WorldWideScience

Sample records for model neurobiological preparations

  1. A Neurobiological Model of Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H; Nofzinger, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is a common clinical condition resulting in significant costs and morbidity. Previous models of insomnia focusing on psychological and behavioral processes are useful clinically, but lack neurobiological specificity. We propose an insomnia model based on basic and clinical neuroscience findings, and hypothesize that insomnia results from persistent activity in wake-promoting neural structures during NREM sleep. The simultaneous occurrence of sleeping and waking neural activity helps to explain clinical phenomenology and treatment effects in insomnia.

  2. A Neurobiological Model of Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.; Nofzinger, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is a common clinical condition resulting in significant costs and morbidity. Previous models of insomnia focusing on psychological and behavioral processes are useful clinically, but lack neurobiological specificity. We propose an insomnia model based on basic and clinical neuroscience findings, and hypothesize that insomnia results from persistent activity in wake-promoting neural structures during NREM sleep. The simultaneous occurrence of sleeping and waking neural activity helps ...

  3. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning.

  4. Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: a neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psychopaths, and serial killers. An initial neurobiological model of successful and unsuccessful psychopathy is outlined. It is hypothesized that successful psychopaths have intact or enhanced neurobiological functioning that underlies their normal or even superior cognitive functioning, which in turn helps them to achieve their goals using more covert and nonviolent methods. In contrast, in unsuccessful, caught psychopaths, brain structural and functional impairments together with autonomic nervous system dysfunction are hypothesized to underlie cognitive and emotional deficits and more overt violent offending.

  5. The rhythmic, transverse medullary slice preparation in respiratory neurobiology: contributions and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Gregory D; Greer, John J

    2013-04-01

    Our understanding of the sites and mechanisms underlying rhythmic breathing as well as the neuromodulatory control of respiratory rhythm, pattern, and respiratory motoneuron excitability during perinatal development has advanced significantly over the last 20 years. A major catalyst was the development in 1991 of the rhythmically-active medullary slice preparation, which provided precise mechanical and chemical control over the network as well as enhanced physical and optical access to key brainstem regions. Insights obtained in vitro have informed multiple mechanistic hypotheses. In vivo tests of these hypotheses, performed under conditions of reduced control and precision but more obvious physiological relevance, have clearly established the significance for respiratory neurobiology of the rhythmic slice preparation. We review the contributions of this preparation to current understanding/concepts in respiratory control, and outline the limitations of this approach in the context of studying rhythm and pattern generation, homeostatic control mechanisms and murine models of human genetic disorders that feature prominent breathing disturbances.

  6. Towards a Model of Language Attrition: Neurobiological and Psychological Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Asako

    1992-01-01

    Presents a tentative cognitive-psychological model of language attrition, which draws on information from studies in second language attrition, neurobiology and psychology. Notes that this model is presented to demonstrate that a model based on consideration of the brain has the potential of providing a plausible account of the process of language…

  7. The Life Span Model of Suicide and Its Neurobiological Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Birgit; Roy, Bhaskar; Wang, Qingzhong; Birur, Badari; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    The very incomprehensibility of the suicidal act has been occupying the minds of researchers and health professionals for a long time. Several theories of suicide have been proposed since the beginning of the past century, and a myriad of neurobiological studies have been conducted over the past two decades in order to elucidate its pathophysiology. Both neurobiology and psychological theories tend to work in parallel lines that need behavioral and empirical data respectively, to confirm their hypotheses. In this review, we are proposing a “Life Span Model of Suicide” with an attempt to integrate the “Stress-Diathesis Model” and the “Interpersonal Model of Suicide” into a neurobiological narrative and support it by providing a thorough compilation of related genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression findings. This proposed model comprises three layers, forming the capability of suicide: genetic factors as the predisposing Diathesis on one side and Stress, characterized by epigenetic marks on the other side, and in between gene expression and gene function which are thought to be influenced by Diathesis and Stress components. The empirical evidence of this model is yet to be confirmed and further research, specifically epigenetic studies in particular, are needed to support the presence of a life-long, evolving capability of suicide and identify its neurobiological correlates. PMID:28261051

  8. Towards a Model of Language Attrition: Neurobiological and Psychological Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitomi, Asako

    1992-01-01

    Research in L2 attrition is a relatively new enterprise which is in need of a comprehensive theory/model. This paper presents a tentative cognitive-psychological model of language attrition, which draws on information from studies in L2 attrition, neurobiology, and psychology. This is to demonstrate that a model based on consideration of the brain has the potential of providing a plausible account of the process of language attrition, as well as the process of language acquisition.

  9. Bridging emotion theory and neurobiology through dynamic systems modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marc D

    2005-04-01

    Efforts to bridge emotion theory with neurobiology can be facilitated by dynamic systems (DS) modeling. DS principles stipulate higher-order wholes emerging from lower-order constituents through bidirectional causal processes--offering a common language for psychological and neurobiological models. After identifying some limitations of mainstream emotion theory, I apply DS principles to emotion-cognition relations. I then present a psychological model based on this reconceptualization, identifying trigger, self-amplification, and self-stabilization phases of emotion-appraisal states, leading to consolidating traits. The article goes on to describe neural structures and functions involved in appraisal and emotion, as well as DS mechanisms of integration by which they interact. These mechanisms include nested feedback interactions, global effects of neuromodulation, vertical integration, action-monitoring, and synaptic plasticity, and they are modeled in terms of both functional integration and temporal synchronization. I end by elaborating the psychological model of emotion-appraisal states with reference to neural processes.

  10. Isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations remain important tools in respiratory neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen M; Turner, Sara M; Huxtable, Adrianne G; Ben-Mabrouk, Faiza

    2012-01-15

    Isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations are used extensively in respiratory neurobiology because the respiratory network in the pons and medulla is intact, monosynaptic descending inputs to spinal motoneurons can be activated, brainstem and spinal cord tissue can be bathed with different solutions, and the responses of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal motoneurons to experimental perturbations can be compared. The caveats and limitations of in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations are well-documented. However, isolated brainstem-spinal cords are still valuable experimental preparations that can be used to study neuronal connectivity within the brainstem, development of motor networks with lethal genetic mutations, deleterious effects of pathological drugs and conditions, respiratory spinal motor plasticity, and interactions with other motor behaviors. Our goal is to show how isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations still have a lot to offer scientifically and experimentally to address questions within and outside the field of respiratory neurobiology.

  11. Animal model and neurobiology of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Animal models are formidable tools to investigate the etiology, the course and the potential treatment of an illness. No convincing animal model of suicide has been produced to date, and despite the intensive study of thousands of animal species naturalists have not identified suicide in nonhuman species in field situations. When modeling suicidal behavior in the animal, the greatest challenge is reproducing the role of will and intention in suicide mechanics. To overcome this limitation, current investigations on animals focus on every single step leading to suicide in humans. The most promising endophenotypes worth investigating in animals are the cortisol social-stress response and the aggression/impulsivity trait, involving the serotonergic system. Astroglia, neurotrophic factors and neurotrophins are implied in suicide, too. The prevention of suicide rests on the identification and treatment of every element increasing the risk.

  12. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Stereotypy: Integrating Operant and Neurobiological Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    The predominant models on the emergence and maintenance of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities are based on operant and neurobiological interpretations of the behavior. Although the proponents of the two models maintain largely independent lines of research, operant and neurobiological interpretations of stereotypy are not…

  13. Unmasking feigned sanity: a neurobiological model of emotion processing in primary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The neurobiological basis of primary psychopathy, an emotional disorder characterised by a lack of fear and empathy, on the one hand, and extremely violent, antisocial tendencies, on the other, is relatively unknown. Nevertheless, theoretical models that emphasise the role of fearlessn

  14. Unmasking feigned sanity: a neurobiological model of emotion processing in primary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The neurobiological basis of primary psychopathy, an emotional disorder characterised by a lack of fear and empathy, on the one hand, and extremely violent, antisocial tendencies, on the other, is relatively unknown. Nevertheless, theoretical models that emphasise the role of fearlessn

  15. An interpersonal neurobiological-informed treatment model for childhood traumatic grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, David A

    This article expands an earlier model of the tasks of grieving (1990, [1995], [2001]) by building on science based findings derived from research in attachment theory, neuroscience, interpersonal neurobiology, and childhood traumatic grief (CTG). The proposed treatment model is a prescriptive approach that spells out specific tasks to be undertaken by children suffering traumatic grief under the direction of a therapist who is trained in trauma-informed therapy approaches and draws heavily on the empirically derived childhood traumatic grief treatment model developed by Cohen and Mannarino (2004; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). This model expands on their work by proposing specific tasks that are informed by attachment theory research and the interpersonal neurobiological research (Schore, 2003a, 2003b; Siegel, 1999). Particular emphasis is placed on developing a coherent and meaningful narrative since this has been found as a crucial factor in recovery from trauma in attachment research (Siegel, 1999; Siegel & Hartzell, 2003).

  16. A Neurobiological Model of Borderline Personality Disorder: Systematic and Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging. We consolidate the results of these studies and provide an integrative model that attempts to incorporate the heterogeneous findings. The model specifies interactions among endogenous stress hormones, neurometabolism, and brain structures and circuits involved in emotion and cognition. The role of the amygdala in BPD is expanded to consider its functions in coordinating the brain's dynamic evaluation of the relevance of emotional stimuli in the context of an individual's goals and motivations. Future directions for neurobiological research on BPD are discussed, including implications for the Research Domain Criteria framework, accelerating genetics research by incorporating endophenotypes and gene × environment interactions, and exploring novel applications of neuroscience findings to treatment research.

  17. VBA: a probabilistic treatment of nonlinear models for neurobiological and behavioural data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Daunizeau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is in line with an on-going effort tending toward a computational (quantitative and refutable understanding of human neuro-cognitive processes. Many sophisticated models for behavioural and neurobiological data have flourished during the past decade. Most of these models are partly unspecified (i.e. they have unknown parameters and nonlinear. This makes them difficult to peer with a formal statistical data analysis framework. In turn, this compromises the reproducibility of model-based empirical studies. This work exposes a software toolbox that provides generic, efficient and robust probabilistic solutions to the three problems of model-based analysis of empirical data: (i data simulation, (ii parameter estimation/model selection, and (iii experimental design optimization.

