal of MOR methods, is often insufficient to improve transient simulation speed on realistic circuit problems. It can be shown that making the correct reduced order model (ROM) implementation choices is crucial to the practical application of MOR methods. In this report we investigate methods for accelerating the simulation of circuits containing ROM blocks using the circuit simulator Xyce.

  19. Modeling and analysis of fractional order DC-DC converter.

    Radwan, Ahmed G; Emira, Ahmed A; AbdelAty, Amr M; Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2017-07-11

    Due to the non-idealities of commercial inductors, the demand for a better model that accurately describe their dynamic response is elevated. So, the fractional order models of Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost DC-DC converters are presented in this paper. The detailed analysis is made for the two most common modes of converter operation: Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). Closed form time domain expressions are derived for inductor currents, voltage gain, average current, conduction time and power efficiency where the effect of the fractional order inductor is found to be strongly present. For example, the peak inductor current at steady state increases with decreasing the inductor order. Advanced Design Systems (ADS) circuit simulations are used to verify the derived formulas, where the fractional order inductor is simulated using Valsa Constant Phase Element (CPE) approximation and Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC). Different simulation results are introduced with good matching to the theoretical formulas for the three DC-DC converter topologies under different fractional orders. A comprehensive comparison with the recently published literature is presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low order physical models of vertical axis wind turbines

    Craig, Anna; Dabiri, John; Koseff, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    In order to examine the ability of low-order physical models of vertical axis wind turbines to accurately reproduce key flow characteristics, experiments were conducted on rotating turbine models, rotating solid cylinders, and stationary porous flat plates (of both uniform and non-uniform porosities). From examination of the patterns of mean flow, the wake turbulence spectra, and several quantitative metrics, it was concluded that the rotating cylinders represent a reasonably accurate analog for the rotating turbines. In contrast, from examination of the patterns of mean flow, it was found that the porous flat plates represent only a limited analog for rotating turbines (for the parameters examined). These findings have implications for both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, which have previously used analogous low order models in order to reduce experimental/computational costs. NSF GRF and SGF to A.C; ONR N000141211047 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant GBMF2645 to J.D.; and the Bob and Norma Street Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University.

  1. Aeroelastic simulation using CFD based reduced order models

    Zhang, W.; Ye, Z.; Li, H.; Yang, Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an accurate and efficient method for aeroelastic simulation. System identification is used to get the reduced order models of unsteady aerodynamics. Unsteady Euler codes are used to compute the output signals while 3211 multistep input signals are utilized. LS(Least Squares) method is used to estimate the coefficients of the input-output difference model. The reduced order models are then used in place of the unsteady CFD code for aeroelastic simulation. The aeroelastic equations are marched by an improved 4th order Runge-Kutta method that only needs to compute the aerodynamic loads one time at every time step. The computed results agree well with that of the direct coupling CFD/CSD methods. The computational efficiency is improved 1∼2 orders while still retaining the high accuracy. A standard aeroelastic computing example (isogai wing) with S type flutter boundary is computed and analyzed. It is due to the system has more than one neutral points at the Mach range of 0.875∼0.9. (author)

  2. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating a surface based on sparse data such as individual points or level lines. We derive interpolators satisfying a list of desirable properties with an emphasis on preserving the geometry and characteristic features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE and higher-order total variation methods qualitatively and quantitatively on real-world digital elevation data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Reduced order surrogate modelling (ROSM) of high dimensional deterministic simulations

    Mitry, Mina

    Often, computationally expensive engineering simulations can prohibit the engineering design process. As a result, designers may turn to a less computationally demanding approximate, or surrogate, model to facilitate their design process. However, owing to the the curse of dimensionality, classical surrogate models become too computationally expensive for high dimensional data. To address this limitation of classical methods, we develop linear and non-linear Reduced Order Surrogate Modelling (ROSM) techniques. Two algorithms are presented, which are based on a combination of linear/kernel principal component analysis and radial basis functions. These algorithms are applied to subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data, as well as a model for a chemical spill in a channel. The results of this thesis show that ROSM can provide a significant computational benefit over classical surrogate modelling, sometimes at the expense of a minor loss in accuracy.

  4. Empirical Reduced-Order Modeling for Boundary Feedback Flow Control

    Seddik M. Djouadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the practical and theoretical implications of model reduction for aerodynamic flow-based control problems. Various aspects of model reduction are discussed that apply to partial differential equation- (PDE- based models in general. Specifically, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD of a high dimension system as well as frequency domain identification methods are discussed for initial model construction. Projections on the POD basis give a nonlinear Galerkin model. Then, a model reduction method based on empirical balanced truncation is developed and applied to the Galerkin model. The rationale for doing so is that linear subspace approximations to exact submanifolds associated with nonlinear controllability and observability require only standard matrix manipulations utilizing simulation/experimental data. The proposed method uses a chirp signal as input to produce the output in the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA. This method estimates the system's Markov parameters that accurately reproduce the output. Balanced truncation is used to show that model reduction is still effective on ERA produced approximated systems. The method is applied to a prototype convective flow on obstacle geometry. An H∞ feedback flow controller is designed based on the reduced model to achieve tracking and then applied to the full-order model with excellent performance.

  5. Identification of the reduced order models of a BWR reactor

    Hernandez S, A.

    2004-01-01

    The present work has as objective to analyze the relative stability of a BWR type reactor. It is analyzed that so adaptive it turns out to identify the parameters of a model of reduced order so that this it reproduces a condition of given uncertainty. This will take of a real fact happened in the La Salle plant under certain operation conditions of power and flow of coolant. The parametric identification is carried out by means of an algorithm of recursive least square and an Output Error model (Output Error), measuring the output power of the reactor when the instability is present, and considering that it is produced by a change in the reactivity of the system in the same way that a sign of type step. Also it is carried out an analytic comparison of the relative stability, analyzing two types of answers: the original answer of the uncertainty of the reactor vs. the obtained response identifying the parameters of the model of reduced order, reaching the conclusion that it is very viable to adapt a model of reduced order to study the stability of a reactor, under the only condition to consider that the dynamics of the reactivity is of step type. (Author)

  6. Determining The Optimal Order Picking Batch Size In Single Aisle Warehouses

    T. Le-Duc (Tho); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis work aims at investigating the influence of picking batch size to average time in system of orders in a one-aisle warehouse under the assumption that order arrivals follow a Poisson process and items are uniformly distributed over the aisle's length. We model this problem as an

  7. Modeling the self-assembly of ordered nanoporous materials

    Monson, Peter [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Auerbach, Scott [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This report describes progress on a collaborative project on the multiscale modeling of the assembly processes in the synthesis of nanoporous materials. Such materials are of enormous importance in modern technology with application in the chemical process industries, biomedicine and biotechnology as well as microelectronics. The project focuses on two important classes of materials: i) microporous crystalline materials, such as zeolites, and ii) ordered mesoporous materials. In the first case the pores are part of the crystalline structure, while in the second the structures are amorphous on the atomistic length scale but where surfactant templating gives rise to order on the length scale of 2 - 20 nm. We have developed a modeling framework that encompasses both these kinds of materials. Our models focus on the assembly of corner sharing silica tetrahedra in the presence of structure directing agents. We emphasize a balance between sufficient realism in the models and computational tractibility given the complex many-body phenomena. We use both on-lattice and off-lattice models and the primary computational tools are Monte Carlo simulations with sampling techniques and ensembles appropriate to specific situations. Our modeling approach is the first to capture silica polymerization, nanopore crystallization, and mesopore formation through computer-simulated self assembly.

  8. HOKF: High Order Kalman Filter for Epilepsy Forecasting Modeling.

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee

    2017-08-01

    Epilepsy forecasting has been extensively studied using high-order time series obtained from scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An accurate seizure prediction system would not only help significantly improve patients' quality of life, but would also facilitate new therapeutic strategies to manage epilepsy. This paper thus proposes an improved Kalman Filter (KF) algorithm to mine seizure forecasts from neural activity by modeling three properties in the high-order EEG time series: noise, temporal smoothness, and tensor structure. The proposed High-Order Kalman Filter (HOKF) is an extension of the standard Kalman filter, for which higher-order modeling is limited. The efficient dynamic of HOKF system preserves the tensor structure of the observations and latent states. As such, the proposed method offers two main advantages: (i) effectiveness with HOKF results in hidden variables that capture major evolving trends suitable to predict neural activity, even in the presence of missing values; and (ii) scalability in that the wall clock time of the HOKF is linear with respect to the number of time-slices of the sequence. The HOKF algorithm is examined in terms of its effectiveness and scalability by conducting forecasting and scalability experiments with a real epilepsy EEG dataset. The results of the simulation demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the original Kalman Filter and other existing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fundamental Frequency and Model Order Estimation Using Spatial Filtering

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    extend this procedure to account for inharmonicity using unconstrained model order estimation. The simulations show that beamforming improves the performance of the joint estimates of fundamental frequency and the number of harmonics in low signal to interference (SIR) levels, and an experiment......In signal processing applications of harmonic-structured signals, estimates of the fundamental frequency and number of harmonics are often necessary. In real scenarios, a desired signal is contaminated by different levels of noise and interferers, which complicate the estimation of the signal...... parameters. In this paper, we present an estimation procedure for harmonic-structured signals in situations with strong interference using spatial filtering, or beamforming. We jointly estimate the fundamental frequency and the constrained model order through the output of the beamformers. Besides that, we...

  10. Reduced order modeling in topology optimization of vibroacoustic problems

    Creixell Mediante, Ester; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    complex 3D parts. The optimization process can therefore become highly time consuming due to the need to solve a large system of equations at each iteration. Projection-based parametric Model Order Reduction (pMOR) methods have successfully been applied for reducing the computational cost of material......There is an interest in introducing topology optimization techniques in the design process of structural-acoustic systems. In topology optimization, the design space must be finely meshed in order to obtain an accurate design, which results in large numbers of degrees of freedom when designing...... or size optimization in large vibroacoustic models; however, new challenges are encountered when dealing with topology optimization. Since a design parameter per element is considered, the total number of design variables becomes very large; this poses a challenge to most existing pMOR techniques, which...

  11. Multivariable robust adaptive controller using reduced-order model

    Wei Wang

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multivariable robust adaptive controller is presented for a plant with bounded disturbances and unmodeled dynamics due to plant-model order mismatches. The robust stability of the closed-loop system is achieved by using the normalization technique and the least squares parameter estimation scheme with dead zones. The weighting polynomial matrices are incorporated into the control law, so that the open-loop unstable or/and nonminimum phase plants can be handled.

  12. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system.

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Finite temperature CPN-1 model and long range Neel order

    Ichinose, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Hisashi.

    1989-09-01

    We study in d space-dimensions the finite temperature behavior of long range Neel order (LRNO) in CP N-1 model as a low energy effective field theory of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. For d≤1, or d≤2 at any nonzero temperature, LRNO disappears, in agreement with Mermin-Wagner-Coleman's theorem. For d=3 in the weak coupling region, LRNO exists below the critical temperature T N (Neel temperature). T N decreases as the interlayer coupling becomes relatively weak compared with that within Cu-O layers. (author)

  14. The order of chaos on a Bianch IX cosmological model

    Bugalho, H; da Silva, A R; Ramos, J S

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the chaotic behavior that can arise on a type-IX cosmological model using methods from dynamic systems theory and symbolic dynamics. Specifically, instead of the Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifschitz model, we use the iterates of a monotonously increasing map of the circle with a discontinuity, and for the Hamiltonian dynamics of Misner's Mixmaster model we introduce the iterates of a noninvertible map. An equivalence between these two models can easily be brought upon by translating them in symbolic dynamical terms. The resulting symbolic orbits can be inserted in an ordered tree structure set, and so we can present an effective counting and referentation of all period orbits.

  15. Determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    Liu, Xiao Juan; Juan, Liu Xiao; Wu, Ying Hua; Hua, Wu Ying; Zhao, Li Chao; Chao, Zhao Li; Xiao, Su Yao; Yao, Xiao Su; Zhou, Ai Mei; Mei, Zhou Ai; Liu, Xin; Xin, Liu

    2011-01-01

    A highly selective, convenient, and precise method, first-order derivative spectrophotometry, was applied for the determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis. Ethyl acetate and ethanol (1:1, v/v) were found to be the best extraction solvent tested due to their high efficiency and low toxicity compared with nine other organic solvents. Astaxanthin coexisting with chlorophyll and beta-carotene was analyzed by first-order derivative spectrophotometry in order to optimize the conditions for the determination of astaxanthin. The results show that when detected at 432 nm, the interfering substances could be eliminated. The dynamic linear range was 2.0-8.0 microg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916. The detection threshold was 0.41 microg/mL. The RSD for the determination of astaxanthin was in the range of 0.01-0.06%; the results of recovery test were 98.1-108.0%. The statistical analysis between first-order derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC by T-testing did not exceed their critical values, revealing no significant differences between these two methods. It was proved that first-order derivative spectrophotometry is a rapid and convenient method for the determination of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis that can eliminate the negative effect resulting from the coexistence of astaxanthin with chlorophyll and beta-carotene.

  16. An Ordered Regression Model to Predict Transit Passengers’ Behavioural Intentions

    Oña, J. de; Oña, R. de; Eboli, L.; Forciniti, C.; Mazzulla, G.

    2016-07-01

    Passengers’ behavioural intentions after experiencing transit services can be viewed as signals that show if a customer continues to utilise a company’s service. Users’ behavioural intentions can depend on a series of aspects that are difficult to measure directly. More recently, transit passengers’ behavioural intentions have been just considered together with the concepts of service quality and customer satisfaction. Due to the characteristics of the ways for evaluating passengers’ behavioural intentions, service quality and customer satisfaction, we retain that this kind of issue could be analysed also by applying ordered regression models. This work aims to propose just an ordered probit model for analysing service quality factors that can influence passengers’ behavioural intentions towards the use of transit services. The case study is the LRT of Seville (Spain), where a survey was conducted in order to collect the opinions of the passengers about the existing transit service, and to have a measure of the aspects that can influence the intentions of the users to continue using the transit service in the future. (Author)

  17. Competing orders in the Hofstadter t -J model

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Schindler, Frank; Neupert, Titus; Poilblanc, Didier

    2018-01-01

    The Hofstadter model describes noninteracting fermions on a lattice in the presence of an external magnetic field. Motivated by the plethora of solid-state phases emerging from electron interactions, we consider an interacting version of the Hofstadter model, including a Hubbard repulsion U . We investigate this model in the large-U limit corresponding to a t -J Hamiltonian with an external (orbital) magnetic field. By using renormalized mean-field theory supplemented by exact diagonalization calculations of small clusters, we find evidence for competing symmetry-breaking phases, exhibiting (possibly coexisting) charge, bond, and superconducting orders. Topological properties of the states are also investigated, and some of our results are compared to related experiments involving ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices in the presence of a synthetic gauge field.

  18. Twisted quantum double model of topological order with boundaries

    Bullivant, Alex; Hu, Yuting; Wan, Yidun

    2017-10-01

    We generalize the twisted quantum double model of topological orders in two dimensions to the case with boundaries by systematically constructing the boundary Hamiltonians. Given the bulk Hamiltonian defined by a gauge group G and a 3-cocycle in the third cohomology group of G over U (1 ) , a boundary Hamiltonian can be defined by a subgroup K of G and a 2-cochain in the second cochain group of K over U (1 ) . The consistency between the bulk and boundary Hamiltonians is dictated by what we call the Frobenius condition that constrains the 2-cochain given the 3-cocyle. We offer a closed-form formula computing the ground-state degeneracy of the model on a cylinder in terms of the input data only, which can be naturally generalized to surfaces with more boundaries. We also explicitly write down the ground-state wave function of the model on a disk also in terms of the input data only.

  19. Reduced order methods for modeling and computational reduction

    Rozza, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    This monograph addresses the state of the art of reduced order methods for modeling and computational reduction of complex parametrized systems, governed by ordinary and/or partial differential equations, with a special emphasis on real time computing techniques and applications in computational mechanics, bioengineering and computer graphics.  Several topics are covered, including: design, optimization, and control theory in real-time with applications in engineering; data assimilation, geometry registration, and parameter estimation with special attention to real-time computing in biomedical engineering and computational physics; real-time visualization of physics-based simulations in computer science; the treatment of high-dimensional problems in state space, physical space, or parameter space; the interactions between different model reduction and dimensionality reduction approaches; the development of general error estimation frameworks which take into account both model and discretization effects. This...

  20. A mathematical model for order splitting in a multiple supplier single-item inventory system

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Rezapour, Shabnam

    2013-01-01

    systems. The item acquisition lead times of suppliers are random variables. Backorder is allowed and shortage cost is charged based on not only per unit in shortage but also per time unit. Continuous review (s,Q) policy has been assumed. When the inventory level depletes to a reorder level, the total...... order is split among n suppliers. Since the suppliers have different characteristics, the quantity ordered to different suppliers may be different. The problem is to determine the reorder level and quantity ordered to each supplier so that the expected total cost per time unit, including ordering cost......, procurement cost, inventory holding cost, and shortage cost, is minimized. We also conduct extensive numerical experiments to show the advantages of our model compared with the models in the literature. According to our extensive experiments, the model developed in this paper is the best model...

  1. Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model

    Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on Ω(R 2 ) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.

  2. Stripe order from the perspective of the Hubbard model

    Devereaux, Thomas Peter

    2018-03-01

    A microscopic understanding of the strongly correlated physics of the cuprates must account for the translational and rotational symmetry breaking that is present across all cuprate families, commonly in the form of stripes. Here we investigate emergence of stripes in the Hubbard model, a minimal model believed to be relevant to the cuprate superconductors, using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations at finite temperatures and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) ground state calculations. By varying temperature, doping, and model parameters, we characterize the extent of stripes throughout the phase diagram of the Hubbard model. Our results show that including the often neglected next-nearest-neighbor hopping leads to the absence of spin incommensurability upon electron-doping and nearly half-filled stripes upon hole-doping. The similarities of these findings to experimental results on both electron and hole-doped cuprate families support a unified description across a large portion of the cuprate phase diagram.

  3. Determination of thermodynamical coefficients for Mo-W alloys according to short-range order parameters

    Erokhin, L.N.; Mokrov, A.P.; Shivrin, O.N.; Khanina, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining thermodynamical coefficients according to short-range order parameters. The method approbation for Mo-W alloys has shown a good agreement between the thermodynamical and diffusion data. The Mo-W system in the concentration range under study is close to the ideal one. The calculated relative error of determination of interdiffusion coefficients in alloys of the Mo-W system does not exceed 16%

  4. A Predictive Model of Multi-Stage Production Planning for Fixed Time Orders

    Kozłowski Edward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production planning model based upon a deterministic approach is well described in the literature. Due to the uncertain nature of manufacturing processes, such model can however incorrectly represent actual situations on the shop floor. This study develops a mathematical modeling framework for generating production plans in a multistage manufacturing process. The devised model takes into account the stochastic model for predicting the occurrence of faulty products. The aim of the control model is to determine the number of products which should be manufactured in each planning period to minimize both manufacturing costs and potential financial penalties for failing to fulfill the order completely.

  5. Group theory for magnetic structure determination: Recent developments and quadrupolar ordering analysis

    Sikora, W. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: sikora@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Pytlik, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Bialas, F. [Nowy Sacz School of Busines-National Louis University, 33-300 Nowy Sacz (Poland); Malinowski, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-09-13

    In this paper, the recent developments in practical applications of symmetry analysis are described. The theoretical basis shortly described in Section 1 has been implemented in several computer applications, one of which is the program 'MODY-win', developed by the authors of the paper. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes. Its practical application is demonstrated on some examples, presenting the recent aspects of using the symmetry analysis to description of various types of ordering encountered in solids. The scalar-type ordering (occupation probability) is discussed shortly for occupation of interstitial sites by hydrogen atoms in inter-metallic compounds. The description of vector ordering is demonstrated on the magnetic ordering modes, with special attention focused on the freedom that is left in the structure after imposing all the symmetry constraints. In practice, the final ordering mode usually contains some free parameters that cannot be determined from the symmetry itself. The last application presented in the paper is the description of quadrupolar ordering, recently found in some compounds of 4f (5f) elements. For the latter case, an additional advantage is demonstrated by calculation of possible displacements of neighboring atoms after the establishment of non-zero quadrupolar order parameter on the central atom.

  6. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive models

    La Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline...

  7. Neutrino masses and their ordering: global data, priors and models

    Gariazzo, S.; Archidiacono, M.; de Salas, P. F.; Mena, O.; Ternes, C. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a full Bayesian analysis of the combination of current neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay and Cosmic Microwave Background observations. Our major goal is to carefully investigate the possibility to single out one neutrino mass ordering, namely Normal Ordering or Inverted Ordering, with current data. Two possible parametrizations (three neutrino masses versus the lightest neutrino mass plus the two oscillation mass splittings) and priors (linear versus logarithmic) are exhaustively examined. We find that the preference for NO is only driven by neutrino oscillation data. Moreover, the values of the Bayes factor indicate that the evidence for NO is strong only when the scan is performed over the three neutrino masses with logarithmic priors; for every other combination of parameterization and prior, the preference for NO is only weak. As a by-product of our Bayesian analyses, we are able to (a) compare the Bayesian bounds on the neutrino mixing parameters to those obtained by means of frequentist approaches, finding a very good agreement; (b) determine that the lightest neutrino mass plus the two mass splittings parametrization, motivated by the physical observables, is strongly preferred over the three neutrino mass eigenstates scan and (c) find that logarithmic priors guarantee a weakly-to-moderately more efficient sampling of the parameter space. These results establish the optimal strategy to successfully explore the neutrino parameter space, based on the use of the oscillation mass splittings and a logarithmic prior on the lightest neutrino mass, when combining neutrino oscillation data with cosmology and neutrinoless double beta decay. We also show that the limits on the total neutrino mass ∑ mν can change dramatically when moving from one prior to the other. These results have profound implications for future studies on the neutrino mass ordering, as they crucially state the need for self-consistent analyses which explore the

  8. EXAFS, Determination of Short Range Order and Local Structures in Materials

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Prins, R.

    1981-01-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) is a powerful method of determining short range order and local structures in materials using X-ray photons produced by a synchrotron light source, or in-house by a high intensity rotating anode X-ray generator. The technique has provided valuable

  9. 26 CFR 1.6664-3 - Ordering rules for determining the total amount of penalties imposed.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... that the taxpayers made a timely estimated tax payment of $1,500 for 1989 which they failed to claim... imposed. (a) In general. This section provides rules for determining the order in which adjustments to a...

  10. Venus spherical harmonic gravity model to degree and order 60

    Konopliv, Alex S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1994-01-01

    The Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiter radiometric tracking data sets have been combined to produce a 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity field. The Magellan data include the high-precision X-band gravity tracking from September 1992 to May 1993 and post-aerobraking data up to January 5, 1994. Gravity models are presented from the application of Kaula's power rule for Venus and an alternative a priori method using surface accelerations. Results are given as vertical gravity acceleration at the reference surface, geoid, vertical Bouguer, and vertical isostatic maps with errors for the vertical gravity and geoid maps included. Correlation of the gravity with topography for the different models is also discussed.

  11. Pairing of parafermions of order 2: seniority model

    Nelson, Charles A

    2004-01-01

    As generalizations of the fermion seniority model, four multi-mode Hamiltonians are considered to investigate some of the consequences of the pairing of parafermions of order 2. Two- and four-particle states are explicitly constructed for H A ≡ -GA†A with A† ≡ 1/2 Σ m>0 c† m c† -m and the distinct H C ≡ -GC†C with C† ≡ 1/2 Σ m>0 c† -m c† m , and for the time-reversal invariant H (-) ≡ -G(A† - C†)(A - C) and H (+) ≡ -G(A† + C†)(A + C), which has no analogue in the fermion case. The spectra and degeneracies are compared with those of the usual fermion seniority model

  12. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  13. Dynamics and phenomenology of higher order gravity cosmological models

    Moldenhauer, Jacob Andrew

    2010-10-01

    I present here some new results about a systematic approach to higher-order gravity (HOG) cosmological models. The HOG models are derived from curvature invariants that are more general than the Einstein-Hilbert action. Some of the models exhibit late-time cosmic acceleration without the need for dark energy and fit some current observations. The open question is that there are an infinite number of invariants that one could select, and many of the published papers have stressed the need to find a systematic approach that will allow one to study methodically the various possibilities. We explore a new connection that we made between theorems from the theory of invariants in general relativity and these cosmological models. In summary, the theorems demonstrate that curvature invariants are not all independent from each other and that for a given Ricci Segre type and Petrov type (symmetry classification) of the space-time, there exists a complete minimal set of independent invariants (a basis) in terms of which all the other invariants can be expressed. As an immediate consequence of the proposed approach, the number of invariants to consider is dramatically reduced from infinity to four invariants in the worst case and to only two invariants in the cases of interest, including all Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics. We derive models that pass stability and physical acceptability conditions. We derive dynamical equations and phase portrait analyses that show the promise of the systematic approach. We consider observational constraints from magnitude-redshift Supernovae Type Ia data, distance to the last scattering surface of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We put observational constraints on general HOG models. We constrain different forms of the Gauss-Bonnet, f(G), modified gravity models with these observations. We show some of these models pass solar system tests. We seek to find models that pass physical and

  14. Roof planes detection via a second-order variational model

    Benciolini, Battista; Ruggiero, Valeria; Vitti, Alfonso; Zanetti, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a unified automatic procedure for the detection of roof planes in gridded height data. The procedure exploits the Blake-Zisserman (BZ) model for segmentation in both 2D and 1D, and aims to detect, to model and to label roof planes. The BZ model relies on the minimization of a functional that depends on first- and second-order derivatives, free discontinuities and free gradient discontinuities. During the minimization, the relative strength of each competitor is controlled by a set of weight parameters. By finding the minimum of the approximated BZ functional, one obtains: (1) an approximation of the data that is smoothed solely within regions of homogeneous gradient, and (2) an explicit detection of the discontinuities and gradient discontinuities of the approximation. Firstly, input data is segmented using the 2D BZ. The maps of data and gradient discontinuities are used to isolate building candidates and planar patches (i.e. regions with homogeneous gradient) that correspond to roof planes. Connected regions that can not be considered as buildings are filtered according to both patch dimension and distribution of the directions of the normals to the boundary. The 1D BZ model is applied to the curvilinear coordinates of boundary points of building candidates in order to reduce the effect of data granularity when the normals are evaluated. In particular, corners are preserved and can be detected by means of gradient discontinuity. Lastly, a total least squares model is applied to estimate the parameters of the plane that best fits the points of each planar patch (orthogonal regression with planar model). Refinement of planar patches is performed by assigning those points that are close to the boundaries to the planar patch for which a given proximity measure assumes the smallest value. The proximity measure is defined to account for the variance of a fitting plane and a weighted distance of a point from the plane. The effectiveness of the

  15. Nuclear Policy and World Order: Why Denuclearization. World Order Models Project. Occasional Paper Number Two.

    Falk, Richard A.

    The monograph examines the relationship of nuclear power to world order. The major purpose of the document is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action for a just and peaceful world order. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I stresses the need for a system of global security to counteract dangers brought…

  16. In situ and laboratory determined first-order degradation rate constants of specific organic compounds in an aerobic aquifer

    Nielsen, P.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In situ microcosms (ISM) and laboratory batch microcosms (LBM) were used for determination of the first-order degradation rate constants of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, nitrobenzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, o- and p-dichlorobenzene, 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, tetrachlorometane, trichloroethene......, tetrachloroethene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol, and o- and p-nitrophenol in an aerobic aquifer, All aromatic hydrocarbons were degraded in ISM and LBM experiments. The phenolic hydrocarbons were ail degraded in ISM experiments, but some failed to degrade in LBM experiments....... Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons were degraded neither in ISM nor LBM experiments. Degradation rate constants were determined by a model accounting for kinetic sorption (bicontinuum model), lag phases, and first-order degradation. With a few exceptions, lag phases were less than 2 weeks in both ISM and LBM...

  17. Order Selection for General Expression of Nonlinear Autoregressive Model Based on Multivariate Stepwise Regression

    Shi, Jinfei; Zhu, Songqing; Chen, Ruwen

    2017-12-01

    An order selection method based on multiple stepwise regressions is proposed for General Expression of Nonlinear Autoregressive model which converts the model order problem into the variable selection of multiple linear regression equation. The partial autocorrelation function is adopted to define the linear term in GNAR model. The result is set as the initial model, and then the nonlinear terms are introduced gradually. Statistics are chosen to study the improvements of both the new introduced and originally existed variables for the model characteristics, which are adopted to determine the model variables to retain or eliminate. So the optimal model is obtained through data fitting effect measurement or significance test. The simulation and classic time-series data experiment results show that the method proposed is simple, reliable and can be applied to practical engineering.

  18. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  19. Study of higher order cumulant expansion of U(1) lattice gauge model at finite temperature

    Zheng Xite; Lei Chunhong; Li Yuliang; Chen Hong

    1993-01-01

    The order parameter, Polyakov line , of the U(1) gauge model on N σ 3 x N τ (N τ = 1) lattice by using the cumulant expansion is calculated to the 5-th order. The emphasis is put on the behaviour of the cumulant expansion in the intermediate coupling region. The necessity of higher order expansion is clarified from the connection between the cumulant expansion and the correlation length. The variational parameter in the n-th order calculation is determined by the requirement that corrections of the n-th order expansion to the zeroth order expansion finish. The agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation is obtained not only in the weak and strong coupling regions, but also in the intermediate coupling region except in the very vicinity of the phase transition point

  20. Height determination at the transfer unit in isotopic distillation of hydrogen on type B7 ordered column packing

    Pop, F.; Croitoru, C.; Peculea, M.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to the low pressure drop implied by ordered column packings these are often utilized for vacuum distillations and separation of mixtures in which the important component occurs at a very low concentration, as for instance is the case of water, deuterium or oxygen isotopic distillation. The paper presents a model for determination of the height of transfer unit (HTU) in the hydrogen isotopic distillation installation, equipped with ordered column packing of B7 type. The computed values for HUT based on the analogy between heat, moment and mass transfer, were compared with the experimental data

  1. Genetic Algorithm-Based Model Order Reduction of Aeroservoelastic Systems with Consistant States

    Zhu, Jin; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil; Suh, Peter M.; Brenner, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model order reduction framework to construct linear parameter-varying reduced-order models of flexible aircraft for aeroservoelasticity analysis and control synthesis in broad two-dimensional flight parameter space. Genetic algorithms are used to automatically determine physical states for reduction and to generate reduced-order models at grid points within parameter space while minimizing the trial-and-error process. In addition, balanced truncation for unstable systems is used in conjunction with the congruence transformation technique to achieve locally optimal realization and weak fulfillment of state consistency across the entire parameter space. Therefore, aeroservoelasticity reduced-order models at any flight condition can be obtained simply through model interpolation. The methodology is applied to the pitch-plant model of the X-56A Multi-Use Technology Testbed currently being tested at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation. The present studies indicate that the reduced-order model with more than 12× reduction in the number of states relative to the original model is able to accurately predict system response among all input-output channels. The genetic-algorithm-guided approach exceeds manual and empirical state selection in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The interpolated aeroservoelasticity reduced order models exhibit smooth pole transition and continuously varying gains along a set of prescribed flight conditions, which verifies consistent state representation obtained by congruence transformation. The present model order reduction framework can be used by control engineers for robust aeroservoelasticity controller synthesis and novel vehicle design.

  2. A dynamic neural field model of temporal order judgments.

    Hecht, Lauren N; Spencer, John P; Vecera, Shaun P

    2015-12-01

    Temporal ordering of events is biased, or influenced, by perceptual organization-figure-ground organization-and by spatial attention. For example, within a region assigned figural status or at an attended location, onset events are processed earlier (Lester, Hecht, & Vecera, 2009; Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001), and offset events are processed for longer durations (Hecht & Vecera, 2011; Rolke, Ulrich, & Bausenhart, 2006). Here, we present an extension of a dynamic field model of change detection (Johnson, Spencer, Luck, & Schöner, 2009; Johnson, Spencer, & Schöner, 2009) that accounts for both the onset and offset performance for figural and attended regions. The model posits that neural populations processing the figure are more active, resulting in a peak of activation that quickly builds toward a detection threshold when the onset of a target is presented. This same enhanced activation for some neural populations is maintained when a present target is removed, creating delays in the perception of the target's offset. We discuss the broader implications of this model, including insights regarding how neural activation can be generated in response to the disappearance of information. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Vortex network community based reduced-order force model

    Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko

    2017-11-01

    We characterize the vortical wake interactions by utilizing network theory and cluster-based approaches, and develop a data-inspired unsteady force model. In the present work, the vortical interaction network is defined by nodes representing vortical elements and the edges quantified by induced velocity measures amongst the vortices. The full vorticity field is reduced to a finite number of vortical clusters based on network community detection algorithm, which serves as a basis for a skeleton network that captures the essence of the wake dynamics. We use this reduced representation of the wake to develop a data-inspired reduced-order force model that can predict unsteady fluid forces on the body. The overall formulation is demonstrated for laminar flows around canonical bluff body wake and stalled flow over an airfoil. We also show the robustness of the present network-based model against noisy data, which motivates applications towards turbulent flows and experimental measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant 1632003).

  4. Nonlinear Growth Models as Measurement Models: A Second-Order Growth Curve Model for Measuring Potential.

    McNeish, Daniel; Dumas, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Recent methodological work has highlighted the promise of nonlinear growth models for addressing substantive questions in the behavioral sciences. In this article, we outline a second-order nonlinear growth model in order to measure a critical notion in development and education: potential. Here, potential is conceptualized as having three components-ability, capacity, and availability-where ability is the amount of skill a student is estimated to have at a given timepoint, capacity is the maximum amount of ability a student is predicted to be able to develop asymptotically, and availability is the difference between capacity and ability at any particular timepoint. We argue that single timepoint measures are typically insufficient for discerning information about potential, and we therefore describe a general framework that incorporates a growth model into the measurement model to capture these three components. Then, we provide an illustrative example using the public-use Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data set using a Michaelis-Menten growth function (reparameterized from its common application in biochemistry) to demonstrate our proposed model as applied to measuring potential within an educational context. The advantage of this approach compared to currently utilized methods is discussed as are future directions and limitations.

  5. Modelling stock order flows with non-homogeneous intensities from high-frequency data

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.; Korolev, Victor Yu.; Zeifman, Alexander I.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Chertok, Andrey V.; Evstafyev, Artem I.; Korchagin, Alexander Yu.

    2013-10-01

    A micro-scale model is proposed for the evolution of such information system as the limit order book in financial markets. Within this model, the flows of orders (claims) are described by doubly stochastic Poisson processes taking account of the stochastic character of intensities of buy and sell orders that determine the price discovery mechanism. The proposed multiplicative model of stochastic intensities makes it possible to analyze the characteristics of the order flows as well as the instantaneous proportion of the forces of buyers and sellers, that is, the imbalance process, without modelling the external information background. The proposed model gives the opportunity to link the micro-scale (high-frequency) dynamics of the limit order book with the macro-scale models of stock price processes of the form of subordinated Wiener processes by means of limit theorems of probability theory and hence, to use the normal variance-mean mixture models of the corresponding heavy-tailed distributions. The approach can be useful in different areas with similar properties (e.g., in plasma physics).

  6. Synthesis of models for order-sorted first-order theories using linear algebra and constraint solving

    Salvador Lucas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in termination analysis for declarative programs emphasize the use of appropriate models for the logical theory representing the program at stake as a generic approach to prove termination of declarative programs. In this setting, Order-Sorted First-Order Logic provides a powerful framework to represent declarative programs. It also provides a target logic to obtain models for other logics via transformations. We investigate the automatic generation of numerical models for order-sorted first-order logics and its use in program analysis, in particular in termination analysis of declarative programs. We use convex domains to give domains to the different sorts of an order-sorted signature; we interpret the ranked symbols of sorted signatures by means of appropriately adapted convex matrix interpretations. Such numerical interpretations permit the use of existing algorithms and tools from linear algebra and arithmetic constraint solving to synthesize the models.

  7. Computational design of patterned interfaces using reduced order models

    Vattre, A.J.; Abdolrahim, N.; Kolluri, K.; Demkowicz, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Patterning is a familiar approach for imparting novel functionalities to free surfaces. We extend the patterning paradigm to interfaces between crystalline solids. Many interfaces have non-uniform internal structures comprised of misfit dislocations, which in turn govern interface properties. We develop and validate a computational strategy for designing interfaces with controlled misfit dislocation patterns by tailoring interface crystallography and composition. Our approach relies on a novel method for predicting the internal structure of interfaces: rather than obtaining it from resource-intensive atomistic simulations, we compute it using an efficient reduced order model based on anisotropic elasticity theory. Moreover, our strategy incorporates interface synthesis as a constraint on the design process. As an illustration, we apply our approach to the design of interfaces with rapid, 1-D point defect diffusion. Patterned interfaces may be integrated into the microstructure of composite materials, markedly improving performance. (authors)

  8. Basic first-order model theory in Mizar

    Marco Bright Caminati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has submitted to Mizar Mathematical Library a series of five articles introducing a framework for the formalization of classical first-order model theory.In them, Goedel's completeness and Lowenheim-Skolem theorems have also been formalized for the countable case, to offer a first application of it and to showcase its utility.This is an overview and commentary on some key aspects of this setup.It features exposition and discussion of a new encoding of basic definitions and theoretical gears needed for the task, remarks about the design strategies and approaches adopted in their implementation, and more general reflections about proof checking induced by the work done.