  18. VBA: a probabilistic treatment of nonlinear models for neurobiological and behavioural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunizeau, Jean; Adam, Vincent; Rigoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This work is in line with an on-going effort tending toward a computational (quantitative and refutable) understanding of human neuro-cognitive processes. Many sophisticated models for behavioural and neurobiological data have flourished during the past decade. Most of these models are partly unspecified (i.e. they have unknown parameters) and nonlinear. This makes them difficult to peer with a formal statistical data analysis framework. In turn, this compromises the reproducibility of model-based empirical studies. This work exposes a software toolbox that provides generic, efficient and robust probabilistic solutions to the three problems of model-based analysis of empirical data: (i) data simulation, (ii) parameter estimation/model selection, and (iii) experimental design optimization.

  19. Parental buffering of fear and stress neurobiology: Reviewing parallels across rodent, monkey, and human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R; Hostinar, Camelia E; Sanchez, Mar M; Tottenham, Nim; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-01-01

    It has been long recognized that parents exert profound influences on child development. Dating back to at least the seventeenth-century Enlightenment, the ability for parents to shape child behavior in an enduring way has been noted. Twentieth-century scholars developed theories to explain how parenting histories influence psychological development, and since that time, the number of scientific publications on parenting influences in both human and nonhuman animal fields has grown at an exponential rate, reaching numbers in the thousands by 2015. This special issue describes a symposium delivered by Megan Gunnar, Regina Sullivan, Mar Sanchez, and Nim Tottenham in the Fall of 2014 at the Society for Social Neuroscience. The goal of the symposium was to describe the emerging knowledge on neurobiological mechanisms that mediate parent-offspring interactions across three different species: rodent, monkey, and human. The talks were aimed at designing testable models of parenting effects on the development of emotional and stress regulation. Specifically, the symposium aimed at characterizing the special modulatory (buffering) effects of parental cues on fear- and stress-relevant neurobiology and behaviors of the offspring and to discuss examples of impaired buffering when the parent-infant relationship is disrupted.

  20. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  1. Neurobiological model of stimulated dopamine neurotransmission to interpret fast-scan cyclic voltammetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Rashed; Grassi, Christine M; Munoz, Miranda J; Torres, Gonzalo E; Wagner, Amy K

    2015-03-02

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method that can assess real-time in vivo dopamine (DA) concentration changes to study the kinetics of DA neurotransmission. Electrical stimulation of dopaminergic (DAergic) pathways can elicit FSCV DA responses that largely reflect a balance of DA release and reuptake. Interpretation of these evoked DA responses requires a framework to discern the contribution of DA release and reuptake. The current, widely implemented interpretive framework for doing so is the Michaelis-Menten (M-M) model, which is grounded on two assumptions- (1) DA release rate is constant during stimulation, and (2) DA reuptake occurs through dopamine transporters (DAT) in a manner consistent with M-M enzyme kinetics. Though the M-M model can simulate evoked DA responses that rise convexly, response types that predominate in the ventral striatum, the M-M model cannot simulate dorsal striatal responses that rise concavely. Based on current neurotransmission principles and experimental FSCV data, we developed a novel, quantitative, neurobiological framework to interpret DA responses that assumes DA release decreases exponentially during stimulation and continues post-stimulation at a diminishing rate. Our model also incorporates dynamic M-M kinetics to describe DA reuptake as a process of decreasing reuptake efficiency. We demonstrate that this quantitative, neurobiological model is an extension of the traditional M-M model that can simulate heterogeneous regional DA responses following manipulation of stimulation duration, frequency, and DA pharmacology. The proposed model can advance our interpretive framework for future in vivo FSCV studies examining regional DA kinetics and their alteration by disease and DA pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards an integrative theory of consciousness: Part 1 (Neurobiological and cognitive models)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study of consciousness is poised today at interesting crossroads. There has been a surge of research into various neurobiological underpinnings of consciousness in the past decade. The present article looks at the theories regarding this complex phenomenon, especially the ones that neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology have to offer. We will first discuss the origin and etymology of word consciousness and its usage. Neurobiological correlates of consciousness are d...

  3. Neurobiological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tomohiro; Okada, Kayo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was previously considered refractory to most types of therapeutic intervention. There is now, however, ample evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy are highly effective methods for treatment of OCD. Furthermore, recent neurobiological studies of OCD have found a close correlation between clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and brain function. A large number of previous neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified abnormally high activities throughout the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in patients with OCD. Most studies reported excessive activation of these areas during symptom provocation. Furthermore, these hyperactivities were decreased after successful treatment using either selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or behavioral therapy. Based on these findings, an orbitofronto-striatal model has been postulated as an abnormal neural circuit that mediates symptomatic expression of OCD. On the other hand, previous neuropsychological studies of OCD have reported cognitive dysfunction in executive function, attention, nonverbal memory, and visuospatial skills. Moreover, recent fMRI studies have revealed a correlation between neuropsychological dysfunction and clinical symptoms in OCD by using neuropsychological tasks during fMRI. The evidence from fMRI studies suggests that broader regions, including dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior regions, might be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Further, we should consider that OCD is heterogeneous and might have several different neural systems related to clinical factors, such as symptom dimensions. This review outlines recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of OCD. We will also describe several neurobiological models that have been developed recently. Advanced findings in these fields will update the

  4. What is so special about smell? Olfaction as a model system in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwich, Ann-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiology studies mechanisms of cell signalling. A key question is how cells recognise specific signals. In this context, olfaction has become an important experimental system over the past 25 years. The olfactory system responds to an array of structurally diverse stimuli. The discovery of the olfactory receptors (ORs), recognising these stimuli, established the olfactory pathway as part of a greater group of signalling mechanisms mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are the largest protein family in the mammalian genome and involved in numerous fundamental physiological processes. The OR family exhibits two characteristics that make them an excellent model system to understand GPCRs: its size and the structural diversity of its members. Research on the OR binding site investigates what amino acid sequences determine the receptor-binding capacity. This promises a better understanding of how the basic genetic makeup of GPCRs relates to their diversification in ligand-binding capacities.

  5. Using the Activity-based Anorexia Rodent Model to Study the Neurobiological Basis of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-10-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by excessively restricted caloric intake and abnormally high levels of physical activity. A challenging illness to treat, due to the lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiology, AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. To address this need, neuroscientists are using an animal model to study how neural circuits may contribute toward vulnerability to AN and may be affected by AN. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a bio-behavioral phenomenon described in rodents that models the key symptoms of anorexia nervosa. When rodents with free access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel experience food restriction, they become hyperactive - running more than animals with free access to food. Here, we describe the procedures by which ABA is induced in adolescent female C57BL/6 mice. On postnatal day 36 (P36), the animal is housed with access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel. After 4 days of acclimation to the running wheel, on P40, all food is removed from the cage. For the next 3 days, food is returned to the cage (allowing animals free food access) for 2 hr daily. After the fourth day of food restriction, free access to food is returned and the running wheel is removed from the cage to allow the animals to recover. Continuous multi-day analysis of running wheel activity shows that mice become hyperactive within 24 hr following the onset of food restriction. The mice run even during the limited time during which they have access to food. Additionally, the circadian pattern of wheel running becomes disrupted by the experience of food restriction. We have been able to correlate neurobiological changes with various aspects of the animals' wheel running behavior to implicate particular brain regions and neurochemical changes with resilience and vulnerability to food-restriction induced hyperactivity.

  6. Hippocampal Non-Theta-Contingent Eyeblink Classical Conditioning: A Model System for Neurobiological Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchese, Joseph J; Berry, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Typical information processing is thought to depend on the integrity of neurobiological oscillations that may underlie coordination and timing of cells and assemblies within and between structures. The 3-7 Hz bandwidth of hippocampal theta rhythm is associated with cognitive processes essential to learning and depends on the integrity of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic forebrain systems. Since several significant psychiatric disorders appear to result from dysfunction of medial temporal lobe (MTL) neurochemical systems, preclinical studies on animal models may be an important step in defining and treating such syndromes. Many studies have shown that the amount of hippocampal theta in the rabbit strongly predicts the acquisition rate of classical eyeblink conditioning and that impairment of this system substantially slows the rate of learning and attainment of asymptotic performance. Our lab has developed a brain-computer interface that makes eyeblink training trials contingent upon the explicit presence or absence of hippocampal theta. The behavioral benefit of theta-contingent training has been demonstrated in both delay and trace forms of the paradigm with a two- to fourfold increase in learning speed over non-theta states. The non-theta behavioral impairment is accompanied by disruption of the amplitude and synchrony of hippocampal local field potentials, multiple-unit excitation, and single-unit response patterns dependent on theta state. Our findings indicate a significant electrophysiological and behavioral impact of the pretrial state of the hippocampus that suggests an important role for this MTL system in associative learning and a significant deleterious impact in the absence of theta. Here, we focus on the impairments in the non-theta state, integrate them into current models of psychiatric disorders, and suggest how improvement in our understanding of neurobiological oscillations is critical for theories and treatment of psychiatric

  7. Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder and recent neurobiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Annie M; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Edwards, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by the intrusive re-experiencing of past trauma, avoidant behavior, enhanced fear, and hyperarousal following a traumatic event in vulnerable populations. Preclinical animal models do not replicate the human condition in its entirety, but seek to mimic symptoms or endophenotypes associated with PTSD. Although many models of traumatic stress exist, few adequately capture the complex nature of the disorder and the observed individual variability in susceptibility of humans to PTSD. In addition, various types of stressors may produce different molecular neuroadaptations that likely contribute to the various behavioral disruptions produced by each model, although certain consistent neurobiological themes related to PTSD have emerged. For example, animal models report traumatic stress-induced and trauma reminder-induced alterations in neuronal activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in agreement with the human PTSD literature. Models have also provided a conceptual framework for the often-observed combination of PTSD and comorbid conditions such as alcohol use disorder. Future studies will continue to refine preclinical PTSD models in hope of capitalizing on their potential to deliver new and more efficacious treatments for PTSD and associated psychiatric disorders.

  8. Temporal self-regulation Theory: A neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative mini-review introduces temporal self-regulation theory (TST; Hall & Fong, 2007; 2013, as a new explanatory model for physical activity behavior. Important features of the model include consideration of the default status of the physical activity behavior, as well as the disproportionate influence of temporally proximal behavioral contingencies. Most importantly, the TST model proposes positive feedback loops linking executive function and the performance of physical activity behavior. Specifically, those with relatively stronger executive control (and optimized brain structures supporting it, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are able to implement physical activity with more consistency than others, which in turn serves to strengthen the executive control network itself. The TST model has the potential to explain everyday variants of incidental physical activity, sport-related excellence via capacity for deliberate practise, and variability in the propensity to schedule and implement exercise routines.

  9. Temporal self-regulation theory: a neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative review introduces temporal self-regulation theory (TST; Hall and Fong, 2007, 2013) as a new explanatory model for physical activity behavior. Important features of the model include consideration of the default status of the physical activity behavior, as well as the disproportionate influence of temporally proximal behavioral contingencies. Most importantly, the TST model proposes positive feedback loops linking executive function (EF) and the performance of physical activity behavior. Specifically, those with relatively stronger executive control (and optimized brain structures supporting it, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)) are able to implement physical activity with more consistency than others, which in turn serves to strengthen the executive control network itself. The TST model has the potential to explain everyday variants of incidental physical activity, sport-related excellence via capacity for deliberate practice, and variability in the propensity to schedule and implement exercise routines.

  10. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-05-13

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.

  11. Craving to quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A; Elwafi, Hani M; Davis, Jake H

    2013-06-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Craving to Quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Davis, Jake H.

    2012-01-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained sub-optimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. Interestingly, these early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. PMID:22642859

  13. Suicide neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    In this review, we examine the history of the neurobiology of suicide, as well as the genetics, molecular and neurochemical findings in suicide research. Our analysis begins with a summary of family, twin, and adoption studies, which provide support for the investigation of genetic variation in suicide risk. This leads to an overview of neurochemical findings restricted to neurotransmitters and their receptors, including recent findings in whole genome gene expression studies. Next, we look at recent studies investigating lipid metabolism, cell signalling with a particular emphasis on growth factors, stress systems with a focus on the role of polyamines, and finally, glial cell pathology in suicide. We conclude with a description of new ideas to study the neurobiology of suicide, including subject-specific analysis, protein modification assessment, neuroarchitecture studies, and study design strategies to investigate the complex suicide phenotype.

  14. Understanding responder neurobiology in schizophrenia using a quantitative systems pharmacology model: application to iloperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Roberts, Patrick; Spiros, Athan; Potkin, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The concept of targeted therapies remains a holy grail for the pharmaceutical drug industry for identifying responder populations or new drug targets. Here we provide quantitative systems pharmacology as an alternative to the more traditional approach of retrospective responder pharmacogenomics analysis and applied this to the case of iloperidone in schizophrenia. This approach implements the actual neurophysiological effect of genotypes in a computer-based biophysically realistic model of human neuronal circuits, is parameterized with human imaging and pathology, and is calibrated by clinical data. We keep the drug pharmacology constant, but allowed the biological model coupling values to fluctuate in a restricted range around their calibrated values, thereby simulating random genetic mutations and representing variability in patient response. Using hypothesis-free Design of Experiments methods the dopamine D4 R-AMPA (receptor-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor coupling in cortical neurons was found to drive the beneficial effect of iloperidone, likely corresponding to the rs2513265 upstream of the GRIA4 gene identified in a traditional pharmacogenomics analysis. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-mediated effect on interneuron gamma-aminobutyric acid conductance was identified as the process that moderately drove the differentiation of iloperidone versus ziprasidone. This paper suggests that reverse-engineered quantitative systems pharmacology is a powerful alternative tool to characterize the underlying neurobiology of a responder population and possibly identifying new targets. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. How is visual salience computed in the brain? Insights from behaviour, neurobiology and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Richard; Hafed, Ziad M.

    2017-01-01

    Inherent in visual scene analysis is a bottleneck associated with the need to sequentially sample locations with foveating eye movements. The concept of a ‘saliency map’ topographically encoding stimulus conspicuity over the visual scene has proven to be an efficient predictor of eye movements. Our work reviews insights into the neurobiological implementation of visual salience computation. We start by summarizing the role that different visual brain areas play in salience computation, whether at the level of feature analysis for bottom-up salience or at the level of goal-directed priority maps for output behaviour. We then delve into how a subcortical structure, the superior colliculus (SC), participates in salience computation. The SC represents a visual saliency map via a centre-surround inhibition mechanism in the superficial layers, which feeds into priority selection mechanisms in the deeper layers, thereby affecting saccadic and microsaccadic eye movements. Lateral interactions in the local SC circuit are particularly important for controlling active populations of neurons. This, in turn, might help explain long-range effects, such as those of peripheral cues on tiny microsaccades. Finally, we show how a combination of in vitro neurophysiology and large-scale computational modelling is able to clarify how salience computation is implemented in the local circuit of the SC. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044023

  16. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may pro...

  17. Towards an integrative theory of consciousness: part 1 (neurobiological and cognitive models).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    The study of consciousness is poised today at interesting crossroads. There has been a surge of research into various neurobiological underpinnings of consciousness in the past decade. The present article looks at the theories regarding this complex phenomenon, especially the ones that neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology have to offer. We will first discuss the origin and etymology of word consciousness and its usage. Neurobiological correlates of consciousness are discussed with structures like the ascending reticular activating system, the amygdala, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the frontoparietal circuits, the prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. The cellular and microlevel theories of consciousness and cerebral activity at the neuronal level contributing to consciousness are highlighted, along with the various theories posited in this area. The role of neuronal assemblies and circuits along with firing patterns and their ramifications for the understanding of consciousness are discussed. A section on the role of anaesthesia and its links to consciousness is presented, along with details of split-brain studies in consciousness and altered states of awareness, including the vegetative states. The article finally discusses the progress cognitive psychology has made in identifying and theorising various perspectives of consciousness, perceptual awareness and conscious processing. Both recent and past researches are highlighted. The importance and salient features of each theory are discussed along with the pitfalls, if present. A need for integration of various theories to understand consciousness from a holistic perspective is stressed, to enable one to reach a theory that explains the ultimate neurobiology of consciousness.

  18. Towards an integrative theory of consciousness: Part 1 (Neurobiological and cognitive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of consciousness is poised today at interesting crossroads. There has been a surge of research into various neurobiological underpinnings of consciousness in the past decade. The present article looks at the theories regarding this complex phenomenon, especially the ones that neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology have to offer. We will first discuss the origin and etymology of word consciousness and its usage. Neurobiological correlates of consciousness are discussed with structures like the ascending reticular activating system, the amygdala, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the frontoparietal circuits, the prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. The cellular and microlevel theories of consciousness and cerebral activity at the neuronal level contributing to consciousness are highlighted, along with the various theories posited in this area. The role of neuronal assemblies and circuits along with firing patterns and their ramifications for the understanding of consciousness are discussed. A section on the role of anaesthesia and its links to consciousness is presented, along with details of split-brain studies in consciousness and altered states of awareness, including the vegetative states. The article finally discusses the progress cognitive psychology has made in identifying and theorising various perspectives of consciousness, perceptual awareness and conscious processing. Both recent and past researches are highlighted. The importance and salient features of each theory are discussed along with the pitfalls, if present. A need for integration of various theories to understand consciousness from a holistic perspective is stressed, to enable one to reach a theory that explains the ultimate neurobiology of consciousness.

  19. Preparations, models, and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an outline for a typology of the different forms that scientific objects can take in the life sciences. The first section discusses preparations (or specimens)--a form of scientific object that accompanied the development of modern biology in different guises from the seventeenth century to the present: as anatomical-morphological specimens, as microscopic cuts, and as biochemical preparations. In the second section, the characteristics of models in biology are discussed. They became prominent from the end of the nineteenth century onwards. Some remarks on the role of simulations--characterising the life sciences of the turn from the twentieth to the twenty-first century--conclude the paper.

  20. Correlation between quality of life assessment and a personality neurobiologic model in dialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Caccamo, Chiara; Floccari, Fulvio; Coppolino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Donatella; Giacobbe, Maria Stella; Senatore, Massimino; Aloisi, Carmela; Ruello, Antonella; Sturiale, Alessio; Ientile, Riccardo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Frisina, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) is a self-administered scoring system that has been widely used and validated as a quality of life (QOL) assessment tool. In our study, a cluster analysis of SF-36 scores was performed in 50 healthy volunteers (controls) and 50 neurobiologically asymptomatic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Firstly, we assayed the tendency to form clusters from each of the investigated dimensions. Statistic analysis was performed using the Student's t-test for independent measurements and multiple regression analysis. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate if the MHD to apply to both groups a general psychobiological personality model developed by Cloninger in 1987. Cloninger describes three independent personality dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA)and reward dependence (RD). Each personality dimension would be the expression of hereditary variations integrating the three main brain systems, respectively: dopaminergic, serotoninergic and noradrenergic. Finally, we then aimed to investigate possible interferences among the seric concentrations of the neuromodulators and SF-36 scores, in the attempt to identify, using a simple approach, the complex personality structure of MHD patients. QOL self-assessment and seric neuromodulators were measured in both groups, choosing an interdialytic day for MHD patients. We found that MHD patients perceived a significant worsening in their QOL in all investigated dimensions with respect to the controls. In addition, they showed significantly lower dopamine and serotonine concentrations and significantly higher noradrenaline concentrations. Therefore, our study, confirmed data reported previously in the literature, that cluster analysis of SF-36 scores provides different results in the MHD population in comparison to normal subjects. In fact, comparing the hierarchical trees of both groups, it appeared evident that in MHD patients, cluster dimensions were greater than in the

  1. Stress, depression and cardiovascular dysregulation: a review of neurobiological mechanisms and the integration of research from preclinical disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2009-01-01

    Bidirectional associations between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases are extensively documented. However, the precise physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie such relationships are not well understood. This review focuses on the neurobiological processes and mediators that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. The discussion places an emphasis on the role of exogenous stressors in addition to: (a) neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes involving dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, (b) immune alterations including activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, (c) autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation including increased sympathetic drive, withdrawal of parasympathetic tone, cardiac rate and rhythm disturbances, and altered baroreceptor reflex function, (d) central neurotransmitter system dysfunction involving the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin systems, and (e) behavioral changes including fatigue and physical inactivity. The review also discusses experimental investigations using preclinical disease models to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. These include: (a) the chronic mild stress model of depression, (b) a model of congestive heart failure, (c) a model of cardiovascular deconditioning, (d) pharmacological manipulations of body fluid and sodium balance, and (e) pharmacological manipulations of the central serotonergic system. In combination with an extensive human research literature, the investigation of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance understanding the association between depression and cardiovascular disease. This will ultimately promote the development of better treatments and interventions for individuals with co-morbid psychological and somatic pathologies.