  9. Structural Orders of Wheat Starch Do Not Determine the In Vitro Enzymatic Digestibility.

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shaokang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we elucidated the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the rate-limiting step for wheat starch digestion. Wheat starch samples with a degree of gelatinization (DG) ranging from 0 to 100% were prepared. As DG increased, the ordered structures of the starch were disrupted increasingly. In contrast, almost all of the increase in the rate and extent of in vitro enzymatic digestion coincided with a DG of only 6% and a minor loss of structural order. As DG increased beyond 6%, digestibility of the starch increased only slightly. We propose that the access and binding of enzymes to starch is greatly increased with only a small DG, which is followed by the simultaneous hydrolysis of crystalline and amorphous areas in gelatinized starch. In vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch was determined predominantly by enzyme binding to starch rather than the ordered structures of starch.

  10. Determination of the Young modulus relaxation of high orders from dynamic experiments on crystals

    Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical investigation into the inelastic behaviour of a crystal under the effect of a periodic load was carried out. Both the dimentional and module effects in the interaction of anisotropic point effects with the applied-stress fields and also the anharmonism of the interatomic interaction forces were taken into account. In this case the crystal deformation can be presented as a superposition of higher-order harmonics with a frequency multiple of that of the field applied. It is shown that the phase shift in the first harmonic determines the usually measured internal friction and depends exclusively on the dimentional effect in the interaction of defects with elastic-stress fields. The phase shift in the higher-order harmonics is due both to dimentional and module effects and it is possible, by measuring shift, to determine the ratios between the elastic modules of a defect

  11. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  12. Sparsity enabled cluster reduced-order models for control

    Kaiser, Eurika; Morzyński, Marek; Daviller, Guillaume; Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Bingni W.; Brunton, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling nonlinear, multi-scale phenomena are central goals in science and engineering. Cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) was introduced to exploit the underlying low-dimensional dynamics of complex systems. CROM builds a data-driven discretization of the Perron-Frobenius operator, resulting in a probabilistic model for ensembles of trajectories. A key advantage of CROM is that it embeds nonlinear dynamics in a linear framework, which enables the application of standard linear techniques to the nonlinear system. CROM is typically computed on high-dimensional data; however, access to and computations on this full-state data limit the online implementation of CROM for prediction and control. Here, we address this key challenge by identifying a small subset of critical measurements to learn an efficient CROM, referred to as sparsity-enabled CROM. In particular, we leverage compressive measurements to faithfully embed the cluster geometry and preserve the probabilistic dynamics. Further, we show how to identify fewer optimized sensor locations tailored to a specific problem that outperform random measurements. Both of these sparsity-enabled sensing strategies significantly reduce the burden of data acquisition and processing for low-latency in-time estimation and control. We illustrate this unsupervised learning approach on three different high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems from fluids with increasing complexity, with one application in flow control. Sparsity-enabled CROM is a critical facilitator for real-time implementation on high-dimensional systems where full-state information may be inaccessible.

  13. On order reduction in hydrogen isotope distillation models

    Sarigiannis, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The design integration of the fuel processing system for the next generation fusion reactor plants (such as ITER and beyond) requires the enhancement of safety features related to the operation of the system. The current drive for inherent safety of hazardous chemical plants warrants the minimization of active toxic or radioactive inventories and the identification of process pathways with minimal risk of accidental or routine releases. New mathematical and numerical tools have been developed for the dynamic simulation and optimization of the safety characteristics related to tritium in all its forms in the fusion fuel processing system. The separation of hydrogen isotopes by cryogenic distillation is a key process therein, due to the importance of the separation performance for the quality of the fuel mixture and the on site inventory, the increased energy requirements for cryogenic operation, and the high order of mathematical complexity required for accurate models, able to predict the transient as well as the steady state behavior of the process. The modeling methodology described here is a part of a new dynamic simulation code that captures the inventory dynamics of all the species in the fusion fuel processing plant. The significant reduction of the computational effort and time required by this code will permit designers to easily explore a variety of design and technology options and assess their impact on the overall power plant safety

  14. Linear models of coregionalization for multivariate lattice data: Order-dependent and order-free cMCARs.

    MacNab, Ying C

    2016-08-01

    This paper concerns with multivariate conditional autoregressive models defined by linear combination of independent or correlated underlying spatial processes. Known as linear models of coregionalization, the method offers a systematic and unified approach for formulating multivariate extensions to a broad range of univariate conditional autoregressive models. The resulting multivariate spatial models represent classes of coregionalized multivariate conditional autoregressive models that enable flexible modelling of multivariate spatial interactions, yielding coregionalization models with symmetric or asymmetric cross-covariances of different spatial variation and smoothness. In the context of multivariate disease mapping, for example, they facilitate borrowing strength both over space and cross variables, allowing for more flexible multivariate spatial smoothing. Specifically, we present a broadened coregionalization framework to include order-dependent, order-free, and order-robust multivariate models; a new class of order-free coregionalized multivariate conditional autoregressives is introduced. We tackle computational challenges and present solutions that are integral for Bayesian analysis of these models. We also discuss two ways of computing deviance information criterion for comparison among competing hierarchical models with or without unidentifiable prior parameters. The models and related methodology are developed in the broad context of modelling multivariate data on spatial lattice and illustrated in the context of multivariate disease mapping. The coregionalization framework and related methods also present a general approach for building spatially structured cross-covariance functions for multivariate geostatistics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. What Determines Lean Manufacturing Implementation? A CB-SEM Model

    Tan Ching Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the determinants of effective Lean Manufacturing (LM. In this research, Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM analysis will be used in order to analyze the determinants. Through CB-SEM analysis, the significant key determinants can be determined and the direct relationships among determinants can be analyzed. Thus, the findings of this research can act as guidelines for achievement of LM effectiveness, not only providing necessary steps for successful implementation of lean, but also helping lean companies to achieve higher level of lean cost and time savings.

  16. Ordering Cost Reduction in Inventory Model with Defective Items and Backorder Price Discount

    Karuppuchamy Annadurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real market, as unsatisfied demands occur, the longer the length of lead time is, the smaller the proportion of backorder would be. In order to make up for the inconvenience and even the losses of royal and patient customers, the supplier may offer a backorder price discount to secure orders during the shortage period. Also, ordering policies determined by conventional inventory models may be inappropriate for the situation in which an arrival lot contains some defective items. To compensate for the inconvenience of backordering and to secure orders, the supplier may offer a price discount on the stockout item. The purpose of this study is to explore a coordinated inventory model including defective arrivals by allowing the backorder price discount and ordering cost as decision variables. There are two inventory models proposed in this paper, one with normally distributed demand and another with distribution free demand. A computer code using the software Matlab 7.0 is developed to find the optimal solution and present numerical examples to illustrate the models. The results in the numerical examples indicate that the savings of the total cost are realized through ordering cost reduction and backorder price discount.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of chlorthalidone in pharmaceutical formulations using different order derivative methods

    Narmeen S. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple, repaid and accurate zero-, first- and second-order derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for determination of chlorthalidone (CLT in commercially available tablets. Normal spectrophotometric scan (zero order shows maximum absorbance at 276 nm in methanol solution and a good linearity in the range of 10.0–75.0 μg/mL. Linear relations using first (D1 and second (D2 order derivative methods were obtained at 278 and 288 nm for D1 and 286 and 292 nm for D2.The calibration curves were constructed in the range of 1.0–25.0 μg/mL for D1 (R = 0.998 and D2 (R = 0.999. Different analytical validations were determined (accuracy, precision, specificity, recovery, stability and robustness to demonstrate its suitability for routine quality control labs. All the developed methods were successfully applied to a tablet formulation and the results were compared statistically with each other and with those obtained by the HPLC reference method.

  18. Fractional Heat Conduction Models and Thermal Diffusivity Determination

    Monika Žecová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the fractional heat conduction models and their use for determining thermal diffusivity. A brief historical overview of the authors who have dealt with the heat conduction equation is described in the introduction of the paper. The one-dimensional heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are listed. Analytical and numerical methods of solution of the heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are described. Individual methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the examples of simulations are listed. The proposal and experimental verification of the methods for determining thermal diffusivity using half-order derivative of temperature by time are listed at the conclusion of the paper.

  19. A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of directed functional connectivity maps.

    Beltz, Adriene M; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2015-01-01

    A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a) to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a posteriori model validation procedure (i.e., white noise tests of one-step-ahead prediction errors combined with decision criteria for revising the maps based upon Lagrange Multiplier tests), and (b) to demonstrate how the procedure applies to single-subject simulated, single-subject task-related, and multi-subject resting state data. Directed functional connectivity was determined by the unified structural equation model family of approaches in order to map contemporaneous and first order lagged connections among brain regions at the group- and individual-levels while incorporating external input, then white noise tests were run. Findings revealed that the validation procedure successfully detected unmodeled sequential dependencies among residuals and recovered higher order (greater than one) simulated connections, and that the procedure can accommodate task-related input. Findings also revealed that lags greater than one were present in resting state data: With a group-level network that contained only contemporaneous and first order connections, 44% of subjects required second order, individual-level connections in order to obtain maps with white noise residuals. Results have broad methodological relevance (e.g., temporal validation is necessary after directed functional connectivity analyses because the presence of unmodeled higher order sequential dependencies may bias parameter estimates) and substantive implications (e.g., higher order lags may be common in resting state data).

  20. A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of directed functional connectivity maps

    Adriene M. Beltz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a posteriori model validation procedure (i.e., white noise tests of one-step-ahead prediction errors combined with decision criteria for revising the maps based upon Lagrange Multiplier tests, and (b to demonstrate how the procedure applies to single-subject simulated, single-subject task-related, and multi-subject resting state data. Directed functional connectivity was determined by the unified structural equation model family of approaches in order to map contemporaneous and first order lagged connections among brain regions at the group- and individual-levels while incorporating external input, then white noise tests were run. Findings revealed that the validation procedure successfully detected unmodeled sequential dependencies among residuals and recovered higher order (greater than one simulated connections, and that the procedure can accommodate task-related input. Findings also revealed that lags greater than one were present in resting state data: With a group-level network that contained only contemporaneous and first order connections, 44% of subjects required second order, individual-level connections in order to obtain maps with white noise residuals. Results have broad methodological relevance (e.g., temporal validation is necessary after directed functional connectivity analyses because the presence of unmodeled higher order sequential dependencies may bias parameter estimates and substantive implications (e.g., higher order lags may be common in resting state data.

  1. Determination of Dacarbazine Φ-Order Photokinetics, Quantum Yields, and Potential for Actinometry.

    Maafi, Mounir; Lee, Lok-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of drugs' photodegradation kinetics is more accurately achieved by means of the recently developed Φ-order kinetics than by the zero-, first-, and/or second-order classical treatments. The photodegradation of anti-cancer dacarbazine (DBZ) in ethanol has been investigated and found to obey Φ-order kinetics when subjected to continuous and monochromatic irradiation of various wavelengths. Its photochemical efficiency was proven to be wavelength dependent in the 220-350 nm range, undergoing a 50-fold increase. Albeit this variation was well defined by a sigmoid pattern, the overall photoreactivity of DBZ was proven to depend also on the contributions of reactants and experimental attributes. The usefulness of DBZ to serve as a drug-actinometer has been investigated using the mathematical framework of Φ-order kinetics. It has been shown that DBZ in ethanol can represent a good candidate for reliable actinometry in the range 270-350 nm. A detailed and easy-to-implement procedure has been proposed for DBZ actinometry. This procedure could advantageously be implemented prior to the determination of the photodegradation quantum yields. This approach might be found useful for the development of many drug actinometers as alternatives to quinine hydrochloride. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Where to start? Bottom-up attention improves working memory by determining encoding order.

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the mechanism by which working memory is enhanced for items that capture attention because of their novelty or saliency-that is, via bottom-up attention. The first experiment replicated previous research by corroborating that bottom-up attention directed to an item is sufficient for enhancing working memory and, moreover, generalized the effect to the domain of verbal working memory. The subsequent 3 experiments sought to determine how bottom-up attention affects working memory. We considered 2 hypotheses: (1) Bottom-up attention enhances the encoded representation of the stimulus, similar to how voluntary attention functions, or (2) It affects the order of encoding by shifting priority onto the attended stimulus. By manipulating how stimuli were presented (simultaneous/sequential display) and whether the cue predicted the tested items, we found evidence that bottom-up attention improves working memory performance via the order of encoding hypothesis. This finding was observed across change detection and free recall paradigms. In contrast, voluntary attention improved working memory regardless of encoding order and showed greater effects on working memory. We conclude that when multiple information sources compete, bottom-up attention prioritizes the location at which encoding should begin. When encoding order is set, bottom-up attention has little or no benefit to working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impaired Processing of Serial Order Determines Working Memory Impairments in Alzheimer's Disease.

    De Belder, Maya; Santens, Patrick; Sieben, Anne; Fias, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD. A group of AD patients (n = 32) and their partners (n = 25), assigned to the control group, were submitted to an extensive battery of neuropsychological and experimental tasks, assessing general cognitive state and functioning of several aspects related to serial order WM. The results revealed an impaired ability to bind item information to serial position within WM in AD patients compared to controls. It was additionally observed that AD patients experienced specific difficulties with directing spatial attention when searching for item information stored in WM. The processing of serial order and the allocation of attentional resources are both disrupted, explaining the generally reduced WM functioning in AD patients. Further studies should now clarify whether this observation could explain disease-related problems for other cognitive functions such as verbal expression, auditory comprehension, or planning.

  4. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  5. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  6. Modelling of diffusion from equilibrium diffraction fluctuations in ordered phases

    Arapaki, E.; Argyrakis, P.; Tringides, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the collective diffusion coefficient D c at equilibrium are difficult because they are based on monitoring low amplitude concentration fluctuations generated spontaneously, that are difficult to measure experimentally. A new experimental method has been recently used to measure time-dependent correlation functions from the diffraction intensity fluctuations and was applied to measure thermal step fluctuations. The method has not been applied yet to measure superstructure intensity fluctuations in surface overlayers and to extract D c . With Monte Carlo simulations we study equilibrium fluctuations in Ising lattice gas models with nearest neighbor attractive and repulsive interactions. The extracted diffusion coefficients are compared to the ones obtained from equilibrium methods. The new results are in good agreement with the results from the other methods, i.e., D c decreases monotonically with coverage Θ for attractive interactions and increases monotonically with Θ for repulsive interactions. Even the absolute value of D c agrees well with the results obtained with the probe area method. These results confirm that this diffraction based method is a novel, reliable way to measure D c especially within the ordered region of the phase diagram when the superstructure spot has large intensity

  7. Experimental determination of order in non-equilibrium solids using colloidal gels

    Gao Yongxiang; Kilfoil, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The idea of quantifying order in disordered systems has been introduced recently by Torquato and co-workers (2000 Phys. Rev. E 62 993-1001). We are interested in the application of this idea to measure structure in non-equilibrium systems. Here we focus on gels, using as a model system colloidal gels formed from hard spheres with polymer added to the systems to induce a controlled, weak attraction. To describe the structure of the gels we use real space imaging via confocal microscopy to obtain the full three-dimensional structure. We measure experimentally both translational order and bond angle correlations, defining a new (refined) translational order parameter that is sensitive to long range order in these non-random packings. This metric is also sensitive to anisotropy, which should be important in the many physical situations where an external force is present. The bond angle distribution shows coordinated organization. To give a clearer physical picture for gels, we compare the experimental data to computer generated hard sphere systems

  8. Positioning of chromosomes in human spermatozoa is determined by ordered centromere arrangement.

    Olga S Mudrak

    Full Text Available The intranuclear positioning of chromosomes (CHRs is a well-documented fact; however, mechanisms directing such ordering remain unclear. Unlike somatic cells, human spermatozoa contain distinct spatial markers and have asymmetric nuclei which make them a unique model for localizing CHR territories and matching peri-centromere domains. In this study, we established statistically preferential longitudinal and lateral positioning for eight CHRs. Both parameters demonstrated a correlation with the CHR gene densities but not with their sizes. Intranuclear non-random positioning of the CHRs was found to be driven by a specific linear order of centromeres physically interconnected in continuous arrays. In diploid spermatozoa, linear order of peri-centromeres was identical in two genome sets and essentially matched the arrangement established for haploid cells. We propose that the non-random longitudinal order of CHRs in human spermatozoa is generated during meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. The specific arrangement of sperm CHRs may serve as an epigenetic basis for differential transcription/replication and direct spatial CHR organization during early embryogenesis.

  9. Rich Ground State Chemical Ordering in Nanoparticles: Exact Solution of a Model for Ag-Au Clusters

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    We show that nanoparticles can have very rich ground state chemical order. This is illustrated by determining the chemical ordering of Ag-Au 309-atom Mackay icosahedral nanoparticles. The energy of the nanoparticles is described using a cluster expansion model, and a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP......) approach is used to find the exact ground state configurations for all stoichiometries. The chemical ordering varies widely between the different stoichiometries, and display a rich zoo of structures with non-trivial ordering....

  10. Identification of reduced-order model for an aeroelastic system from flutter test data

    Wei Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, flutter active control using linear parameter varying (LPV framework has attracted a lot of attention. LPV control synthesis usually generates controllers that are at least of the same order as the aeroelastic models. Therefore, the reduced-order model is required by synthesis for avoidance of large computation cost and high-order controller. This paper proposes a new procedure for generation of accurate reduced-order linear time-invariant (LTI models by using system identification from flutter testing data. The proposed approach is in two steps. The well-known poly-reference least squares complex frequency (p-LSCF algorithm is firstly employed for modal parameter identification from frequency response measurement. After parameter identification, the dominant physical modes are determined by clear stabilization diagrams and clustering technique. In the second step, with prior knowledge of physical poles, the improved frequency-domain maximum likelihood (ML estimator is presented for building accurate reduced-order model. Before ML estimation, an improved subspace identification considering the poles constraint is also proposed for initializing the iterative procedure. Finally, the performance of the proposed procedure is validated by real flight flutter test data.

  11. Ordering kinetics in model systems with inhibited interfacial adsorption

    Willart, J.-F.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Naudts, J.

    1992-01-01

    . The results are related to experimental work on ordering processes in orientational glasses. It is suggested that the experimental observation of very slow ordering kinetics in, e.g., glassy crystals of cyanoadamantane may be a consequence of low-temperature activated processes which ultimately lead...

  12. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral densit...

  13. Efficient Model Order Reduction for the Dynamics of Nonlinear Multilayer Sheet Structures with Trial Vector Derivatives

    Wolfgang Witteveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of multilayer sheet structures, such as leaf springs or car bodies, is largely determined by the nonlinear contact and friction forces between the sheets involved. Conventional computational approaches based on classical reduction techniques or the direct finite element approach have an inefficient balance between computational time and accuracy. In the present contribution, the method of trial vector derivatives is applied and extended in order to obtain a-priori trial vectors for the model reduction which are suitable for determining the nonlinearities in the joints of the reduced system. Findings show that the result quality in terms of displacements and contact forces is comparable to the direct finite element method but the computational effort is extremely low due to the model order reduction. Two numerical studies are presented to underline the method’s accuracy and efficiency. In conclusion, this approach is discussed with respect to the existing body of literature.

  14. State reduced order models for the modelling of the thermal behavior of buildings

    Menezo, Christophe; Bouia, Hassan; Roux, Jean-Jacques; Depecker, Patrick [Institute National de Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL). Equipe Thermique du Batiment]. E-mail: menezo@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; bouia@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; roux@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; depecker@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr

    2000-07-01

    This work is devoted to the field of building physics and related to the reduction of heat conduction models. The aim is to enlarge the model libraries of heat and mass transfer codes through limiting the considerable dimensions reached by the numerical systems during the modelling process of a multizone building. We show that the balanced realization technique, specifically adapted to the coupling of reduced order models with the other thermal phenomena, turns out to be very efficient. (author)

  15. Determination of sex-ratio by birth order in an urban community in Manipur.

    Brogen, Akoijam S; Shantibala, K; Rajkumari, Bishwalata; Laishram, Jalina

    2009-01-01

    To determine the sex ratio by birth order and to assess the sex preference of the couples in an urban community. A cross sectional study, in an urban community in Manipur, was conducted among the currently married couples. Data on background characteristics of the couple, family pedigree chart (of the offspring) including history of abortion, stillbirth, death of child of the couple, sex preference and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act [PNDT Act] were collected through a structured interview. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. There were a total of 1777 births to the 855 couples interviewed. There were 900 females per 1000 males for the 1st birth order but the sex ratio was favorable towards females in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th birth orders. Among both the husbands and wives, being more educated was significantly associated (p<0.05) with preferring lesser number of children, using new technology for sex selection and having heard of the PNDT Act. Majority of those who wanted to use new technology for sex selection (128, 56.6%) preferred to have male child. Sex ratio in this community was favorable towards females, though it was less among the first born babies.

  16. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    Nam, Sungsik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Yang, Hongchuan

    2010-01-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs

  17. A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model

    Fei Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.

  18. PD/PID controller tuning based on model approximations: Model reduction of some unstable and higher order nonlinear models

    Christer Dalen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A model reduction technique based on optimization theory is presented, where a possible higher order system/model is approximated with an unstable DIPTD model by using only step response data. The DIPTD model is used to tune PD/PID controllers for the underlying possible higher order system. Numerous examples are used to illustrate the theory, i.e. both linear and nonlinear models. The Pareto Optimal controller is used as a reference controller.

  19. Detecting memory and structure in human navigation patterns using Markov chain models of varying order.

    Singer, Philipp; Helic, Denis; Taraghi, Behnam; Strohmaier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used models for understanding human navigation on the Web is the Markov chain model, where Web pages are represented as states and hyperlinks as probabilities of navigating from one page to another. Predominantly, human navigation on the Web has been thought to satisfy the memoryless Markov property stating that the next page a user visits only depends on her current page and not on previously visited ones. This idea has found its way in numerous applications such as Google's PageRank algorithm and others. Recently, new studies suggested that human navigation may better be modeled using higher order Markov chain models, i.e., the next page depends on a longer history of past clicks. Yet, this finding is preliminary and does not account for the higher complexity of higher order Markov chain models which is why the memoryless model is still widely used. In this work we thoroughly present a diverse array of advanced inference methods for determining the appropriate Markov chain order. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of each method and apply them for investigating memory and structure of human navigation on the Web. Our experiments reveal that the complexity of higher order models grows faster than their utility, and thus we confirm that the memoryless model represents a quite practical model for human navigation on a page level. However, when we expand our analysis to a topical level, where we abstract away from specific page transitions to transitions between topics, we find that the memoryless assumption is violated and specific regularities can be observed. We report results from experiments with two types of navigational datasets (goal-oriented vs. free form) and observe interesting structural differences that make a strong argument for more contextual studies of human navigation in future work.

  20. Detecting memory and structure in human navigation patterns using Markov chain models of varying order.

    Philipp Singer

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently used models for understanding human navigation on the Web is the Markov chain model, where Web pages are represented as states and hyperlinks as probabilities of navigating from one page to another. Predominantly, human navigation on the Web has been thought to satisfy the memoryless Markov property stating that the next page a user visits only depends on her current page and not on previously visited ones. This idea has found its way in numerous applications such as Google's PageRank algorithm and others. Recently, new studies suggested that human navigation may better be modeled using higher order Markov chain models, i.e., the next page depends on a longer history of past clicks. Yet, this finding is preliminary and does not account for the higher complexity of higher order Markov chain models which is why the memoryless model is still widely used. In this work we thoroughly present a diverse array of advanced inference methods for determining the appropriate Markov chain order. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of each method and apply them for investigating memory and structure of human navigation on the Web. Our experiments reveal that the complexity of higher order models grows faster than their utility, and thus we confirm that the memoryless model represents a quite practical model for human navigation on a page level. However, when we expand our analysis to a topical level, where we abstract away from specific page transitions to transitions between topics, we find that the memoryless assumption is violated and specific regularities can be observed. We report results from experiments with two types of navigational datasets (goal-oriented vs. free form and observe interesting structural differences that make a strong argument for more contextual studies of human navigation in future work.

  1. Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low

  2. On the determination of the magnetic entropy change in materials with first-order transitions

    Caron, L.; Ou, Z.Q.; Nguyen, T.T.; Cam Thanh, D.T.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate method to determine the magnetic entropy change in materials with hysteretic first-order transitions is presented, which is needed to estimate their potential for applications. We have investigated the effect of the maximal entropy change derived from magnetization measurements performed in different measurement processes. The results show that the isothermal entropy change can be derived from the Maxwell relations even for samples with large thermal hysteresis. In the temperature region with hysteresis, overestimating the entropy change can be avoided by measuring the isothermal magnetization of the sample after it is cooled from the paramagnetic state to the measurement temperature. In this way the so-called peak effect is not observed as shown here for a few compounds.

  3. Blind adolescents' birth order as a determinant of their perception of family functioning dimensions

    Stanimirović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While other theoreticians of personality stressed only the influence of parents in early childhood, Adler paid particular attention to a psychological position of a child among brothers/sisters. There is some empirical evidence that birth order may influence vocational choice, characteristic style of interacting with others, affiliation, anxiety, perception of parents' authority, and even intellectual capabilities. Visual impairment of a family member affects a family system and a sibling subsystem in a specific way. The goal of the research was to determine whether birth order influences perception of dimensions of family functioning in families with a blind adolescent and in families with an adolescent of typical development. The sample included 32 blind (experimental group and 32 subjects of typical development (control group aged 14 to 26, who lived in complete families with two or three children and without serious personal, marrital or family problems. The groups were paired by sex, age, professional status and birth order of adolescents, number of children in the family, type of family (nuclear; extended and environment (rural; urban. A Questionnaire of socio-demographic information and a Questionnaire of situation and family relationships RADIR by Knežević were applied for data collection. First-borns made lower appraisals of each dimension of family functioning than second-born respondents. There were no statistically significant differences in the control group. Differences in the experimental group were statistically significant in the following dimensions: Activity, Democracy and Structuring time and activity. Thus, the results show that first-born child's 'dethronement' has more effect if it is associated with blindness. This can be explained by fact that it is more difficult for a blind first-born child to catch up with a second-born 'rival'.

  4. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system.

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-03-17

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila.

  5. Leading-order determination of the gluon polarisation from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jorg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; J.Matou s; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; M. Pe s; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality $Q^2>1~({\\rm GeV}/c)^2$. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/$c$ polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised $^6$LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum $p_T$, the different $p_T$-dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation $\\Delta g/g$ is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of $\\mu^2 = \\langle Q^2\\rangle = 3(GeV=c)^2$. It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, $x_g$, covering the range $0.04 \\!<\\! x_{ \\rm g}\\! <\\! 0.28$ . and does not exhibit a significant dependence on $x_{\\rm g}$. Average...

  6. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how they behave for

  7. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing

  8. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α s in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how

  9. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for

  10. Determination of cognitive development: postnonclassical theoretical model

    Irina N. Pogozhina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a postnonclassical cognitive processes content determination model in which mental processes are considered as open selfdeveloping, self-organizing systems. Three types of systems (dynamic, statistical, developing were analysed and compared on the basis of the description of the external and internal characteristics of causation, types of causal chains (dependent, independent and their interactions, as well as the nature of the relationship between the elements of the system (hard, probabilistic, mixed. Mechanisms of open non-equilibrium nonlinear systems (dissipative and four dissipative structures emergence conditions are described. Determination models of mental and behaviour formation and development that were developed under various theoretical approaches (associationism, behaviorism, gestaltism, psychology of intelligence by Piaget, Vygotsky culture historical approach, activity approach and others are mapped on each other as the models that describe behaviour of the three system types mentioned above. The development models of the mental sphere are shown to be different by the following criteria: 1 allocated determinants amount; 2 presence or absence of the system own activity that results in selecting the model not only external, but also internal determinants; 3 types of causal chains (dependent-independent-blended; 4 types of relationships between the causal chain that ultimately determines the subsequent system determination type as decisive (a tough dynamic pattern or stochastic (statistical regularity. The continuity of postnonclassical, classical and non-classical models of mental development determination are described. The process of gradual refinement, complexity, «absorption» of the mental determination by the latter models is characterized. The human mental can be deemed as the functioning of the open developing non-equilibrium nonlinear system (dissipative. The mental sphere is

  11. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  12. Development and validation of different methods manipulating zero order and first order spectra for determination of the partially overlapped mixture benazepril and amlodipine: A comparative study

    Hemdan, A.

    2016-07-01

    Three simple, selective, and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed and then validated for the analysis of Benazepril (BENZ) and Amlodipine (AML) in bulk powder and pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is the absorption factor (AF) for zero order and amplitude factor (P-F) for first order spectrum, where both BENZ and AML can be measured from their resolved zero order spectra at 238 nm or from their first order spectra at 253 nm. The second method is the constant multiplication coupled with constant subtraction (CM-CS) for zero order and successive derivative subtraction-constant multiplication (SDS-CM) for first order spectrum, where both BENZ and AML can be measured from their resolved zero order spectra at 240 nm and 238 nm, respectively, or from their first order spectra at 214 nm and 253 nm for Benazepril and Amlodipine respectively. The third method is the novel constant multiplication coupled with derivative zero crossing (CM-DZC) which is a stability indicating assay method for determination of Benazepril and Amlodipine in presence of the main degradation product of Benazepril which is Benazeprilate (BENZT). The three methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 5-60 μg/mL for Benazepril and 5-30 for Amlodipine, with well accepted mean correlation coefficient for each analyte. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits.

  13. Temporal Aggregation in First Order Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive models

    Milhøj, Anders; la Cour, Lisbeth Funding

    2011-01-01

    with the frequency of the data. We also introduce a graphical representation that will prove useful as an additional informational tool for deciding the appropriate cointegration rank of a model. In two examples based on models of time series of different grades of gasoline, we demonstrate the usefulness of our...

  14. Calculus for cognitive scientists higher order models and their analysis

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a self-study program on how mathematics, computer science and science can be profitably and seamlessly intertwined. This book focuses on two variable ODE models, both linear and nonlinear, and highlights theoretical and computational tools using MATLAB to explain their solutions. It also shows how to solve cable models using separation of variables and the Fourier Series.

  15. Partial-order reduction for GPU model checking

    Neele, T.S.; Wijs, A.J.; Bošnački, D.; van de Pol, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Model checking using GPUs has seen increased popularity over the last years. Because GPUs have a limited amount of memory, only small to medium-sized systems can be verified. For on-the-fly explicitstate model checking, we improve memory efficiency by applying partialorder reduction. We propose

  16. Higher-Order Hamiltonian Model for Unidirectional Water Waves

    Bona, J. L.; Carvajal, X.; Panthee, M.; Scialom, M.

    2018-04-01

    Formally second-order correct, mathematical descriptions of long-crested water waves propagating mainly in one direction are derived. These equations are analogous to the first-order approximations of KdV- or BBM-type. The advantage of these more complex equations is that their solutions corresponding to physically relevant initial perturbations of the rest state may be accurate on a much longer timescale. The initial value problem for the class of equations that emerges from our derivation is then considered. A local well-posedness theory is straightforwardly established by a contraction mapping argument. A subclass of these equations possess a special Hamiltonian structure that implies the local theory can be continued indefinitely.

  17. 78 FR 34683 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX Inc.; Order Instituting Proceedings To Determine...

    2013-06-10

    ... VI, Section 1(e)(1) to Chapter VI to define a Directed Order as ``an order to buy or sell which has... Directed Order to buy is received on BX and BX is not quoting at the NBO, the order would be posted on the... a decade about the tendency of passive price matching behavior to degrade price competition in...

  18. A note on monotonicity of item response functions for ordered polytomous item response theory models.

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Su, Ya-Hui; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2018-03-08

    A monotone relationship between a true score (τ) and a latent trait level (θ) has been a key assumption for many psychometric applications. The monotonicity property in dichotomous response models is evident as a result of a transformation via a test characteristic curve. Monotonicity in polytomous models, in contrast, is not immediately obvious because item response functions are determined by a set of response category curves, which are conceivably non-monotonic in θ. The purpose of the present note is to demonstrate strict monotonicity in ordered polytomous item response models. Five models that are widely used in operational assessments are considered for proof: the generalized partial credit model (Muraki, 1992, Applied Psychological Measurement, 16, 159), the nominal model (Bock, 1972, Psychometrika, 37, 29), the partial credit model (Masters, 1982, Psychometrika, 47, 147), the rating scale model (Andrich, 1978, Psychometrika, 43, 561), and the graded response model (Samejima, 1972, A general model for free-response data (Psychometric Monograph no. 18). Psychometric Society, Richmond). The study asserts that the item response functions in these models strictly increase in θ and thus there exists strict monotonicity between τ and θ under certain specified conditions. This conclusion validates the practice of customarily using τ in place of θ in applied settings and provides theoretical grounds for one-to-one transformations between the two scales. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  19. A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...

    ... inhibitors deforming the allosteric site or inhibitors changing the structure of active ... Cell-based models with discrete state variables, such as Cellular Automata ... capture the essential features of a discrete real system, consisting of space, ...

  20. A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...

    system, consisting of space, time and state, structured with simple local rules without ... Sensitivity analysis of a stochastic cellular automata model. 413 ..... Baetens J M and De Baets B 2011 Design and parameterization of a stochastic cellular.

  1. Leading-order determination of the gluon polarisation from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data

    Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Zink, A.; Aghasyan, M.; Birsa, R.; Dalla Torre, S.; Levorato, S.; Santos, C.; Sozzi, F.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, G.D.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rybnikov, A.; Savin, I.A.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Tasevsky, M.; Zavada, P.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Alexeev, M.G.; Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Chiosso, M.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Longo, R.; Parsamyan, B.; Takekawa, S.; Andrieux, V.; Boer, M.; Curiel, Q.; Ferrero, A.; Fuchey, E.; Hose, N. d'; Kunne, F.; Levillain, M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Neyret, D.; Platchkov, S.; Seder, E.; Thibaud, F.; Augustyniak, W.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Marianski, B.; Sandacz, A.; Szabelski, A.; Sznajder, P.; Austregesilo, A.; Chung, S.U.; Friedrich, J.M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grube, B.; Haas, F.; Huber, S.; Kraemer, M.; Krinner, F.; Paul, S.; Uhl, S.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Pereira, F.; Veloso, J.; Badelek, B.; Barth, J.; Hahne, D.; Klein, F.; Pretz, J.; Schmieden, H.; Beck, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P.D.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Mikhasenko, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Mallot, G.K.; Schoenning, K.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Matousek, J.; Pesek, M.; Roskot, M.; Bordalo, P.; Franco, C.; Nunes, A.S.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Silva, L.; Stolarski, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Dasgupta, S.; Makke, N.; Martin, A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Buechele, M.; Fischer, H.; Gorzellik, M.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Joerg, P.; Koenigsmann, K.; Kremser, P.; Nowak, W.D.; Regali, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schopferer, S.; Sirtl, S.; Szameitat, T.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Chang, W.C.; Hsieh, C.Y.; Sawada, T.; Choi, I.; Giordano, F.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Heitz, R.; Kulinich, Y.; Makins, N.; Montuenga, P.; Peng, J.C.; Riedl, C.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dhara, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, L.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Maggiora, A.; Panzieri, D.; Tosello, F.; Donskov, S.V.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Lednev, A.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Doshita, N.; Hashimoto, R.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.; Matsuda, H.; Michigami, T.; Miyachi, Y.; Nukazuka, G.; Suzuki, H.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Kurjata, R.P.; Marzec, J.; Rychter, A.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N. du; Harrach, D. von; Kabuss, E.; Nerling, F.; Ostrick, M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality Q"2 > 1 (GeV/c)"2. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised "6LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum p_T, the different p_T-dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation Δg/g is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of μ"2 = left angle Q"2 right angle = 3 (GeV/c)"2. It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, x_g, covering the range 0.04 < x_g < 0.28 and does not exhibit a significant dependence on x_g. The average over the three intervals, left angle Δg/g right angle = 0.113 ± 0.038_(_s_t_a_t_._) ± 0.036_(_s_y_s_t_._) at left angle x_g right angle ∼ 0.10, suggests that the gluon polarisation is positive in the measured x_g range. (orig.)