  2. The 39,XO mouse as a model for the neurobiology of Turner syndrome and sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Phoebe M Y; Davies, William

    2007-05-16

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder most frequently arising from the loss of a complete X chromosome (karyotype 45,XO). The disorder is characterised by physiological abnormalities (notably short stature and ovarian dysfunction), emotional anomalies (including heightened anxiety) and by a neuropsychological profile encompassing deficits in visuospatial skills, memory, attention, social cognition and emotion recognition. Moreover, TS subjects are at significantly increased risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. At the neuroanatomical level, TS subjects display abnormalities across a number of brain structures, including the amygdala, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex. The TS phenotype arises due to reduced dosage of X-linked genes, and may also be modulated by parental origin of the single X chromosome. In this review, we discuss the utility of a mouse model of TS, the 39,XO mouse, in which the parental origin of the single X chromosome can be varied. This model provides the opportunity to investigate the effects of X-linked gene dosage/parent-of-origin effects on neurobiology in the absence of gross physiological abnormalities. Initial findings indicate that several features of the TS behavioural phenotype may be accurately recapitulated in the mouse. Furthermore, as X-linked gene dosage/imprinting can influence sex-specific neurobiology, investigations in the 39,XO mouse are also likely to offer insights into why certain neuropsychiatric disorders (including ADHD and autism) affect the sexes differently.

  3. [Neurobiology of Tourette Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Dilek; Akdemir, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although it is a common disorder in childhood, the etiology of Tourette Syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet. Studies, -conducted so far- have revealed differences in neurobiological structures of individuals who suffer from Tourette Syndrome. The objective of this review is to assess etiological and pathophysiological studies in the Tourette Syndrome literature. An electronical search was conducted in PubMed database using the keywords tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome, neurobiology, genetics, neuroimaging and animal models. Research and review studies published between 1985 and 2015, with a selection preference towards recent publications, were reviewed. According to the studies, genetic predisposition hypothesis is considered as a priority. However, a precise genetic disorder associated with Tourette Syndrome has not been found. The evidence from postmortem and neuroimaging studies in heterogenous patient groups and animal studies supports the pathological involvement of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits in Tourette Syndrome. Consequently, the most emphasized hypothesis in the pathophysiology is the dopaminergic dysfunction in these circuits. Furthermore, these findings of the animal, postmortem and neuroimaging studies have confirmed the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of Tourette Syndrome. In conclusion, more studies are needed to understand the etiology of the disorder. The data obtained from neurobiological studies of the disorder will not only shed light on the way of Tourette Syndrome, but also guide studies on its treatment options.

  4. Mental Health Comorbidities in Pediatric Chronic Pain: A Narrative Review of Epidemiology, Models, Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Vinall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions. Particularly within the pediatric chronic pain population, these factors are embedded within the broader context of the parent–child relationship. In this review, we will explore the epidemiology of, and current working models explaining, these comorbidities. Particular emphasis will be made on shared neurobiological mechanisms, given that the majority of previous research to date has centered on cognitive, affective, and behavioral mechanisms. Parental contributions to co-occurring chronic pain and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence will be discussed. Moreover, we will review current treatment recommendations and future directions for both research and practice. We argue that the integration of biological and behavioral approaches will be critical to sufficiently address why these comorbidities exist and how they can best be targeted in treatment.

  5. Mental Health Comorbidities in Pediatric Chronic Pain: A Narrative Review of Epidemiology, Models, Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Pavlova, Maria; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Rasic, Nivez; Noel, Melanie

    2016-12-02

    Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions. Particularly within the pediatric chronic pain population, these factors are embedded within the broader context of the parent-child relationship. In this review, we will explore the epidemiology of, and current working models explaining, these comorbidities. Particular emphasis will be made on shared neurobiological mechanisms, given that the majority of previous research to date has centered on cognitive, affective, and behavioral mechanisms. Parental contributions to co-occurring chronic pain and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence will be discussed. Moreover, we will review current treatment recommendations and future directions for both research and practice. We argue that the integration of biological and behavioral approaches will be critical to sufficiently address why these comorbidities exist and how they can best be targeted in treatment.

  6. The molecular genetics and neurobiology of developmental dyslexia as model of a complex phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kere, Juha

    2014-09-19

    Among complex disorders, those concerning neuropsychiatric phenotypes involve particular challenges compared to disorders with more easily distinguished clinical signs and measures. One such common and unusually challenging phenotype to disentangle genetically is developmental dyslexia (DD), or reading disability, defined as the inability to learn to read and write for an otherwise normally intelligent child with normal senses and educational opportunity. There is presently ample evidence for the strongly biological etiology for DD, and a dozen susceptibility genes have been suggested. Many of these genes point to common but previously unsuspected biological mechanisms, such as neuronal migration and cilia functions. I discuss here the state-of-the-art in genomic and neurobiological aspects of DD research, starting with short general background to its history.

  7. Rodent models of obsessive compulsive disorder: Evaluating validity to interpret emerging neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zike, Isaac; Xu, Tim; Hong, Natalie; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-03-14

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with unknown molecular underpinnings. Identification of genetic and non-genetic risk factors has largely been elusive, primarily because of a lack of power. In contrast, neuroimaging has consistently implicated the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in OCD. Pharmacological treatment studies also show specificity, with consistent response of OCD symptoms to chronic treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors; although most patients are left with residual impairment. In theory, animal models could provide a bridge from the neuroimaging and pharmacology data to an understanding of pathophysiology at the cellular and molecular level. Several mouse models have been proposed using genetic, immunological, pharmacological, and optogenetic tools. These experimental model systems allow testing of hypotheses about the origins of compulsive behavior. Several models have generated behavior that appears compulsive-like, particularly excessive grooming, and some have demonstrated response to chronic serotonin reuptake inhibitors, establishing both face validity and predictive validity. Construct validity is more difficult to establish in the context of a limited understanding of OCD risk factors. Our current models may help us to dissect the circuits and molecular pathways that can elicit OCD-relevant behavior in rodents. We can hope that this growing understanding, coupled with developing technology, will prepare us when robust OCD risk factors are better understood.

  8. A Neurobiological Model for the Effects of Early Brainstem Functioning on the Development of Behavior and Emotion Regulation in Infants: Implications for Prenatal and Perinatal Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Neurobiological models propose an evolutionary, vertical-integrative perspective on emotion and behavior regulation, which postulates that regulatory functions are processed along three core brain systems: the brainstem, limbic, and cortical systems. To date, few developmental studies applied these models to research on prenatal and perinatal…

  9. Neurodynamics: nonlinear dynamics and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarbanel, H D; Rabinovich, M I

    2001-08-01

    The use of methods from contemporary nonlinear dynamics in studying neurobiology has been rather limited.Yet, nonlinear dynamics has become a practical tool for analyzing data and verifying models. This has led to productive coupling of nonlinear dynamics with experiments in neurobiology in which the neural circuits are forced with constant stimuli, with slowly varying stimuli, with periodic stimuli, and with more complex information-bearing stimuli. Analysis of these more complex stimuli of neural circuits goes to the heart of how one is to understand the encoding and transmission of information by nervous systems.

  10. Fundamentals of neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Hall, D

    2011-01-01

    Session 1 of the 2010 STP/IFSTP Joint Symposium on Toxicologic Neuropathology, titled "Fundamentals of Neurobiology," was organized to provide a foundation for subsequent sessions by presenting essential elements of neuroanatomy and nervous system function. A brief introduction to the session titled "Introduction to Correlative Neurobiology" was provided by Dr. Greg Hall (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN). Correlative neurobiology refers to considerations of the relationships between the highly organized and compartmentalized structure of nervous tissues and the functioning within this system.

  11. Early life stress, the development of aggression and neuroendocrine and neurobiological correlates: what can we learn from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Alexa H

    2009-10-01

    Early life stress (child and adolescent abuse, neglect and trauma) induces robust alterations in emotional and social functioning resulting in enhanced risk for the development of psychopathologies such as mood and aggressive disorders. Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA), vasopressin and serotonin systems and their relevance for the regulation of aggression are discussed. Data suggest that social deprivation-induced inappropriate forms of aggression are associated with high or low HPA axis (re)activity and a generally lower functioning of the serotonin system in adulthood. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic modifications in HPA and serotonin systems influence the outcome of early life stress and may even moderate adverse effects of early social deprivation on aggression. A more comprehensive study of aggression, neuroendocrine, neurobiological and (epi)genetic correlates of early life stress using animal models is necessary to provide a better understanding of the invasive aggressive deficits observed in humans exposed to child maltreatment.

  12. Effects of Some Neurobiological Factors in a Self-organized Critical Model Based on Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Ming; ZHANG Ying-Yue; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2005-01-01

    Based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism, we investigate the effect of changing the efficacy of the synapse,the transmitting time-delayed, and the relative refractoryperiod on the self-organized criticality in our neural network model.