  2. Leading-order determination of the gluon polarisation from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data

    Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Zink, A. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Aghasyan, M.; Birsa, R.; Dalla Torre, S.; Levorato, S.; Santos, C.; Sozzi, F.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F. [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, G.D.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rybnikov, A.; Savin, I.A.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Tasevsky, M.; Zavada, P.; Zemlyanichkina, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Alexeev, M.G. [University of Turin, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Chiosso, M.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Longo, R.; Parsamyan, B.; Takekawa, S. [University of Turin, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); INFN, Turin (Italy); Andrieux, V.; Boer, M.; Curiel, Q.; Ferrero, A.; Fuchey, E.; Hose, N. d' ; Kunne, F.; Levillain, M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Neyret, D.; Platchkov, S.; Seder, E.; Thibaud, F. [CEA IRFU/SPhN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Augustyniak, W.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Marianski, B.; Sandacz, A.; Szabelski, A.; Sznajder, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Austregesilo, A.; Chung, S.U.; Friedrich, J.M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grube, B.; Haas, F.; Huber, S.; Kraemer, M.; Krinner, F.; Paul, S.; Uhl, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Azevedo, C.D.R.; Pereira, F.; Veloso, J. [University of Aveiro, Department of Physics, Aveiro (Portugal); Badelek, B. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Barth, J.; Hahne, D.; Klein, F.; Pretz, J.; Schmieden, H. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Beck, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P.D.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Mikhasenko, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Bedfer, Y. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); CEA IRFU/SPhN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bernhard, J. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bicker, K. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Bielert, E.R.; Mallot, G.K.; Schoenning, K. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Matousek, J.; Pesek, M.; Roskot, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Bordalo, P.; Franco, C.; Nunes, A.S.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Silva, L.; Stolarski, M. [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Dasgupta, S.; Makke, N.; Martin, A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P. [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Buechele, M.; Fischer, H.; Gorzellik, M.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Joerg, P.; Koenigsmann, K.; Kremser, P.; Nowak, W.D.; Regali, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schopferer, S.; Sirtl, S.; Szameitat, T.; Wolbeek, J. ter [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Chang, W.C.; Hsieh, C.Y.; Sawada, T. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China); Choi, I.; Giordano, F.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Heitz, R.; Kulinich, Y.; Makins, N.; Montuenga, P.; Peng, J.C.; Riedl, C. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L. [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Dasgupta, S.S.; Dhara, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, L. [Matrivani Institute of Experimental Research and Education, Calcutta (India); Denisov, O.Yu.; Maggiora, A.; Panzieri, D.; Tosello, F. [INFN, Turin (Italy); Donskov, S.V.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Lednev, A.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D. [State Scientific Center Institute for High Energy Physics of National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Protvino (Russian Federation); Doshita, N.; Hashimoto, R.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.; Matsuda, H.; Michigami, T.; Miyachi, Y.; Nukazuka, G.; Suzuki, H. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Duic, V. [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); Dziewiecki, M.; Kurjata, R.P.; Marzec, J.; Rychter, A.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Fresne von Hohenesche, N. du; Harrach, D. von; Kabuss, E.; Nerling, F.; Ostrick, M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration; and others

    2017-04-15

    Using a novel analysis technique, the gluon polarisation in the nucleon is re-evaluated using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry measured in the cross section of semi-inclusive single-hadron muoproduction with photon virtuality Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam impinging on a polarised {sup 6}LiD target. By analysing the full range in hadron transverse momentum p{sub T}, the different p{sub T}-dependences of the underlying processes are separated using a neural-network approach. In the absence of pQCD calculations at next-to-leading order in the selected kinematic domain, the gluon polarisation Δg/g is evaluated at leading order in pQCD at a hard scale of μ{sup 2} = left angle Q{sup 2} right angle = 3 (GeV/c){sup 2}. It is determined in three intervals of the nucleon momentum fraction carried by gluons, x{sub g}, covering the range 0.04 < x{sub g} < 0.28 and does not exhibit a significant dependence on x{sub g}. The average over the three intervals, left angle Δg/g right angle = 0.113 ± 0.038{sub (stat.)} ± 0.036{sub (syst.)} at left angle x{sub g} right angle ∼ 0.10, suggests that the gluon polarisation is positive in the measured x{sub g} range. (orig.)

  3. Reduced Order Models for Dynamic Behavior of Elastomer Damping Devices

    Morin, B.; Legay, A.; Deü, J.-F.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of passive damping, various mechanical systems from the space industry use elastomer components (shock absorbers, silent blocks, flexible joints...). The material of these devices has frequency, temperature and amplitude dependent characteristics. The associated numerical models, using viscoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, may become computationally too expensive during a design process. The aim of this work is to propose efficient reduced viscoelastic models of rubber devices. The first step is to choose an accurate material model that represent the viscoelasticity. The second step is to reduce the rubber device finite element model to a super-element that keeps the frequency dependence. This reduced model is first built by taking into account the fact that the device's interfaces are much more rigid than the rubber core. To make use of this difference, kinematical constraints enforce the rigid body motion of these interfaces reducing the rubber device model to twelve dofs only on the interfaces (three rotations and three translations per face). Then, the superelement is built by using a component mode synthesis method. As an application, the dynamic behavior of a structure supported by four hourglass shaped rubber devices under harmonic loads is analysed to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Reduced Order Modeling of Combustion Instability in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor

    Arnold-Medabalimi, Nicholas; Huang, Cheng; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel based propulsion systems are expected to remain relevant in aerospace vehicles for the foreseeable future. Design of these devices is complicated by combustion instabilities. The capability to model and predict these effects at reduced computational cost is a requirement for both design and control of these devices. This work focuses on computational studies on a dual swirl model gas turbine combustor in the context of reduced order model development. Full fidelity simulations are performed utilizing URANS and Hybrid RANS-LES with finite rate chemistry. Following this, data decomposition techniques are used to extract a reduced basis representation of the unsteady flow field. These bases are first used to identify sensor locations to guide experimental interrogations and controller feedback. Following this, initial results on developing a control-oriented reduced order model (ROM) will be presented. The capability of the ROM will be further assessed based on different operating conditions and geometric configurations.

  5. Heterogeneous traffic flow modelling using second-order macroscopic continuum model

    Mohan, Ranju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Modelling heterogeneous traffic flow lacking in lane discipline is one of the emerging research areas in the past few years. The two main challenges in modelling are: capturing the effect of varying size of vehicles, and the lack in lane discipline, both of which together lead to the 'gap filling' behaviour of vehicles. The same section length of the road can be occupied by different types of vehicles at the same time, and the conventional measure of traffic concentration, density (vehicles per lane per unit length), is not a good measure for heterogeneous traffic modelling. First aim of this paper is to have a parsimonious model of heterogeneous traffic that can capture the unique phenomena of gap filling. Second aim is to emphasize the suitability of higher-order models for modelling heterogeneous traffic. Third, the paper aims to suggest area occupancy as concentration measure of heterogeneous traffic lacking in lane discipline. The above mentioned two main challenges of heterogeneous traffic flow are addressed by extending an existing second-order continuum model of traffic flow, using area occupancy for traffic concentration instead of density. The extended model is calibrated and validated with field data from an arterial road in Chennai city, and the results are compared with those from few existing generalized multi-class models.

  6. SIMPLE MODELS OF THREE COUPLED PT -SYMMETRIC WAVE GUIDES ALLOWING FOR THIRD-ORDER EXCEPTIONAL POINTS

    Jan Schnabel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretical models of three coupled wave guides with a PT-symmetric distribution of gain and loss. A realistic matrix model is developed in terms of a three-mode expansion. By comparing with a previously postulated matrix model it is shown how parameter ranges with good prospects of finding a third-order exceptional point (EP3 in an experimentally feasible arrangement of semiconductors can be determined. In addition it is demonstrated that continuous distributions of exceptional points, which render the discovery of the EP3 difficult, are not only a feature of extended wave guides but appear also in an idealised model of infinitely thin guides shaped by delta functions.

  7. Reduced-Order Modeling for Flutter/LCO Using Recurrent Artificial Neural Network

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a recurrent artificial neural network to provide a high fidelity time-dependent nonlinear reduced-order model (ROM) for flutter/limit-cycle oscillation (LCO) modeling. An artificial neural network is a relatively straightforward nonlinear method for modeling an input-output relationship from a set of known data, for which we use the radial basis function (RBF) with its parameters determined through a training process. The resulting RBF neural network, however, is only static and is not yet adequate for an application to problems of dynamic nature. The recurrent neural network method [1] is applied to construct a reduced order model resulting from a series of high-fidelity time-dependent data of aero-elastic simulations. Once the RBF neural network ROM is constructed properly, an accurate approximate solution can be obtained at a fraction of the cost of a full-order computation. The method derived during the study has been validated for predicting nonlinear aerodynamic forces in transonic flow and is capable of accurate flutter/LCO simulations. The obtained results indicate that the present recurrent RBF neural network is accurate and efficient for nonlinear aero-elastic system analysis

  8. Bayesian Modeling of ChIP-chip Data Through a High-Order Ising Model

    Mo, Qianxing; Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    approach to ChIP-chip data through an Ising model with high-order interactions. The proposed method naturally takes into account the intrinsic spatial structure of the data and can be used to analyze data from multiple platforms with different genomic

  9. Ordering phase transition in the one-dimensional Axelrod model

    Vilone, D.; Vespignani, A.; Castellano, C.

    2002-12-01

    We study the one-dimensional behavior of a cellular automaton aimed at the description of the formation and evolution of cultural domains. The model exhibits a non-equilibrium transition between a phase with all the system sharing the same culture and a disordered phase of coexisting regions with different cultural features. Depending on the initial distribution of the disorder the transition occurs at different values of the model parameters. This phenomenology is qualitatively captured by a mean-field approach, which maps the dynamics into a multi-species reaction-diffusion problem.

  10. Simulation of local instabilities with the use of reduced order models

    Dykin, V.; Demaziere, C.; Lange, C.; Hennig, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an advanced reduced order model (ROM) with four heated channels, taking into account local, regional and core-wide oscillations, is described. The ROM contains three sub-models: a neutron-kinetic model (describing neutron transport), a thermal- hydraulic model (describing the coolant flow) and a heat transfer model (describing heat transfer between the fuel and the coolant). All these three models are coupled to each other, using two feedback mechanisms: void feedback and doppler feedback. Each of the sub-models is described by a set of reduced ordinary differential equations, derived from the corresponding time space-dependent partial differential equations by using different types of approximations and mathematical techniques. All three models were developed from past ROMs and, subsequently, were modified in order to fit the purpose of our investigations. One of the novelties of the present ROM is that it takes into account the effect of the first three neutronic modes, namely the fundamental, the first and the second azimuthal modes, as well as the effect of local oscillations on these modes. In order to have a proper representation of both azimuthal modes, a four heated channel ROM was developed. Another modification, compared to earlier work, is the determination of the coupling reactivity coefficients for both void fraction and fuel temperature, which were calculated explicitly by evaluating cross-section perturbations with the help of the SIMULATE-3 and the CORESIM codes. The ROM was thereafter applied to a channel instability event that occurred at the Swedish Forsmark-1 BWR in 1996/1997. The time signals for each of the modes were generated from the ROM and compared with the measurements, performed at the plant. Some qualitative comparison between the ROM and the measurements was made. The results could bear some significance in understanding the instability event and its coupling mechanism to core-wide oscillations. (author)

  11. Reduced order modeling and parameter identification of a building energy system model through an optimization routine

    Harish, V.S.K.V.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A BES model based on 1st principles is developed and solved numerically. • Parameters of lumped capacitance model are fitted using the proposed optimization routine. • Validations are showed for different types of building construction elements. • Step response excitations for outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are analyzed. - Abstract: Different control techniques together with intelligent building technology (Building Automation Systems) are used to improve energy efficiency of buildings. In almost all control projects, it is crucial to have building energy models with high computational efficiency in order to design and tune the controllers and simulate their performance. In this paper, a set of partial differential equations are formulated accounting for energy flow within the building space. These equations are then solved as conventional finite difference equations using Crank–Nicholson scheme. Such a model of a higher order is regarded as a benchmark model. An optimization algorithm has been developed, depicted through a flowchart, which minimizes the sum squared error between the step responses of the numerical and the optimal model. Optimal model of the construction element is nothing but a RC-network model with the values of Rs and Cs estimated using the non-linear time invariant constrained optimization routine. The model is validated with comparing the step responses with other two RC-network models whose parameter values are selected based on a certain criteria. Validations are showed for different types of building construction elements viz., low, medium and heavy thermal capacity elements. Simulation results show that the optimal model closely follow the step responses of the numerical model as compared to the responses of other two models.

  12. Proposed higher order continuum-based models for an elastic ...

    Three new variants of continuum-based models for an elastic subgrade are proposed. The subgrade is idealized as a homogenous, isotropic elastic layer of thickness H overlying a firm stratum. All components of the stress tensor in the subgrade are taken into account. Reasonable assumptions are made regarding the ...

  13. Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

  14. Optimization of power rationing order based on fuzzy evaluation model

    Zhang, Siyuan; Liu, Li; Xie, Peiyuan; Tang, Jihong; Wang, Canlin

    2018-04-01

    With the development of production and economic growth, China's electricity load has experienced a significant increase. Over the years, in order to alleviate the contradiction of power shortage, a series of policies and measures to speed up electric power construction have been made in china, which promotes the rapid development of the power industry and the power construction has made great achievements. For China, after large-scale power facilities, power grid long-term power shortage situation has been improved to some extent, but in a certain period of time, the power development still exists uneven development. On the whole, it is still in the state of insufficient power, and the situation of power restriction is still severe in some areas, so it is necessary to study on the power rationing.

  15. Mixed Higher Order Variational Model for Image Recovery

    Pengfei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed higher order regularizer involving the first and second degree image derivatives is proposed in this paper. Using spectral decomposition, we reformulate the new regularizer as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of image derivatives. Due to the equivalent formulation of the proposed regularizer, an efficient fast projected gradient algorithm combined with monotone fast iterative shrinkage thresholding, called, FPG-MFISTA, is designed to solve the resulting variational image recovery problems under majorization-minimization framework. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme by the experimental comparisons with total variation (TV scheme, nonlocal TV scheme, and current second degree methods. Specifically, the proposed approach achieves better results than related state-of-the-art methods in terms of peak signal to ratio (PSNR and restoration quality.

  16. 78 FR 62766 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Instituting Proceedings To Determine Whether...

    2013-10-22

    ... Index (``RUT'') combination orders.\\8\\ Currently, NYSE MKT Rule 965NY(b) allows an ATP Holder holding an...\\ \\8\\ See NYSE MKT Rule 965NY(b)(4)(iii). A ``NDX combination order'' is an order to purchase or sell... with the corresponding NDX or RUT option position. See NYSE MKT Rule 965NY(b)(1)-(3). \\9\\ The ATP...

  17. A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response

    DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

    2000-11-06

    As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

  18. One size does not fit all: On how Markov model order dictates performance of genomic sequence analyses

    Narlikar, Leelavati; Mehta, Nidhi; Galande, Sanjeev; Arjunwadkar, Mihir

    2013-01-01

    The structural simplicity and ability to capture serial correlations make Markov models a popular modeling choice in several genomic analyses, such as identification of motifs, genes and regulatory elements. A critical, yet relatively unexplored, issue is the determination of the order of the Markov model. Most biological applications use a predetermined order for all data sets indiscriminately. Here, we show the vast variation in the performance of such applications with the order. To identify the ‘optimal’ order, we investigated two model selection criteria: Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The BIC optimal order delivers the best performance for mammalian phylogeny reconstruction and motif discovery. Importantly, this order is different from orders typically used by many tools, suggesting that a simple additional step determining this order can significantly improve results. Further, we describe a novel classification approach based on BIC optimal Markov models to predict functionality of tissue-specific promoters. Our classifier discriminates between promoters active across 12 different tissues with remarkable accuracy, yielding 3 times the precision expected by chance. Application to the metagenomics problem of identifying the taxum from a short DNA fragment yields accuracies at least as high as the more complex mainstream methodologies, while retaining conceptual and computational simplicity. PMID:23267010

  19. In vitro biological models in order to study BNCT

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Farias, Silvia S.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of 10 B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated ( 11 B) decays releasing 7 Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. In vitro studies: the uptake of p- 10 borophenylalanine (BPA) by the UTC cell line ARO, primary cultures of normal bovine thyroid cells (BT) and human follicular adenoma (FA) thyroid was studied. No difference in BPA uptake was observed between proliferating and quiescent ARO cells. The uptake by quiescent ARO, BT and FA showed that the ARO/BT and ARO/FA ratios were 4 and 5, respectively (p< 0.001). The present experimental results open the possibility of applying BNCT for the treatment of UTC. (author)

  20. Multiscale Reduced Order Modeling of Complex Multi-Bay Structures

    2013-07-01

    fuselage panel studied in [28], see Fig. 2 for a picture of the actual hardware taken from [28]. The finite element model of the 9-bay panel, shown in...discussed. Two alternatives to reduce the computational time for the solution of these problems are explored. iii A mi familia ...results at P=0.98-1.82 lb/in, P=1.4-2.6 lb/in. The baseline solution P=1.4-2.6 lb/in has a 46 mean value of 2 lb/in and it is actually very close to

  1. High-order dynamic modeling and parameter identification of structural discontinuities in Timoshenko beams by using reflection coefficients

    Fan, Qiang; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Dayue

    2013-02-01

    Properties of discontinuities, such as bolt joints and cracks in the waveguide structures, are difficult to evaluate by either analytical or numerical methods due to the complexity and uncertainty of the discontinuities. In this paper, the discontinuity in a Timoshenko beam is modeled with high-order parameters and then these parameters are identified by using reflection coefficients at the discontinuity. The high-order model is composed of several one-order sub-models in series and each sub-model consists of inertia, stiffness and damping components in parallel. The order of the discontinuity model is determined based on the characteristics of the reflection coefficient curve and the accuracy requirement of the dynamic modeling. The model parameters are identified through the least-square fitting iteration method, of which the undetermined model parameters are updated in iteration to fit the dynamic reflection coefficient curve with the wave-based one. By using the spectral super-element method (SSEM), simulation cases, including one-order discontinuities on infinite- and finite-beams and a two-order discontinuity on an infinite beam, were employed to evaluate both the accuracy of the discontinuity model and the effectiveness of the identification method. For practical considerations, effects of measurement noise on the discontinuity parameter identification are investigated by adding different levels of noise to the simulated data. The simulation results were then validated by the corresponding experiments. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) the one-order discontinuities can be identified accurately with the maximum errors of 6.8% and 8.7%, respectively; (2) and the high-order discontinuities can be identified with the maximum errors of 15.8% and 16.2%, respectively; and (3) the high-order model can predict the complex discontinuity much more accurately than the one-order discontinuity model.

  2. Genetic Algorithm-Guided, Adaptive Model Order Reduction of Flexible Aircrafts

    Zhu, Jin; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil; Suh, Peter; Brenner, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for automated model order reduction (MOR) of flexible aircrafts to construct linear parameter-varying (LPV) reduced order models (ROM) for aeroservoelasticity (ASE) analysis and control synthesis in broad flight parameter space. The novelty includes utilization of genetic algorithms (GAs) to automatically determine the states for reduction while minimizing the trial-and-error process and heuristics requirement to perform MOR; balanced truncation for unstable systems to achieve locally optimal realization of the full model; congruence transformation for "weak" fulfillment of state consistency across the entire flight parameter space; and ROM interpolation based on adaptive grid refinement to generate a globally functional LPV ASE ROM. The methodology is applied to the X-56A MUTT model currently being tested at NASA/AFRC for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation. Our studies indicate that X-56A ROM with less than one-seventh the number of states relative to the original model is able to accurately predict system response among all input-output channels for pitch, roll, and ASE control at various flight conditions. The GA-guided approach exceeds manual and empirical state selection in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The adaptive refinement allows selective addition of the grid points in the parameter space where flight dynamics varies dramatically to enhance interpolation accuracy without over-burdening controller synthesis and onboard memory efforts downstream. The present MOR framework can be used by control engineers for robust ASE controller synthesis and novel vehicle design.

  3. On the Entropy Based Associative Memory Model with Higher-Order Correlations

    Masahiro Nakagawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy based associative memory model will be proposed and applied to memory retrievals with an orthogonal learning model so as to compare with the conventional model based on the quadratic Lyapunov functional to be minimized during the retrieval process. In the present approach, the updating dynamics will be constructed on the basis of the entropy minimization strategy which may be reduced asymptotically to the above-mentioned conventional dynamics as a special case ignoring the higher-order correlations. According to the introduction of the entropy functional, one may involve higer-order correlation effects between neurons in a self-contained manner without any heuristic coupling coefficients as in the conventional manner. In fact we shall show such higher order coupling tensors are to be uniquely determined in the framework of the entropy based approach. From numerical results, it will be found that the presently proposed novel approach realizes much larger memory capacity than that of the quadratic Lyapunov functional approach, e.g., associatron.

  4. Third order dielectric susceptibility in a model quantum paraelectric

    Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.

    1996-02-01

    In the context of perovskite quantum paraelectrics, we study the effects of a quadrupolar interaction J q , in addition to the standard dipolar one J d . We concentrate here on the nonlinear dielectric response χ (3) P , as the main response function sensitive to quadrupolar (in our case antiquadrupolar) interactions. We employ a 3D quantum four-state lattice model and mean-field theory. The results show that inclusion of quadrupolar coupling of moderate strength (J q ∼ 1/4J d ) is clearly accompanied by a double change of sign of χ (3) P from negative to positive, near the quantum temperature T Q where the quantum paraelectric behaviour sets in. We fit our χ (3) to recent experimental data for SrTiO 3 , where the sign change is identified close to T Q ∼ 37 K. (author). 40 refs, 2 figs

  5. Pricing Exotic Options under a High-Order Markovian Regime Switching Model

    Wai-Ki Ching

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the pricing of exotic options when the price dynamics of the underlying risky asset are governed by a discrete-time Markovian regime-switching process driven by an observable, high-order Markov model (HOMM. We assume that the market interest rate, the drift, and the volatility of the underlying risky asset's return switch over time according to the states of the HOMM, which are interpreted as the states of an economy. We will then employ the well-known tool in actuarial science, namely, the Esscher transform to determine an equivalent martingale measure for option valuation. Moreover, we will also investigate the impact of the high-order effect of the states of the economy on the prices of some path-dependent exotic options, such as Asian options, lookback options, and barrier options.

  6. The Meaning of Higher-Order Factors in Reflective-Measurement Models

    Eid, Michael; Koch, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Higher-order factor analysis is a widely used approach for analyzing the structure of a multidimensional test. Whenever first-order factors are correlated researchers are tempted to apply a higher-order factor model. But is this reasonable? What do the higher-order factors measure? What is their meaning? Willoughby, Holochwost, Blanton, and Blair…

  7. 76 FR 9749 - Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain...

    2011-02-22

    ...: Background On February 17, 2010, ArcelorMittal USA, Inc., Nucor Corporation, SSAB N.A.D., Evraz Claymont... June 1, 2010, Wuyang submitted its response to that questionnaire. On July 2, 2010, Nucor Corporation... comments: Wuyang, Nucor, and ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. Scope of the Order The product covered by this order...

  8. Analytical determination of 5th-order transfer matrices of magnetic quadrupole fringing fields

    Hartmann, B.; Irnich, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fringing-field effects on particle trajectories in magnetic quadrupoles are described to 5th order by fringing-field integrals. It is shown that this method improves the description of fringing-field effects noticeably over the so far known use of third-order fringing-field integrals. (Author)

  9. A parametric model order reduction technique for poroelastic finite element models.

    Lappano, Ettore; Polanz, Markus; Desmet, Wim; Mundo, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    This research presents a parametric model order reduction approach for vibro-acoustic problems in the frequency domain of systems containing poroelastic materials (PEM). The method is applied to the Finite Element (FE) discretization of the weak u-p integral formulation based on the Biot-Allard theory and makes use of reduced basis (RB) methods typically employed for parametric problems. The parametric reduction is obtained rewriting the Biot-Allard FE equations for poroelastic materials using an affine representation of the frequency (therefore allowing for RB methods) and projecting the frequency-dependent PEM system on a global reduced order basis generated with the proper orthogonal decomposition instead of standard modal approaches. This has proven to be better suited to describe the nonlinear frequency dependence and the strong coupling introduced by damping. The methodology presented is tested on two three-dimensional systems: in the first experiment, the surface impedance of a PEM layer sample is calculated and compared with results of the literature; in the second, the reduced order model of a multilayer system coupled to an air cavity is assessed and the results are compared to those of the reference FE model.

  10. Optimization in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model with Deteriorating Inventory and Units Lost

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This model presents the effect of deteriorating items in fuzzy optimal instantaneous replenishment for finite planning horizon. Accounting for holding cost per unit per unit time and ordering cost per order have traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment. These imprecise parameters defined on a bounded interval on the axis of real numbers and the physical characteristics of stocked items dictate the nature of inventory policies implemented to manage and control in the production system.   Methods: The modified fuzzy EOQ (FEOQ model is introduced, it assumes that a percentage of the on-hand inventory is wasted due to deterioration and considered as an enhancement to EOQ model to determine the optimal replenishment quantity so that the net profit is maximized. In theoretical analysis, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions are proved and further the concavity of the fuzzy net profit function is established. Computational algorithm using the software LINGO 13.0 version is developed to find the optimal solution.   Results and conclusions: The results of the numerical analysis enable decision-makers to quantify the effect of units lost due to deterioration on optimizing the fuzzy net profit for the retailer. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the optimal solution with respect the major parameters are also carried out. Furthermore fuzzy decision making is shown to be superior then crisp decision making in terms of profit maximization. 

  11. Deterministic three-half-order kinetic model for microbial degradation of added carbon substrates in soil

    Brunner, W.; Focht, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of mineralization of carbonaceous substrates has been explained by a deterministic model which is applicable to either growth or nongrowth conditions in soils. The mixed-order nature of the model does not require a priori decisions about reaction order, discontinuity period of lag or stationary phase, or correction for endogenous mineralization rates. The integrated equation is simpler than the integrated form of the Monod equation because of the following: (i) only two, rather than four, interdependent constants have to be determined by nonlinear regression analysis, (ii) substrate or product formation can be expressed explicitly as a function of time, (iii) biomass concentration does not have to be known, and (iv) the required initial estimate for the nonlinear regression analysis can be easily obtained from a linearized form rather than from an interval estimate of a differential equation. 14 CO 2 evolution data from soil have been fitted to the model equation. All data except those from irradiated soil gave us better fits by residual sum of squares (RSS) by assuming growth in soil was linear (RSS =0.71) as opposed to exponential (RSS = 2.87). The underlying reasons for growth (exponential versus linear), no growth, and relative degradation rates of substrates are consistent with the basic mechanisms from which the model is derived. 21 references

  12. Model for the orientational ordering of the plant microtubule cortical array

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.; Tindemans, Simon H.; Mulder, Bela M.

    2010-07-01

    The plant microtubule cortical array is a striking feature of all growing plant cells. It consists of a more or less homogeneously distributed array of highly aligned microtubules connected to the inner side of the plasma membrane and oriented transversely to the cell growth axis. Here, we formulate a continuum model to describe the origin of orientational order in such confined arrays of dynamical microtubules. The model is based on recent experimental observations that show that a growing cortical microtubule can interact through angle dependent collisions with pre-existing microtubules that can lead either to co-alignment of the growth, retraction through catastrophe induction or crossing over the encountered microtubule. We identify a single control parameter, which is fully determined by the nucleation rate and intrinsic dynamics of individual microtubules. We solve the model analytically in the stationary isotropic phase, discuss the limits of stability of this isotropic phase, and explicitly solve for the ordered stationary states in a simplified version of the model.

  13. Determination of Dacarbazine Φ‐Order Photokinetics, Quantum Yields, and Potential for Actinometry.

    Maafi, Mounir; Lee, Lok Yan

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. The characterization of drugs’ Photodegradation kinetics is more accurately achieved by means of the recently developed –order kinetics than by the 0th–, 1st– and/or 2nd–order classical treatments. The photodegradation of anti–cancer Dacarbazine (DBZ) in ethanol has been investigated and found to obey –order kinetics when subjected to continu...

  14. A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics

    von Schwerin, Erik; Szepessy, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.

  15. A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics

    von Schwerin, Erik

    2010-03-17

    The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.

  16. A Reduced-order NLTE Kinetic Model for Radiating Plasmas of Outer Envelopes of Stellar Atmospheres

    Munafò, Alessandro [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 206A Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, 94035 CA (United States); Panesi, Marco, E-mail: munafo@illinois.edu, E-mail: nagi.n.mansour@nasa.gov, E-mail: m.panesi@illinois.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The present work proposes a self-consistent reduced-order NLTE kinetic model for radiating plasmas found in the outer layers of stellar atmospheres. A detailed collisional-radiative kinetic mechanism is constructed by leveraging the most up-to-date set of ab initio and experimental data available in the literature. This constitutes the starting point for the derivation of a reduced-order model, obtained by lumping the bound energy states into groups. In order to determine the needed thermo-physical group properties, uniform and Maxwell–Boltzmann energy distributions are used to reconstruct the energy population of each group. Finally, the reduced set of governing equations for the material gas and the radiation field is obtained based on the moment method. Applications consider the steady flow across a shock wave in partially ionized hydrogen. The results clearly demonstrate that adopting a Maxwell–Boltzmann grouping allows, on the one hand, for a substantial reduction of the number of unknowns and, on the other, to maintain accuracy for both gas and radiation quantities. Also, it is observed that, when neglecting line radiation, the use of two groups already leads to a very accurate resolution of the photo-ionization precursor, internal relaxation, and radiative cooling regions. The inclusion of line radiation requires adopting just one additional group to account for optically thin losses in the α , β , and γ lines of the Balmer and Paschen series. This trend has been observed for a wide range of shock wave velocities.

  17. The tight binding model study of the role of anisotropic AFM spin ordering in the charge ordered CMR manganites

    Kar, J. K.; Panda, Saswati; Rout, G. C.

    2017-05-01

    We propose here a tight binding model study of the interplay between charge and spin orderings in the CMR manganites taking anisotropic effect due to electron hoppings and spin exchanges. The Hamiltonian consists of the kinetic energies of eg and t2g electrons of manganese ion. It further includes double exchange and Heisenberg interactions. The charge density wave interaction (CDW) describes an extra mechanism for the insulating character of the system. The CDW gap and spin parameters are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and computed self-consistently. The results are reported in this communication.

  18. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

    Singh, Vijender, E-mail: chahal-gju@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Science, N.C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat-132107, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen, E-mail: p-aghamkar@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125055, Haryana (India)

    2015-08-28

    Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.

  19. Application of aggregation techniques for model order reduction of nuclear plants for operator guidance systems

    Zwingelstein, G.C.

    1980-12-01

    After a short description of a disturbance analysis system for nuclear plant based on real time dynamic modelling and simulation, a scheme for generating aggregated reduced models of high order systems is presented. This method allows the choice of dominant dynamic modes and its efficiency is illustrated for the case of a 29th order nuclear plant model

  20. Reduced-order LPV model of flexible wind turbines from high fidelity aeroelastic codes

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Sønderby, Ivan Bergquist; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    of high-order linear time invariant (LTI) models. Firstly, the high-order LTI models are locally approximated using modal and balanced truncation and residualization. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation is applied to allow interpolation of the model matrices between points on the parameter...

  1. Validation of a RANS transition model using a high-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme

    Tu, GuoHua; Deng, XiaoGang; Mao, MeiLiang

    2013-04-01

    A modified transition model is given based on the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and an intermittency transport equation. The energy gradient term in the original model is replaced by flow strain rate to saving computational costs. The model employs local variables only, and then it can be conveniently implemented in modern computational fluid dynamics codes. The fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme and the fourth-order staggered scheme are applied to discrete the governing equations for the purpose of minimizing discretization errors, so as to mitigate the confusion between numerical errors and transition model errors. The high-order package is compared with a second-order TVD method on simulating the transitional flow of a flat plate. Numerical results indicate that the high-order package give better grid convergence property than that of the second-order method. Validation of the transition model is performed for transitional flows ranging from low speed to hypersonic speed.

  2. Appraising Birth Order in Career Assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's Models.

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  3. Model Simultan Penentuan Toleransi Komponen Produk Rakitan dan Pabrik dalam Kolaborasi Manufaktur Make-to-Order

    M. Imron Mustajib

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of simultaneous optimization model to determine component tolerance of assembly product and plant for manufacturing processes by considering quality tolerance limits, and delivery time constraint to minimize total cost in collaboration environment of make-to-order manufacturing systems. Total cost of the system consists of manufacturing costs and quality loss costs as the tolerance function, operational costs for multi-plant manufacturing collaboration which includes: setup costs, material handling costs, operating costs of assembly, manual operations costs, and transportation costs. Formulation of the model developed uses mixed integer non linear programming as a method of solution search. In the numerical examples presented, the optimization process results an optimal solution. Optimal solution is not sensitive if the changes in quality tolerance constraint and delivery time constraint is not large. While the addition of an alternative plant for producing a component can changes the alternative plant selected

  4. Utility of low-order linear nuclear-power-plant models in plant diagnostics and control

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A low-order, linear model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant is described and evaluated. The model consists of 23 linear, first-order difference equations and simulates all subsystems of both the primary and secondary sides of the plant. Comparisons between the calculated model response and available test data show the model to be an adequate representation of the actual plant dynamics. Suggested use for the model in an on-line digital plant diagnostics and control system are presented

  5. Simulation Furrow Irrigation by Winsrfr4.1 in order to Determine the Optimum Length of Furrow

    Mona Golabi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surface irrigation methods are the most common methods for irrigation of agricultural land. These methods are superior to sprinkler, drip and underground irrigation, because they have lower costs of funding and implementation, is inexpensive, needed maintenance of equipment is simple and does not require skilled labor. New requirements for the use of municipal water, energy, industrial, and military intends to further improve the performance of surface irrigation systems. In other words, the low efficiency of surface irrigation is not related to the method of it, but the weakness is because of the design, implementation and management. Due to the special place of Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran in agriculture and applied surface irrigation for most of the farms in this province, in the present study was simulated water flow in furrow irrigation by using WinSRFR4.1 and the optimum length of furrow was determined in the experimental farm of the Water Sciences Engineering Shoshtar University. For this purpose, advance and recession of flow were simulated by Zero inertia and Kinematic wave model and result were compared with observed data. Materials and Methods: In order to calculate and predicte advance and recession curves field measurement is necessary, but it takes a lot of time and cost. Therefore, the use of mathematical models and software for access information is important. In this research the amount of advance in furrow irrigation was measured and the results were compared with simulation of WinSRFR4.1.Field experiments was conducted in the research field of Water Sciences Engineering Shoshtar University. Data were collected from three furrows. The lengths of them were 60, 80 and 100 meters. Irrigation was performed under three discharges (1, 1.25 and 1.5 L/s, with three iterations. Three experiments furrows were provided which central furrow was for measurement data and side furrows were as buffer furrow. Before

  6. Reduced order for nuclear reactor model in frequency and time domain

    Nugroho, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    In control system theory, a model can be represented by frequency or time domain. In frequency domain, the model was represented by transfer function. in time domain, the model was represented by state space. for the sake of simplification in computation, it is necessary to reduce the model order. the main aim of this research is to find the best in nuclear reactor model. Model order reduction in frequency domain can be done utilizing pole-zero cancellation method; while in time domain utilizing balanced aggregation method the balanced aggregation method was developed by moore (1981). In this paper, the two kinds of method were applied to reduce a nuclear reactor model which was constructed by neutron dynamics and heat transfer equations. to validate that the model characteristics were not change when model order reduction applied, the response was utilized for full and reduced order. it was shown that the nuclear reactor order model can be reduced from order 8 to 2 order 2 is the best order for nuclear reactor model

  7. Low-Order Modeling of Dynamic Stall on Airfoils in Incompressible Flow

    Narsipur, Shreyas

    flap to model the effect of the separated boundary-layer. Unsteady RANS results for several pitch and plunge motions showed that the differences in aerodynamic loads between steady and unsteady flows can be attributed to the boundary-layer convection lag, which can be modeled by choosing an appropriate value of the time lag parameter, tau2. In order to provide appropriate viscous corrections to inviscid unsteady calculations, the non-linear decambering flap is applied with a time lag determined by the tau2 value, which was found to be independent of motion kinematics for a given airfoil and Reynolds number. The predictions of the aerodynamic loads, unsteady stall, hysteresis loops, and ow reattachment from the low-order model agree well with CFD and experimental results, both for individual cases and for trends between motions. The model was also found to perform as well as existing semi-empirical models while using only a single empirically defined parameter. Inclusion of LEV shedding capabilities and combining the resulting algorithm with phase one's trailing-edge separation model was the primary objective of phase two. Computational results at low and high Reynolds numbers were used to analyze the ow morphology of the LEV to identify the common surface signature associated with LEV initiation at both low and high Reynolds numbers and relate it to the critical leading-edge suction parameter (LESP ) to control the initiation and termination of LEV shedding in the low-order model. The critical LESP, like the tau2 parameter, was found to be independent of motion kinematics for a given airfoil and Reynolds number. Results from the final low-order model compared excellently with CFD and experimental solutions, both in terms of aerodynamic loads and vortex ow pattern predictions. Overall, the final combined dynamic stall model that resulted from the current research was successful in accurately modeling the physics of unsteady ow thereby helping restrict the number of

  8. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis in BWRs applying a reduced order model

    Olvera G, O. A.; Espinosa P, G.; Prieto G, A., E-mail: omar_olverag@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability studies are generally conducted through nonlinear reduced order models (Rom) employing various techniques such as bifurcation analysis and time domain numerical integration. One of those models used for these studies is the March-Leuba Rom. Such model represents qualitatively the dynamic behavior of a BWR through a one-point reactor kinetics, a one node representation of the heat transfer process in fuel, and a two node representation of the channel Thermal hydraulics to account for the void reactivity feedback. Here, we study the effect of this higher order model on the overall stability of the BWR. The change in the stability boundaries is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The nonlinear model is also integrated numerically to show that in the nonlinear region, the system evolves to stable limit cycles when operating close to the stability boundary. We also applied a new technique based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Emd) to estimate a parameter linked with stability in a BWR. This instability parameter is not exactly the classical Decay Ratio (Dr), but it will be linked with it. The proposed method allows decomposing the analyzed signal in different levels or mono-component functions known as intrinsic mode functions (Imf). One or more of these different modes can be associated to the instability problem in BWRs. By tracking the instantaneous frequencies (calculated through Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) and the autocorrelation function (Acf) of the Imf linked to instability. The estimation of the proposed parameter can be achieved. The current methodology was validated with simulated signals of the studied model. (Author)

  9. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis in BWRs applying a reduced order model

    Olvera G, O. A.; Espinosa P, G.; Prieto G, A.

    2016-09-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability studies are generally conducted through nonlinear reduced order models (Rom) employing various techniques such as bifurcation analysis and time domain numerical integration. One of those models used for these studies is the March-Leuba Rom. Such model represents qualitatively the dynamic behavior of a BWR through a one-point reactor kinetics, a one node representation of the heat transfer process in fuel, and a two node representation of the channel Thermal hydraulics to account for the void reactivity feedback. Here, we study the effect of this higher order model on the overall stability of the BWR. The change in the stability boundaries is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The nonlinear model is also integrated numerically to show that in the nonlinear region, the system evolves to stable limit cycles when operating close to the stability boundary. We also applied a new technique based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Emd) to estimate a parameter linked with stability in a BWR. This instability parameter is not exactly the classical Decay Ratio (Dr), but it will be linked with it. The proposed method allows decomposing the analyzed signal in different levels or mono-component functions known as intrinsic mode functions (Imf). One or more of these different modes can be associated to the instability problem in BWRs. By tracking the instantaneous frequencies (calculated through Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) and the autocorrelation function (Acf) of the Imf linked to instability. The estimation of the proposed parameter can be achieved. The current methodology was validated with simulated signals of the studied model. (Author)

  10. A modeling of dynamic storage assignment for order picking in beverage warehousing with Drive-in Rack system

    Hadi, M. Z.; Djatna, T.; Sugiarto

    2018-04-01

    This paper develops a dynamic storage assignment model to solve storage assignment problem (SAP) for beverages order picking in a drive-in rack warehousing system to determine the appropriate storage location and space for each beverage products dynamically so that the performance of the system can be improved. This study constructs a graph model to represent drive-in rack storage position then combine association rules mining, class-based storage policies and an arrangement rule algorithm to determine an appropriate storage location and arrangement of the product according to dynamic orders from customers. The performance of the proposed model is measured as rule adjacency accuracy, travel distance (for picking process) and probability a product become expiry using Last Come First Serve (LCFS) queue approach. Finally, the proposed model is implemented through computer simulation and compare the performance for different storage assignment methods as well. The result indicates that the proposed model outperforms other storage assignment methods.

  11. Pitowsky's Kolmogorovian Models and Super-determinism.

    Kellner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to demonstrate that local hidden variables are mathematically possible, Pitowsky constructed "spin-[Formula: see text] functions" and later "Kolmogorovian models", which employs a nonstandard notion of probability. We describe Pitowsky's analysis and argue (with the benefit of hindsight) that his notion of hidden variables is in fact just super-determinism (and accordingly physically not relevant). Pitowsky's first construction uses the Continuum Hypothesis. Farah and Magidor took this as an indication that at some stage physics might give arguments for or against adopting specific new axioms of set theory. We would rather argue that it supports the opposing view, i.e., the widespread intuition "if you need a non-measurable function, it is physically irrelevant".

  12. Model-order reduction of lumped parameter systems via fractional calculus

    Hollkamp, John P.; Sen, Mihir; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the use of fractional order differential models to simulate the dynamic response of non-homogeneous discrete systems and to achieve efficient and accurate model order reduction. The traditional integer order approach to the simulation of non-homogeneous systems dictates the use of numerical solutions and often imposes stringent compromises between accuracy and computational performance. Fractional calculus provides an alternative approach where complex dynamical systems can be modeled with compact fractional equations that not only can still guarantee analytical solutions, but can also enable high levels of order reduction without compromising on accuracy. Different approaches are explored in order to transform the integer order model into a reduced order fractional model able to match the dynamic response of the initial system. Analytical and numerical results show that, under certain conditions, an exact match is possible and the resulting fractional differential models have both a complex and frequency-dependent order of the differential operator. The implications of this type of approach for both model order reduction and model synthesis are discussed.

  13. Bayesian Modeling of ChIP-chip Data Through a High-Order Ising Model

    Mo, Qianxing

    2010-01-29

    ChIP-chip experiments are procedures that combine chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA microarray (chip) technology to study a variety of biological problems, including protein-DNA interaction, histone modification, and DNA methylation. The most important feature of ChIP-chip data is that the intensity measurements of probes are spatially correlated because the DNA fragments are hybridized to neighboring probes in the experiments. We propose a simple, but powerful Bayesian hierarchical approach to ChIP-chip data through an Ising model with high-order interactions. The proposed method naturally takes into account the intrinsic spatial structure of the data and can be used to analyze data from multiple platforms with different genomic resolutions. The model parameters are estimated using the Gibbs sampler. The proposed method is illustrated using two publicly available data sets from Affymetrix and Agilent platforms, and compared with three alternative Bayesian methods, namely, Bayesian hierarchical model, hierarchical gamma mixture model, and Tilemap hidden Markov model. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method performs as well as the other three methods for the data from Affymetrix tiling arrays, but significantly outperforms the other three methods for the data from Agilent promoter arrays. In addition, we find that the proposed method has better operating characteristics in terms of sensitivities and false discovery rates under various scenarios. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  15. Model independent spin determination at hadron colliders

    Edelhaeuser, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the year 2011, both the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have recorded around 5 inverse femtobarns of data at an energy of 7 TeV. There are only vague hints from the already analysed data towards new physics at the TeV scale. However, one knows that around this scale, new physics should show up so that theoretical issues of the standard model of particle physics can be cured. During the last decades, extensions to the standard model that are supposed to solve its problems have been constructed, and the corresponding phenomenology has been worked out. As soon as new physics is discovered, one has to deal with the problem of determining the nature of the underlying model. A first hint is of course given by the mass spectrum and quantum numbers such as electric and colour charges of the new particles. However, there are two popular model classes, supersymmetric models and extradimensional models, which can exhibit almost equal properties at the accessible energy range. Both introduce partners to the standard model particles with the same charges and thus one needs an extended discrimination method. From the origin of these partners arises a relevant difference: The partners constructed in extradimensional models have the same spin as their standard model partners while in Supersymmetry they differ by spin 1/2. These different spins have an impact on the phenomenology of the two models. For example, one can exploit the fact that the total cross sections are affected, but this requires a very good knowledge of the couplings and masses involved. Another approach uses angular distributions depending on the particle spins. A prevailing method based on this idea uses the invariant mass distribution of the visible particles in decay chains. One can relate these distributions to the spin of the particle mediating the decay since it reflects itself in the highest power of the invariant mass s ff of the adjacent particles. In this thesis we

  16. Model independent spin determination at hadron colliders

    Edelhaeuser, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    By the end of the year 2011, both the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have recorded around 5 inverse femtobarns of data at an energy of 7 TeV. There are only vague hints from the already analysed data towards new physics at the TeV scale. However, one knows that around this scale, new physics should show up so that theoretical issues of the standard model of particle physics can be cured. During the last decades, extensions to the standard model that are supposed to solve its problems have been constructed, and the corresponding phenomenology has been worked out. As soon as new physics is discovered, one has to deal with the problem of determining the nature of the underlying model. A first hint is of course given by the mass spectrum and quantum numbers such as electric and colour charges of the new particles. However, there are two popular model classes, supersymmetric models and extradimensional models, which can exhibit almost equal properties at the accessible energy range. Both introduce partners to the standard model particles with the same charges and thus one needs an extended discrimination method. From the origin of these partners arises a relevant difference: The partners constructed in extradimensional models have the same spin as their standard model partners while in Supersymmetry they differ by spin 1/2. These different spins have an impact on the phenomenology of the two models. For example, one can exploit the fact that the total cross sections are affected, but this requires a very good knowledge of the couplings and masses involved. Another approach uses angular distributions depending on the particle spins. A prevailing method based on this idea uses the invariant mass distribution of the visible particles in decay chains. One can relate these distributions to the spin of the particle mediating the decay since it reflects itself in the highest power of the invariant mass s{sub ff} of the adjacent particles. In this thesis

  17. Model independent spin determination at hadron colliders

    Edelhaeuser, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    By the end of the year 2011, both the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have recorded around 5 inverse femtobarns of data at an energy of 7 TeV. There are only vague hints from the already analysed data towards new physics at the TeV scale. However, one knows that around this scale, new physics should show up so that theoretical issues of the standard model of particle physics can be cured. During the last decades, extensions to the standard model that are supposed to solve its problems have been constructed, and the corresponding phenomenology has been worked out. As soon as new physics is discovered, one has to deal with the problem of determining the nature of the underlying model. A first hint is of course given by the mass spectrum and quantum numbers such as electric and colour charges of the new particles. However, there are two popular model classes, supersymmetric models and extradimensional models, which can exhibit almost equal properties at the accessible energy range. Both introduce partners to the standard model particles with the same charges and thus one needs an extended discrimination method. From the origin of these partners arises a relevant difference: The partners constructed in extradimensional models have the same spin as their standard model partners while in Supersymmetry they differ by spin 1/2. These different spins have an impact on the phenomenology of the two models. For example, one can exploit the fact that the total cross sections are affected, but this requires a very good knowledge of the couplings and masses involved. Another approach uses angular distributions depending on the particle spins. A prevailing method based on this idea uses the invariant mass distribution of the visible particles in decay chains. One can relate these distributions to the spin of the particle mediating the decay since it reflects itself in the highest power of the invariant mass s{sub ff} of the adjacent particles. In this thesis

  18. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many water quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes are considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts are taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. All calculations are carried out by using the expertise software called Group Fuzzy Decision Making (GFDM. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, are related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that is drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks are consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement from the decision making group. This study indicates that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and

  19. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi-Criteria Decision- Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes were considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts were taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, were related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that was drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks were consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement with the decision-making group. This study indicated that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and approaches. Moreover, using the FOWA model provides results accurate and closer- to-reality on the significance of

  20. Mixed-order phase transition in a one-dimensional model.

    Bar, Amir; Mukamel, David

    2014-01-10

    We introduce and analyze an exactly soluble one-dimensional Ising model with long range interactions that exhibits a mixed-order transition, namely a phase transition in which the order parameter is discontinuous as in first order transitions while the correlation length diverges as in second order transitions. Such transitions are known to appear in a diverse classes of models that are seemingly unrelated. The model we present serves as a link between two classes of models that exhibit a mixed-order transition in one dimension, namely, spin models with a coupling constant that decays as the inverse distance squared and models of depinning transitions, thus making a step towards a unifying framework.

  1. Understanding agent-based models of financial markets: A bottom-up approach based on order parameters and phase diagrams

    Lye, Ribin; Tan, James Peng Lung; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2012-11-01

    We describe a bottom-up framework, based on the identification of appropriate order parameters and determination of phase diagrams, for understanding progressively refined agent-based models and simulations of financial markets. We illustrate this framework by starting with a deterministic toy model, whereby N independent traders buy and sell M stocks through an order book that acts as a clearing house. The price of a stock increases whenever it is bought and decreases whenever it is sold. Price changes are updated by the order book before the next transaction takes place. In this deterministic model, all traders based their buy decisions on a call utility function, and all their sell decisions on a put utility function. We then make the agent-based model more realistic, by either having a fraction fb of traders buy a random stock on offer, or a fraction fs of traders sell a random stock in their portfolio. Based on our simulations, we find that it is possible to identify useful order parameters from the steady-state price distributions of all three models. Using these order parameters as a guide, we find three phases: (i) the dead market; (ii) the boom market; and (iii) the jammed market in the phase diagram of the deterministic model. Comparing the phase diagrams of the stochastic models against that of the deterministic model, we realize that the primary effect of stochasticity is to eliminate the dead market phase.

  2. Dynamics of a Fractional Order HIV Infection Model with Specific Functional Response and Cure Rate

    Adnane Boukhouima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fractional order model in this paper to describe the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In the model, the infection transmission process is modeled by a specific functional response. First, we show that the model is mathematically and biologically well posed. Second, the local and global stabilities of the equilibria are investigated. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented in order to illustrate our theoretical results.

  3. Higher-order triangular spectral element method with optimized cubature points for seismic wavefield modeling

    Liu, Youshan, E-mail: ysliu@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); Teng, Jiwen, E-mail: jwteng@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); Xu, Tao, E-mail: xutao@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing, 100101 (China); Badal, José, E-mail: badal@unizar.es [Physics of the Earth, Sciences B, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    The mass-lumped method avoids the cost of inverting the mass matrix and simultaneously maintains spatial accuracy by adopting additional interior integration points, known as cubature points. To date, such points are only known analytically in tensor domains, such as quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Thus, the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method (SEM) in non-tensor domains always relies on numerically computed interpolation points or quadrature points. However, only the cubature points for degrees 1 to 6 are known, which is the reason that we have developed a p-norm-based optimization algorithm to obtain higher-order cubature points. In this way, we obtain and tabulate new cubature points with all positive integration weights for degrees 7 to 9. The dispersion analysis illustrates that the dispersion relation determined from the new optimized cubature points is comparable to that of the mass and stiffness matrices obtained by exact integration. Simultaneously, the Lebesgue constant for the new optimized cubature points indicates its surprisingly good interpolation properties. As a result, such points provide both good interpolation properties and integration accuracy. The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) numbers are tabulated for the conventional Fekete-based triangular spectral element (TSEM), the TSEM with exact integration, and the optimized cubature-based TSEM (OTSEM). A complementary study demonstrates the spectral convergence of the OTSEM. A numerical example conducted on a half-space model demonstrates that the OTSEM improves the accuracy by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the conventional Fekete-based TSEM. In particular, the accuracy of the 7th-order OTSEM is even higher than that of the 14th-order Fekete-based TSEM. Furthermore, the OTSEM produces a result that can compete in accuracy with the quadrilateral SEM (QSEM). The high accuracy of the OTSEM is also tested with a non-flat topography model. In terms of computational

  4. Higher-order triangular spectral element method with optimized cubature points for seismic wavefield modeling

    Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José

    2017-01-01

    The mass-lumped method avoids the cost of inverting the mass matrix and simultaneously maintains spatial accuracy by adopting additional interior integration points, known as cubature points. To date, such points are only known analytically in tensor domains, such as quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Thus, the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method (SEM) in non-tensor domains always relies on numerically computed interpolation points or quadrature points. However, only the cubature points for degrees 1 to 6 are known, which is the reason that we have developed a p-norm-based optimization algorithm to obtain higher-order cubature points. In this way, we obtain and tabulate new cubature points with all positive integration weights for degrees 7 to 9. The dispersion analysis illustrates that the dispersion relation determined from the new optimized cubature points is comparable to that of the mass and stiffness matrices obtained by exact integration. Simultaneously, the Lebesgue constant for the new optimized cubature points indicates its surprisingly good interpolation properties. As a result, such points provide both good interpolation properties and integration accuracy. The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) numbers are tabulated for the conventional Fekete-based triangular spectral element (TSEM), the TSEM with exact integration, and the optimized cubature-based TSEM (OTSEM). A complementary study demonstrates the spectral convergence of the OTSEM. A numerical example conducted on a half-space model demonstrates that the OTSEM improves the accuracy by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the conventional Fekete-based TSEM. In particular, the accuracy of the 7th-order OTSEM is even higher than that of the 14th-order Fekete-based TSEM. Furthermore, the OTSEM produces a result that can compete in accuracy with the quadrilateral SEM (QSEM). The high accuracy of the OTSEM is also tested with a non-flat topography model. In terms of computational

  5. Predicting Statistical Response and Extreme Events in Uncertainty Quantification through Reduced-Order Models

    Qi, D.; Majda, A.

    2017-12-01

    A low-dimensional reduced-order statistical closure model is developed for quantifying the uncertainty in statistical sensitivity and intermittency in principal model directions with largest variability in high-dimensional turbulent system and turbulent transport models. Imperfect model sensitivity is improved through a recent mathematical strategy for calibrating model errors in a training phase, where information theory and linear statistical response theory are combined in a systematic fashion to achieve the optimal model performance. The idea in the reduced-order method is from a self-consistent mathematical framework for general systems with quadratic nonlinearity, where crucial high-order statistics are approximated by a systematic model calibration procedure. Model efficiency is improved through additional damping and noise corrections to replace the expensive energy-conserving nonlinear interactions. Model errors due to the imperfect nonlinear approximation are corrected by tuning the model parameters using linear response theory with an information metric in a training phase before prediction. A statistical energy principle is adopted to introduce a global scaling factor in characterizing the higher-order moments in a consistent way to improve model sensitivity. Stringent models of barotropic and baroclinic turbulence are used to display the feasibility of the reduced-order methods. Principal statistical responses in mean and variance can be captured by the reduced-order models with accuracy and efficiency. Besides, the reduced-order models are also used to capture crucial passive tracer field that is advected by the baroclinic turbulent flow. It is demonstrated that crucial principal statistical quantities like the tracer spectrum and fat-tails in the tracer probability density functions in the most important large scales can be captured efficiently with accuracy using the reduced-order tracer model in various dynamical regimes of the flow field with

  6. Comparing higher order models for the EORTC QLQ-C30

    Gundy, Chad M; Fayers, Peter M; Grønvold, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the statistical fit of alternative higher order models for summarizing the health-related quality of life profile generated by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire.......To investigate the statistical fit of alternative higher order models for summarizing the health-related quality of life profile generated by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire....

  7. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  8. An isotonic partial credit model for ordering subjects on the basis of their sum scores

    Ligtvoet, R.

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable.

  9. An Isotonic Partial Credit Model for Ordering Subjects on the Basis of Their Sum Scores

    Ligtvoet, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable. However, the PCM is very restrictive with respect…

  10. A NEUTRON DIFFRACTION DETERMINATION OF SHORT RANGE ORDER IN A Ni63.7Zr36.3 GLASS

    Bellissent , R.; Bigot , J.; Calvayrac , Y.; Lefebvre , S.; Quivy , A.

    1985-01-01

    A precise determination of the three partial structure factors for the eutectic composition Ni63.7Zr36.3 has been carried out using neutron diffraction on three isotopically substituted glasses. The use of a "zero alloy" yields a direct determination of the Bhatia-Thornton structure factor SCC. Evidence for the existence of strong chemical short-range order and a clear size effect is obtained. Due to this chemical order, the partial structure factors cannot be consistent with the ones calcula...

  11. Compact state-space models for complex superconducting radio-frequency structures based on model order reduction and concatenation methods

    Flisgen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of large chains of superconducting cavities with couplers is a challenging task in computational electrical engineering. The direct numerical treatment of these structures can easily lead to problems with more than ten million degrees of freedom. Problems of this complexity are typically solved with the help of parallel programs running on supercomputing infrastructures. However, these infrastructures are expensive to purchase, to operate, and to maintain. The aim of this thesis is to introduce and to validate an approach which allows for modeling large structures on a standard workstation. The novel technique is called State-Space Concatenations and is based on the decomposition of the complete structure into individual segments. The radio-frequency properties of the generated segments are described by a set of state-space equations which either emerge from analytical considerations or from numerical discretization schemes. The model order of these equations is reduced using dedicated model order reduction techniques. In a final step, the reduced-order state-space models of the segments are concatenated in accordance with the topology of the complete structure. The concatenation is based on algebraic continuity constraints of electric and magnetic fields on the decomposition planes and results in a compact state-space system of the complete radio-frequency structure. Compared to the original problem, the number of degrees of freedom is drastically reduced, i.e. a problem with more than ten million degrees of freedom can be reduced on a standard workstation to a problem with less than one thousand degrees of freedom. The final state-space system allows for determining frequency-domain transfer functions, field distributions, resonances, and quality factors of the complete structure in a convenient manner. This thesis presents the theory of the state-space concatenation approach and discusses several validation and application examples. The examples

  12. Determination of compositional ordering at grain boundaries in boron-doped Ni3Al

    Mills, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of crystal thickness and defocus on the superlattice contrast from HRTEM images have been demonstrated. The results indicate that fine, FCC fringe spacings in the vicinity of these grain boundaries can be produced if the boundary is slightly inclined to the electron beam, creating the false impression that the region is compositionally disordered. For properly chosen defocus conditions and boundary orientation, contrast typical of the ordered structure extends up to the estimated position of the boundary plane. The lack of a distinct disordered region suggests that microplasticity near grain boundaries is not significantly affected by the presence of B, and that its influence must be highly localized to the boundaries

  13. Condition of damping of anomalous radial transport, determined by ordered convective electron dynamics

    Maslov, V.I.; Barchuk, S.V.; Lapshin, V.I.; Volkov, E.D.; Melentsov, Yu.V.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown, that at development of instability due to a radial gradient of density in the crossed electric and magnetic fields in nuclear fusion installations ordering convective cells can be excited. It provides anomalous particle transport. The spatial structures of these convective cells have been constructed. The radial dimensions of these convective cells depend on their amplitudes and on a radial gradient of density. The convective-diffusion equation for radial dynamics of the electrons has been derived. At the certain value of the universal controlling parameter, the convective cell excitation and the anomalous radial transport are suppressed. (author)

  14. Comparisons of Modeling and State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Order and Integral Order Methods

    Renxin Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly manage lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles (EVs, it is essential to build the battery model and estimate the state of charge (SOC. In this paper, the fractional order forms of Thevenin and partnership for a new generation of vehicles (PNGV models are built, of which the model parameters including the fractional orders and the corresponding resistance and capacitance values are simultaneously identified based on genetic algorithm (GA. The relationships between different model parameters and SOC are established and analyzed. The calculation precisions of the fractional order model (FOM and integral order model (IOM are validated and compared under hybrid test cycles. Finally, extended Kalman filter (EKF is employed to estimate the SOC based on different models. The results prove that the FOMs can simulate the output voltage more accurately and the fractional order EKF (FOEKF can estimate the SOC more precisely under dynamic conditions.

  15. A reduced-order vortex model of three-dimensional unsteady non-linear aerodynamics

    Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid, large-amplitude maneuvers of low aspect ratio wings are inherent to biologically-inspired flight. These give rise to unsteady phenomena associated with the interactions among the coherent structures shed from wing edges. The objective of this work is to distill these phenomena into a low-order physics-based dynamical model. The model is based on interconnected vortex loops, composed of linear segments between a small number of vertices. Thus, the dynamics of the fluid are reduced to tracking the evolution of the vertices, whose motions are determined from the velocity field induced by the loops and wing motion. The feature that distinguishes this method from previous treatments is that the vortex loops, analogous to point vortices in our two-dimensional model, have time-varying strength. That is, the flux of vorticity from the wing is concentrated in the constituent segments. Chains of interconnected loops can be shed from any edge of the wing. The evolution equation for the loop vertices is based on the impulse matching principle developed in previous work. We demonstrate the model in various maneuvers, including impulse starts of low aspect ratio wings, oscillatory pitching, etc., and compare with experimental results and high-fidelity simulations where applicable. This work was supported by AFOSR under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.

  16. A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults.

    Cantu-Jungles, Thaisa M; McCormack, Lacey A; Slaven, James E; Slebodnik, Maribeth; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2017-09-30

    A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling. Stratified analysis for laboratory and away-from-home settings were also completed. Menu labeling resulted in no significant change in reported calories ordered/consumed in studies with full criteria adherence, nor the 14 studies analyzed with ≤1 unmet criteria, nor for change in total ordered carbohydrate, fat, and saturated fat (three studies) or ordered or consumed sodium (four studies). A significant reduction of 115.2 calories ordered/consumed in laboratory settings was determined when analyses were stratified by study setting. Menu labeling away-from-home did not result in change in quantity or quality, specifically for carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, or sodium, of calories consumed among U.S. adults.

  17. Experimental design for estimating unknown groundwater pumping using genetic algorithm and reduced order model

    Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2013-10-01

    An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provide maximum information about unknown groundwater pumping in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design uses a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. The formulated optimization problem is non-convex and contains integer variables necessitating a combinatorial search. Given a realistic large-scale model, the size of the combinatorial search required can make the problem difficult, if not impossible, to solve using traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used to perform the global search; however, because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem still may be infeasible to solve. As a result, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimensionality. Then, the information matrix in the full model space can be searched without solving the full model. Results from a small-scale test case show identical optimal solutions among the GA, integer programming, and exhaustive search methods. This demonstrates the GA's ability to determine the optimal solution. In addition, the results show that a GA with POD model reduction is several orders of magnitude faster in finding the optimal solution than a GA using the full model. The proposed experimental design algorithm is applied to a realistic, two-dimensional, large-scale groundwater problem. The GA converged to a solution for this large-scale problem.

  18. Multi-fragment visibility determination in the context of order-independent transparency rendering

    Marilena Maule

    2015-01-01

    Multi-fragment effects, in the computer-generated imagery context, are effects that determine pixel color based on information computed from more than one fragment. In such effects, the contribution of each fragment is extracted from its visibility with respect to a point of view. Seen through a pixel’s point of view, the visibility of one fragment depends on its spatial relationship with other fragments. This relationship can be reduced to the problem of sorting multiple fragments. Therefore...

  19. Second-order moments of Schell-model beams with various correlation functions in atmospheric turbulence.

    Zheng, Guo; Wang, Jue; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Muchun; Xin, Yu; Song, Minmin

    2017-11-15

    The general formulae for second-order moments of Schell-model beams with various correlation functions in atmospheric turbulence are derived and validated by the Bessel-Gaussian Schell-model beams and cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model beams. Our finding shows that the second-order moments of partially coherent Schell-model beams are related to the second-order partial derivatives of source spectral degree of coherence at the origin. The formulae we provide are much more convenient to analyze and research propagation problems in turbulence.

  20. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Order Review and Parenteral Nutrition Preparation, Including Compounding: The ASPEN Model.

    Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi

    2016-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. A high-order multiscale finite-element method for time-domain acoustic-wave modeling

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Chung, Eric T.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and efficient wave equation modeling is vital for many applications in such as acoustics, electromagnetics, and seismology. However, solving the wave equation in large-scale and highly heterogeneous models is usually computationally expensive because the computational cost is directly proportional to the number of grids in the model. We develop a novel high-order multiscale finite-element method to reduce the computational cost of time-domain acoustic-wave equation numerical modeling by solving the wave equation on a coarse mesh based on the multiscale finite-element theory. In contrast to existing multiscale finite-element methods that use only first-order multiscale basis functions, our new method constructs high-order multiscale basis functions from local elliptic problems which are closely related to the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points in a coarse element. Essentially, these basis functions are not only determined by the order of Legendre polynomials, but also by local medium properties, and therefore can effectively convey the fine-scale information to the coarse-scale solution with high-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that our method can significantly reduce the computation time while maintain high accuracy for wave equation modeling in highly heterogeneous media by solving the corresponding discrete system only on the coarse mesh with the new high-order multiscale basis functions.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen in Danish forest soils - Contents and distribution determined by soil order

    Vejre, Henrik; Callesen, Ingeborg; Vesterdal, Lars

    2003-01-01

    ). The average total organic C and N contents were 12.5 and 0.61 kg m(-2) respectively. There were large differences in total C and N among soil orders. Spodosols had the greatest C content (14.6 kg m(-2)), and Alfisols the least (8.8 kg m(-2)), while the N content was highest in Alfisols (0.75 kg m(-2......)) and least in Spodosols (0.51 kg m(-2)). The main contributor to the high C content in Spodosols is the spodic horizons containing illuvial humus, and thick organic horizons. Carbon and N concentrations decreased with soil depth. Soil clay content was negatively correlated to C content and positively...

  3. Reduced-order modelling of parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear dynamic partial differential equation models.

    Shah, A A; Xing, W W; Triantafyllidis, V

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we develop reduced-order models for dynamic, parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The main challenges are to accurately and efficiently approximate the POD bases for new parameter values and, in the case of nonlinear problems, to efficiently handle the nonlinear terms. We use a Bayesian nonlinear regression approach to learn the snapshots of the solutions and the nonlinearities for new parameter values. Computational efficiency is ensured by using manifold learning to perform the emulation in a low-dimensional space. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a linear and a nonlinear example, with comparisons with a global basis approach.

  4. Make or mix to order: Determining the type of intermediate products in a flour mill

    Akkerman, Renzo; van der Meer, Dirk; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to discrete manufacturers, food-processing companies can sometimes produce the same end products in different ways: either mix early and process or process first and mix later. Moreover, a product can be mixed from different raw materials or intermediates. That implies that choices can...... be made not only with regard to where to store, but also what to store, which is currently not covered in Decoupling Point (DP) theory. This paper explores this joint problem for a flour mill. The number and type of intermediate products in the DP is determined using a two-stage mathematical program...

  5. 20 CFR 1002.267 - How is compensation during the period of service calculated in order to determine the employee's...

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is compensation during the period of service calculated in order to determine the employee's pension benefits, if benefits are based on compensation? 1002.267 Section 1002.267 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ) Model

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a ...

  7. A Reduced Order Model to Predict Transient Flows around Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Soledad Le Clainche

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a reduced order model to represent the complex flow behaviour around vertical axis wind turbines. First, we simulate vertical axis turbines using an accurate high order discontinuous Galerkin–Fourier Navier–Stokes Large Eddy Simulation solver with sliding meshes and extract flow snapshots in time. Subsequently, we construct a reduced order model based on a high order dynamic mode decomposition approach that selects modes based on flow frequency. We show that only a few modes are necessary to reconstruct the flow behaviour of the original simulation, even for blades rotating in turbulent regimes. Furthermore, we prove that an accurate reduced order model can be constructed using snapshots that do not sample one entire turbine rotation (but only a fraction of it, which reduces the cost of generating the reduced order model. Additionally, we compare the reduced order model based on the high order Navier–Stokes solver to fast 2D simulations (using a Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes turbulent model to illustrate the good performance of the proposed methodology.

  8. The confluence model: birth order as a within-family or between-family dynamic?

    Zajonc, R B; Sulloway, Frank J

    2007-09-01

    The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman et al. nevertheless suffer from crucial shortcomings, including their use of unfocused tests, which cause statistically significant trends to be overlooked. In addition, Wichman et al. treated birth-order effects as a linear phenomenon thereby ignoring the confluence model's prediction that these two samples may manifest opposing results based on age. This article cites between- and within-family data that demonstrate systematic birth-order effects as predicted by the confluence model. The corpus of evidence invoked here offers strong support for the assumption of the confluence model that birth-order differences in intellectual performance are primarily a within-family phenomenon.

  9. SOLVING FRACTIONAL-ORDER COMPETITIVE LOTKA-VOLTERRA MODEL BY NSFD SCHEMES

    S.ZIBAEI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce fractional-order into a model competitive Lotka- Volterra prey-predator system. We will discuss the stability analysis of this fractional system. The non-standard nite difference (NSFD scheme is implemented to study the dynamic behaviors in the fractional-order Lotka-Volterra system. Proposed non-standard numerical scheme is compared with the forward Euler and fourth order Runge-Kutta methods. Numerical results show that the NSFD approach is easy and accurate for implementing when applied to fractional-order Lotka-Volterra model.

  10. Empirical analyses of a choice model that captures ordering among attribute values

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    an alternative additionally because it has the highest price. In this paper, we specify a discrete choice model that takes into account the ordering of attribute values across alternatives. This model is used to investigate the effect of attribute value ordering in three case studies related to alternative-fuel...... vehicles, mode choice, and route choice. In our application to choices among alternative-fuel vehicles, we see that especially the price coefficient is sensitive to changes in ordering. The ordering effect is also found in the applications to mode and route choice data where both travel time and cost...

  11. Determination of hyperfine fields and atomic ordering in NiMnFeGe exhibiting martensitic transformation

    Satuła Dariusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hyperfine fields and atomic ordering in Ni1−xFexMnGe (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 alloys were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements show that the samples with x = 0.2, 0.3 crystallized in the hexagonal Ni2In-type of structure, whereas in the sample with x = 0.1, the coexistence of two phases, Ni2In- and orthorhombic TiNiSi-type of structures, were found. The Mössbauer spectra measured with x = 0.2, 0.3 show three doublets with different values of isomer shift (IS and quadrupole splitting (QS related to three different local surroundings of Fe atoms in the hexagonal Ni2In-type structure. It was shown that Fe atoms in the hexagonal Ni2In-type structure of as-cast Ni1−xFexMnGe alloys are preferentially located in Ni sites and small amount of Fe is located in Mn and probably in Ge sites. The spectrum for x = 0.1 shows the doublets in the central part of spectrum and a broad sextet. The doublets originate from the Fe atoms in the paramagnetic state of hexagonal Ni2In-type structure, whereas the sextet results from the Fe atoms in orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure.

  12. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-11-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks(Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels. © 2006 IEEE.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Cobalt (II and Nickel (II By First Order Derivative Spectrophotometry in Micellar Media

    Rajni Rohilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-derivative spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of Co (II and Ni (II with Alizarin Red S in presence of Triton X-100 is described. Measurements were made at the zero-crossing wavelengths at 549.0 nm for Co (II and 546.0 nm for Ni (II. The linearity is obtained in the range of 0.291- 4.676 μg/ml of Ni (II and 0.293- 4.124 μg/ml of Co (II in the presence of each other by using first derivative spectrophotometric method. The possible interfering effects of various ions were studied. The validity of the method was examined by using synthetic mixtures of Co (II and Ni (II. The developed derivative procedure, using the zero crossing technique, has been successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of Co (II and Ni (II in spiked water samples.

  14. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.u, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.u [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Ingenieria y Tecnologias. Dept. de Matematica; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion General de Secretaria

    2011-07-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  15. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  16. A Reduced Order Model for the Design of Oxy-Coal Combustion Systems

    Steven L. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-coal combustion is one of the more promising technologies currently under development for addressing the issues associated with greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. Oxy-coal combustion involves combusting the coal fuel in mixtures of pure oxygen and recycled flue gas (RFG consisting of mainly carbon dioxide (CO2. As a consequence, many researchers and power plant designers have turned to CFD simulations for the study and design of new oxy-coal combustion power plants, as well as refitting existing air-coal combustion facilities to oxy-coal combustion operations. While CFD is a powerful tool that can provide a vast amount of information, the simulations themselves can be quite expensive in terms of computational resources and time investment. As a remedy, a reduced order model (ROM for oxy-coal combustion has been developed to supplement the CFD simulations. With this model, it is possible to quickly estimate the average outlet temperature of combustion flue gases given a known set of mass flow rates of fuel and oxidant entering the power plant boiler as well as determine the required reactor inlet mass flow rates for a desired outlet temperature. Several cases have been examined with this model. The results compare quite favorably to full CFD simulation results.

  17. Access is mainly a second-order process: SDT models whether phenomenally (first-order) conscious states are accessed by reflectively (second-order) conscious processes.

    Snodgrass, Michael; Kalaida, Natasha; Winer, E Samuel

    2009-06-01

    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine's [Irvine, E. (2009). Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm and weak consciousness-Evidence for the access/phenomenal distinction? Consciousness and Cognition.] partial access argument fails because exclusion failure is indeed due to lack of second-order access, not insufficient phenomenally conscious information. Further, the enable account conforms with both qualitative differences and subjective report, and is simpler than the endow account. Finally, although first-order access may be a distinct and important process, second-order access arguably reflects the core meaning of access generally.

  18. Assessing first-order emulator inference for physical parameters in nonlinear mechanistic models

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Leeds, William B.; Fiechter, Jerome; Wikle, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach for estimating physical parameters in nonlinear models that relies on an approximation to the mechanistic model itself for computational efficiency. The proposed methodology is validated and applied in two different modeling scenarios: (a) Simulation and (b) lower trophic level ocean ecosystem model. The approach we develop relies on the ability to predict right singular vectors (resulting from a decomposition of computer model experimental output) based on the computer model input and an experimental set of parameters. Critically, we model the right singular vectors in terms of the model parameters via a nonlinear statistical model. Specifically, we focus our attention on first-order models of these right singular vectors rather than the second-order (covariance) structure.