  13. Parenting and addiction: neurobiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Helena Jv; Mayes, Linda C

    2017-06-01

    Addiction remains a significant public health concern that affects multiple generations within families, and in particular the early relationship between parents and their developing child. This article will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of parenting and addiction. Specifically, the discussion will focus on the reward-stress dysregulation model of addicted parenting, which proposes that the dysregulation of stress and reward neural circuits by addiction represents a neurobiological pathway through which to understand how caregiving may be compromised in addicted parents. Empirical research in parents and non-parents will be discussed in support of this model and critical consideration of the model and its limitations will be provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development.

  15. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  16. The use of animal models to decipher physiological and neurobiological alterations of Anorexia Nervosa patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eMéquinion

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe and sometimes irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptides, neurotransmitter in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the used of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa.

  17. Neurobiologia do parkinsonismo: II. modelos experimentais Neurobiology of parkinsonism: II. experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ponzoni

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de modelos experimentais de parkinsonismo tem contribuído não só para explicar o conhecimento das funções dos gânglios basais como também tem permitido o surgimento de várias hipóteses para explicar os processos neurodegeneratives do sistema nervoso central. Nesta revisão são apresentados e discutidos os modelos de parkinsonismo que utilizam neurotoxins como a 6-hidroxidopamina, MPTP e o manganês.The study of experimental models of parkinsonism has contributed to the knowledge of basal ganglia functions, as well as to the establishment of several hypothesis for the explanation of the cause and expression of central neurodegenerative disorders. In this review we present and discuss several models such as 6-hydroxydopamine, MPTP and manganese, all of them widely used to characterize the behavioral, cellular and molecular mechanisms of parkinsonism.

  18. Developmental rodent models of fear and anxiety: from neurobiology to pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders pose one of the biggest threats to mental health in the world, and they predominantly emerge early in life. However, research of anxiety disorders and fear-related memories during development has been largely neglected, and existing treatments have been developed based on adult models of anxiety. The present review describes animal models of anxiety disorders across development and what is currently known of their pharmacology. To summarize, the underlying mechanisms of intrinsic 'unlearned' fear are poorly understood, especially beyond the period of infancy. Models using 'learned' fear reveal that through development, rats exhibit a stress hyporesponsive period before postnatal day 10, where they paradoxically form odour-shock preferences, and then switch to more adult-like conditioned fear responses. Juvenile rats appear to forget these aversive associations more easily, as is observed with the phenomenon of infantile amnesia. Juvenile rats also undergo more robust extinction, until adolescence where they display increased resistance to extinction. Maturation of brain structures, such as the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, along with the different temporal recruitment and involvement of various neurotransmitter systems (including NMDA, GABA, corticosterone and opioids) are responsible for these developmental changes. Taken together, the studies described in this review highlight that there is a period early in development where rats appear to be more robust in overcoming adverse early life experience. We need to understand the fundamental pharmacological processes underlying anxiety early in life in order to take advantage of this period for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  19. Using a maternal immune stimulation model of schizophrenia to study behavioral and neurobiological alterations over the developmental course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Ravit; Soto-Montenegro, M Luisa; Götz, Thomas; Wieske, Franziska; Sohr, Reinhard; Desco, Manuel; Hamani, Clement; Weiner, Ina; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence sheds light on the neurodevelopmental nature of schizophrenia with symptoms typically emerging during late adolescence or young adulthood. We compared the pre-symptomatic adolescence period with the full symptomatic period of adulthood at the behavioral and neurobiological level in the poly I:C maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia. We found that in MIS-rats impaired sensorimotor gating, as reflected in disrupted prepusle inhibition (PPI), emerged post-pubertally, with behavioral deficits being only recorded in adulthood but not during adolescence. Using post mortem HPLC we found that MIS-rats show distinct dopamine and serotonin changes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (Nacc), caudate putamen, globus pallidus, and hippocampus. Further, FDG-PET has shown that these animals had lower glucose uptake in the ventral hippocampus and PFC and a higher metabolism in the amygdala and Nacc when compared to controls. Changes in neurotransmission and metabolic activity varied across brain structures with respect to first appearance and further development. In the mPFC and Hipp, MIS-rats showed abnormal neurochemical and metabolic activity prior to and with the development of behavioral deficits in both adolescent and adult states, reflecting an early impairment of these regions. In contrast, biochemical alteration in the Nacc and globus pallidus developed as a matter of age. Our findings suggest that MIS-induced neurochemical and metabolic changes are neurodevelopmental in nature and either progressive or non-progressive and that the behavioral deficits manifest as these abnormalities increase.

  20. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies.

  1. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    Recent advances in the neurosciences have begun to elucidate how some fundamental mechanisms of nervous system activity can explain human information processing and the acquisition of knowledge. Some of these findings are consistent with a cognitive view of constructivist models of learning and provide additional theoretical support for constructivist applications to science education reform. Current thought at the interface between neurocognitive research and constructivist philosophy is summarized here and discussed in a context of implications for scientific epistemology and conceptual change processes in science education.

  2. Neurobiology of song learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Birdsong is a culturally transmitted behavior that depends on a juvenile songbird’s ability to imitate the song of an adult tutor. Neurobiological studies of birdsong can reveal how a complex form of imitative learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood at the level of underlying circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies that illuminate the neurobiological mechanisms for singing and song learning. PMID:19892546

  3. [Behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities induced by social isolation as a useful animal model of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Luo, Lu; Ma, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xi-Hong; Li, Liang

    2013-02-25

    Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and dysfunctions in conditioned learning, reversal learning and memory. Moreover, social isolation causes changes of neurotransmitters, such as the increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala and other brain regions in the limbic system, the decrease of dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex, the decrease of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus, and changes of glutamine in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, social isolation affects cell apoptosis in different brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Both the changes in neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis may contribute to the behavioral dysfunctions in social isolated rats. Since schizophrenic patients have similar abnormalities in behaviors and neurotransmitters, isolation rearing can be used as a useful animal model of schizophrenia.

  4. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  5. Neurobiological model and quality of life in discovering personality of the uremic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Campo, Susanna; Crascì, Eleonora; Aloisi, Carmela; Giacobbe, Maria Stella; Bolignano, Davide; Sturiale, Alessio; Buemi, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire is designed to measure the patient's functional capacity and well-being. It was created to reach a compromise between lengthy investigation methods and one dimensional, overly simple tools for measuring quality of life (QoL). In 1987, the psychiatrist Robert Cloninger proposed a psycho-biological model hinged upon three principal and independent dimensions of the human personality: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD), linked with dopaminergic, serotoninergic and noradrenergic activity, respectively. According to Cloninger, each dimension is the expression of the integration of a hereditary condition, characterized by biologic substrates, in response to specific environmental stimuli. We furthermore searched for any interference between the SF-36 scores and plasmatic dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline concentrations, in an attempt to identify eventual correlations between the condition of the patients, their subjective QoL evaluation and neurohormonal plasmatic equilibrium. We compared results obtained from healthy subjects with populations of patients in different periods of their clinical existence: patients on hemodialysis; with a functioning transplantation; with renal graft function loss; returning to dialysis after graft loss and two years after restarting hemodialysis.

  6. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. T...

  7. The neurobiology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Carlos A; Eberhart, Charles G

    2007-10-01

    Improving clinical tests are allowing us to more precisely classify autism spectrum disorders and diagnose them at earlier ages. This raises the possibility of earlier and potentially more effective therapeutic interventions. To fully capitalize on this opportunity, however, will require better understanding of the neurobiological changes underlying this devastating group of developmental disorders. It is becoming clear that the normal trajectory of neurodevelopment is altered in autism, with aberrations in brain growth, neuronal patterning and cortical connectivity. Changes to the structure and function of synapses and dendrites have also been strongly implicated in the pathology of autism by morphological, genetic and animal modeling studies. Finally, environmental factors are likely to interact with the underlying genetic profile, and foster the clinical heterogeneity seen in autism spectrum disorders. In this review we attempt to link the molecular pathways altered in autism to the neurodevelopmental and clinical changes that characterize the disease. We focus on signaling molecules such as neurotrophin, Reelin, PTEN and hepatocyte growth factor, neurotransmitters such as serotonin and glutamate, and synaptic proteins such as neurexin, SHANK and neuroligin. We also discuss evidence implicating oxidative stress, neuroglial activation and neuroimmunity in autism.

  8. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for...

  9. [Neurobiology of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, D F

    2010-03-01

    Basic and clinical neurosciences have effectively advanced research on aetiology, pathogenesis and therapy options of psychiatric disorders. The objectives of the present short review were to summarise the key findings regarding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the gene, cell as well as system level. Consistent with structural findings, which report alterations in regions of emotionally relevant networks of the brain in depressive disorders, findings of functional studies point to changes in an ordered interaction of ventral-limbic and dorsal-neocortical regions of the brain. Genetic and stress vulnerabilities as well as social rhythm disrupting interact to initiate a cascade of neurobiological alterations that disrupt this dynamic system. On the cellular level, monoamine as well as glutamate neurotransmission, circadian rhythm disturbance, glucocorticoids, inflammatory cytokines and brain-derived growth factors are relevant mediators of these pathological alterations. Progressive effects of recurrent and chronic MDD may then lead to further structural and functional abnormalities. Thus, treatment providers are directed to recog-nise that the factors that may initiate an MDD episode and those that maintain the illness are likely to be different. Given these long-term consequences, an essential objective of treatment must be to restore as early as possible normative functioning and prevent further neurobiological structural alterations.

  10. [Recent progress in neurobiological mechanisms of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Bo; Li, Liang-Ping; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2012-08-25

    Revealing the neurobiological mechanism of depression has always been a big challenge in the field of neuroscience. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but also some symptoms are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, great progress has been made on the understanding and treatment of depression in recent years. In this review, we focus on key leading hypotheses in the neurobiological mechanism of depression, examine their strengths and weaknesses critically, and also highlight new insights that promise to extend the understanding of depression and its treatment.

  11. Neurobiological implications of eating healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Kim, Jae Won; Stefano, George B

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, the importance of food in the development of chronic diseases has been examined, as well as the medical value of eating healthy. The contribution of the eating process itself to health and well-being, however, has not been questioned until most recently. Biology has linked eating to appetitive motivational processes with their underlying neurophysiology, including CNS reward circuitries: Eating uses the pleasure-reward physiology to motivate us to eat. Endogenous opiates, such as morphine, insure our survival by helping us to make eating motivational via pleasure induction. After taking in enough food, we become satisfied, i.e., tolerant to food. Our appetite, and so is our appetence, are then low and need a certain time span to reach their former levels for then inducing food-seeking behaviors, food intake, etc. again. When tolerance passes, we once more engage in this pleasurable process related to positive behavioral motivation. Opioid receptor agonists, however, may induce energy intake even beyond an actual need. This interesting potential of opioidergic signaling may have its roots in biological mechanisms that insured the intake and storage of high energy foods, hence preparing for future famines. In our world of today, however, such neurobiological pathways may pose a threat on our health. Thus, feedback mechanisms, such as tolerance, aversion and satiety, have to be finely tuned. Therefore central autoregulation that involves, for example, limbic mu receptor signaling and other endogenous signaling compounds comes into the focus of modern science. The time where research recognizes the importance of neurobiological pathways such as endogenous opiate autoregulation or CNS reward circuitries for examining the physiology of food intake has yet begun. Many questions remain open and have to be answered through future scientific inquiry.

  12. Neurobiology of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Beach, Sara D; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-02-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences before formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The neurobiology of neurooncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tracy-Ann; Hegedus, Balazs; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Gutmann, David H

    2006-07-01

    The histological classification of brain tumors currently is based on the morphological appearance and protein expression patterns that reflect specific cell types within the central nervous system. Recent studies have suggested that the cells of origin for brain tumors may persist in the fully formed tumors, and that these "cancer stem cells" might represent the relevant cellular targets for anticancer therapy. In this regard, insights into the developmental neurobiology of brain tumors has significant impact on our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of these devastating cancers, as well as the development of new strategies for treating brain tumors.

  14. Neurobiology of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Beach, Sara D.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences prior to formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. PMID:25290881

  15. The neurobiology of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Ben; Singer, Tania; Dolan, Ray

    2007-04-01

    Animals, in particular humans, frequently punish other individuals who behave negatively or uncooperatively towards them. In animals, this usually serves to protect the personal interests of the individual concerned, and its kin. However, humans also punish altruistically, in which the act of punishing is personally costly. The propensity to do so has been proposed to reflect the cultural acquisition of norms of behaviour, which incorporates the desire to uphold equity and fairness, and promotes cooperation. Here, we review the proximate neurobiological basis of punishment, considering the motivational processes that underlie punishing actions.

  16. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty.

  17. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  18. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S; Laier, Christian; Wölfling, Klaus; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  20. The neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia revisited: An update on recent findings considering illness stage and neurobiological and methodological complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruessner, Marita; Cullen, Alexis E; Aas, Monica; Walker, Elaine F

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of stress in serious mental illness has become more sophisticated. In this paper, we revisit the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia that was initially proposed in 1997 and updated in 2008. In light of cumulative research findings, we must now encompass evidence on the premorbid periods of psychosis, and our more nuanced understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and its association with neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes, as well as brain structure and function. Giving consideration to the methodological complexities that have become more apparent as research in this area has burgeoned, the various indices of HPA axis function, and the different stages of illness, we review relevant research published since the 2008 update of the model. We conclude by proposing an extended neural diathesis-stress model that addresses the broader neurobiological context of stress psychobiology in psychosis progression. Implications of this model for best practice, with regards to both future research and treatment strategies, are discussed.

  1. Preparing for business model change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalcante, Sergio Andre

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate managers’ initiatives in the context of an emergent technology and their effect on the business models of firms. Building on four case studies of organizations interested in using an emergent technology for commercial purposes, this study applies...... a process-based framework of business model change. The main finding is that managers’ initiatives occur in the context of a “pre-stage” of potential business model change, which includes processes of experimenting and learning. The pre-stage finding gives a better understanding of when change initiatives...... affect a business model and when they do not, allowing managers to adopt a more proactive behaviour and guide their organizations towards effective business model change. The main contribution of this paper is to suggest the inclusion of the pre-stage idea in research and practice, since...

  2. Evolutionary neurobiology and aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Upham

    2005-01-01

    If aesthetics is a human universal, it should have a neurobiological basis. Although use of all the senses is, as Aristotle noted, pleasurable, the distance senses are primarily involved in aesthetics. The aesthetic response emerges from the central processing of sensory input. This occurs very rapidly, beneath the level of consciousness, and only the feeling of pleasure emerges into the conscious mind. This is exemplified by landscape appreciation, where it is suggested that a computation built into the nervous system during Paleolithic hunter-gathering is at work. Another inbuilt computation leading to an aesthetic response is the part-whole relationship. This, it is argued, may be traced to the predator-prey "arms races" of evolutionary history. Mate selection also may be responsible for part of our response to landscape and visual art. Aesthetics lies at the core of human mentality, and its study is consequently of importance not only to philosophers and art critics but also to neurobiologists.

  3. Neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christopher A; Margolis, Russell L; Reading, Sarah A J; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Coyle, Joseph T

    2006-10-05

    With its hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and cognitive deficits, schizophrenia affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. Evidence increasingly suggests that schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity. Genetic studies are beginning to identify proteins of candidate genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, including dysbindin, neuregulin 1, DAOA, COMT, and DISC1, and neurobiological studies of the normal and variant forms of these genes are now well justified. We suggest that DISC1 may offer especially valuable insights. Mechanistic studies of the properties of these candidate genes and their protein products should clarify the molecular, cellular, and systems-level pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This can help redefine the schizophrenia phenotype and shed light on the relationship between schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders. Understanding these basic pathologic processes may yield novel targets for the development of more effective treatments.

  4. Stalking: a neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Falaschi, Valentina; Lombardi, Amedeo; Mungai, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward. In addition, it seems to be modulated by excessive functioning of the dopamine system coupled with decreased serotonin tone. It is believed that the investigation and deepening of its possible neurobiological substrates may be helpful in the prevention of the severe consequences of stalking.

  5. Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2016-01-01

    Until now, hypersexuality has not found entry into the common diagnostic classification systems. However it is a frequently discussed phenomenon consisting of excessive sexual appetite that is maladaptive for the individual. Initial studies investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of hypersexuality, but current literature is still insufficient to draw unequivocal conclusions. In the present review, we summarize and discuss findings from various perspectives: neuroimaging and lesion studies, studies on other neurological disorders that are sometimes accompanied by hypersexuality, neuropharmacological evidence, genetic as well as animal studies. Taken together, the evidence seems to imply that alterations in the frontal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, septum, and brain regions that process reward play a prominent role in the emergence of hypersexuality. Genetic studies and neuropharmacological treatment approaches point at an involvement of the dopaminergic system.

  6. Neurobiology of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Gorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiologically spoken, the supstrate of the mind is formed by neuronal networks, and dysregulated neurocircuitry can cause psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed by symptom clusters that are the result of abnormal brain tissue, and/or activity in specialized areas of the brain. Dysregulated circuitry results from abnormal neural function, or abnormal neural connections from one brain area to another, which leads to neurotransmitter imbalances. Each psychiatric disorder has uniquely dysregulated circuitry and thereby unique neurotransmitter imbalance, such as: prefrontal cortical-limbic pathways in depression or prefrontal cortical-striatal pathways in schizophrenia ie. serotonin-norepinephrin-dopamin imbalance in depression, or dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry has completely changed the farmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders, and new foundings in that field are supportive to futher more neuropsychopharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy studies, whish has as a result more safe and effective therapy for psychiatric disorders.

  7. The neurobiology of successful abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, H; Brennan, K L; Hester, R; Whelan, R

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiological processes involved in achieving successful abstinence from drugs of abuse. While there is clinical and public health value in knowing if the deficits associated with drug use correct with abstinence, studying the neurobiology that underlies successful abstinence can also illuminate the processes that enable drug-dependent individuals to successfully quit. Here, we review studies on human addicts that assess the neurobiological changes that arise with abstinence and the neurobiological predictors of successfully avoiding relapse. The literature, while modest in size, suggests that abstinence is associated with improvement in prefrontal structure and function, which may underscore the importance of prefrontally mediated cognitive control processes in avoiding relapse. Given the implication that the prefrontal cortex may be an important target for therapeutic interventions, we also review evidence indicating the efficacy of cognitive control training for abstinence.

  8. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases.

  9. Nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen G; Jung, Hea-Jin; Lee, John M; Fong, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g., striated muscle, bone, and fibrous tissue). Recently, however, a series of papers have identified important roles for nuclear lamins in the central nervous system. Studies of knockout mice uncovered a key role for B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) in neuronal migration in the developing brain. Also, duplications of LMNB1 (the gene for lamin B1) have been shown to cause autosome-dominant leukodystrophy. Finally, recent studies have uncovered a peculiar pattern of nuclear lamin expression in the brain. Lamin C transcripts are present at high levels in the brain, but prelamin A expression levels are very low-due to regulation of prelamin A transcripts by microRNA 9. This form of prelamin A regulation likely explains why "prelamin A diseases" such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome spare the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent progress in elucidating links between nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

  10. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits.

  11. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management.