  19. Covariant quantization of infinite spin particle models, and higher order gauge theories

    Edgren, Ludde; Marnelius, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Further properties of a recently proposed higher order infinite spin particle model are derived. Infinitely many classically equivalent but different Hamiltonian formulations are shown to exist. This leads to a condition of uniqueness in the quantization process. A consistent covariant quantization is shown to exist. Also a recently proposed supersymmetric version for half-odd integer spins is quantized. A general algorithm to derive gauge invariances of higher order Lagrangians is given and applied to the infinite spin particle model, and to a new higher order model for a spinning particle which is proposed here, as well as to a previously given higher order rigid particle model. The latter two models are also covariantly quantized

  20. Identification and non-integer order modelling of synchronous machines operating as generator

    Szymon Racewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original mathematical model of a synchronous generator using derivatives of fractional order. In contrast to classical models composed of a large number of R-L ladders, it comprises half-order impedances, which enable the accurate description of the electromagnetic induction phenomena in a wide frequency range, while minimizing the order and number of model parameters. The proposed model takes into account the skin eff ect in damper cage bars, the eff ects of eddy currents in rotor solid parts, and the saturation of the machine magnetic circuit. The half-order transfer functions used for modelling these phenomena were verifi ed by simulation of ferromagnetic sheet impedance using the fi nite elements method. The analysed machine’s parameters were identified on the basis of SSFR (StandStill Frequency Response characteristics measured on a gradually magnetised synchronous machine.

  1. A system dynamics model to determine products mix

    Mahtab Hajghasem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of system dynamics model to determine appropriate product mix by considering various factors such as labor, materials, overhead, etc. for an Iranian producer of cosmetic and sanitary products. The proposed model of this paper considers three hypotheses including the relationship between product mix and profitability, optimum production capacity and having minimum amount of storage to take advantage of low cost production. The implementation of system dynamics on VENSIM software package has confirmed all three hypotheses of the survey and suggested that in order to reach better mix product, it is necessary to reach optimum production planning, take advantage of all available production capacities and use inventory management techniques.

  2. Mixed-order phase transition in a minimal, diffusion-based spin model.

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we exactly solve, within the grand canonical ensemble, a minimal spin model with the hybrid phase transition. We call the model diffusion based because its Hamiltonian can be recovered from a simple dynamic procedure, which can be seen as an equilibrium statistical mechanics representation of a biased random walk. We outline the derivation of the phase diagram of the model, in which the triple point has the hallmarks of the hybrid transition: discontinuity in the average magnetization and algebraically diverging susceptibilities. At this point, two second-order transition curves meet in equilibrium with the first-order curve, resulting in a prototypical mixed-order behavior.

  3. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions.

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2016-06-10

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b_{4} of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b_{4}, our b_{4} agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.

  5. Determination of the IGRF 2000 model

    Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.J.; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The IGRF 2000 has been estimated from magnetic measurements taken by the Orsted sattelite in summer 1999. For this purpose, three models have been derived: The first two models were estimated using a few geomagnetic quiet days in May and September 1999, respectively. The third model, called Oerst...

  6. Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid

    Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.

  7. The fractional-order modeling and synchronization of electrically coupled neuron systems

    Moaddy, K.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integer-order cable model of the neuron system into the fractional-order domain, where the long memory dependence of the fractional derivative can be a better fit for the neuron response. Furthermore, the chaotic synchronization with a gap junction of two or multi-coupled-neurons of fractional-order are discussed. The circuit model, fractional-order state equations and the numerical technique are introduced in this paper for individual and multiple coupled neuron systems with different fractional-orders. Various examples are introduced with different fractional orders using the non-standard finite difference scheme together with the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization process which is easily implemented and reliably accurate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The fractional-order modeling and synchronization of electrically coupled neuron systems

    Moaddy, K.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.; Momani, Shaher M.; Hashim, Ishak

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integer-order cable model of the neuron system into the fractional-order domain, where the long memory dependence of the fractional derivative can be a better fit for the neuron response. Furthermore, the chaotic synchronization with a gap junction of two or multi-coupled-neurons of fractional-order are discussed. The circuit model, fractional-order state equations and the numerical technique are introduced in this paper for individual and multiple coupled neuron systems with different fractional-orders. Various examples are introduced with different fractional orders using the non-standard finite difference scheme together with the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization process which is easily implemented and reliably accurate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New second order Mumford-Shah model based on Γ-convergence approximation for image processing

    Duan, Jinming; Lu, Wenqi; Pan, Zhenkuan; Bai, Li

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a second order variational model named the Mumford-Shah total generalized variation (MSTGV) is proposed for simultaneously image denoising and segmentation, which combines the original Γ-convergence approximated Mumford-Shah model with the second order total generalized variation (TGV). For image denoising, the proposed MSTGV can eliminate both the staircase artefact associated with the first order total variation and the edge blurring effect associated with the quadratic H1 regularization or the second order bounded Hessian regularization. For image segmentation, the MSTGV can obtain clear and continuous boundaries of objects in the image. To improve computational efficiency, the implementation of the MSTGV does not directly solve its high order nonlinear partial differential equations and instead exploits the efficient split Bregman algorithm. The algorithm benefits from the fast Fourier transform, analytical generalized soft thresholding equation, and Gauss-Seidel iteration. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model.

  10. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  11. Integrated model for pricing, delivery time setting, and scheduling in make-to-order environments

    Garmdare, Hamid Sattari; Lotfi, M. M.; Honarvar, Mahboobeh

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in make-to-order environments which work only in response to the customer's orders, manufacturers for maximizing the profits should offer the best price and delivery time for an order considering the existing capacity and the customer's sensitivity to both the factors. In this paper, an integrated approach for pricing, delivery time setting and scheduling of new arrival orders are proposed based on the existing capacity and accepted orders in system. In the problem, the acquired market demands dependent on the price and delivery time of both the manufacturer and its competitors. A mixed-integer non-linear programming model is presented for the problem. After converting to a pure non-linear model, it is validated through a case study. The efficiency of proposed model is confirmed by comparing it to both the literature and the current practice. Finally, sensitivity analysis for the key parameters is carried out.

  12. Stochasticity and determinism in models of hematopoiesis.

    Kimmel, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This chapter represents a novel view of modeling in hematopoiesis, synthesizing both deterministic and stochastic approaches. Whereas the stochastic models work in situations where chance dominates, for example when the number of cells is small, or under random mutations, the deterministic models are more important for large-scale, normal hematopoiesis. New types of models are on the horizon. These models attempt to account for distributed environments such as hematopoietic niches and their impact on dynamics. Mixed effects of such structures and chance events are largely unknown and constitute both a challenge and promise for modeling. Our discussion is presented under the separate headings of deterministic and stochastic modeling; however, the connections between both are frequently mentioned. Four case studies are included to elucidate important examples. We also include a primer of deterministic and stochastic dynamics for the reader's use.

  13. John Carroll’s Views on Intelligence: Bi-Factor vs. Higher-Order Models

    A. Alexander Beaujean

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of factor models is inextricably tied to the history of intelligence research. One of the most commonly-cited scholars in the field is John Carroll, whose three-stratum theory of cognitive ability has been one of the most influential models of cognitive ability in the past 20 years. Nonetheless, there is disagreement about how Carroll conceptualized the factors in his model. Some argue that his model is best represented through a higher-order model, while others argue that a bi-factor model is a better representation. Carroll was explicit about what he perceived the best way to represent his model, but his writings are not always easy to understand. In this article, I clarify his position by first describing the details and implications of bi-factor and higher-order models then show that Carroll’s published views are better represented by a bi-factor model.

  14. Fractional derivatives of constant and variable orders applied to anomalous relaxation models in heat transfer problems

    Yang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address a class of the fractional derivatives of constant and variable orders for the first time. Fractional-order relaxation equations of constants and variable orders in the sense of Caputo type are modeled from mathematical view of point. The comparative results of the anomalous relaxation among the various fractional derivatives are also given. They are very efficient in description of the complex phenomenon arising in heat transfer.

  15. Fractional-order mathematical model of an irrigation main canal pool

    Shlomi N. Calderon-Valdez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fractional order model for an irrigation main canal is proposed. It is based on the experiments developed in a laboratory prototype of a hydraulic canal and the application of a direct system identification methodology. The hydraulic processes that take place in this canal are equivalent to those that occur in real main irrigation canals and the results obtained here can therefore be easily extended to real canals. The accuracy of the proposed fractional order model is compared by deriving two other integer-order models of the canal of a complexity similar to that proposed here. The parameters of these three mathematical models have been identified by minimizing the Integral Square Error (ISE performance index existing between the models and the real-time experimental data obtained from the canal prototype. A comparison of the performances of these three models shows that the fractional-order model has the lowest error and therefore the higher accuracy. Experiments showed that our model outperformed the accuracy of the integer-order models by about 25%, which is a significant improvement as regards to capturing the canal dynamics.

  16. Reduced-order modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with nonlinear circuits under complex conditions

    Xiang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Fei; Li, Hong

    2018-04-01

    A fully coupled modeling approach is developed for piezoelectric energy harvesters in this work based on the use of available robust finite element packages and efficient reducing order modeling techniques. At first, the harvester is modeled using finite element packages. The dynamic equilibrium equations of harvesters are rebuilt by extracting system matrices from the finite element model using built-in commands without any additional tools. A Krylov subspace-based scheme is then applied to obtain a reduced-order model for improving simulation efficiency but preserving the key features of harvesters. Co-simulation of the reduced-order model with nonlinear energy harvesting circuits is achieved in a system level. Several examples in both cases of harmonic response and transient response analysis are conducted to validate the present approach. The proposed approach allows to improve the simulation efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the parameters used in the equivalent circuit model can be conveniently obtained by the proposed eigenvector-based model order reduction technique. More importantly, this work establishes a methodology for modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with any complicated mechanical geometries and nonlinear circuits. The input load may be more complex also. The method can be employed by harvester designers to optimal mechanical structures or by circuit designers to develop novel energy harvesting circuits.

  17. The noncommutative standard model. Construction beyond leading order in θ and collider phenomenology

    Alboteanu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Within this work we study the phenomenological consequences of a possible realization of QFT on noncommutative space-time. In the first part we performed a phenomenological analysis of the hadronic process pp → Z γ → l + l - γ at the LHC and of electron-positron pair annihilation into a Z boson and a photon at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The noncommutative extension of the SM considered within this work relies on two building blocks: the Moyal-Weyl *-product of functions on ordinary space-time and the Seiberg-Witten maps. A consequence of the noncommutativity of space-time is the violation of rotational invariance with respect to the beam axis. This effect shows up in the azimuthal dependence of cross sections, which is absent in the SM as well as in other models beyond the SM. We have found this dependence to be best suited for deriving the sensitivity bounds on the noncommutative scale NC. By studying pp→Z γ →l + l - γ to first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we show in the first part of this work that measurements at the LHC are sensitive to noncommutative effects only in certain cases, giving bounds on the noncommutative scale of Λ NC >or similar 1.2 TeV. By means of e + e - → Z γ → l + l - γ to O(θ) we have shown that ILC measurements are complementary to LHC measurements of the noncommutative parameters. In addition, the bounds on Λ NC derived from the ILC are significantly higher and reach Λ NC >or similar 6 TeV. In the second part of this work we expand the neutral current sector of the noncommutative SM to second order in θ. We found that, against the general expectation, the theory must be enlarged by additional parameters. The new parameters enter the theory as ambiguities of the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter are not uniquely determined and differ by homogeneous solutions of the gauge equivalence equations. The expectation was that the ambiguities correspond to field redefinitions and therefore should

  18. The noncommutative standard model. Construction beyond leading order in {theta} and collider phenomenology

    Alboteanu, A.M.

    2007-07-01

    Within this work we study the phenomenological consequences of a possible realization of QFT on noncommutative space-time. In the first part we performed a phenomenological analysis of the hadronic process pp {yields} Z{sub {gamma}} {yields} l{sup +}l{sup -}{gamma} at the LHC and of electron-positron pair annihilation into a Z boson and a photon at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The noncommutative extension of the SM considered within this work relies on two building blocks: the Moyal-Weyl *-product of functions on ordinary space-time and the Seiberg-Witten maps. A consequence of the noncommutativity of space-time is the violation of rotational invariance with respect to the beam axis. This effect shows up in the azimuthal dependence of cross sections, which is absent in the SM as well as in other models beyond the SM. We have found this dependence to be best suited for deriving the sensitivity bounds on the noncommutative scale NC. By studying pp{yields}Z{sub {gamma}} {yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}{gamma} to first order in the noncommutative parameter {theta}, we show in the first part of this work that measurements at the LHC are sensitive to noncommutative effects only in certain cases, giving bounds on the noncommutative scale of {lambda}{sub NC} >or similar 1.2 TeV. By means of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Z{sub {gamma}} {yields} l{sup +}l{sup -}{gamma} to O({theta}) we have shown that ILC measurements are complementary to LHC measurements of the noncommutative parameters. In addition, the bounds on {lambda}{sub NC} derived from the ILC are significantly higher and reach {lambda}{sub NC} >or similar 6 TeV. In the second part of this work we expand the neutral current sector of the noncommutative SM to second order in {theta}. We found that, against the general expectation, the theory must be enlarged by additional parameters. The new parameters enter the theory as ambiguities of the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter are not uniquely determined and differ by

  19. Higher-order triangular spectral element method with optimized cubature points for seismic wavefield modeling

    Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José

    2017-05-01

    The mass-lumped method avoids the cost of inverting the mass matrix and simultaneously maintains spatial accuracy by adopting additional interior integration points, known as cubature points. To date, such points are only known analytically in tensor domains, such as quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Thus, the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method (SEM) in non-tensor domains always relies on numerically computed interpolation points or quadrature points. However, only the cubature points for degrees 1 to 6 are known, which is the reason that we have developed a p-norm-based optimization algorithm to obtain higher-order cubature points. In this way, we obtain and tabulate new cubature points with all positive integration weights for degrees 7 to 9. The dispersion analysis illustrates that the dispersion relation determined from the new optimized cubature points is comparable to that of the mass and stiffness matrices obtained by exact integration. Simultaneously, the Lebesgue constant for the new optimized cubature points indicates its surprisingly good interpolation properties. As a result, such points provide both good interpolation properties and integration accuracy. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) numbers are tabulated for the conventional Fekete-based triangular spectral element (TSEM), the TSEM with exact integration, and the optimized cubature-based TSEM (OTSEM). A complementary study demonstrates the spectral convergence of the OTSEM. A numerical example conducted on a half-space model demonstrates that the OTSEM improves the accuracy by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the conventional Fekete-based TSEM. In particular, the accuracy of the 7th-order OTSEM is even higher than that of the 14th-order Fekete-based TSEM. Furthermore, the OTSEM produces a result that can compete in accuracy with the quadrilateral SEM (QSEM). The high accuracy of the OTSEM is also tested with a non-flat topography model. In terms of computational

  20. Low-order aeroelastic models of wind turbines for controller design

    Sønderby, Ivan Bergquist

    Wind turbine controllers are used to optimize the performance of wind turbines such as to reduce power variations and fatigue and extreme loads on wind turbine components. Accurate tuning and design of modern controllers must be done using low-order models that accurately captures the aeroelastic...... response of the wind turbine. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the necessary model complexity required in aeroelastic models used for controller design and to analyze and propose methods to design low-order aeroelastic wind turbine models that are suited for model-based control design....... The thesis contains a characterization of the dynamics that influence the open-loop aeroelastic frequency response of a modern wind turbine, based on a high-order aeroelastic wind turbine model. One main finding is that the transfer function from collective pitch to generator speed is affected by two low...

  1. Reduced order dynamic model for polysaccharides molecule attached to an atomic force microscope

    Tang Deman; Li Aiqin; Attar, Peter; Dowell, Earl H.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic analysis and numerical simulation has been conducted of a polysaccharides molecular structure (a ten (10) single-α-D-glucose molecule chain) connected to a moving atomic force microscope (AFM). Sinusoidal base excitation of the AFM cantilevered beam is considered. First a linearized perturbation model is constructed for the complex polysaccharides molecular structure. Then reduced order (dynamic) models based upon a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are constructed using global modes for both the linearized perturbation model and for the full nonlinear model. The agreement between the original and reduced order models (ROM/POD) is very good even when only a few global modes are included in the ROM for either the linear case or for the nonlinear case. The computational advantage of the reduced order model is clear from the results presented

  2. Constructing set-valued fundamental diagrams from jamiton solutions in second order traffic models

    Seibold, Benjamin; Flynn, Morris R.; Kasimov, Aslan R.; Rosales, Rodolfo Rubé n

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental diagrams of vehicular traiic ow are generally multivalued in the congested ow regime. We show that such set-valued fundamental diagrams can be constructed systematically from simple second order macroscopic traiic models, such as the classical Payne-Whitham model or the inhomogeneous Aw-Rascle-Zhang model. These second order models possess nonlinear traveling wave solutions, called jamitons, and the multi-valued parts in the fundamental diagram correspond precisely to jamiton-dominated solutions. This study shows that transitions from function-valued to set-valued parts in a fundamental diagram arise naturally in well-known second order models. As a particular consequence, these models intrinsically reproduce traiic phases. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  3. Constructing set-valued fundamental diagrams from jamiton solutions in second order traffic models

    Seibold, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    Fundamental diagrams of vehicular traiic ow are generally multivalued in the congested ow regime. We show that such set-valued fundamental diagrams can be constructed systematically from simple second order macroscopic traiic models, such as the classical Payne-Whitham model or the inhomogeneous Aw-Rascle-Zhang model. These second order models possess nonlinear traveling wave solutions, called jamitons, and the multi-valued parts in the fundamental diagram correspond precisely to jamiton-dominated solutions. This study shows that transitions from function-valued to set-valued parts in a fundamental diagram arise naturally in well-known second order models. As a particular consequence, these models intrinsically reproduce traiic phases. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  4. Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration

    Luo, Haoxiang; Chang, Siyuan; Chen, Ye; Rousseau, Bernard; PhonoSim Team

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which can be applied in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model that is the same as in the full 3D model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin.

  5. Simulation model of a single-server order picking workstation using aggregate process times

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.; Biles, W.E.; Saltelli, A.; Dini, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simulation modeling approach based on aggregate process times for the performance analysis of order picking workstations in automated warehouses with first-in-first-out processing of orders. The aggregate process time distribution is calculated from tote arrival and

  6. Testing the Processing Hypothesis of word order variation using a probabilistic language model

    Bloem, J.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the application of a measure of surprisal to modeling a grammatical variation phenomenon between near-synonymous constructions. We investigate a particular variation phenomenon, word order variation in Dutch two-verb clusters, where it has been established that word order

  7. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  8. Heavy-traffic limits for polling models with exhaustive service and non-FCFS service orders

    P. Vis (Petra); R. Bekker (Rene); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study cyclic polling models with exhaustive service at each queue under a variety of non-FCFS (first-come-first-served) local service orders, namely last-come-first-served with and without preemption, random-order-of-service, processor sharing, the multi-class priority scheduling with

  9. Stochastic order in dichotomous item response models for fixed tests, research adaptive tests, or multiple abilities

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1995-01-01

    Dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models can be viewed as families of stochastically ordered distributions of responses to test items. This paper explores several properties of such distributiom. The focus is on the conditions under which stochastic order in families of conditional

  10. A Structural Equation Model of Customer Satisfaction and Future Purchase of Mail-Order Speciality Food

    Mai, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses the relationship between satisfaction with mail-order speciality food attributes, overall satisfaction, and likelihood of future purchase using a structural equation model. The results indicate that customer satisfaction is associated with both service and product features of mail order speciality food.

  11. A Model-Free Diagnostic for Single-Peakedness of Item Responses Using Ordered Conditional Means

    Polak, Marike; De Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we propose a model-free diagnostic for single-peakedness (unimodality) of item responses. Presuming a unidimensional unfolding scale and a given item ordering, we approximate item response functions of all items based on ordered conditional means (OCM). The proposed OCM methodology is based on Thurstone & Chave's (1929) "criterion…

  12. Exact Sampling and Decoding in High-Order Hidden Markov Models

    Carter, S.; Dymetman, M.; Bouchard, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for exact optimization and sampling from high order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which are generally handled by approximation techniques. Motivated by adaptive rejection sampling and heuristic search, we propose a strategy based on sequentially refining a lower-order language

  13. Large-order behavior of nondecoupling effects in the standard model and triviality

    Aoki, K.

    1994-01-01

    We compute some nondecoupling effects in the standard model, such as the ρ parameter, to all orders in the coupling constant expansion. We analyze their large order behavior and explicitly show how they are related to the nonperturbative cutoff dependence of these nondecoupling effects due to the triviality of the theory

  14. Universal block diagram based modeling and simulation schemes for fractional-order control systems.

    Bai, Lu; Xue, Dingyü

    2017-05-08

    Universal block diagram based schemes are proposed for modeling and simulating the fractional-order control systems in this paper. A fractional operator block in Simulink is designed to evaluate the fractional-order derivative and integral. Based on the block, the fractional-order control systems with zero initial conditions can be modeled conveniently. For modeling the system with nonzero initial conditions, the auxiliary signal is constructed in the compensation scheme. Since the compensation scheme is very complicated, therefore the integrator chain scheme is further proposed to simplify the modeling procedures. The accuracy and effectiveness of the schemes are assessed in the examples, the computation results testify the block diagram scheme is efficient for all Caputo fractional-order ordinary differential equations (FODEs) of any complexity, including the implicit Caputo FODEs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing lengths of confidence intervals: fourth-order efficiency in location models

    Klaassen, C.; Venetiaan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under regularity conditions the maximum likelihood estimator of the location parameter in a location model is asymptotically efficient among translation equivariant estimators. Additional regularity conditions warrant third- and even fourth-order efficiency, in the sense that no translation

  16. Connection between weighted LPC and higher-order statistics for AR model estimation

    Kamp, Y.; Ma, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper establishes the relationship between a weighted linear prediction method used for robust analysis of voiced speech and the autoregressive modelling based on higher-order statistics, known as cumulants

  17. Birth Order and Susceptibility to Peer Modeling Influences in Young Boys

    Finley, Gordon E.; Cheyne, James A.

    1976-01-01

    Susceptibility to peer modeling influences as a function of birth order was studied by examining the data of 390 boys from kindergarten through third grade who previously had participated in moral transgression experiments. (MS)

  18. Collaborative Research and Development (CR&D). Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling

    2008-05-01

    scratch test for TiN on stainless steel with better substrate mechanical properties. This present study was focused on the study of stress distribution...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2010-4189 COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling Young Sup Kang Universal...SUBTITLE COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-03-D-5801-0049 5b

  19. A fourth order spline collocation approach for a business cycle model

    Sayfy, A.; Khoury, S.; Ibdah, H.

    2013-10-01

    A collocation approach, based on a fourth order cubic B-splines is presented for the numerical solution of a Kaleckian business cycle model formulated by a nonlinear delay differential equation. The equation is approximated and the nonlinearity is handled by employing an iterative scheme arising from Newton's method. It is shown that the model exhibits a conditionally dynamical stable cycle. The fourth-order rate of convergence of the scheme is verified numerically for different special cases.

  20. Optimization in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ) Model with Deteriorating Inventory and Units Lost

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2014-01-01

    Background: This model presents the effect of deteriorating items in fuzzy optimal instantaneous replenishment for finite planning horizon. Accounting for holding cost per unit per unit time and ordering cost per order have traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment. These imprecise parameters defined on a bounded interval on the axis of real numbers and the physical characteristics of stocked items dictate the nature of inventory policies implemented ...

  1. Validity testing of third-order nonlinear models for synchronous generators

    Arjona, M.A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de La Laguna Torreon, Coah. (Mexico); Escarela-Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, C.P. 02200 (Mexico); Espinosa-Perez, G. [Division de Estudios Posgrado de la Facultad de Ingenieria Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Alvarez-Ramirez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana -Iztapalapa, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    Third-order nonlinear models are commonly used in control theory for the analysis of the stability of both open-loop and closed-loop synchronous machines. However, the ability of these models to describe the electrical machine dynamics has not been tested experimentally. This work focuses on this issue by addressing the parameters identification problem for third-order models for synchronous generators. For a third-order model describing the dynamics of power angle {delta}, rotor speed {omega} and quadrature axis transient EMF E{sub q}{sup '}, it is shown that the parameters cannot be identified because of the effects of the unknown initial condition of E{sub q}{sup '}. To avoid this situation, a model that incorporates the measured electrical power dynamics is considered, showing that state measurements guarantee the identification of the model parameters. Data obtained from a 7 kVA lab-scale synchronous generator and from a 150 MVA finite-element simulation were used to show that, at least for the worked examples, the estimated parameters display only moderate variations over the operating region. This suggests that third-order models can suffice to describe the main dynamical features of synchronous generators, and that third-order models can be used to design and tune power system stabilizers and voltage regulators. (author)

  2. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  3. Orientation and Order of the Amide Group of Sphingomyelin in Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR

    Matsumori, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Maeta, Yoshiko; Murata, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) are considered essential for the formation of lipid rafts; however, the types of molecular interactions involved in this process, such as intermolecular hydrogen bonding, are not well understood. Since, unlike other phospholipids, SM is characterized by the presence of an amide group, it is essential to determine the orientation of the amide and its order in the lipid bilayers to understand the nature of the hydrogen bonds in lipid rafts. For this study, 1′-13C-2-15N-labeled and 2′-13C-2-15N-labeled SMs were prepared, and the rotational-axis direction and order parameters of the SM amide in bilayers were determined based on 13C and 15N chemical-shift anisotropies and intramolecular 13C-15N dipole coupling constants. Results revealed that the amide orientation was minimally affected by Chol, whereas the order was enhanced significantly in its presence. Thus, Chol likely promotes the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen-bond network involving the SM amide without significantly changing its orientation, providing a higher order to the SM amide. To our knowledge, this study offers new insight into the significance of the SM amide orientation with regard to molecular recognition in lipid rafts, and therefore provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of their formation. PMID:26083921

  4. Correlation effects of third-order perturbation in the extended Hubbard model

    Wei, G.Z.; Nie, H.Q.; Li, L.; Zhang, K.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Using the local approach, a third-order perturbation calculation has been performed to investigate the effects of intra-atomic electron correlation and electron and spin correlation between nearest neighbour sites in the extended Hubbard model. It was found that significant correction of the third order over the second order results and, in comparison with the results of the third-order perturbation where only the intra-atomic electron correlation is included, the influence of the electron and spin correlation between nearest neighbour sites on the correlation energy is non-negligible. 17 refs., 3 figs

  5. Flexible implementation of the Ensemble Model with arbitrary order of moments

    Ackermann, W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: ackermann@temf.tu-darmstadt.de; Weiland, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: thomas.weiland@temf.tu-darmstadt.de

    2006-03-01

    The Ensemble Model takes advantage of an approach to express the phase space particle distribution function in terms of the first, second and higher order moments instead of considering individual particles. Based on a new flexible implementation, an arbitrary number of orders can be processed and automatically converted into proper update equations for the simulation program V-Code. In this paper the influence of the introduction of higher order moments on the beam dynamics simulation is investigated. The achievable accuracy and the numerical efforts are compared with the ones obtained from the lower order calculations.

  6. 28 April 1986: Royal Order determining the certificate of financial security for the carriage of nuclear substances

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Royal Order is to ensure that financial security certificates given by the nuclear operators liable to carriers of nuclear substances conform to the conditions set out in Article 4(c) of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy. This is a requirement under the Belgian Act of 22nd July 1985 on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy. The Annex to the Order contains a model certificate reproducing the type of information required in accordance with the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  7. Modeling 3D PCMI using the Extended Finite Element Method with higher order elements

    Jiang, W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, Benjamin W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-31

    This report documents the recent development to enable XFEM to work with higher order elements. It also demonstrates the application of higher order (quadratic) elements to both 2D and 3D models of PCMI problems, where discrete fractures in the fuel are represented using XFEM. The modeling results demonstrate the ability of the higher order XFEM to accurately capture the effects of a crack on the response in the vicinity of the intersecting surfaces of cracked fuel and cladding, as well as represent smooth responses in the regions away from the crack.

  8. An order insertion scheduling model of logistics service supply chain considering capacity and time factors.

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful.

  9. A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING APPROACH TO ONE-DAY CRICKET BATTING ORDERS

    Matthews Ovens1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players

  10. Fractional order modeling and control of dissimilar redundant actuating system used in large passenger aircraft

    Salman IJAZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a methodology has been developed to address the issue of force fighting and to achieve precise position tracking of control surface driven by two dissimilar actuators. The nonlinear dynamics of both actuators are first approximated as fractional order models. Based on the identified models, three fractional order controllers are proposed for the whole system. Two Fractional Order PID (FOPID controllers are dedicated to improving transient response and are designed in a position feedback configuration. In order to synchronize the actuator dynamics, a third fractional order PI controller is designed, which feeds the force compensation signal in position feedback loop of both actuators. Nelder-Mead (N-M optimization technique is employed in order to optimally tune controller parameters based on the proposed performance criteria. To test the proposed controllers according to real flight condition, an external disturbance of higher amplitude that acts as airload is applied directly on the control surface. In addition, a disturbance signal function of system states is applied to check the robustness of proposed controller. Simulation results on nonlinear system model validated the performance of the proposed scheme as compared to optimal PID and high gain PID controllers. Keywords: Aerospace, Fractional order control, Model identification, Nelder-Mead optimization, Robustness

  11. An exactly solvable model for first- and second-order transitions

    Klushin, L I; Skvortsov, A M; Gorbunov, A A

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of an exact analytical description of first-order and second-order transitions is demonstrated using a specific microscopic model. Predictions using the exactly calculated partition function are compared with those based on the Landau and Yang-Lee approaches. The model employed is an adsorbed polymer chain with an arbitrary number of links and an external force applied to its end, for which the variation of the partition function with the adsorption interaction parameter and the magnitude of the applied force is calculated. In the thermodynamic limit, the system has one isotropic and two anisotropic, ordered phases, each of which is characterized by two order parameters and between which first-order and second-order transitions occur and a bicritical point exists. The Landau free energy is found exactly as a function of each order parameter separately and, near the bicritical point, as a function of both of them simultaneously. An exact analytical formula is found for the distribution of the complex zeros of the partition function in first-order and second-order phase transitions. Hypotheses concerning the way in which the free energy and the positions of the complex zeros scale with the number of particles N in the system are verified. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. System Response Analysis and Model Order Reduction, Using Conventional Method, Bond Graph Technique and Genetic Programming

    Lubna Moin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper basically explores and compares the different modeling and analysis techniques and than it also explores the model order reduction approach and significance. The traditional modeling and simulation techniques for dynamic systems are generally adequate for single-domain systems only, but the Bond Graph technique provides new strategies for reliable solutions of multi-domain system. They are also used for analyzing linear and non linear dynamic production system, artificial intelligence, image processing, robotics and industrial automation. This paper describes a unique technique of generating the Genetic design from the tree structured transfer function obtained from Bond Graph. This research work combines bond graphs for model representation with Genetic programming for exploring different ideas on design space tree structured transfer function result from replacing typical bond graph element with their impedance equivalent specifying impedance lows for Bond Graph multiport. This tree structured form thus obtained from Bond Graph is applied for generating the Genetic Tree. Application studies will identify key issues and importance for advancing this approach towards becoming on effective and efficient design tool for synthesizing design for Electrical system. In the first phase, the system is modeled using Bond Graph technique. Its system response and transfer function with conventional and Bond Graph method is analyzed and then a approach towards model order reduction is observed. The suggested algorithm and other known modern model order reduction techniques are applied to a 11th order high pass filter [1], with different approach. The model order reduction technique developed in this paper has least reduction errors and secondly the final model retains structural information. The system response and the stability analysis of the system transfer function taken by conventional and by Bond Graph method is compared and

  13. Second-order advantage with excitation–emission photoinduced fluorimetry for the determination of the antiepileptic carbamazepine in environmental waters

    Lozano, Valeria A.; Escandar, Graciela M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A simple and safe method for the emerging contaminant carbamazepine is developed. •MCR-ALS algorithm allows us the quantification in very interfering media. •Determination is accomplished in natural waters using green-chemistry principles. -- Abstract: A photochemically induced fluorescence system combined with second-order chemometric analysis for the determination of the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (CBZ) is presented. CBZ is a widely used drug for the treatment of epilepsy and is included in the group of emerging contaminant present in the aquatic environment. CBZ is not fluorescent in solution but can be converted into a fluorescent compound through a photochemical reaction in a strong acid medium. The determination is carried out by measuring excitation–emission photoinduced fluorescence matrices of the products formed upon ultraviolet light irradiation in a laboratory-constructed reactor constituted by two simple 4 W germicidal tubes. Working conditions related to both the reaction medium and the photoreactor geometry are optimized by an experimental design. The developed approach enabled the determination of CBZ at trace levels without the necessity of applying separation steps, and in the presence of uncalibrated interferences which also display photoinduced fluorescence and may be potentially present in the investigated samples. Different second-order algorithms were tested and successful resolution was achieved using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). The study is employed for the discussion of the scopes and yields of each of the applied second-order chemometric tools. The quality of the proposed method is probed through the determination of the studied emerging pollutant in both environmental and drinking water samples. After a pre-concentration step on a C18 membrane using 50.0 mL of real water samples, a prediction relative error of 2% and limits of detection and

  14. Second-order advantage with excitation–emission photoinduced fluorimetry for the determination of the antiepileptic carbamazepine in environmental waters

    Lozano, Valeria A.; Escandar, Graciela M., E-mail: escandar@iquir-conicet.gov.ar

    2013-06-11

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A simple and safe method for the emerging contaminant carbamazepine is developed. •MCR-ALS algorithm allows us the quantification in very interfering media. •Determination is accomplished in natural waters using green-chemistry principles. -- Abstract: A photochemically induced fluorescence system combined with second-order chemometric analysis for the determination of the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (CBZ) is presented. CBZ is a widely used drug for the treatment of epilepsy and is included in the group of emerging contaminant present in the aquatic environment. CBZ is not fluorescent in solution but can be converted into a fluorescent compound through a photochemical reaction in a strong acid medium. The determination is carried out by measuring excitation–emission photoinduced fluorescence matrices of the products formed upon ultraviolet light irradiation in a laboratory-constructed reactor constituted by two simple 4 W germicidal tubes. Working conditions related to both the reaction medium and the photoreactor geometry are optimized by an experimental design. The developed approach enabled the determination of CBZ at trace levels without the necessity of applying separation steps, and in the presence of uncalibrated interferences which also display photoinduced fluorescence and may be potentially present in the investigated samples. Different second-order algorithms were tested and successful resolution was achieved using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). The study is employed for the discussion of the scopes and yields of each of the applied second-order chemometric tools. The quality of the proposed method is probed through the determination of the studied emerging pollutant in both environmental and drinking water samples. After a pre-concentration step on a C18 membrane using 50.0 mL of real water samples, a prediction relative error of 2% and limits of detection and

  15. A statistical-thermodynamic model for ordering phenomena in thin film intermetallic structures

    Semenova, Olga; Krachler, Regina

    2008-01-01

    Ordering phenomena in bcc (110) binary thin film intermetallics are studied by a statistical-thermodynamic model. The system is modeled by an Ising approach that includes only nearest-neighbor chemical interactions and is solved in a mean-field approximation. Vacancies and anti-structure atoms are considered on both sublattices. The model describes long-range ordering and simultaneously short-range ordering in the thin film. It is applied to NiAl thin films with B2 structure. Vacancy concentrations, thermodynamic activity profiles and the virtual critical temperature of order-disorder as a function of film composition and thickness are presented. The results point to an important role of vacancies in near-stoichiometric and Ni-rich NiAl thin films

  16. Combined application of numerical simulation models and fission tracks analysis in order to determine the history of temperature, subsidence and lifting of sedimentary basins. A case study from the Ruhr Coal basin inWest Germany; Die kombinierte Anwendung numerischer Simulationsmodelle und Spaltspurenuntersuchungen zur Entschluesselung der Temperatur-, Subsidenz- und Hebungsgeschichte von Sedimentbecken - Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Ruhrkohlenbecken Westdeutschlands

    Karg, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bueker, C. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ruhr Coal basin is one of the globally best known sedimentary basins. According to classical, established the Ruhr Basin is a typical foreland molasse basins. The thermal history (heating and cooling) and the structural and sedimentary development since the formation of the basin, i.e. subsidence and lifting and erosion are of the first importance for the potential formation of hydrocarbons. In order to quantify these processes, two-dimensional numerical simulation models (based on geological and seismological sections) of the Ruhr basin were developed from which one could conclude the heat flow at the time of maximum basin depth after variscis orogenesis, maximum temperatures of individual strata sections and thickness of eroded strata. The PetroMod program package of the company IES/Juelich was used for these analyses. Finite-element-grids enable mathematican mapping and reconstruction of complex geological structures and processes. The models on temperature history are calibrated by comparing measured and calculated carbonification (vitrinite reflection) data. (orig./MSK). [Deutsch] Das Ruhrkohlenbecken stellt weltweit eines der am besten erforschten Sedimentbecken dar. Nach klassischen und etablierten Beckenmodellen kann das Ruhrbecken als typisches Vorlandmolassebecken angesehen werden. Besonders relevant fuer die potentielle Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen sind in erster Linie die thermische Geschichte (Aufheizung und Abkuehlung) sowie die strukturelle und sedimentaere Entwicklung seit der Beckenbildung, sprich Versenkungs-, Hebungs- und Erosionsprozesse. Um solche Prozesse zu quantifizieren, wurden im Ruhrbecken zweidimensionale (d.h. auf der Grundlage von geologischen und seismischen Sektionen) numerische Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die Aufschluss ueber Waermefluesse zur Zeit der maximalen Beckeneintiefung im Anschluss an die variszische Orogenese, erreichte Maximaltemperaturen einzelner Schichtglieder sowie die Maechtigkeit erodierter Schichten im

  17. Third-order least squares modelling of milling state term for improved computation of stability boundaries

    C.G. Ozoegwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The general least squares model for milling process state term is presented. A discrete map for milling stability analysis that is based on the third-order case of the presented general least squares milling state term model is first studied and compared with its third-order counterpart that is based on the interpolation theory. Both numerical rate of convergence and chatter stability results of the two maps are compared using the single degree of freedom (1DOF milling model. The numerical rate of convergence of the presented third-order model is also studied using the two degree of freedom (2DOF milling process model. Comparison gave that stability results from the two maps agree closely but the presented map demonstrated reduction in number of needed calculations leading to about 30% savings in computational time (CT. It is seen in earlier works that accuracy of milling stability analysis using the full-discretization method rises from first-order theory to second-order theory and continues to rise to the third-order theory. The present work confirms this trend. In conclusion, the method presented in this work will enable fast and accurate computation of stability diagrams for use by machinists.