  12. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  13. Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Price, Donald D

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in the philosophical and neurobiological studies of consciousness provide promising frameworks to investigate the neurobiology of hypnosis. A model of consciousness phenomenology is described to demonstrate that the experiential dimensions characterizing hypnosis (relaxation and mental ease, absorption, orientation and monitoring, and self-agency) reflect basic phenomenal properties of consciousness. Changes in relaxation-mental ease and absorption, produced by standard hypnotic procedures, are further associated with changes in brain activity within structures critically involved in the basic representation of the body-self and the regulation of states of consciousness. The combination of experiential and modern brain imaging methods offers a unique perspective on hypnotic phenomena and provides new observations consistent with the proposition that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

  14. Brain connections of words, perceptions and actions: A neurobiological model of spatio-temporal semantic activation in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Rosario; Garagnani, Max; Wennekers, Thomas; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    Neuroimaging and patient studies show that different areas of cortex respectively specialize for general and selective, or category-specific, semantic processing. Why are there both semantic hubs and category-specificity, and how come that they emerge in different cortical regions? Can the activation time-course of these areas be predicted and explained by brain-like network models? In this present work, we extend a neurocomputational model of human cortical function to simulate the time-course of cortical processes of understanding meaningful concrete words. The model implements frontal and temporal cortical areas for language, perception, and action along with their connectivity. It uses Hebbian learning to semantically ground words in aspects of their referential object- and action-related meaning. Compared with earlier proposals, the present model incorporates additional neuroanatomical links supported by connectivity studies and downscaled synaptic weights in order to control for functional between-area differences purely due to the number of in- or output links of an area. We show that learning of semantic relationships between words and the objects and actions these symbols are used to speak about, leads to the formation of distributed circuits, which all include neuronal material in connector hub areas bridging between sensory and motor cortical systems. Therefore, these connector hub areas acquire a role as semantic hubs. By differentially reaching into motor or visual areas, the cortical distributions of the emergent 'semantic circuits' reflect aspects of the represented symbols' meaning, thus explaining category-specificity. The improved connectivity structure of our model entails a degree of category-specificity even in the 'semantic hubs' of the model. The relative time-course of activation of these areas is typically fast and near-simultaneous, with semantic hubs central to the network structure activating before modality-preferential areas carrying

  15. Memory and Learning--Using Mouse to Model Neurobiological and Behavioural Aspects of Down Syndrome and Assess Pharmacotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Katheleen

    2009-01-01

    Mouse models are a standard tool in the study of many human diseases, providing insights into the normal functions of a gene, how these are altered in disease and how they contribute to a disease process, as well as information on drug action, efficacy and side effects. Our knowledge of human genes, their genetics, functions, interactions and…

  16. Validation of two reference genes for mRNA level studies of murine disease models in neurobiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Michael; Fenger, Christina; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2006-01-01

    Reverse transcription of extracted cellular RNA combined with real-time PCR is now an established method for sensitive detection and quantification of specific mRNA level changes in experimental models of neurological diseases. To neutralize the impact of experimental error and make quantificatio...

  17. Jungian metapsychology and neurobiological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresan, D I

    1996-07-01

    This paper deals with brain research and depth psychology. Because brain research is becoming significantly more sophisticated and increasingly able to assay the neurobiology of subjective (i.e., mental) events in vivo, it is suggested that any school of depth psychology will probably not survive as a mainstream treatment modality if its theory and practice is found to be in frank variance with the findings of the modern neurosciences. Jung's psychology is compared to Freud's and shown to be reasonably consonant with such findings. Historical highlights of Jung's non-reductive way of conceptualizing and working are presented and put in the context of more recent scientifically defensible concepts (emergence, supervenience, complexity theory) from the fields of both philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. These concepts postulate a hierarchical model of reality which permits an exploration of the mind/brain relationship without resorting to reductionism or dualism. A sense of the present struggle is conveyed between the proponents of these and more traditional scientific concepts. Finally, the nature of mind/brain confluence is elucidated by examples from the areas of learning, memory and the capacity to symbolize in order to illustrate how clinical practices and observations familiar to experience depth therapists and also in agreement with Jungian theory are compatible with neuroscientific findings. A research suggestion is offered.

  18. A debate on current eating disorder diagnoses in light of neurobiological findings: is it time for a spectrum model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sixty percent of eating disorders do not meet criteria for anorexia- or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version 4 (DSM-IV. Instead they are diagnosed as ‘eating disorders not otherwise specified’ (EDNOS. Discrepancies between criteria and clinical reality currently hampering eating disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV will be addressed by the forthcoming DSM-V. However, future diagnoses for eating disorders will rely on current advances in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics for classification of symptoms that will ultimately improve treatment. Discussion Here we debate the classification issues, and discuss how brain imaging and genetic discoveries might be interwoven into a model of eating disorders to provide better classification and treatment. The debate concerns: a current issues in the classification of eating disorders in the DSM-IV, b changes proposed for DSM-V, c neuroimaging eating disorder research and d genetic eating disorder research. Summary We outline a novel evidence-based ‘impulse control’ spectrum model of eating disorders. A model of eating disorders is proposed that will aid future diagnosis of symptoms, coinciding with contemporary suggestions by clinicians and the proposed changes due to be published in the DSM-V.

  19. Structural neuroimaging across early-stage psychosis: Aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Cropley, Vanessa L; Wannan, Cassandra; Di Biase, Maria; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-05-01

    This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model. In general, grey matter (and, to a lesser extent, white matter) declines across multiple frontal, temporal (especially superior regions), insular and parietal regions during the first episode of psychosis, which has a steeper trajectory than that of age-matched healthy counterparts. Although the ultra-high-risk of psychosis literature is considerably mixed, evidence indicates that certain volumetric structural aberrations predate psychotic illness onset (e.g. prefrontal cortex thinning), while other abnormalities present in ultra-high-risk of psychosis populations are potentially non-psychosis-specific (e.g. hippocampal volume reductions). We highlight the advantages of longitudinal designs, discuss the implications such studies have on clinical staging and provide directions for future research.

  20. [Neurobiology and genetics of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, F

    2010-04-01

    Recent results on the neurobiological bases of addictive disorders allow new insights into the etiopathogenesis of addiction to be made and allow targets for new therapeutic strategies to be defined. An important advancement in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology derives from recent research results, showing similarities between addiction and physiological neural plasticity in learning and memory. These include basic mechanisms involving dopamine, glutamate, and their cellular and molecular targets leading to drug-induced synaptic alterations in the mesolimbic reward system. Genetic factors modulate the individual vulnerability. The challenge of future research will be to generate more efficient and individualized therapies based on the insights from neurobiology and genetics.

  1. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  2. Optimizing the phenotyping of rodent ASD models: enrichment analysis of mouse and human neurobiological phenotypes associated with high-risk autism genes identifies morphological, electrophysiological, neurological, and behavioral features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is interest in defining mouse neurobiological phenotypes useful for studying autism spectrum disorders (ASD in both forward and reverse genetic approaches. A recurrent focus has been on high-order behavioral analyses, including learning and memory paradigms and social paradigms. However, well-studied mouse models, including for example Fmr1 knockout mice, do not show dramatic deficits in such high-order phenotypes, raising a question as to what constitutes useful phenotypes in ASD models. Methods To address this, we made use of a list of 112 disease genes etiologically involved in ASD to survey, on a large scale and with unbiased methods as well as expert review, phenotypes associated with a targeted disruption of these genes in mice, using the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology database. In addition, we compared the results with similar analyses for human phenotypes. Findings We observed four classes of neurobiological phenotypes associated with disruption of a large proportion of ASD genes, including: (1 Changes in brain and neuronal morphology; (2 electrophysiological changes; (3 neurological changes; and (4 higher-order behavioral changes. Alterations in brain and neuronal morphology represent quantitative measures that can be more widely adopted in models of ASD to understand cellular and network changes. Interestingly, the electrophysiological changes differed across different genes, indicating that excitation/inhibition imbalance hypotheses for ASD would either have to be so non-specific as to be not falsifiable, or, if specific, would not be supported by the data. Finally, it was significant that in analyses of both mouse and human databases, many of the behavioral alterations were neurological changes, encompassing sensory alterations, motor abnormalities, and seizures, as opposed to higher-order behavioral changes in learning and memory and social behavior paradigms. Conclusions The results indicated that mutations

  3. Autism: definition, neurobiology, screening, diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle; Tuchman, Roberto F

    2008-10-01

    Autism (ie, the autism spectrum disorders) is now recognized in 1 in 150 children. This article highlights the definition, neurobiology, screening, and diagnosis of autism. The genetics, immunology, imaging, and neurophysiology of autism are reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas that impact pediatricians. Early recognition of the social deficits that characterize autism is key to maximizing the potential of these children.

  4. Neurobiological Substrates of Tourette's Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; Smith, Megan E.; Larabi, Daouia; Hampson, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD). Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies using relevant search terms. Results: Neuropathologic

  5. NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohale Deepak S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF, neuropeptide Y (NPY, and substance P, the monoaminergic transmitters, Norepinephrine (NE, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT, and dopamine (DA, and the amino acid transmitters, Gamma Aminobuteric Acid (GABA and glutamate and many more. These neurochemical systems subserve important adaptive functions in preparing the organism for responding to threat or stress, by increasing vigilance, modulating memory, mobilizing energy stores, and elevating cardiovascular function. Nevertheless, these biological responses to threat and stress can become maladaptive if they are chronically or inappropriately activated.

  6. Modelling preparation and consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Arno; Nauta, Maarten; Evers, Eric

    This poster describes the retail and consumer phase of the EFSA Salmonella in Pork QMRA (Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment, funded under an Article 36 grant to support the scientific opinion required by EFS). The food chain is modelled from retail to ingestion by the consumer. Three...... types of pork are considered: minced meat, pork cuts and dry cured sausages. This particular choice was made because each product represents a clear distinct hazard. Pork cuts are usually cooked well, but there is a chance of cross contamination during cutting and handling of the meat. Minced meat...... is thoroughly mixed, and Salmonellae may be present in the interior of hamburger patties, undercooking may occur, and Salmonellae may survive. Dry cured sausages, including all variations therein like chorizo, salami, etc., are eaten uncooked. Food preparation habits are highly variable and accurate data...