  18. Strategies for Reduced-Order Models in Uncertainty Quantification of Complex Turbulent Dynamical Systems

    Qi, Di

    Turbulent dynamical systems are ubiquitous in science and engineering. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) in turbulent dynamical systems is a grand challenge where the goal is to obtain statistical estimates for key physical quantities. In the development of a proper UQ scheme for systems characterized by both a high-dimensional phase space and a large number of instabilities, significant model errors compared with the true natural signal are always unavoidable due to both the imperfect understanding of the underlying physical processes and the limited computational resources available. One central issue in contemporary research is the development of a systematic methodology for reduced order models that can recover the crucial features both with model fidelity in statistical equilibrium and with model sensitivity in response to perturbations. In the first part, we discuss a general mathematical framework to construct statistically accurate reduced-order models that have skill in capturing the statistical variability in the principal directions of a general class of complex systems with quadratic nonlinearity. A systematic hierarchy of simple statistical closure schemes, which are built through new global statistical energy conservation principles combined with statistical equilibrium fidelity, are designed and tested for UQ of these problems. Second, the capacity of imperfect low-order stochastic approximations to model extreme events in a passive scalar field advected by turbulent flows is investigated. The effects in complicated flow systems are considered including strong nonlinear and non-Gaussian interactions, and much simpler and cheaper imperfect models with model error are constructed to capture the crucial statistical features in the stationary tracer field. Several mathematical ideas are introduced to improve the prediction skill of the imperfect reduced-order models. Most importantly, empirical information theory and statistical linear response theory are

  19. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation of Fractional-Order Complex-Valued Single Neuron Model with Time Delay

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Yuxia; Huang, Xia

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the problems of stability and Hopf bifurcation in a class of fractional-order complex-valued single neuron model with time delay are addressed. With the help of the stability theory of fractional-order differential equations and Laplace transforms, several new sufficient conditions, which ensure the stability of the system are derived. Taking the time delay as the bifurcation parameter, Hopf bifurcation is investigated and the critical value of the time delay for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation is determined. Finally, two representative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  20. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  1. Time-Frequency Analysis Using Warped-Based High-Order Phase Modeling

    Ioana Cornel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-order ambiguity function (HAF was introduced for the estimation of polynomial-phase signals (PPS embedded in noise. Since the HAF is a nonlinear operator, it suffers from noise-masking effects and from the appearance of undesired cross-terms when multicomponents PPS are analyzed. In order to improve the performances of the HAF, the multi-lag HAF concept was proposed. Based on this approach, several advanced methods (e.g., product high-order ambiguity function (PHAF have been recently proposed. Nevertheless, performances of these new methods are affected by the error propagation effect which drastically limits the order of the polynomial approximation. This phenomenon acts especially when a high-order polynomial modeling is needed: representation of the digital modulation signals or the acoustic transient signals. This effect is caused by the technique used for polynomial order reduction, common for existing approaches: signal multiplication with the complex conjugated exponentials formed with the estimated coefficients. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method to reduce the polynomial order, based on the successive unitary signal transformation, according to each polynomial order. We will prove that this method reduces considerably the effect of error propagation. Namely, with this order reduction method, the estimation error at a given order will depend only on the performances of the estimation method.

  2. First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user's guide

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Robert E. Keane; James K. Brown

    1997-01-01

    A First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was developed to predict the direct consequences of prescribed fire and wildfire. FOFEM computes duff and woody fuel consumption, smoke production, and fire-caused tree mortality for most forest and rangeland types in the United States. The model is available as a computer program for PC or Data General computer.

  3. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  4. A Hybrid PO - Higher-Order Hierarchical MoM Formulation using Curvilinear Geometry Modeling

    Jørgensen, E.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2003-01-01

    which implies a very modest memory requirement. Nevertheless, the hierarchical feature of the basis functions maintains the ability to treat small geometrical details efficiently. In addition, the scatterer is modelled with higher-order curved patches which allows accurate modelling of curved surfaces...

  5. A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model for integrated suppliers selection and optimal order allocation in the green supply chain

    Hamzeh Amin-Tahmasbi

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, with the advancement of technology in the production process of various products, the achievement of sustainable production and development has become one of the main concerns of factories and manufacturing organizations. In the same vein, many manufacturers try to select suppliers in their upstream supply chains that have the best performance in terms of sustainable development criteria. In this research, a new multi-criteria decision-making model for selecting suppliers and assigning orders in the green supply chain is presented with a fuzzy optimization approach. Due to uncertainty in supplier capacity as well as customer demand, the problem is formulated as a fuzzy multi-objective linear programming (FMOLP. The proposed model for the selection of suppliers of SAPCO Corporation is evaluated. Firstly, in order to select and rank suppliers in a green supply chain, a network structure of criteria has defined with five main criteria of cost, quality, delivery, technology and environmental benefits. Subsequently, using incomplete fuzzy linguistic relationships, pair-wise comparisons between the criteria and sub-criteria as well as the operation of the options will be assessed. The results of these comparisons rank the existing suppliers in terms of performance and determine the utility of them. The output of these calculations (utility index is used in the optimization model. Subsequently, in the order allocation process, the two functions of the target cost of purchase and purchase value are optimized simultaneously. Finally, the order quantity is determined for each supplier in each period.

  6. Using genetic algorithm to determine the optimal order quantities for multi-item multi-period under warehouse capacity constraints in kitchenware manufacturing

    Saraswati, D.; Sari, D. K.; Johan, V.

    2017-11-01

    The study was conducted on a manufacturer that produced various kinds of kitchenware with kitchen sink as the main product. There were four types of steel sheets selected as the raw materials of the kitchen sink. The problem was the manufacturer wanted to determine how much steel sheets to order from a single supplier to meet the production requirements in a way to minimize the total inventory cost. In this case, the economic order quantity (EOQ) model was developed using all-unit discount as the price of steel sheets and the warehouse capacity was limited. Genetic algorithm (GA) was used to find the minimum of the total inventory cost as a sum of purchasing cost, ordering cost, holding cost and penalty cost.

  7. Simultaneous determination of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in high purity rare earth oxides by second order derivative spectrophotometry

    Anbu, M.; Prasada Rao, T.; Iyer, C. S. P.; Damodaran, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    High purity individual rare earth oxides are increasingly used as major components in lasers (Y 2 O 3 ), phosphors (YVO 3 , Eu 2 O 3 ), magnetic bubble memory films (Gd 2 O 3 ) and refractive-index lenses and fibre optics (La 2 O 3 ). The determination of individual lanthanides in high purity rare earth oxides is a more important and difficult task. This paper reports the utilization of higher order derivative spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in high purity rare earth oxides. The developed procedure is simple, reliable and allows the determination of 0.001 to 0.2% of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in several rare earth. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Modelling price determination in South Africa

    E Moolman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been faced with high inflation rates since the early 1970s. Despite continued monetary discipline the inflation target has not yet been met, highlighting South Africa’s price-vulnerability as a small open emerging economy and raising questions about the efficiency of monetary policy. The objectives of this paper are: (i to analyse the influence of monetary policy on inflation in the small open emerging economy of South Africa, (ii to highlight the channels other than monetary policy through which inflation can be influenced (iii to analyse the influence of international prices and the exchange rate on inflation, (iv to determine the role of the labour market on inflation, especially through wage-push dynamics and (v to determine the role of demand-pull factors on inflation.

  9. Finite Time Control for Fractional Order Nonlinear Hydroturbine Governing System via Frequency Distributed Model

    Bin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the application of frequency distributed model for finite time control of a fractional order nonlinear hydroturbine governing system (HGS. Firstly, the mathematical model of HGS with external random disturbances is introduced. Secondly, a novel terminal sliding surface is proposed and its stability to origin is proved based on the frequency distributed model and Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, based on finite time stability and sliding mode control theory, a robust control law to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion in a finite time is designed for stabilization of the fractional order HGS. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Fluctuation effects in first-order phase transitions: Theory and model for martensitic transformations

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss central questions in weak, first-order structural transitions by means of a magnetic analog model. A theory including fluctuation effects is developed for the model, showing a dynamical response with softening, fading modes and a growing central peak. The model is also analyzed by a two......-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation, showing clear precursor phenomena near the first-order transition and spontaneous nucleation. The kinetics of the domain growth is studied and found to be exceedingly slow. The results are applicable for martensitic transformations and structural surface...

  11. Algebraic Specifications, Higher-order Types and Set-theoretic Models

    Kirchner, Hélène; Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    , and power-sets. This paper presents a simple framework for algebraic specifications with higher-order types and set-theoretic models. It may be regarded as the basis for a Horn-clause approximation to the Z framework, and has the advantage of being amenable to prototyping and automated reasoning. Standard......In most algebraic  specification frameworks, the type system is restricted to sorts, subsorts, and first-order function types. This is in marked contrast to the so-called model-oriented frameworks, which provide higer-order types, interpreted set-theoretically as Cartesian products, function spaces...... set-theoretic models are considered, and conditions are given for the existence of initial reduct's of such models. Algebraic specifications for various set-theoretic concepts are considered....

  12. Analysis of a decision model in the context of equilibrium pricing and order book pricing

    Wagner, D. C.; Schmitt, T. A.; Schäfer, R.; Guhr, T.; Wolf, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    An agent-based model for financial markets has to incorporate two aspects: decision making and price formation. We introduce a simple decision model and consider its implications in two different pricing schemes. First, we study its parameter dependence within a supply-demand balance setting. We find realistic behavior in a wide parameter range. Second, we embed our decision model in an order book setting. Here, we observe interesting features which are not present in the equilibrium pricing scheme. In particular, we find a nontrivial behavior of the order book volumes which reminds of a trend switching phenomenon. Thus, the decision making model alone does not realistically represent the trading and the stylized facts. The order book mechanism is crucial.

  13. Reduced-Order Computational Model for Low-Frequency Dynamics of Automobiles

    A. Arnoux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduced-order model is constructed to predict, for the low-frequency range, the dynamical responses in the stiff parts of an automobile constituted of stiff and flexible parts. The vehicle has then many elastic modes in this range due to the presence of many flexible parts and equipment. A nonusual reduced-order model is introduced. The family of the elastic modes is not used and is replaced by an adapted vector basis of the admissible space of global displacements. Such a construction requires a decomposition of the domain of the structure in subdomains in order to control the spatial wave length of the global displacements. The fast marching method is used to carry out the subdomain decomposition. A probabilistic model of uncertainties is introduced. The parameters controlling the level of uncertainties are estimated solving a statistical inverse problem. The methodology is validated with a large computational model of an automobile.

  14. Analysis of credit linked demand in an inventory model with varying ordering cost.

    Banu, Ateka; Mondal, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered an economic order quantity model for deteriorating items with two-level trade credit policy in which a delay in payment is offered by a supplier to a retailer and also an another delay in payment is offered by the retailer to his/her all customers. Here, it is proposed that the demand function is dependent on the length of the customer's credit period and also the duration of offering the credit period. In this article, it is considered that the retailer's ordering cost per order depends on the number of replenishment cycles. The objective of this model is to establish a deterministic EOQ model of deteriorating items for the retailer to decide the position of customers credit period and the number of replenishment cycles in finite time horizon such that the retailer gets the maximum profit. Also, the model is explained with the help of some numerical examples.

  15. Effective high-order solver with thermally perfect gas model for hypersonic heating prediction

    Jiang, Zhenhua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian; Qu, Feng; Ma, Libin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. • Line-implicit LUSGS enhances efficiency without extra memory consumption. • Develop unified framework for both second-order MUSCL and fifth-order WENO. • The designed gas model can be applied to much wider temperature range. - Abstract: Effective high-order solver based on the model of thermally perfect gas has been developed for hypersonic heat transfer computation. The technique of polynomial curve fit coupling to thermodynamics equation is suggested to establish the current model and particular attention has been paid to the design of proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. We present procedures that unify five-order WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) scheme in the existing second-order finite volume framework and a line-implicit method that improves the computational efficiency without increasing memory consumption. A variety of hypersonic viscous flows are performed to examine the capability of the resulted high order thermally perfect gas solver. Numerical results demonstrate its superior performance compared to low-order calorically perfect gas method and indicate its potential application to hypersonic heating predictions for real-life problem.

  16. A Mathematical Modelling Approach to One-Day Cricket Batting Orders

    Bukiet, Bruce; Ovens, Matthews

    2006-01-01

    While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution) of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players. Key Points Batting order does effect the expected runs distribution in one-day cricket. One-day cricket has fewer data points than baseball, thus extreme values have greater effect on estimated probabilities. Dismissals rare and probabilities very small by comparison to baseball. Probability distribution for lower order batsmen is potentially skewed due to increased risk taking. Full enumeration of all possible line-ups is impractical using a single average computer. PMID:24357943

  17. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests

    Draxler, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  18. Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon electrode material for highly selective determination of nitrite in physiological and environmental systems

    Zhou, Shenghai; Wu, Hongmin; Wu, Ying; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Jiang, Shang; Chen, Jian; Song, Wenbo, E-mail: wbsong@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon (HONC) was obtained from a mesoporous silica template through a nano-replication method using furfuryl alcohol as the carbon source. The structure and morphology of HONC were characterized and analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. HONC was then demonstrated as active electrode material for selective determination of nitrite in either physiological or environmental system. Well separated oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and nitrite were observed in physiological system, and simultaneous discrimination of catechol, hydroquinone, resorcinol and nitrite in environmental system was also accomplished. Distinctly improved performances for selective determination of nitrite (such as significantly fast and sensitive current response with especially high selectivity) coexisted with ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in the physiological system, as well as with catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol in the environmental system were achieved at HONC electrode material. The excellent discriminating ability and high selectivity for NO{sub 2}{sup −} determination were ascribed to the good electronic conductivity, unique hemi-ordered porous structure, large surface area and large number of edge plane defect sites contained on the surface of nanopore walls of HONC. Results in this work demonstrated that HONC is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for nitrite sensor fabrication. - Highlights: • Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon as an active electrode material • Good discriminating ability towards NO{sub 2}{sup −} from physiological or environmental system • Highly selective determination of nitrite with fast and sensitive current response.

  19. Second-order advantage with excitation-emission photoinduced fluorimetry for the determination of the antiepileptic carbamazepine in environmental waters.

    Lozano, Valeria A; Escandar, Graciela M

    2013-06-11

    A photochemically induced fluorescence system combined with second-order chemometric analysis for the determination of the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (CBZ) is presented. CBZ is a widely used drug for the treatment of epilepsy and is included in the group of emerging contaminant present in the aquatic environment. CBZ is not fluorescent in solution but can be converted into a fluorescent compound through a photochemical reaction in a strong acid medium. The determination is carried out by measuring excitation-emission photoinduced fluorescence matrices of the products formed upon ultraviolet light irradiation in a laboratory-constructed reactor constituted by two simple 4 W germicidal tubes. Working conditions related to both the reaction medium and the photoreactor geometry are optimized by an experimental design. The developed approach enabled the determination of CBZ at trace levels without the necessity of applying separation steps, and in the presence of uncalibrated interferences which also display photoinduced fluorescence and may be potentially present in the investigated samples. Different second-order algorithms were tested and successful resolution was achieved using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). The study is employed for the discussion of the scopes and yields of each of the applied second-order chemometric tools. The quality of the proposed method is probed through the determination of the studied emerging pollutant in both environmental and drinking water samples. After a pre-concentration step on a C18 membrane using 50.0 mL of real water samples, a prediction relative error of 2% and limits of detection and quantification of 0.2 and 0.6 ng mL(-1) were respectively obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized modeling of the fractional-order memcapacitor and its character analysis

    Guo, Zhang; Si, Gangquan; Diao, Lijie; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin

    2018-06-01

    Memcapacitor is a new type of memory device generalized from the memristor. This paper proposes a generalized fractional-order memcapacitor model by introducing the fractional calculus into the model. The generalized formulas are studied and the two fractional-order parameter α, β are introduced where α mostly affects the fractional calculus value of charge q within the generalized Ohm's law and β generalizes the state equation which simulates the physical mechanism of a memcapacitor into the fractional sense. This model will be reduced to the conventional memcapacitor as α = 1 , β = 0 and to the conventional memristor as α = 0 , β = 1 . Then the numerical analysis of the fractional-order memcapacitor is studied. And the characteristics and output behaviors of the fractional-order memcapacitor applied with sinusoidal charge are derived. The analysis results have shown that there are four basic v - q and v - i curve patterns when the fractional order α, β respectively equal to 0 or 1, moreover all v - q and v - i curves of the other fractional-order models are transition curves between the four basic patterns.

  1. Unconventional and intertwined orders of the low-dimensional Hubbard model

    Leprevost, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of superconductivity exhibited at high critical temperature by certain transition metal oxides remains a central issue in theoretical condensed matter physics. In this context, and since the historical proposal by P. W. Anderson, the repulsive Hubbard model in two dimensions became a paradigm in an attempt to capture the essential properties of non-conventional superconducting materials. However, the determination of the exact ground state encounters the exponential complexity of the quantum many-body problem. The main purpose of this thesis is to develop a variational scheme free of any hypothesis concerning magnetic, charge or superconducting orders likely to emerge from the Hamiltonian at low energy. The originality of the approach is found in the introduction of correlations by restoring, before variation, symmetries deliberately broken in a trial state given by a superposition of versatile wavefunctions of Hartree-Fock and Bogoliubov-de Gennes types. For small clusters of two and four sites, we show analytically that this symmetry entangled mean field method allows to find the exact ground state regardless of the strength of the on-site interaction. For larger hole-doped clusters and in the strongly correlated regime, we highlight an arrangement of magnetic moments in a spiral or in a spin density wave that is then accompanied by inhomogeneities in the form of regularly distributed stripes. Moreover, such orders are intertwined with long range d-wave pairing correlations, which, in the thermodynamic limit, sign superconductivity. These results are obtained through systematic simulations in a four-leg tube geometry that can be realized experimentally using cold atoms trapped in optical lattices. (author) [fr

  2. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical oincar?-Andronov- Hopf (AH) bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The qualitative analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR.

  3. A Reduced-Order Model of Transport Phenomena for Power Plant Simulation

    Paul Cizmas; Brian Richardson; Thomas Brenner; Raymond Fontenot

    2009-09-30

    A reduced-order model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed to simulate transient two- and three-dimensional isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a fluidized bed. Reduced-order models of void fraction, gas and solids temperatures, granular energy, and z-direction gas and solids velocity have been added to the previous version of the code. These algorithms are presented and their implementation is discussed. Verification studies are presented for each algorithm. A number of methods to accelerate the computations performed by the reduced-order model are presented. The errors associated with each acceleration method are computed and discussed. Using a combination of acceleration methods, a two-dimensional isothermal simulation using the reduced-order model is shown to be 114 times faster than using the full-order model. In the pursue of achieving the objectives of the project and completing the tasks planned for this program, several unplanned and unforeseen results, methods and studies have been generated. These additional accomplishments are also presented and they include: (1) a study of the effect of snapshot sampling time on the computation of the POD basis functions, (2) an investigation of different strategies for generating the autocorrelation matrix used to find the POD basis functions, (3) the development and implementation of a bubble detection and tracking algorithm based on mathematical morphology, (4) a method for augmenting the proper orthogonal decomposition to better capture flows with discontinuities, such as bubbles, and (5) a mixed reduced-order/full-order model, called point-mode proper orthogonal decomposition, designed to avoid unphysical due to approximation errors. The limitations of the proper orthogonal decomposition method in simulating transient flows with moving discontinuities, such as bubbling flows, are discussed and several methods are proposed to adapt the method for future use.

  4. Transport coefficient computation based on input/output reduced order models

    Hurst, Joshua L.

    The guiding purpose of this thesis is to address the optimal material design problem when the material description is a molecular dynamics model. The end goal is to obtain a simplified and fast model that captures the property of interest such that it can be used in controller design and optimization. The approach is to examine model reduction analysis and methods to capture a specific property of interest, in this case viscosity, or more generally complex modulus or complex viscosity. This property and other transport coefficients are defined by a input/output relationship and this motivates model reduction techniques that are tailored to preserve input/output behavior. In particular Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based methods are investigated. First simulation methods are identified that are amenable to systems theory analysis. For viscosity, these models are of the Gosling and Lees-Edwards type. They are high order nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that employ Periodic Boundary Conditions. Properties can be calculated from the state trajectories of these ODEs. In this research local linear approximations are rigorously derived and special attention is given to potentials that are evaluated with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). For the Gosling description LTI models are developed from state trajectories but are found to have limited success in capturing the system property, even though it is shown that full order LTI models can be well approximated by reduced order LTI models. For the Lees-Edwards SLLOD type model nonlinear ODEs will be approximated by a Linear Time Varying (LTV) model about some nominal trajectory and both balanced truncation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) will be used to assess the plausibility of reduced order models to this system description. An immediate application of the derived LTV models is Quasilinearization or Waveform Relaxation. Quasilinearization is a Newton's method applied to the ODE operator

  5. Modeling vehicle operating speed on urban roads in Montreal: a panel mixed ordered probit fractional split model.

    Eluru, Naveen; Chakour, Vincent; Chamberlain, Morgan; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle operating speed measured on roadways is a critical component for a host of analysis in the transportation field including transportation safety, traffic flow modeling, roadway geometric design, vehicle emissions modeling, and road user route decisions. The current research effort contributes to the literature on examining vehicle speed on urban roads methodologically and substantively. In terms of methodology, we formulate a new econometric model framework for examining speed profiles. The proposed model is an ordered response formulation of a fractional split model. The ordered nature of the speed variable allows us to propose an ordered variant of the fractional split model in the literature. The proposed formulation allows us to model the proportion of vehicles traveling in each speed interval for the entire segment of roadway. We extend the model to allow the influence of exogenous variables to vary across the population. Further, we develop a panel mixed version of the fractional split model to account for the influence of site-specific unobserved effects. The paper contributes substantively by estimating the proposed model using a unique dataset from Montreal consisting of weekly speed data (collected in hourly intervals) for about 50 local roads and 70 arterial roads. We estimate separate models for local roads and arterial roads. The model estimation exercise considers a whole host of variables including geometric design attributes, roadway attributes, traffic characteristics and environmental factors. The model results highlight the role of various street characteristics including number of lanes, presence of parking, presence of sidewalks, vertical grade, and bicycle route on vehicle speed proportions. The results also highlight the presence of site-specific unobserved effects influencing the speed distribution. The parameters from the modeling exercise are validated using a hold-out sample not considered for model estimation. The results indicate

  6. Accuracy Analysis of the Zero-Order Hold Model for Digital Pulsewidth Modulation

    Ma, Junpeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the zero-order hold (ZOH) model for the digital pulsewidth modulator (DPWM) in the s-domain. The s-domain model and the exact z-domain model for the control loop of the single-phase inverter with L-type filter is elaborated for quantifying the deviation...... of the ZOH model for DPWM. The influence of the different computational delay and duty-cycle update modes on this deviation is analyzed in detail. The compensation method for this deviation of the ZOH model is proposed for accurately predicting the stability region of the control system in the s...

  7. Power law-based local search in spider monkey optimisation for lower order system modelling

    Sharma, Ajay; Sharma, Harish; Bhargava, Annapurna; Sharma, Nirmala

    2017-01-01

    The nature-inspired algorithms (NIAs) have shown efficiency to solve many complex real-world optimisation problems. The efficiency of NIAs is measured by their ability to find adequate results within a reasonable amount of time, rather than an ability to guarantee the optimal solution. This paper presents a solution for lower order system modelling using spider monkey optimisation (SMO) algorithm to obtain a better approximation for lower order systems and reflects almost original higher order system's characteristics. Further, a local search strategy, namely, power law-based local search is incorporated with SMO. The proposed strategy is named as power law-based local search in SMO (PLSMO). The efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the proposed algorithm is tested over 20 well-known benchmark functions. Then, the PLSMO algorithm is applied to solve the lower order system modelling problem.

  8. A reciprocal effects model of the temporal ordering of basic psychological needs and motivation.

    Martinent, Guillaume; Guillet-Descas, Emma; Moiret, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Using self-determination theory as the framework, we examined the temporal ordering between satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs and motivation. We accomplished this goal by using a two-wave 7-month partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM) among a sample of 94 adolescent athletes (Mage = 15.96) in an intensive training setting. The PLS-PM results showed significant paths leading: (a) from T1 satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence to T2 identified regulation, (b) from T1 external regulation to T2 thwarting and satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence, and (c) from T1 amotivation to T2 satisfaction of basic psychological need for relatedness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between basic psychological need and motivation varied depending on the type of basic need and motivation assessed. Basic psychological need for competence predicted identified regulation over time whereas amotivation and external regulation predicted basic psychological need for relatedness or competence over time.

  9. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  10. A neural model for temporal order judgments and their active recalibration: a common mechanism for space and time?

    Mingbo eCai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When observers experience a constant delay between their motor actions and sensory feedback, their perception of the temporal order between actions and sensations adapt (Stetson et al., 2006a. We present here a novel neural model that can explain temporal order judgments (TOJs and their recalibration. Our model employs three ubiquitous features of neural systems: 1 information pooling, 2 opponent processing, and 3 synaptic scaling. Specifically, the model proposes that different populations of neurons encode different delays between motor-sensory events, the outputs of these populations feed into rivaling neural populations (encoding before and after, and the activity difference between these populations determines the perceptual judgment. As a consequence of synaptic scaling of input weights, motor acts which are consistently followed by delayed sensory feedback will cause the network to recalibrate its point of subjective simultaneity. The structure of our model raises the possibility that recalibration of TOJs is a temporal analogue to the motion aftereffect. In other words, identical neural mechanisms may be used to make perceptual determinations about both space and time. Our model captures behavioral recalibration results for different numbers of adapting trials and different adapting delays. In line with predictions of the model, we additionally demonstrate that temporal recalibration can last through time, in analogy to storage of the motion aftereffect.

  11. Approaches for Reduced Order Modeling of Electrically Actuated von Karman Microplates

    Saghir, Shahid

    2016-07-25

    This article presents and compares different approaches to develop reduced order models for the nonlinear von Karman rectangular microplates actuated by nonlinear electrostatic forces. The reduced-order models aim to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of the plate under small and large actuation forces. A fully clamped microplate is considered. Different types of basis functions are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method to discretize the governing equations. First we investigate the convergence with the number of modes retained in the model. Then for validation purpose, a comparison of the static results is made with the results calculated by a nonlinear finite element model. The linear eigenvalue problem for the plate under the electrostatic force is solved for a wide range of voltages up to pull-in. Results among the various reduced-order modes are compared and are also validated by comparing to results of the finite-element model. Further, the reduced order models are employed to capture the forced dynamic response of the microplate under small and large vibration amplitudes. Comparison of the different approaches are made for this case. Keywords: electrically actuated microplates, static analysis, dynamics of microplates, diaphragm vibration, large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear dynamics

  12. Five-Year-Olds’ Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback “Wrong,” they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children’s failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy. PMID:28293206

  13. Five-Year-Olds' Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study.

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback "Wrong," they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children's failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy.

  14. Statistical identification with hidden Markov models of large order splitting strategies in an equity market

    Vaglica, Gabriella; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2010-07-01

    Large trades in a financial market are usually split into smaller parts and traded incrementally over extended periods of time. We address these large trades as hidden orders. In order to identify and characterize hidden orders, we fit hidden Markov models to the time series of the sign of the tick-by-tick inventory variation of market members of the Spanish Stock Exchange. Our methodology probabilistically detects trading sequences, which are characterized by a significant majority of buy or sell transactions. We interpret these patches of sequential buying or selling transactions as proxies of the traded hidden orders. We find that the time, volume and number of transaction size distributions of these patches are fat tailed. Long patches are characterized by a large fraction of market orders and a low participation rate, while short patches have a large fraction of limit orders and a high participation rate. We observe the existence of a buy-sell asymmetry in the number, average length, average fraction of market orders and average participation rate of the detected patches. The detected asymmetry is clearly dependent on the local market trend. We also compare the hidden Markov model patches with those obtained with the segmentation method used in Vaglica et al (2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036110), and we conclude that the former ones can be interpreted as a partition of the latter ones.

  15. Limit order book and its modeling in terms of Gibbs Grand-Canonical Ensemble

    Bicci, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    In the domain of so called Econophysics some attempts have been already made for applying the theory of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics to economics and financial markets. In this paper a similar approach is made from a different perspective, trying to model the limit order book and price formation process of a given stock by the Grand-Canonical Gibbs Ensemble for the bid and ask orders. The application of the Bose-Einstein statistics to this ensemble allows then to derive the distribution of the sell and buy orders as a function of price. As a consequence we can define in a meaningful way expressions for the temperatures of the ensembles of bid orders and of ask orders, which are a function of minimum bid, maximum ask and closure prices of the stock as well as of the exchanged volume of shares. It is demonstrated that the difference between the ask and bid orders temperatures can be related to the VAO (Volume Accumulation Oscillator), an indicator empirically defined in Technical Analysis of stock markets. Furthermore the derived distributions for aggregate bid and ask orders can be subject to well defined validations against real data, giving a falsifiable character to the model.

  16. Analytical and Numerical solutions of a nonlinear alcoholism model via variable-order fractional differential equations

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze an alcoholism model which involves the impact of Twitter via Liouville-Caputo and Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo fractional derivatives with constant- and variable-order. Two fractional mathematical models are considered, with and without delay. Special solutions using an iterative scheme via Laplace and Sumudu transform were obtained. We studied the uniqueness and existence of the solutions employing the fixed point postulate. The generalized model with variable-order was solved numerically via the Adams method and the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton scheme. Stability and convergence of the numerical solutions were presented in details. Numerical examples of the approximate solutions are provided to show that the numerical methods are computationally efficient. Therefore, by including both the fractional derivatives and finite time delays in the alcoholism model studied, we believe that we have established a more complete and more realistic indicator of alcoholism model and affect the spread of the drinking.

  17. Data-assisted reduced-order modeling of extreme events in complex dynamical systems.

    Zhong Yi Wan

    Full Text Available The prediction of extreme events, from avalanches and droughts to tsunamis and epidemics, depends on the formulation and analysis of relevant, complex dynamical systems. Such dynamical systems are characterized by high intrinsic dimensionality with extreme events having the form of rare transitions that are several standard deviations away from the mean. Such systems are not amenable to classical order-reduction methods through projection of the governing equations due to the large intrinsic dimensionality of the underlying attractor as well as the complexity of the transient events. Alternatively, data-driven techniques aim to quantify the dynamics of specific, critical modes by utilizing data-streams and by expanding the dimensionality of the reduced-order model using delayed coordinates. In turn, these methods have major limitations in regions of the phase space with sparse data, which is the case for extreme events. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid framework that complements an imperfect reduced order model, with data-streams that are integrated though a recurrent neural network (RNN architecture. The reduced order model has the form of projected equations into a low-dimensional subspace that still contains important dynamical information about the system and it is expanded by a long short-term memory (LSTM regularization. The LSTM-RNN is trained by analyzing the mismatch between the imperfect model and the data-streams, projected to the reduced-order space. The data-driven model assists the imperfect model in regions where data is available, while for locations where data is sparse the imperfect model still provides a baseline for the prediction of the system state. We assess the developed framework on two challenging prototype systems exhibiting extreme events. We show that the blended approach has improved performance compared with methods that use either data streams or the imperfect model alone. Notably the improvement is more

  18. Data-assisted reduced-order modeling of extreme events in complex dynamical systems.

    Wan, Zhong Yi; Vlachas, Pantelis; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Sapsis, Themistoklis

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of extreme events, from avalanches and droughts to tsunamis and epidemics, depends on the formulation and analysis of relevant, complex dynamical systems. Such dynamical systems are characterized by high intrinsic dimensionality with extreme events having the form of rare transitions that are several standard deviations away from the mean. Such systems are not amenable to classical order-reduction methods through projection of the governing equations due to the large intrinsic dimensionality of the underlying attractor as well as the complexity of the transient events. Alternatively, data-driven techniques aim to quantify the dynamics of specific, critical modes by utilizing data-streams and by expanding the dimensionality of the reduced-order model using delayed coordinates. In turn, these methods have major limitations in regions of the phase space with sparse data, which is the case for extreme events. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid framework that complements an imperfect reduced order model, with data-streams that are integrated though a recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture. The reduced order model has the form of projected equations into a low-dimensional subspace that still contains important dynamical information about the system and it is expanded by a long short-term memory (LSTM) regularization. The LSTM-RNN is trained by analyzing the mismatch between the imperfect model and the data-streams, projected to the reduced-order space. The data-driven model assists the imperfect model in regions where data is available, while for locations where data is sparse the imperfect model still provides a baseline for the prediction of the system state. We assess the developed framework on two challenging prototype systems exhibiting extreme events. We show that the blended approach has improved performance compared with methods that use either data streams or the imperfect model alone. Notably the improvement is more significant in

  19. Fractional order creep model for dam concrete considering degree of hydration

    Huang, Yaoying; Xiao, Lei; Bao, Tengfei; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Concrete is a material that is an intermediate between an ideal solid and an ideal fluid. The creep of concrete is related not only to the loading age and duration, but also to its temperature and temperature history. Fractional order calculus is a powerful tool for solving physical mechanics modeling problems. Using a software element based on the generalized Kelvin model, a fractional order creep model of concrete considering the loading age and duration is established. Then, the hydration rate of cement is considered in terms of the degree of hydration, and the fractional order creep model of concrete considering the degree of hydration is established. Moreover, uniaxial tensile creep tests of dam concrete under different curing temperatures were conducted, and the results were combined with the creep test data and complex optimization method to optimize the parameters of a new creep model. The results show that the fractional tensile creep model based on hydration degree can better describe the tensile creep properties of concrete, and this model involves fewer parameters than the 8-parameter model.

  20. Fluid adsorption in ordered mesoporous solids determined by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Findenegg, Gerhard H; Jähnert, Susanne; Müter, Dirk; Prass, Johannes; Paris, Oskar

    2010-07-14

    The adsorption of two organic fluids (n-pentane and perfluoropentane) in a periodic mesoporous silica material (SBA-15) is investigated by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) using synchrotron radiation. Structural changes are monitored as the ordered and disordered pores in the silica matrix are gradually filled with the fluids. The experiments yield integrated peak intensities from up to ten Bragg reflections from the 2D hexagonal pore lattice, and additionally diffuse scattering contributions arising from disordered (mostly intrawall) porosity. The analysis of the scattering data is based on a separation of these two contributions. Bragg scattering is described by adopting a form factor model for ordered pores of cylindrical symmetry which accounts for the filling of the microporous corona, the formation of a fluid film at the pore walls, and condensation of the fluid in the core. The filling fraction of the disordered intrawall pores is extracted from the diffuse scattering intensity and its dependence on the fluid pressure is analyzed on the basis of a three-phase model. The data analysis introduced here provides an important generalisation of a formalism presented recently (J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 13, 15201), which was applicable to contrast-matching fluids only. In this way, the adsorption behaviour of fluids into ordered and disordered pores in periodic mesoporous materials can be analyzed quantitatively irrespective of the fluid density.

  1. BANKING MODELS TO DETERMINE THE CREDITWORTHINESS

    Viorica IOAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic situation, the issue of the bank risk management is becoming more present, and the notion of "risk" gets increasingly complicated and controversial meanings.Credit analysis implies, the bank, based on information provided by the accounting documents provided by the client and relevant information from different sources to assess whether the client has the creditworthiness needed for credit, if he has the capacity to pay their debts and to assume them by signing the credit.Thus, the bank aims to limit the maximum exposure to credit risk. Given the complexity of risks in banking activity, customer creditworthiness is an important area of research and application. We considered extremely important in analyzing the creditworthiness of customers both lending decision and determining banking and financial performance, focusing on the relationship risk-banking performance. This relationship is relavant for a trader whose specific activity involves a degree of risk in proportion to the potential gain from the operation undertaken.

  2. Higher-order anisotropies in the blast-wave model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Cimerman, Jakub [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Comenius University, FMPI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomasik, Boris [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Csanad, Mate; Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-08-15

    We formulate a generalisation of the blast-wave model which is suitable for the description of higher-order azimuthal anisotropies of the hadron production. The model includes anisotropy in the density profile as well as an anisotropy in the transverse expansion velocity field. We then study how these two kinds of anisotropies influence the single-particle distributions and the correlation radii of two-particle correlation functions. Particularly we focus on the third-order anisotropy and consideration is given averaging over different orientations of the event plane. (orig.)

  3. A partitioned model order reduction approach to rationalise computational expenses in nonlinear fracture mechanics

    Kerfriden, P.; Goury, O.; Rabczuk, T.; Bordas, S.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose in this paper a reduced order modelling technique based on domain partitioning for parametric problems of fracture. We show that coupling domain decomposition and projection-based model order reduction permits to focus the numerical effort where it is most needed: around the zones where damage propagates. No a priori knowledge of the damage pattern is required, the extraction of the corresponding spatial regions being based solely on algebra. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated numerically with an example relevant to engineering fracture. PMID:23750055

  4. Selfenergy effect on the magnetic ordering transition in the mono- and bilayer honeycomb Hubbard model

    Honerkamp, Carsten [Institute for Theoretical Solid State Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We investigate the impact of electron self-energy corrections on potential antiferromagnetic ordering instabilities in mono- and bilayer graphene, modeled by a Hubbard-type lattice model with onsite interactions among the electrons, using a self-consistent random phase approximation (RPA). In qualitative agreement with earlier studies we find that the electronic interactions cause non-Fermi liquid behavior at low energies. In self-consistent RPA, the transition scales for antiferromagnetic ordering are renormalized significantly by these self-energy effects, both for interaction-driven and temperature-driven cases. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. SECOND ORDER LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION ON ARCH(1 MODEL WITH BOX-COX TRANSFORMED DEPENDENT VARIABLE

    Herni Utami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox transformation is often used to reduce heterogeneity and to achieve a symmetric distribution of response variable. In this paper, we estimate the parameters of Box-Cox transformed ARCH(1 model using second-order leastsquare method and then we study the consistency and asymptotic normality for second-order least square (SLS estimators. The SLS estimation was introduced byWang (2003, 2004 to estimate the parameters of nonlinear regression models with independent and identically distributed errors

  6. Effects of stimulus order on discrimination processes in comparative and equality judgements: data and models.

    Dyjas, Oliver; Ulrich, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In typical discrimination experiments, participants are presented with a constant standard and a variable comparison stimulus and their task is to judge which of these two stimuli is larger (comparative judgement). In these experiments, discrimination sensitivity depends on the temporal order of these stimuli (Type B effect) and is usually higher when the standard precedes rather than follows the comparison. Here, we outline how two models of stimulus discrimination can account for the Type B effect, namely the weighted difference model (or basic Sensation Weighting model) and the Internal Reference Model. For both models, the predicted psychometric functions for comparative judgements as well as for equality judgements, in which participants indicate whether they perceived the two stimuli to be equal or not equal, are derived and it is shown that the models also predict a Type B effect for equality judgements. In the empirical part, the models' predictions are evaluated. To this end, participants performed a duration discrimination task with comparative judgements and with equality judgements. In line with the models' predictions, a Type B effect was observed for both judgement types. In addition, a time-order error, as indicated by shifts of the psychometric functions, and differences in response times were observed only for the equality judgement. Since both models entail distinct additional predictions, it seems worthwhile for future research to unite the two models into one conceptual framework.

  7. A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes

    Haussaire, J.-M.; Bocquet, M.

    2015-08-01

    Bocquet and Sakov (2013) have introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of the chaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with the transport of a tracer species advected by this zonal wind field. This model, named L95-T, can serve as a playground for testing data assimilation schemes with an online model. Here, the tracer part of the model is extended to a reduced photochemistry module. This coupled chemistry meteorology model (CCMM), the L95-GRS model, mimics continental and transcontinental transport and the photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Its numerical implementation is described. The model is shown to reproduce the major physical and chemical processes being considered. L95-T and L95-GRS are specifically designed and useful for testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) which combines the best of ensemble and variational methods. These models provide useful insights prior to the implementation of data assimilation methods on larger models. We illustrate their use with data assimilation schemes on preliminary, yet instructive numerical experiments. In particular, online and offline data assimilation strategies can be conveniently tested and discussed with this low-order CCMM. The impact of observed chemical species concentrations on the wind field can be quantitatively estimated. The impacts of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical species non-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the data assimilation strategies are illustrated.

  8. Development of Boundary Condition Independent Reduced Order Thermal Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Raghupathy, Arun; Ghia, Karman; Ghia, Urmila

    2008-11-01

    Compact Thermal Models (CTM) to represent IC packages has been traditionally developed using the DELPHI-based (DEvelopment of Libraries of PHysical models for an Integrated design) methodology. The drawbacks of this method are presented, and an alternative method is proposed. A reduced-order model that provides the complete thermal information accurately with less computational resources can be effectively used in system level simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), a statistical method, can be used to reduce the order of the degree of freedom or variables of the computations for such a problem. POD along with the Galerkin projection allows us to create reduced-order models that reproduce the characteristics of the system with a considerable reduction in computational resources while maintaining a high level of accuracy. The goal of this work is to show that this method can be applied to obtain a boundary condition independent reduced-order thermal model for complex components. The methodology is applied to the 1D transient heat equation.

  9. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a bounded interval of real numbers. The question is how reliable are the EOQ models when items stocked deteriorate one time. This paper introduces Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ model in which it assumes that units lost due to deterioration is included in the objective function to properly model the problem in finite planning horizon. The numerical analysis shows that an appropriate fuzzy policy can benefit the retailer and that is significant, especially for deteriorating items is shown to be superior to that of crisp decision making. A computational algorithm using LINGO 13.0 and MATLAB (R2009a software are developed to find the optimal solution. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied and managerial insights are drawn which shows the influence of key model parameters.

  10. U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, Price Reasonableness Determinations for Federal Supply Schedule Orders for Supplies Need Improvement

    2016-03-29

    Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, Price Reasonableness Determinations for Federal Supply Schedule Orders for Supplies Need...0207.000) │ i Results in Brief U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, Price Reasonableness Determinations for Federal Supply Schedule...officers made determinations of fair and reasonable pricing for General Services Administration Federal supply schedule orders awarded for purchases

  11. Model Penentuan Ukuran Batch Produksi dan Bufferstock untuk Sistem Produksi Mengalami Penurunan Kinerja dengan Mempertimbangkan Perubahan Order Awal

    Ivan D Wangsa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model that involves information the preliminary order. At first, the manufacturer provides the preliminary order for the coming week (five days varies from day to day and is received on Friday. Change in the preliminary order for a given day is announced one day before and this is viewed as it occurs randomly. Moreover, production systems experience performance degradation (deterioration. Status of the production process shifts from in control to out of control that is identified by the last inspection. Inspection is done by sampling. At the time of the status of out of control the probability of producing non-conforming system component that is charged to the restoration cost and warranty costs.This paper is looking for a solution for determining the production batch size and the buffer stock to reduce total cost. The decision variables are production run period (T and buffer factor (m. Having obtained the variables T and m, then the variable production batch size (QT and the buffer stock (BT can be determined sequentially. Heuristic methods used are Silver-Meal (SM and Least Unit Cost (LUC to obtain a solution for each model. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the models. From the numerical results, it appears that LUC method is better than SM method.

  12. Experimental Investigation in Order to Determine Catalytic Package Performances in Case of Tritium Transfer from Water to Gas

    Bornea, Anisia; Peculea, M.; Zamfirache, M.; Varlam, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The processes for hydrogen isotope's separation are very important for nuclear technology. One of the most important processes for tritium separation, is the catalyst isotope exchange water-hydrogen.Our catalytic package consists of Romanian patented catalysts with platinum on charcoal and polytetrafluoretylene (Pt/C/PTFE) and the ordered Romanian patented package B7 type. The catalytic package was tested in an isotope exchange facility for water detritiation at the Experimental Pilot Plant from ICIT Rm.Valcea.In a column of isotope exchange tritium is transferred from liquid phase (tritiated heavy water) in gaseous phase (hydrogen). In the experimental set-up, which was used, the column of catalytic isotope exchange is filled with successive layers of catalyst and ordered package. The catalyst consists of 95.5 wt.% of PTFE, 4.1 wt. % of carbon and 0.40 wt. % of platinum and was of Raschig rings 10 x 10 x 2 mm. The ordered package was B7 type consists of wire mesh phosphor bronze 4 x 1 wire and the mesh dimension is 0.18 x 0.48 mm.We analyzed the transfer phenomena of tritium from liquid to gaseous phase, in this system.The mass transfer coefficient which characterized the isotopic exchange on the package, were determined as function of experimental parameters

  13. Odd-order o.d.f. expansion coefficient determination. Case of diffraction strain measurements on cubic materials under macrostress loading

    Brakman, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Diffraction intensity pole figures are often used for the determination of orientation distribution function (o.d.f.) expansion coefficients. The intensity can be seen as a convolution of the o.d.f. times unity with respect to one rotation angle (about the direction of measurement). The 'normal' polycrystalline diffraction experiment only yields the even-order o.d.f. coefficients. The experiment itself imposes a centre of inversion even upon non-centrosymmetric crystals. Crystals may exhibit a centre of inversion themselves. The hkl and anti hanti kanti l contributions to the intensity are indistinguishable then owing to the centre of inversion. As a consequence, the odd-order coefficients cannot be determined. The mean value of a general physical property determined by means of diffraction can be taken as a convolution of the o.d.f. times the single-crystal value of the physical property with respect to the rotation angle mentioned before. The dependency of the physical property on the rotation angle leads to more information being extracted from the o.d.f. in the property's mean-value pole figure. Then, all o.d.f. coefficients may be present in the mean value, i.e. the measurement. Consequently, diffraction-line-shift strain pole figures exhibit even- and odd-order o.d.f. coefficients, present or induced centres of inversion notwithstanding. If the dependency of the single-crystal strain on the rotation angle is known no model of elastic polycrystal coupling is needed. However, this does not occur in practice. The present state of the art does not allow the Kroener model to be used for textured materials. In this paper the Reuss model is used. If the (applied) macrostresses are known, the o.d.f. coefficients can be obtained from the formulae presented. (orig.)

  14. A Study of Enhanced, Higher Order Boussinesq-Type Equations and Their Numerical Modelling

    Banijamali, Babak

    model is designated for the solution of higher-order Boussinesq-type equations, formulated in terms of the horizontal velocity at an arbitrary depth vector. Various discretisation techniques and grid definitions have been considered in this endeavour, undertaking a detailed analysis of the selected......This project has encompassed efforts in two separate veins: on the one hand, the acquiring of highly accurate model equations of the Boussinesq-type, and on the other hand, the theoretical and practical work in implementing such equations in the form of conventional numerical models, with obvious...... potential for applications to the realm of numerical modelling in coastal engineering. The derivation and analysis of several forms of higher-order in dispersion and non-linearity Boussinesq-type equations have been undertaken, obtaining and investigating the properties of a new and generalised class...

  15. Post processing of optically recognized text via second order hidden Markov model

    Poudel, Srijana

    In this thesis, we describe a postprocessing system on Optical Character Recognition(OCR) generated text. Second Order Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used to detect and correct the OCR related errors. The reason for choosing the 2nd order HMM is to keep track of the bigrams so that the model can represent the system more accurately. Based on experiments with training data of 159,733 characters and testing of 5,688 characters, the model was able to correct 43.38 % of the errors with a precision of 75.34 %. However, the precision value indicates that the model introduced some new errors, decreasing the correction percentage to 26.4%.

  16. A Comparison of Reduced Order Modeling Techniques Used in Dynamic Substructuring [PowerPoint

    Roettgen, Dan [Wisc; Seeger, Benjamin [Stuttgart; Tai, Wei Che [Washington; Baek, Seunghun [Michigan; Dossogne, Tilan [Liege; Allen, Matthew S [Wisc; Kuether, Robert J.; Brake, Matthew Robert; Mayes, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the response. Recently, various methods have been proposed that use a transmission simulator to overcome sensitivity to measurement errors and to exercise the interface between the substructures; including the Craig-Bampton, Dual Craig-Bampton, and Craig-Mayes methods. This work compares the advantages and disadvantages of these reduced order modeling strategies for two dynamic substructuring problems. The methods are first used on an analytical beam model to validate the methodologies. Then they are used to obtain an experimental model for structure consisting of a cylinder with several components inside connected to the outside case by foam with uncertain properties. This represents an exceedingly difficult structure to model and so experimental substructuring could be an attractive way to obtain a model of the system.

  17. Averaging principle for second-order approximation of heterogeneous models with homogeneous models.

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-11-27

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced by its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of differentiability and symmetry is O(ε(2)) equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where ε is the level of heterogeneity. We then use this averaging principle to obtain new results in queuing theory, game theory (auctions), and social networks (marketing).

  18. Averaging principle for second-order approximation of heterogeneous models with homogeneous models

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced by its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of differentiability and symmetry is O(ɛ2) equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where ɛ is the level of heterogeneity. We then use this averaging principle to obtain new results in queuing theory, game theory (auctions), and social networks (marketing). PMID:23150569

  19. Order Level Inventory Models for Deteriorating Seasonable/Fashionable Products with Time Dependent Demand and Shortages

    Skouri, K.; Konstantaras, I.

    2009-01-01

    An order level inventory model for seasonable/fashionable products subject to a period of increasing demand followed by a period of level demand and then by a period of decreasing demand rate (three branches ramp type demand rate) is considered. The unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged with a time dependent backlogging rate. In addition, the product deteriorates with a time dependent, namely, Weibull, deterioration rate. The model is studied under the following different replenishment p...

  20. A Reduced-Order Model for Evaluating the Dynamic Response of Multilayer Plates to Impulsive Loads

    2016-04-12

    A REDUCED-ORDER MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF MULTILAYER PLATES TO IMPULSIVE LOADS Weiran Jiang, Alyssa Bennett, Nickolas...innovative multilayer materials or structures to optimize the dynamic performance as a mechanism to absorb and spread energy from an impulsive load...models. • Optimizing the structural weight and levels of protection of the multilayer plates with a good combination of materials. Technical Approach 2016

  1. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only....... The Boussinesq-type model is then used to simulate numerous tsunami-type events generated from submerged landslides, in both one and two horizontal dimensions. The results again compare well against previous experiments and/or numerical simulations. The new extension compliments recently developed run...

  2. Determination of the absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O3 → NaO + O2

    Husain, David; Marshall, Paul; Plane, J.M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O 3 -> NaO + O 2 (k 1 ) has been determined by time-resolved atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at lambda = 589 nm [Na(3 2 Psub(j)) 2 Ssub(1/2))] following pulsed irradiation, coupled with monitoring of O 3 by light absorption in the ultra-violet; this yields k 1 (500 K) = 4(+4,-2) x 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , resolving large differences for various estimates of this important quantity used in modelling the sodium layer in the mesosphere. (author)

  3. Efficient response spectrum analysis of a reactor using Model Order Reduction

    Oh, Jin Ho; Choi, Jin Bok; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    A response spectrum analysis (RSA) has been widely used to evaluate the structural integrity of various structural components in the nuclear industry. However, solving the large and complex structural systems numerically using the RSA requires a considerable amount of computational resources and time. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes the RSA based on the model order reduction (MOR) technique achieved by applying a projection from a higher order to a lower order space using Krylov subspaces generated by the Arnoldi algorithm. The dynamic characteristics of the final reduced system are almost identical with those of the full system by matching the moments of the reduced system with those of the full system up to the required nth order. It is remarkably efficient in terms of computation time and does not require a global system. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed method saves computational costs effectively, and provides a reduced system framework that predicts the accurate responses of a global system

  4. Order α'(two-loop) equivalence of the string equations of motion and the σ-model Weyl invariance conditions

    Metsaev, R.R.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    We prove the on-shell equivalence of the order α' terms in the string effective equations (for the graviton, dilaton and the antisymmetric tensor) to the vanishing of the corresponding (two-loop) terms in the Weyl anomaly coefficients for the general bosonic σ-model. We first determine the α' term in the string effective action starting with the known expression for the 3- and 4-point string amplitudes. Then we compute the two-loop β-function in the general σ-model with the antisymmetric tensor coupling. Special emphasis is made on the renormalization scheme dependence of the β-function. Our result disagrees with the previously known one and cannot be manifestly expressed in terms of the generalized curvature for the connection with torsion. We also prove (to the order α' 2 ) that the parallelizable spaces are solutions of the string equations of motion and establish the complete 3-loop expression for the 'central charge' coefficient. (orig.)

  5. Unidimensional factor models imply weaker partial correlations than zero-order correlations.

    van Bork, Riet; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Waldorp, Lourens J

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we present a new implication of the unidimensional factor model. We prove that the partial correlation between two observed variables that load on one factor given any subset of other observed variables that load on this factor lies between zero and the zero-order correlation between these two observed variables. We implement this result in an empirical bootstrap test that rejects the unidimensional factor model when partial correlations are identified that are either stronger than the zero-order correlation or have a different sign than the zero-order correlation. We demonstrate the use of the test in an empirical data example with data consisting of fourteen items that measure extraversion.

  6. Spin model for nontrivial types of magnetic order in inverse-perovskite antiferromagnets

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Kobayashi, Masaya; Okabe, Reoya; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    Nontrivial magnetic orders in the inverse-perovskite manganese nitrides are theoretically studied by constructing a classical spin model describing the magnetic anisotropy and frustrated exchange interactions inherent in specific crystal and electronic structures of these materials. With a replica-exchange Monte Carlo technique, a theoretical analysis of this model reproduces the experimentally observed triangular Γ5 g and Γ4 g spin-ordered patterns and the systematic evolution of magnetic orders. Our Rapid Communication solves a 40-year-old problem of nontrivial magnetism for the inverse-perovskite manganese nitrides and provides a firm basis for clarifying the magnetism-driven negative thermal expansion phenomenon discovered in this class of materials.

  7. Low-order modelling of a drop on a highly-hydrophobic substrate: statics and dynamics

    Wray, Alexander W.; Matar, Omar K.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-11-01

    We analyse the behaviour of droplets resting on highly-hydrophobic substrates. This problem is of practical interest due to its appearance in many physical contexts involving the spreading, wetting, and dewetting of fluids on solid substrates. In mathematical terms, it exhibits an interesting challenge as the interface is multi-valued as a function of the natural Cartesian co-ordinates, presenting a stumbling block to typical low-order modelling techniques. Nonetheless, we show that in the static case, the interfacial shape is governed by the Young-Laplace equation, which may be solved explicitly in terms of elliptic functions. We present simple low-order expressions that faithfully reproduce the shapes. We then consider the dynamic case, showing that the predictions of our low-order model compare favourably with those obtained from direct numerical simulations. We also examine the characteristic flow regimes of interest. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  8. Using Count Data and Ordered Models in National Forest Recreation Demand Analysis

    Simões, Paula; Barata, Eduardo; Cruz, Luis

    2013-11-01

    This research addresses the need to improve our knowledge on the demand for national forests for recreation and offers an in-depth data analysis supported by the complementary use of count data and ordered models. From a policy-making perspective, while count data models enable the estimation of monetary welfare measures, ordered models allow for the wider use of the database and provide a more flexible analysis of data. The main purpose of this article is to analyse the individual forest recreation demand and to derive a measure of its current use value. To allow a more complete analysis of the forest recreation demand structure the econometric approach supplements the use of count data models with ordered category models using data obtained by means of an on-site survey in the Bussaco National Forest (Portugal). Overall, both models reveal that travel cost and substitute prices are important explanatory variables, visits are a normal good and demographic variables seem to have no influence on demand. In particular, estimated price and income elasticities of demand are quite low. Accordingly, it is possible to argue that travel cost (price) in isolation may be expected to have a low impact on visitation levels.

  9. Vascular stents: Coupling full 3-D with reduced-order structural models

    Avdeev, I; Shams, M

    2010-01-01

    Self-expanding nitinol stents are used to treat peripheral arterial disease. The peripheral arteries are subjected to a combination of mechanical forces such as compression, torsion, bending, and contraction. Most commercially available peripheral self-expanding stents are composed of a series of sub-millimeter V-shaped struts, which are laser-cut from a nitinol tube and surface-treated for better fatigue performance. The numerical stent models must accurately predict location and distribution of local stresses and strains caused by large arterial deformations. Full 3-D finite element non-linear analysis of an entire stent is computationally expensive to the point of being prohibitive, especially for longer stents. Reduced-order models based on beam or shell elements are fairly accurate in capturing global deformations, but are not very helpful in predicting stent failure. We propose a mixed approach that combines the full 3-D model and reduced-order models. Several global-local, full 3-D/reduced-order finite element models of a peripheral self-expanding stent were validated and compared with experimental data. The kinematic constraint method used to couple various elements together was found to be very efficient and easily applicable to commercial FEA codes. The proposed mixed models can be used to accurately predict stent failure based on realistic (patient-specific), non-linear kinematic behavior of peripheral arteries.

  10. Trimming a hazard logic tree with a new model-order-reduction technique

    Porter, Keith; Field, Edward; Milner, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    The size of the logic tree within the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3, Time-Dependent (UCERF3-TD) model can challenge risk analyses of large portfolios. An insurer or catastrophe risk modeler concerned with losses to a California portfolio might have to evaluate a portfolio 57,600 times to estimate risk in light of the hazard possibility space. Which branches of the logic tree matter most, and which can one ignore? We employed two model-order-reduction techniques to simplify the model. We sought a subset of parameters that must vary, and the specific fixed values for the remaining parameters, to produce approximately the same loss distribution as the original model. The techniques are (1) a tornado-diagram approach we employed previously for UCERF2, and (2) an apparently novel probabilistic sensitivity approach that seems better suited to functions of nominal random variables. The new approach produces a reduced-order model with only 60 of the original 57,600 leaves. One can use the results to reduce computational effort in loss analyses by orders of magnitude.

  11. Magnetic ordering of four particle exchange model in BCC 3He

    Ishikawa, Koji; Okada, Isamu

    1978-01-01

    The low temperature magnetic ordering of BCC 3 He within the mean field approximation was studied. A model including four particle exchange interactions was considered. Two types of cyclic quadrupole exchange process, planar and folded, were taken into account. Assuming four sublattices, it was considered to minimize the spin energy with respect to the classical spin vector and to find out four ordered states at the absolute zero point. They are antiferromagnetic (AF), weak ferromagnetic (WF) and two kinds of simple cubic antiferromagnetic states (SCAF). The condition for the existence of each ordered state is given, and the free energies of the ordered states are calculated in the mean field approximation. The transition between AF or SCAF and the paramagnetic states is of the first order. The phase diagram is drawn in the parameter space. The phase diagram was obtained numerically at Hetherington and Willard's value and at its neighbouring values. The difference between the present result and HW's is that of magnetic field direction in the perpendicular simple cubic antiferromagnetic states. The second order transition disappears, and the WF state changes gradually into AF state. With respect to the first order transition, the transition temperature increases with magnetic field. In this case, a critical magnetic field exists. (Kato, T

  12. High order Fuchsian equations for the square lattice Ising model: χ-tilde(5)

    Bostan, A; Boukraa, S; Guttmann, A J; Jensen, I; Hassani, S; Zenine, N; Maillard, J-M

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Fuchsian linear differential equation obtained (modulo a prime) for χ-tilde (5) , the five-particle contribution to the susceptibility of the square lattice Ising model. We show that one can understand the factorization of the corresponding linear differential operator from calculations using just a single prime. A particular linear combination of χ-tilde (1) and χ-tilde (3) can be removed from χ-tilde (5) and the resulting series is annihilated by a high order globally nilpotent linear ODE. The corresponding (minimal order) linear differential operator, of order 29, splits into factors of small orders. A fifth-order linear differential operator occurs as the left-most factor of the 'depleted' differential operator and it is shown to be equivalent to the symmetric fourth power of L E , the linear differential operator corresponding to the elliptic integral E. This result generalizes what we have found for the lower order terms χ-tilde (3) and χ-tilde (4) . We conjecture that a linear differential operator equivalent to a symmetric (n - 1) th power of L E occurs as a left-most factor in the minimal order linear differential operators for all χ-tilde (n) 's

  13. Vague Sets Security Measure for Steganographic System Based on High-Order Markov Model

    Chun-Juan Ouyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security measure is of great importance in both steganography and steganalysis. Considering that statistical feature perturbations caused by steganography in an image are always nondeterministic and that an image is considered nonstationary, in this paper, the steganography is regarded as a fuzzy process. Here a steganographic security measure is proposed. This security measure evaluates the similarity between two vague sets of cover images and stego images in terms of n-order Markov chain to capture the interpixel correlation. The new security measure has proven to have the properties of boundedness, commutativity, and unity. Furthermore, the security measures of zero order, first order, second order, third order, and so forth are obtained by adjusting the order value of n-order Markov chain. Experimental results indicate that the larger n is, the better the measuring ability of the proposed security measure will be. The proposed security measure is more sensitive than other security measures defined under a deterministic distribution model, when the embedding is low. It is expected to provide a helpful guidance for designing secure steganographic algorithms or reliable steganalytic methods.

  14. Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…

  15. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  16. A Frank mixture copula family for modeling higher-order correlations of neural spike counts

    Onken, Arno; Obermayer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the importance of higher-order correlations in neural spike count codes, flexible statistical models of dependent multivariate spike counts are required. Copula families, parametric multivariate distributions that represent dependencies, can be applied to construct such models. We introduce the Frank mixture family as a new copula family that has separate parameters for all pairwise and higher-order correlations. In contrast to the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern copula family that shares this property, the Frank mixture copula can model strong correlations. We apply spike count models based on the Frank mixture copula to data generated by a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons and compare the goodness of fit to distributions based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern family. Finally, we evaluate the importance of using proper single neuron spike count distributions on the Shannon information. We find notable deviations in the entropy that increase with decreasing firing rates. Moreover, we find that the Frank mixture family increases the log likelihood of the fit significantly compared to the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern family. This shows that the Frank mixture copula is a useful tool to assess the importance of higher-order correlations in spike count codes.

  17. Interacting gaps model, dynamics of order book, and stock-market fluctuations

    Svorenčík, A.; Slanina, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, - (2007), s. 453-462 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OCP10.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : interacting gaps model * dynamics of order book * stock - market fluctuations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2007

  18. The need for novel model order reduction techniques in the electronics industry (Chapter 1)

    Schilders, W.H.A.; Benner, P.; Hinze, M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the present and future needs of the electronics industry with regard to model order reduction. The industry has always been one of the main motivating fields for the development of MOR techniques, and continues to play this role. We discuss the search for provably passive

  19. Reduction of static field equation of Faddeev model to first order PDE

    Hirayama, Minoru; Shi Changguang

    2007-01-01

    A method to solve the static field equation of the Faddeev model is presented. For a special combination of the concerned field, we adopt a form which is compatible with the field equation and involves two arbitrary complex functions. As a result, the static field equation is reduced to a set of first order partial differential equations

  20. Advancing investigation and physical modeling of first-order fire effects on soils

    William J. Massman; John M. Frank; Sacha J. Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Heating soil during intense wildland fires or slash-pile burns can alter the soil irreversibly, resulting in many significant long-term biological, chemical, physical, and hydrological effects. To better understand these long-term effects, it is necessary to improve modeling capability and prediction of the more immediate, or first-order, effects that fire can have on...

  1. On the long-range order of Lieb-Mattis model of quantum antiferromagnet

    Gochev, I.G.; Tonchev, N.S.

    1991-09-01

    The spontaneous magnetization m and the root-mean-square order parameter m 0 of the Lieb-Mattis model for arbitrary temperature and spin values s are obtained. For the ratio r(T,s)=m/m 0 the value r(T,s)=√3 is found. (author). 8 refs

  2. Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids

    Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.

    2016-01-01

    A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...

  3. A reduced order aerothermodynamic modeling framework for hypersonic vehicles based on surrogate and POD

    Chen Xin; Liu Li; Long Teng; Yue Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM) framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design ...

  4. A simplified parsimonious higher order multivariate Markov chain model with new convergence condition

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a simplified parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model with new convergence condition. (TPHOMMCM-NCC). Moreover, estimation method of the parameters in TPHOMMCM-NCC is give. Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM-NCC.

  5. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  6. Index-aware model order reduction : LTI DAEs in electric networks

    Banagaaya, N.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ali, G.; Tischendorf, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Model order reduction (MOR) has been widely used in the electric networks but little has been done to reduce higher index differential algebraic equations (DAEs). The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Most methods first do an index reduction before reducing a

  7. Lattice Boltzmann model for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations

    Chai, Zhenhua; He, Nanzhong; Guo, Zhaoli; Shi, Baochang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a general lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation with the form ∂tϕ +∑k=1mαk∂xkΠk(ϕ ) =0 (1 ≤k ≤m ≤6 ), αk are constant coefficients, Πk(ϕ ) are some known differential functions of ϕ . As some special cases of the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation, the classical (m)KdV equation, KdV-Burgers equation, K (n ,n ) -Burgers equation, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, and Kawahara equation can be solved by the present LB model. Compared to the available LB models, the most distinct characteristic of the present model is to introduce some suitable auxiliary moments such that the correct moments of equilibrium distribution function can be achieved. In addition, we also conducted a detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis, and found that the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation can be correctly recovered from the proposed LB model. Finally, a large number of simulations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree with the analytical solutions, and usually the present model is also more accurate than the existing LB models [H. Lai and C. Ma, Sci. China Ser. G 52, 1053 (2009), 10.1007/s11433-009-0149-3; H. Lai and C. Ma, Phys. A (Amsterdam) 388, 1405 (2009), 10.1016/j.physa.2009.01.005] for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.

  8. Reduced Order Model Implementation in the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Toolkit

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis L.; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua J.; Talbot, Paul W.; Rinaldi, Ivan; Maljovec, Dan; Wang, Bei; Pascucci, Valerio; Zhao, Haihua

    2015-01-01

    The RISMC project aims to develop new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the reactor primary and secondary systems but also external events temporal evolution and components/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, ms-s-minutes-years). As part of the RISMC PRA approach, a large amount of computationally expensive simulation runs are required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is regularly growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated is the use of reduce order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RICM analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulations runs to perform and employ surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This report focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to any RISMC analysis to generate, analyze and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (µs instead of hours/days). We apply reduced order and surrogate modeling techniques to several RISMC types of analyses using RAVEN and RELAP-7 and show the advantages that can be gained.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann model for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.

    Chai, Zhenhua; He, Nanzhong; Guo, Zhaoli; Shi, Baochang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a general lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation with the form ∂_{t}ϕ+∑_{k=1}^{m}α_{k}∂_{x}^{k}Π_{k}(ϕ)=0 (1≤k≤m≤6), α_{k} are constant coefficients, Π_{k}(ϕ) are some known differential functions of ϕ. As some special cases of the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation, the classical (m)KdV equation, KdV-Burgers equation, K(n,n)-Burgers equation, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, and Kawahara equation can be solved by the present LB model. Compared to the available LB models, the most distinct characteristic of the present model is to introduce some suitable auxiliary moments such that the correct moments of equilibrium distribution function can be achieved. In addition, we also conducted a detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis, and found that the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation can be correctly recovered from the proposed LB model. Finally, a large number of simulations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree with the analytical solutions, and usually the present model is also more accurate than the existing LB models [H. Lai and C. Ma, Sci. China Ser. G 52, 1053 (2009)1672-179910.1007/s11433-009-0149-3; H. Lai and C. Ma, Phys. A (Amsterdam) 388, 1405 (2009)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2009.01.005] for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.

  10. Reduced Order Model Implementation in the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Toolkit

    Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rinaldi, Ivan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Dan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Bei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The RISMC project aims to develop new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the reactor primary and secondary systems but also external events temporal evolution and components/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, ms-s-minutes-years). As part of the RISMC PRA approach, a large amount of computationally expensive simulation runs are required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is regularly growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated is the use of reduce order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RICM analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulations runs to perform and employ surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This report focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to any RISMC analysis to generate, analyze and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (µs instead of hours/days). We apply reduced order and surrogate modeling techniques to several RISMC types of analyses using RAVEN and RELAP-7 and show the advantages that can be gained.

  11. Assessment of sphenoid sinus volume in order to determine sexual identity, using multi-slice CT images

    Habibeh Farazdaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Gender determination is an important step in identification. For gender determination, anthropometric evaluation is one of the main forensic evaluations. The aim of this study was the assessment of sphenoid sinus volume in order to determine sexual identity, using multi-slice CT images. Materials and Methods: For volumetric analysis, axial paranasal sinus CT scan with 3-mm slice thickness was used. For this study, 80 images (40 women and 40 men older than 18 years were selected. For the assessment of sphenoid sinus volume, Digimizer software was used. The volume of sphenoid sinus was calculated using the following equation: v=∑ (area of each slice × thickness of each slice. Statistical analysis was performed by independent T-test. Results: The mean volume of sphenoid sinus was significantly greater in male gender (P=0.01.The assessed Cut off point was 9/35 cm3, showing that 63.4% of volume assessments greater than cut off point was supposed to be male and 64.1% of volumetry lesser than cut off point were female. Conclusion: According to the area under Roc curve (1.65%, sphenoid sinus volume is not an appropriate factor for differentiation of male and female from each other, which means the predictability of cut off point (9/35 cm3 is 65/1% close to reality.

  12. Anomalous NMR Relaxation in Cartilage Matrix Components and Native Cartilage: Fractional-Order Models

    Magin, Richard L.; Li, Weiguo; Velasco, M. Pilar; Trujillo, Juan; Reiter, David A.; Morgenstern, Ashley; Spencer, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a fractional-order extension of the Bloch equations to describe anomalous NMR relaxation phenomena (T1 and T2). The model has solutions in the form of Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions that generalize conventional exponential relaxation. Such functions have been shown by others to be useful for describing dielectric and viscoelastic relaxation in complex, heterogeneous materials. Here, we apply these fractional-order T1 and T2 relaxation models to experiments performed at 9.4 and 11.7 Tesla on type I collagen gels, chondroitin sulfate mixtures, and to bovine nasal cartilage (BNC), a largely isotropic and homogeneous form of cartilage. The results show that the fractional-order analysis captures important features of NMR relaxation that are typically described by multi-exponential decay models. We find that the T2 relaxation of BNC can be described in a unique way by a single fractional-order parameter (α), in contrast to the lack of uniqueness of multi-exponential fits in the realistic setting of a finite signal-to-noise ratio. No anomalous behavior of T1 was observed in BNC. In the single-component gels, for T2 measurements, increasing the concentration of the largest components of cartilage matrix, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, results in a decrease in α, reflecting a more restricted aqueous environment. The quality of the curve fits obtained using Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions are in some cases superior to those obtained using mono- and bi-exponential models. In both gels and BNC, α appears to account for microstructural complexity in the setting of an altered distribution of relaxation times. This work suggests the utility of fractional-order models to describe T2 NMR relaxation processes in biological tissues. PMID:21498095

  13. Higher Order, Hybrid BEM/FEM Methods Applied to Antenna Modeling

    Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.; Dobbins, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors address topics relevant to higher order modeling using hybrid BEM/FEM formulations. The first of these is the limitation on convergence rates imposed by geometric modeling errors in the analysis of scattering by a dielectric sphere. The second topic is the application of an Incomplete LU Threshold (ILUT) preconditioner to solve the linear system resulting from the BEM/FEM formulation. The final tOpic is the application of the higher order BEM/FEM formulation to antenna modeling problems. The authors have previously presented work on the benefits of higher order modeling. To achieve these benefits, special attention is required in the integration of singular and near-singular terms arising in the surface integral equation. Several methods for handling these terms have been presented. It is also well known that achieving he high rates of convergence afforded by higher order bases may als'o require the employment of higher order geometry models. A number of publications have described the use of quadratic elements to model curved surfaces. The authors have shown in an EFIE formulation, applied to scattering by a PEC .sphere, that quadratic order elements may be insufficient to prevent the domination of modeling errors. In fact, on a PEC sphere with radius r = 0.58 Lambda(sub 0), a quartic order geometry representation was required to obtain a convergence benefi.t from quadratic bases when compared to the convergence rate achieved with linear bases. Initial trials indicate that, for a dielectric sphere of the same radius, - requirements on the geometry model are not as severe as for the PEC sphere. The authors will present convergence results for higher order bases as a function of the geometry model order in the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation applied to dielectric spheres. It is well known that the system matrix resulting from the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation is ill -conditioned. For many real applications, a good preconditioner is required

  14. Higher-order ice-sheet modelling accelerated by multigrid on graphics cards

    Brædstrup, Christian; Egholm, David

    2013-04-01

    Higher-order ice flow modelling is a very computer intensive process owing primarily to the nonlinear influence of the horizontal stress coupling. When applied for simulating long-term glacial landscape evolution, the ice-sheet models must consider very long time series, while both high temporal and spatial resolution is needed to resolve small effects. The use of higher-order and full stokes models have therefore seen very limited usage in this field. However, recent advances in graphics card (GPU) technology for high performance computing have proven extremely efficient in accelerating many large-scale scientific computations. The general purpose GPU (GPGPU) technology is cheap, has a low power consumption and fits into a normal desktop computer. It could therefore provide a powerful tool for many glaciologists working on ice flow models. Our current research focuses on utilising the GPU as a tool in ice-sheet and glacier modelling. To this extent we have implemented the Integrated Second-Order Shallow Ice Approximation (iSOSIA) equations on the device using the finite difference method. To accelerate the computations, the GPU solver uses a non-linear Red-Black Gauss-Seidel iterator coupled with a Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid setup to further aid convergence. The GPU finite difference implementation provides the inherent parallelization that scales from hundreds to several thousands of cores on newer cards. We demonstrate the efficiency of the GPU multigrid solver using benchmark experiments.

  15. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  16. Order Level Inventory Models for Deteriorating Seasonable/Fashionable Products with Time Dependent Demand and Shortages

    K. Skouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An order level inventory model for seasonable/fashionable products subject to a period of increasing demand followed by a period of level demand and then by a period of decreasing demand rate (three branches ramp type demand rate is considered. The unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged with a time dependent backlogging rate. In addition, the product deteriorates with a time dependent, namely, Weibull, deterioration rate. The model is studied under the following different replenishment policies: (a starting with no shortages and (b starting with shortages. The optimal replenishment policy for the model is derived for both the above mentioned policies.

  17. Modal-based reduced-order model of BWR out-of phase instabilities

    Turso, J.A.; Edwards, R.M.; March-Leuba, J.

    1995-01-01

    For the past 40 yr, reduced-order modeling of boiling water reactor (BWR) dynamic behavior has been accomplished by several researchers. These models have been primarily concerned with providing insight into the so-called corewide neutron flux oscillation, where the power at each radial location in the core oscillates in unison. This is generally considered to be an illustration of the fundamental neutronic mode excited by the core thermal hydraulics. The time dependence of the fundamental mode is typically described by the point-kinetics equations, with one or more delayed-neutron groups. Thermal-hydraulic excitation of the first azimuthal harmonic mode, the so-called out-of-phase (OOP) instability, has been observed in operating BWRs. The temporal behavior of a low-order model of this phenomenon can be characterized using the modal point-kinetics formulation developed in this paper

  18. The Schwinger Dyson equations and the algebra of constraints of random tensor models at all orders

    Gurau, Razvan

    2012-01-01

    Random tensor models for a generic complex tensor generalize matrix models in arbitrary dimensions and yield a theory of random geometries. They support a 1/N expansion dominated by graphs of spherical topology. Their Schwinger Dyson equations, generalizing the loop equations of matrix models, translate into constraints satisfied by the partition function. The constraints have been shown, in the large N limit, to close a Lie algebra indexed by colored rooted D-ary trees yielding a first generalization of the Virasoro algebra in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we complete the Schwinger Dyson equations and the associated algebra at all orders in 1/N. The full algebra of constraints is indexed by D-colored graphs, and the leading order D-ary tree algebra is a Lie subalgebra of the full constraints algebra.

  19. Geometrical aspects of operator ordering terms in gauge invariant quantum models

    Houston, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite-dimensional quantum models with both boson and fermion degrees of freedom, and which have a gauge invariance, are studied here as simple versions of gauge invariant quantum field theories. The configuration space of these finite-dimensional models has the structure of a principal fibre bundle and has defined on it a metric which is invariant under the action of the bundle or gauge group. When the gauge-dependent degrees of freedom are removed, thereby defining the quantum models on the base of the principal fibre bundle, extra operator ordering terms arise. By making use of dimensional reduction methods in removing the gauge dependence, expressions are obtained here for the operator ordering terms which show clearly their dependence on the geometry of the principal fibre bundle structure. (author)

  20. Extreme learning machine for reduced order modeling of turbulent geophysical flows

    San, Omer; Maulik, Romit

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the application of artificial neural networks to stabilize proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models for quasistationary geophysical turbulent flows. An extreme learning machine concept is introduced for computing an eddy-viscosity closure dynamically to incorporate the effects of the truncated modes. We consider a four-gyre wind-driven ocean circulation problem as our prototype setting to assess the performance of the proposed data-driven approach. Our framework provides a significant reduction in computational time and effectively retains the dynamics of the full-order model during the forward simulation period beyond the training data set. Furthermore, we show that the method is robust for larger choices of time steps and can be used as an efficient and reliable tool for long time integration of general circulation models.

  1. Reduced order models inertial manifold and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of an analytic or numerical model of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Then the goal is to obtain the best attainable qualitative and quantitative global picture of plant dynamics. To do this, the construction and the analysis of the so called reduced order models (Rom) seems a necessary step. A reduced order model results after the full system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the plant is reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations

  2. Higher-Order Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics for Classical Polarizable Models.

    Albaugh, Alex; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2018-02-13

    Generalized extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (XLBOMD) methods provide a framework for fast iteration-free simulations of models that normally require expensive electronic ground state optimizations prior to the force evaluations at every time step. XLBOMD uses dynamically driven auxiliary degrees of freedom that fluctuate about a variationally optimized ground state of an approximate "shadow" potential which approximates the true reference potential. While the requirements for such shadow potentials are well understood, constructing such potentials in practice has previously been ad hoc, and in this work, we present a systematic development of XLBOMD shadow potentials that match the reference potential to any order. We also introduce a framework for combining friction-like dissipation for the auxiliary degrees of freedom with general-order integration, a combination that was not previously possible. These developments are demonstrated with a simple fluctuating charge model and point induced dipole polarization models.

  3. Stable reduced-order models of generalized dynamical systems using coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithms

    Silveira, L.M.; Kamon, M.; Elfadel, I.; White, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model order reduction based on Krylov subspace iterative methods has recently emerged as a major tool for compressing the number of states in linear models used for simulating very large physical systems (VLSI circuits, electromagnetic interactions). There are currently two main methods for accomplishing such a compression: one is based on the nonsymmetric look-ahead Lanczos algorithm that gives a numerically stable procedure for finding Pade approximations, while the other is based on a less well characterized Arnoldi algorithm. In this paper, we show that for certain classes of generalized state-space systems, the reduced-order models produced by a coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithm inherit the stability of the original system. Complete Proofs of our results will be given in the final paper.

  4. The Role of Hybrid Make-to-Stock (MTS) - Make-to-Order (MTO) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Control Models in Food and Beverage Processing Industry

    Najhan Mohd Nagib, Ahmad; Naufal Adnan, Ahmad; Ismail, Azianti; Halim, Nurul Hayati Abdul; Syuhadah Khusaini, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    The inventory model had been utilized since the early 1900s. The implementation of the inventory management model is generally to ensure that an organisation is able to fulfil customer's demand at the lowest possible cost to improve profitability. This paper focuses on reviewing previous published papers regarding inventory control model mainly in the food and beverage processing industry. The author discusses four inventory models, which are the make-to-stock (MTS), make-to-order (MTO), economic order quantity (EOQ), and hybrid of MTS-MTO models. The issues raised by the researchers on the above techniques as well as the elements need to be considered upon selection have been discussed in this paper. The main objective of the study is to highlight the important role played by these inventory control models in the food and beverage processing industry.

  5. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  6. Presentation, calibration and validation of the low-order, DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1

    J. O. Pepke Pedersen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new, low-order Earth System Model is described, calibrated and tested against Earth system data. The model features modules for the atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere and has been designed to simulate global change on time scales of years to millions of years. The atmosphere module considers radiation balance, meridional transport of heat and water vapor between low-mid latitude and high latitude zones, heat and gas exchange with the ocean and sea ice and snow cover. Gases considered are carbon dioxide and methane for all three carbon isotopes, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The ocean module has 100 m vertical resolution, carbonate chemistry and prescribed circulation and mixing. Ocean biogeochemical tracers are phosphate, dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon for all three carbon isotopes and alkalinity. Biogenic production of particulate organic matter in the ocean surface layer depends on phosphate availability but with lower efficiency in the high latitude zone, as determined by model fit to ocean data. The calcite to organic carbon rain ratio depends on surface layer temperature. The semi-analytical, ocean sediment module considers calcium carbonate dissolution and oxic and anoxic organic matter remineralisation. The sediment is composed of calcite, non-calcite mineral and reactive organic matter. Sediment porosity profiles are related to sediment composition and a bioturbated layer of 0.1 m thickness is assumed. A sediment segment is ascribed to each ocean layer and segment area stems from observed ocean depth distributions. Sediment burial is calculated from sedimentation velocities at the base of the bioturbated layer. Bioturbation rates and oxic and anoxic remineralisation rates depend on organic carbon rain rates and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The land biosphere module considers leaves, wood, litter and soil. Net primary production depends on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and

  7. A critical look at the kinetic models of thermoluminescence-II. Non-first order kinetics

    Sunta, C M; Ayta, W E F; Chubaci, J F D; Watanabe, S

    2005-01-01

    Non-first order (FO) kinetics models are of three types; second order (SO), general order (GO) and mixed order (MO). It is shown that all three of these have constraints in their energy level schemes and their applicable parameter values. In nature such restrictions are not expected to exist. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks produced by these models shift their position and change their shape as the trap occupancies change. Such characteristics are very unlike those found in samples of real materials. In these models, in general, retrapping predominates over recombination. It is shown that the quasi-equilibrium (QE) assumption implied in the derivation of the TL equation of these models is quite valid, thus disproving earlier workers' conclusion that QE cannot be held under retrapping dominant conditions. However notwithstanding their validity, they suffer from the shortcomings as stated above and have certain lacunae. For example, the kinetic order (KO) parameter and the pre-exponential factor which are assumed to be the constant parameters of the GO kinetics expression turn out to be variables when this expression is applied to plausible physical models. Further, in glow peak characterization using the GO expression, the quality of fit is found to deteriorate when the best fitted value of KO parameter is different from 1 and 2. This means that the found value of the basic parameter, namely the activation energy, becomes subject to error. In the MO kinetics model, the value of the KO parameter α would change with dose, and thus in this model also, as in the GO model, no single value of KO can be assigned to a given glow peak. The paper discusses TL of real materials having characteristics typically like those of FO kinetics. Theoretically too, a plausible physical model of TL emission produces glow peaks which have characteristics of FO kinetics under a wide variety of parametric combinations. In the background of the above findings, it is suggested that

  8. Frequency-domain reduced order models for gravitational waves from aligned-spin compact binaries

    Pürrer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Black-hole binary coalescences are one of the most promising sources for the first detection of gravitational waves. Fast and accurate theoretical models of the gravitational radiation emitted from these coalescences are highly important for the detection and extraction of physical parameters. Spinning effective-one-body models for binaries with aligned-spins have been shown to be highly faithful, but are slow to generate and thus have not yet been used for parameter estimation (PE) studies. I provide a frequency-domain singular value decomposition-based surrogate reduced order model that is thousands of times faster for typical system masses and has a faithfulness mismatch of better than ∼0.1% with the original SEOBNRv1 model for advanced LIGO detectors. This model enables PE studies up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20 and even up to 50 for total masses below 50 M ⊙ . This paper discusses various choices for approximations and interpolation over the parameter space that can be made for reduced order models of spinning compact binaries, provides a detailed discussion of errors arising in the construction and assesses the fidelity of such models. (paper)

  9. Determination and identification of naturally occurring decay series using milli-second order pulse time interval analysis (TIA)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sanada, Y.; Uezu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A delayed coincidence method, called a time interval analysis (TIA) method, has been successfully applied to selective determination of the correlated α-α decay events in millisecond order life-time. A main decay process applicable to TIA-treatment is 220 Rn → 216 Po(T 1/2 :145ms) → {Th-series}. The TIA is fundamentally based on the difference of time interval distribution between non-correlated decay events and other events such as background or random events when they were compiled the time interval data within a fixed time (for example, a tenth of concerned half lives). The sensitivity of the TIA-analysis due to correlated α-α decay events could be subsequently improved in respect of background elimination using the pulse shape discrimination technique (PSD with PERALS counter) to reject β/γ-pulses, purging of nitrogen gas into extra scintillator, and applying solvent extraction of Ra. (author)

  10. Leading order determination of the gluon polarisation from DIS events with high-$p_T$ hadron pairs

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Antonov, A A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Burtin, E; Chaberny, D; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Denisov, O.Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H; Franco, C; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J M; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hedicke, S; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Hoppner, Ch; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu.A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu.V; Moinester, M A; Morreale, A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J P; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pontecorvo, G; Pretz, J; Procureur, S L; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C.; Schluter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O.Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Wang, L; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a determination of the gluon polarisation Delta g/g in the nucleon, based on the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry of DIS events with a pair of large transverse-momentum hadrons in the final state. The data were obtained by the COMPASS experiment at CERN using a 160 GeV/c polarised muon beam scattering off a polarised ^6LiD target. The gluon polarisation is evaluated by a Neural Network approach for three intervals of the gluon momentum fraction x_g covering the range 0.04 < x_g < 0.27. The values obtained at leading order in QCD do not show any significant dependence on x_g. Their average is Delta g/g = 0.125 +/- 0.060 (stat.) +/- 0.063 (syst.) at x_g=0.09 and a scale of mu^2 = 3~(GeV/c)^2.

  11. Accuracy Enhanced Stability and Structure Preserving Model Reduction Technique for Dynamical Systems with Second Order Structure

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    A method for model reduction of dynamical systems with the second order structure is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique preserves the second order structure of the system, and also preserves the stability of the original systems. The method uses the controllability and observability...... gramians within the time interval to build the appropriate Petrov-Galerkin projection for dynamical systems within the time interval of interest. The bound on approximation error is also derived. The numerical results are compared with the counterparts from other techniques. The results confirm...

  12. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal......, robustness and energy conservation are presented together with demonstrations of grid independent iteration count and optimal scaling of the solution effort. Calculations are made for 3D nonlinear wave problems for steep nonlinear waves and a shoaling problem which show good agreement with experimental...

  13. A model for metastable magnetism in the hidden-order phase of URu2Si2

    Boyer, Lance; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose an explanation for the experiment by Schemm et al. (2015) where the polar Kerr effect (PKE), indicating time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking, was observed in the hidden-order (HO) phase of URu2Si2. The PKE signal on warmup was seen only if a training magnetic field was present on cool-down. Using a Ginzburg-Landau model for a complex order parameter, we show that the system can have a metastable ferromagnetic state producing the PKE, even if the HO ground state respects TRS. We predict that a strong reversed magnetic field should reset the PKE to zero.

  14. Statistics of fermions in the Randall-Wilkins model for kinetics of general order

    Nieto H, B.; Azorin N, J.; Vazquez C, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    As a theoretical planning of the thermoluminescence phenomena (Tl), we study the behavior of the systems formed by fermions, which are related with this phenomenon establishing a generalization of the Randall-Wilkins model, as for first order kinetics as for general order (equation of May and Partridge) in which we consider a of Fermi-Dirac statistics. As consequence of this study a new variable is manifested: the chemical potential, also we establish its relationship with some of the other magnitudes already known in Tl. (Author)

  15. Leading-order classical Lagrangians for the nonminimal standard-model extension

    Reis, J. A. A. S.; Schreck, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we derive the general leading-order classical Lagrangian covering all fermion operators of the nonminimal standard-model extension (SME). Such a Lagrangian is considered to be the point-particle analog of the effective field theory description of Lorentz violation that is provided by the SME. At leading order in Lorentz violation, the Lagrangian obtained satisfies the set of five nonlinear equations that govern the map from the field theory to the classical description. This result can be of use for phenomenological studies of classical bodies in gravitational fields.

  16. Basic problems solving for two-dimensional discrete 3 × 4 order hidden markov model

    Wang, Guo-gang; Gan, Zong-liang; Tang, Gui-jin; Cui, Zi-guan; Zhu, Xiu-chang

    2016-01-01

    A novel model is proposed to overcome the shortages of the classical hypothesis of the two-dimensional discrete hidden Markov model. In the proposed model, the state transition probability depends on not only immediate horizontal and vertical states but also on immediate diagonal state, and the observation symbol probability depends on not only current state but also on immediate horizontal, vertical and diagonal states. This paper defines the structure of the model, and studies the three basic problems of the model, including probability calculation, path backtracking and parameters estimation. By exploiting the idea that the sequences of states on rows or columns of the model can be seen as states of a one-dimensional discrete 1 × 2 order hidden Markov model, several algorithms solving the three questions are theoretically derived. Simulation results further demonstrate the performance of the algorithms. Compared with the two-dimensional discrete hidden Markov model, there are more statistical characteristics in the structure of the proposed model, therefore the proposed model theoretically can more accurately describe some practical problems.

  17. Determining Predictor Importance in Hierarchical Linear Models Using Dominance Analysis

    Luo, Wen; Azen, Razia

    2013-01-01

    Dominance analysis (DA) is a method used to evaluate the relative importance of predictors that was originally proposed for linear regression models. This article proposes an extension of DA that allows researchers to determine the relative importance of predictors in hierarchical linear models (HLM). Commonly used measures of model adequacy in…

  18. A unified model for transfer alignment at random misalignment angles based on second-order EKF

    Cui, Xiao; Qin, Yongyuan; Yan, Gongmin; Liu, Zhenbo; Mei, Chunbo

    2017-01-01

    In the transfer alignment process of inertial navigation systems (INSs), the conventional linear error model based on the small misalignment angle assumption cannot be applied to large misalignment situations. Furthermore, the nonlinear model based on the large misalignment angle suffers from redundant computation with nonlinear filters. This paper presents a unified model for transfer alignment suitable for arbitrary misalignment angles. The alignment problem is transformed into an estimation of the relative attitude between the master INS (MINS) and the slave INS (SINS), by decomposing the attitude matrix of the latter. Based on the Rodriguez parameters, a unified alignment model in the inertial frame with the linear state-space equation and a second order nonlinear measurement equation are established, without making any assumptions about the misalignment angles. Furthermore, we employ the Taylor series expansions on the second-order nonlinear measurement equation to implement the second-order extended Kalman filter (EKF2). Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate that the initial alignment can be fulfilled within 10 s, with higher accuracy and much smaller computational cost compared with the traditional unscented Kalman filter (UKF) at large misalignment angles. (paper)

  19. A unified model for transfer alignment at random misalignment angles based on second-order EKF

    Cui, Xiao; Mei, Chunbo; Qin, Yongyuan; Yan, Gongmin; Liu, Zhenbo

    2017-04-01

    In the transfer alignment process of inertial navigation systems (INSs), the conventional linear error model based on the small misalignment angle assumption cannot be applied to large misalignment situations. Furthermore, the nonlinear model based on the large misalignment angle suffers from redundant computation with nonlinear filters. This paper presents a unified model for transfer alignment suitable for arbitrary misalignment angles. The alignment problem is transformed into an estimation of the relative attitude between the master INS (MINS) and the slave INS (SINS), by decomposing the attitude matrix of the latter. Based on the Rodriguez parameters, a unified alignment model in the inertial frame with the linear state-space equation and a second order nonlinear measurement equation are established, without making any assumptions about the misalignment angles. Furthermore, we employ the Taylor series expansions on the second-order nonlinear measurement equation to implement the second-order extended Kalman filter (EKF2). Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate that the initial alignment can be fulfilled within 10 s, with higher accuracy and much smaller computational cost compared with the traditional unscented Kalman filter (UKF) at large misalignment angles.

  20. Statistically accurate low-order models for uncertainty quantification in turbulent dynamical systems.

    Sapsis, Themistoklis P; Majda, Andrew J

    2013-08-20

    A framework for low-order predictive statistical modeling and uncertainty quantification in turbulent dynamical systems is developed here. These reduced-order, modified quasilinear Gaussian (ROMQG) algorithms apply to turbulent dynamical systems in which there is significant linear instability or linear nonnormal dynamics in the unperturbed system and energy-conserving nonlinear interactions that transfer energy from the unstable modes to the stable modes where dissipation occurs, resulting in a statistical steady state; such turbulent dynamical systems are ubiquitous in geophysical and engineering turbulence. The ROMQG method involves constructing a low-order, nonlinear, dynamical system for the mean and covariance statistics in the reduced subspace that has the unperturbed statistics as a stable fixed point and optimally incorporates the indirect effect of non-Gaussian third-order statistics for the unperturbed system in a systematic calibration stage. This calibration procedure is achieved through information involving only the mean and covariance statistics for the unperturbed equilibrium. The performance of the ROMQG algorithm is assessed on two stringent test cases: the 40-mode Lorenz 96 model mimicking midlatitude atmospheric turbulence and two-layer baroclinic models for high-latitude ocean turbulence with over 125,000 degrees of freedom. In the Lorenz 96 model, the ROMQG algorithm with just a single mode captures the transient response to random or deterministic forcing. For the baroclinic ocean turbulence models, the inexpensive ROMQG algorithm with 252 modes, less than 0.2% of the total, captures the nonlinear response of the energy, the heat flux, and even the one-dimensional energy and heat flux spectra.

  1. Uncertainty Aware Structural Topology Optimization Via a Stochastic Reduced Order Model Approach

    Aguilo, Miguel A.; Warner, James E.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a stochastic reduced order modeling strategy for the quantification and propagation of uncertainties in topology optimization. Uncertainty aware optimization problems can be computationally complex due to the substantial number of model evaluations that are necessary to accurately quantify and propagate uncertainties. This computational complexity is greatly magnified if a high-fidelity, physics-based numerical model is used for the topology optimization calculations. Stochastic reduced order model (SROM) methods are applied here to effectively 1) alleviate the prohibitive computational cost associated with an uncertainty aware topology optimization problem; and 2) quantify and propagate the inherent uncertainties due to design imperfections. A generic SROM framework that transforms the uncertainty aware, stochastic topology optimization problem into a deterministic optimization problem that relies only on independent calls to a deterministic numerical model is presented. This approach facilitates the use of existing optimization and modeling tools to accurately solve the uncertainty aware topology optimization problems in a fraction of the computational demand required by Monte Carlo methods. Finally, an example in structural topology optimization is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed uncertainty aware structural topology optimization approach.

  2. Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars

    Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.

  3. Effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya on Magnetic orders of J_1-J_2 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model

    Fariba Masoudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by recent experiments that detects Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM interaction in , we study the effects of DM interaction on magnetic orders of J1-J2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. First, we find the classical phase diagram of the model using Luttinger-Tisza approximation. In this approximation, the classical phase diagram has two phases. For , the model has canted Neel and DM interaction cants the spins of one on the subluttices. The ground state of model is classically degenerate for , including infinit numbers of vorticity vectors that are able to minimize the model. This phase is important because of the probability of the existence of quantum spin liquid in this region. To investigate the effect of quantum fluctuation on the stability of the classical phase diagram, linear spin wave theory of  Holstein-Primakoff is used. The results show that in the classical degeneracy regime, the quantum fluctuations for  cause spiral order in this region. The ground state of model remains disorder for, and this region is a good place for finding quantum spin liquid

  4. CODE's new solar radiation pressure model for GNSS orbit determination

    Arnold, D.; Meindl, M.; Beutler, G.; Dach, R.; Schaer, S.; Lutz, S.; Prange, L.; Sośnica, K.; Mervart, L.; Jäggi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Empirical CODE Orbit Model (ECOM) of the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), which was developed in the early 1990s, is widely used in the International GNSS Service (IGS) community. For a rather long time, spurious spectral lines are known to exist in geophysical parameters, in particular in the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) and in the estimated geocenter coordinates, which could recently be attributed to the ECOM. These effects grew creepingly with the increasing influence of the GLONASS system in recent years in the CODE analysis, which is based on a rigorous combination of GPS and GLONASS since May 2003. In a first step we show that the problems associated with the ECOM are to the largest extent caused by the GLONASS, which was reaching full deployment by the end of 2011. GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and combined GPS/GLONASS solutions using the observations in the years 2009-2011 of a global network of 92 combined GPS/GLONASS receivers were analyzed for this purpose. In a second step we review direct solar radiation pressure (SRP) models for GNSS satellites. We demonstrate that only even-order short-period harmonic perturbations acting along the direction Sun-satellite occur for GPS and GLONASS satellites, and only odd-order perturbations acting along the direction perpendicular to both, the vector Sun-satellite and the spacecraft's solar panel axis. Based on this insight we assess in the third step the performance of four candidate orbit models for the future ECOM. The geocenter coordinates, the ERP differences w. r. t. the IERS 08 C04 series of ERPs, the misclosures for the midnight epochs of the daily orbital arcs, and scale parameters of Helmert transformations for station coordinates serve as quality criteria. The old and updated ECOM are validated in addition with satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations and by comparing the orbits to those of the IGS and other analysis centers. Based on all tests, we present a new extended ECOM which

  5. An Online Method for Interpolating Linear Parametric Reduced-Order Models

    Amsallem, David; Farhat, Charbel

    2011-01-01

    A two-step online method is proposed for interpolating projection-based linear parametric reduced-order models (ROMs) in order to construct a new ROM for a new set of parameter values. The first step of this method transforms each precomputed ROM into a consistent set of generalized coordinates. The second step interpolates the associated linear operators on their appropriate matrix manifold. Real-time performance is achieved by precomputing inner products between the reduced-order bases underlying the precomputed ROMs. The proposed method is illustrated by applications in mechanical and aeronautical engineering. In particular, its robustness is demonstrated by its ability to handle the case where the sampled parameter set values exhibit a mode veering phenomenon. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Determination of the Corona model parameters with artificial neural networks

    Ahmet, Nayir; Bekir, Karlik; Arif, Hashimov

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The aim of this study is to calculate new model parameters taking into account the corona of electrical transmission line wires. For this purpose, a neural network modeling proposed for the corona frequent characteristics modeling. Then this model was compared with the other model developed at the Polytechnic Institute of Saint Petersburg. The results of development of the specified corona model for calculation of its influence on the wave processes in multi-wires line and determination of its parameters are submitted. Results of obtained calculation equations are brought for electrical transmission line with allowance for superficial effect in the ground and wires with reference to developed corona model

  7. Low-order dynamical system model of a fully developed turbulent channel flow

    Hamilton, Nicholas; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2017-06-01

    A reduced order model of a turbulent channel flow is composed from a direct numerical simulation database hosted at the Johns Hopkins University. Snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to identify the Hilbert space from which the reduced order model is obtained, as the POD basis is defined to capture the optimal energy content by mode. The reduced order model is defined by coupling the evolution of the dynamic POD mode coefficients through their respective time derivative with a least-squares polynomial fit of terms up to third order. Parameters coupling the dynamics of the POD basis are defined in analog to those produced in the classical Galerkin projection. The resulting low-order dynamical system is tested for a range of basis modes demonstrating that the non-linear mode interactions do not lead to a monotonic decrease in error propagation. A basis of five POD modes accounts for 50% of the integrated turbulence kinetic energy but captures only the largest features of the turbulence in the channel flow and is not able to reflect the anticipated flow dynamics. Using five modes, the low-order model is unable to accurately reproduce Reynolds stresses, and the root-mean-square error of the predicted stresses is as great as 30%. Increasing the basis to 28 modes accounts for 90% of the kinetic energy and adds intermediate scales to the dynamical system. The difference between the time derivatives of the random coefficients associated with individual modes and their least-squares fit is amplified in the numerical integration leading to unstable long-time solutions. Periodic recalibration of the dynamical system is undertaken by limiting the integration time to the range of the sampled data and offering the dynamical system new initial conditions. Renewed initial conditions are found by pushing the mode coefficients in the end of the integration time toward a known point along the original trajectories identified through a least-squares projection. Under

  8. Markovian Model in High Order Sequence Prediction From Log-Motif Patterns in Agbada Paralic Section, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Markovian model in the elucidation of high order sequence was applied to repetitive events of regressive and transgressive phases in the Agbada paralic section Niger Delta. The repetitive events are made up of delta front, delta topset and fluvio-deltaic sediments. The sediments consist of sands, sandstones, siltstones and shales in various proportions. Five wells: MN1, AA1, NP2, NP6 and NP8 were studied.Summary of biostratigraphic report and well log-motif patterns was used to delineate the third order depositional sequences in the wells.Various Markovian properties - observed transition frequency matrix, observed transition probability matrix, fixed probability vector, expected random matrix (randomised transition matrix) and difference matrix were determined for stacked high order sequence (high frequency cyclic events) nested within the third-order sequences using the log-motif patterns for the various sand bodies and shales. Flow diagrams were constructed for each of the depositional sequences to know the likely occurrence of number of cycles.Upward transition matrix between the log-motif patterns and flow diagram to elucidate cyclicity show that the overall regressive sequence of the Niger Delta has been modified by deltaic depositional elements and fluctuations in sea level. The predictions of higher order sequence within third order sequences from Markovian Properties provide good basis for correlation within the depositional sequences. The model has also been used to decipher the dominant depositional processes during the formation of the sequences. Discrete reservoir intervals and seal potentials within the sequences were also predicted from the flow diagrams constructed

  9. REDUCED ISOTROPIC CRYSTAL MODEL WITH RESPECT TO THE FOURTH-ORDER ELASTIC MODULI

    O. Burlayenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a reduced isotropic crystal model the relationship between the fourth-order elastic moduli of an isotropic medium and the independent components of the fourth-order elastic moduli tensor of real crystals of various crystal systems is found. To calculate the coefficients of these relations, computer algebra systems Redberry and Mathematica for working with high order tensors in the symbolic and explicit form were used, in light of the overly complex computation. In an isotropic medium, there are four independent fourth order elastic moduli. This is due to the presence of four invariants for an eighth-rank tensor in the three-dimensional space, that has symmetries over the pairs of indices. As an example, the moduli of elasticity of an isotropic medium corresponding to certain crystals of cubic system are given (LiF, NaCl, MgO, CaF2. From the obtained results it can be seen that the reduced isotropic crystal model can be most effectively applied to high-symmetry crystal systems.

  10. The lattice Boltzmann model for the second-order Benjamin–Ono equations

    Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, in order to extend the lattice Boltzmann method to deal with more complicated nonlinear equations, we propose a 1D lattice Boltzmann scheme with an amending function for the second-order (1 + 1)-dimensional Benjamin–Ono equation. With the Taylor expansion and the Chapman–Enskog expansion, the governing evolution equation is recovered correctly from the continuous Boltzmann equation. The equilibrium distribution function and the amending function are obtained. Numerical simulations are carried out for the 'good' Boussinesq equation and the 'bad' one to validate the proposed model. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions. The present model can be used to solve more kinds of nonlinear partial differential equations

  11. Excitonic Order and Superconductivity in the Two-Orbital Hubbard Model: Variational Cluster Approach

    Fujiuchi, Ryo; Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2018-06-01

    Using the variational cluster approach based on the self-energy functional theory, we study the possible occurrence of excitonic order and superconductivity in the two-orbital Hubbard model with intra- and inter-orbital Coulomb interactions. It is known that an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator state appears in the regime of strong intra-orbital interaction, a band insulator state appears in the regime of strong inter-orbital interaction, and an excitonic insulator state appears between them. In addition to these states, we find that the s±-wave superconducting state appears in the small-correlation regime, and the dx2 - y2-wave superconducting state appears on the boundary of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator state. We calculate the single-particle spectral function of the model and compare the band gap formation due to the superconducting and excitonic orders.

  12. A successive order of scattering model for solving vector radiative transfer in the atmosphere

    Min Qilong; Duan Minzheng

    2004-01-01

    A full vector radiative transfer model for vertically inhomogeneous plane-parallel media has been developed by using the successive order of scattering approach. In this model, a fast analytical expansion of Fourier decomposition is implemented and an exponent-linear assumption is used for vertical integration. An analytic angular interpolation method of post-processing source function is also implemented to accurately interpolate the Stokes vector at arbitrary angles for a given solution. It has been tested against the benchmarks for the case of randomly orientated oblate spheroids, illustrating a good agreement for each stokes vector (within 0.01%). Sensitivity tests have been conducted to illustrate the accuracy of vertical integration and angle interpolation approaches. The contribution of each scattering order for different optical depths and single scattering albedos are also analyzed

  13. The Nordic Model in a Global Company Situated in Norway. Challenging Institutional Orders?

    Elin Kvande

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the impact of internationalization as organizational processes where institutional actors meet in local contexts and negotiate the institutional order. The internationalization of working life implies that different traditions and practices meet and challenge each other. The focus is on how important elements of the Nordic micro model like cooperation between employees and employers and regulation of working hours are implemented in a global company situated in Norway. In general, it seems that employees and employers cooperate in line with this tradition in the Nordic micro model. Norwegian manager’s practices are described to be in accordance with Scandinavian management traditions, while managers from the United States appear to practice management consistent with the liberal working life model. The findings show a tension-filled clash between two different management practices, which indicates that the Nordic micro model in this field might be under pressure. Manager’s recommendation to the employees was not to become members of the trade union. The absence of trade unions in the organization implies that employees and employers are not cooperating on a collective level. This means that only parts of the regulatory arrangement related to participation and cooperation are implemented. Findings concerning working time and the relation to the institutional order represented by the Norwegian Work Environment Act indicate a clear tension between different institutional traditions in the organization. The company does not respect the Norwegian in working time regulations. These regulations are seen as counterproductive for a company that competes in the international market. This devaluation of the regulations in the Nordic model implies that the institutional order represented in the Nordic micro model is challenged.

  14. The Dividend Discount Model with Multiple Growth Rates of Any Order for Stock Evaluation

    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser; El-Khatib, Youssef

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we provide a general solution for the dividend discount model in order to compute the intrinsic value of a common stock that allows for multiple stage growth rates of any predetermined number of periods. A mathematical proof is provided for the suggested general solution. A numerical application is also presented. The solution introduced in this paper is expected to improve on the precision of stock valuation, which might be of fundamental importance for investors as well as fin...

  15. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS FOR THE PAIRED COMPARISON MODEL WITH ORDER EFFECTS (USING NON-INFORMATIVE PRIORS

    Ghausia Masood Gilani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it may be difficult for a panelist to rank or compare more than two objects or treatments at the same time. For this reason, paired comparison method is used. In this study, the Davidson and Beaver (1977 model for paired comparisons with order effects is analyzed through the Bayesian Approach. For this purpose, the posterior means and the posterior modes are compared using the noninformative priors.

  16. Analysis of Internet Usage Intensity in Iraq: An Ordered Logit Model

    Almas Heshmati; Firas H. Al-Hammadany; Ashraf Bany-Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Intensity of Internet use is significantly influenced by government policies, people’s levels of income, education, employment and general development and economic conditions. Iraq has very low Internet usage levels compared to the region and the world. This study uses an ordered logit model to analyse the intensity of Internet use in Iraq. The results showed that economic reasons (internet cost and income level) were key cause for low level usage intensity rates. About 68% of the population ...

  17. Reduced-Order Modeling of Unsteady Aerodynamics Across Multiple Mach Regimes

    2013-01-01

    elastic deformation, has been the subject of intensive study and has been treated in a number of textbooks , including Refs. 9–11, as well as review...simulations, which can be quite computationally-intensive. Reduced-order models (ROMs) o er a solution to these competing demands of accuracy and e ciency...regimes, from subsonic to hypersonic ight. The correction factor term allows the ROM to be accurate over a range of vehicle elastic modal deformation

  18. A Fuel-Sensitive Reduced-Order Model (ROM) for Piston Engine Scaling Analysis

    2017-09-29

    of high Reynolds number nonreacting and reacting JP-8 sprays in a constant pressure flow vessel with a detailed chemistry approach . J Energy Resour...for rapid grid generation applied to in-cylinder diesel engine simulations. Society of Automotive Engineers ; 2007 Apr. SAE Technical Paper No.: 2007...ARL-TR-8172 ● Sep 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Fuel-Sensitive Reduced-Order Model (ROM) for Piston Engine Scaling Analysis

  19. Presentation, calibration and validation of the low-order, DCESS Earth System Model

    Shaffer, G.; Olsen, S. Malskaer; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2008-01-01

    A new, low-order Earth system model is described, calibrated and tested against Earth system data. The model features modules for the atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere and has been designed to simulate global change on time scales of years to millions of years...... remineralization. The lithosphere module considers outgassing, weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks and weathering of rocks containing old organic carbon and phosphorus. Weathering rates are related to mean atmospheric temperatures. A pre-industrial, steady state calibration to Earth system data is carried...

  20. Team Resilience as a Second-Order Emergent State: A Theoretical Model and Research Directions

    Clint Bowers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resilience has been recognized as an important phenomenon for understanding how individuals overcome difficult situations. However, it is not only individuals who face difficulties; it is not uncommon for teams to experience adversity. When they do, they must be able to overcome these challenges without performance decrements.This manuscript represents a theoretical model that might be helpful in conceptualizing this important construct. Specifically, it describes team resilience as a second-order emergent state. We also include research propositions that follow from the model.