  7. Applying neurobiology to the treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Peck, Stephanie Knatz; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe, biologically based brain disorder with significant medical complications. It is critical that new, effective treatments are developed to interrupt the persistent course of the illness due to the medical and psychological sequelae. Several psychosocial, behavioral and pharmacologic interventions have been investigated in adult anorexia nervosa; however, evidence shows that their impact is weak and treatment effects are generally small. This paper describes a new neurobiological anorexia nervosa model that shifts focus from solely external influences, such as social and family, to include internal influences that integrate genetic and neurobiological contributions, across the age span. The model serves as a theoretical structure for a new, five-day treatment, outlined in this paper, targeting anorexia nervosa temperament, which integrates neurobiological dimensions into evidence-based treatment interventions. The treatment is in two phases. Phase I is a five day, 40 hour treatment for anorexia nervosa adults. Phase II is the follow-up and is currently being developed. Preliminary qualitative acceptability data on 37 adults with anorexia nervosa and 60 supports (e.g., spouses, parents, aunts, friends, partners, children of anorexia nervosa adults) are promising from Phase I. Clients with anorexia nervosa and their supports report that learning neurobiological facts improved their understanding of the illness and helped equip them with better tools to manage anorexia nervosa traits and symptoms. In addition, nutritional knowledge changed significantly. This is the first neurobiologically based, five-day treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa and their supports. It is a new model that outlines underlying genetic and neurobiological contributions to anorexia nervosa that serves as a foundation to treat both traits and symptoms. Preliminary qualitative findings are promising, with both clients and supports reporting that the

  8. Biomimetic visual detection based on insect neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, David C.

    2001-11-01

    With a visual system that accounts for as much as 30% of the lifted mass, flying insects such as dragonflies and hoverflies invest more in vision than any other animal. Impressive visual performance is subserved by a surprisingly simple visual system. In a typical insect eye, between 2,000 and 30,000 pixels in the image are analyzed by fewer than 200,000 neurons in underlying neural circuits. The combination of sophisticated visual processing with an approachable level of complexity has made the insect visual system a leading model for biomimetic approaches to computer vision. Much neurobiological research has focused on neural circuits used for detection of moving patterns (e.g. optical flow during flight) and moving targets (e.g. prey). Research from several labs has led to great advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved, and has spawned neuromorphic hardware based on key processes identified in neurobiological experiments. Despite its attractions, the highly non-linear nature of several key stages in insect visual processing presents a challenge to understanding. I will describe examples of adaptive elements of neural circuits in the fly visual system which analyze the direction and velocity of wide-field optical flow patterns and the result of experiments that suggest that these non-linearities may contribute to robust responses to natural image motion.

  9. Neurobiologic basis of craving for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tamara; Santander, Jaime; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Ana María

    2014-03-01

    There is a relationship between emotional disorders, obesity, and craving for carbohydrates. This relationship complicates the success of treatments aimed at combatting obesity, which is considered to be the epidemic of the twenty-first century. We conducted a review of the neurobiologic basis for carbohydrate craving, with the hope that this understanding will enable the design of more efficient therapeutic strategies. We conducted a non-systematic literature search in PubMed using MeSH. Research on the basis of carbohydrate craving is varied, but may be grouped into five main areas: the serotonergic system, palatability and hedonic response, the motivational system, stress response systems, and gene-environment interaction. The models that integrate motivational systems with palatability and hedonic response studies are the ones that we believe can best explain both craving for carbohydrates and related addictive phenomena. Research has contributed to a greater understanding of the neurobiologic basis of carbohydrate craving. The latter, in turn, contributes to an understanding of the implications, challenges, and possible therapies that might be put in place to cope with this phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythm Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Turek, Fred W

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few decades, multilevel research has elucidated the basic neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular neurobiology of the master circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The circadian timing system is composed of a large number of cellular oscillators located in the SCN, in non-SCN brain structures, and throughout the body. Cellular-level oscillations are generated by a molecular feedback loop in which circadian clock genes rhythmically regulate their own transcription, as well as that of hundreds of clock-controlled genes. The maintenance of proper coordination within this network of cellular- and tissue-level clocks is essential for health and well-being.

  11. What Neurobiology Can Buy Language Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann

    1995-01-01

    Responds to L. Eubank and K. R. Gregg article (this issue), negating their rejection of neurobiological accounts of language acquisition because they are not based on Government and Binding theory and addressing their ideas on the explanatory power of associative learning. A discourse between neurobiology and linguistics is possible only if…

  12. Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

  13. Mathematical methods in biology and neurobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to meet many of the challenges and opportunities offered by modern biology. The description of biological phenomena requires a range of mathematical theories. This is the case particularly for the emerging field of systems biology. Mathematical Methods in Biology and Neurobiology introduces and develops these mathematical structures and methods in a systematic manner. It studies:   • discrete structures and graph theory • stochastic processes • dynamical systems and partial differential equations • optimization and the calculus of variations.   The biological applications range from molecular to evolutionary and ecological levels, for example:   • cellular reaction kinetics and gene regulation • biological pattern formation and chemotaxis • the biophysics and dynamics of neurons • the coding of information in neuronal systems • phylogenetic tree reconstruction • branching processes and population genetics • optimal resource allocation • sexual recombi...

  14. The neurobiology of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R F

    1986-08-29

    Study of the neurobiology of learning and memory is in a most exciting phase. Behavioral studies in animals are characterizing the categories and properties of learning and memory; essential memory trace circuits in the brain are being defined and localized in mammalian models; work on human memory and the brain is identifying neuronal systems involved in memory; the neuronal, neurochemical, molecular, and biophysical substrates of memory are beginning to be understood in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems; and theoretical and mathematical analysis of basic associative learning and of neuronal networks in proceeding apace. Likely applications of this new understanding of the neural bases of learning and memory range from education to the treatment of learning disabilities to the design of new artificial intelligence systems.

  15. Fluorescence applications in molecular neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, Justin W; Zagotta, William N

    2010-04-29

    Macromolecules drive the complex behavior of neurons. For example, channels and transporters control the movements of ions across membranes, SNAREs direct the fusion of vesicles at the synapse, and motors move cargo throughout the cell. Understanding the structure, assembly, and conformational movements of these and other neuronal proteins is essential to understanding the brain. Developments in fluorescence have allowed the architecture and dynamics of proteins to be studied in real time and in a cellular context with great accuracy. In this review, we cover classic and recent methods for studying protein structure, assembly, and dynamics with fluorescence. These methods include fluorescence and luminescence resonance energy transfer, single-molecule bleaching analysis, intensity measurements, colocalization microscopy, electron transfer, and bimolecular complementation analysis. We present the principles of these methods, highlight recent work that uses the methods, and discuss a framework for interpreting results as they apply to molecular neurobiology.

  16. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation.

  17. Neurobiology of Acupuncture: Toward CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Xing Ma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been accepted that acupuncture, puncturing and scraping needles at certain points on the body, can have analgesic and anesthetic effects, as well as therapeutic effects in the treatment of various diseases. This therapy, including acupuncture anesthesia, has drawn the attention of many investigators and become a research subject of international interest around the world. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the nervous system, neurotransmitters, endogenous substances and Jingluo (meridians may respond to needling stimulation and electrical acupuncture. An abundance of information has now accumulated concerning the neurobiological mechanisms of acupuncture, in relation to both neural pathways and neurotransmitters/hormonal factors that mediate autonomic regulation, pain relief and other therapeutics. Early studies demonstrated that the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA are mediated by opioid peptides in the periaqueductal gray. Recent evidence shows that nitric oxide plays an important role in mediating the cardiovascular responses to EA stimulation through the gracile nucleus-thalamic pathway. Other substances, including serotonin, catecholamines, inorganic chemicals and amino acids such as glutamate and α-aminobutyric acid (GABA, are proposed to mediate certain cardiovascular and analgesic effects of acupuncture, but at present their role is poorly understood. The increased interest in acupuncture health care has led to an ever-growing number of investigators pursuing research in the processes of the sense of needling touch, transduction of needling stimulation signals, stimulation parameters and placebos. In this Review, the evidence and understanding of the neurobiological processes of acupuncture research have been summarized with an emphasis on recent developments of nitric oxide mediating acupuncture signals through the dorsal medulla-thalamic pathways.

  18. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurob...

  19. The Clinical Neurobiology of Drug Craving

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving- related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine add...

  20. Neurobiology of anxious depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research.

  1. [Neurobiological and psychosocial causes of individual male violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogerts, B; Möller-Leimkühler, A M

    2013-11-01

    Individual and collective acts of violence are mainly a male phenomenon caused by complex interactions of neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Amazingly this topic has not yet played a major role in the clinical psychiatric literature although the disastrous consequences are clearly visible everywhere and although aggression also belongs to the archaic human emotions, such as anxiety, depression and euphoria.The article gives an integrative overview on epidemiological, neurobiological, genetic, neuropathological, neurochemical/hormonal, developmental and psychosocial theories on aggression and violence, including sociocognitive models, hedonistic aspects of violence, effects of violence in the media and processes of childhood socialization.Better knowledge of the broad spectrum of these intensively interacting biological and psychosocial components resulting in violence not only improves our understanding of this calamitous psychosyndrome but can also lead to more effective preventive measures.

  2. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2012-12-06

    The acute and long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increased attention in recent years. In this Review, we discuss the neuropathology and neural mechanisms associated with TBI, drawing on findings from sports-induced TBI in athletes, in whom acute TBI damages axons and elicits both regenerative and degenerative tissue responses in the brain and in whom repeated concussions may initiate a long-term neurodegenerative process called dementia pugilistica or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We also consider how the neuropathology and neurobiology of CTE in many ways resembles other neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, particularly with respect to mismetabolism and aggregation of tau, β-amyloid, and TDP-43. Finally, we explore how translational research in animal models of acceleration/deceleration types of injury relevant for concussion together with clinical studies employing imaging and biochemical markers may further elucidate the neurobiology of TBI and CTE.

  3. The neurobiology of empathy in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H; Snyder, Rebekah; Steele, Howard; Siever, Larry J

    2013-03-01

    We present a neurobiological model of empathic dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD) to guide future empirical research. Empathy is a necessary component of interpersonal functioning, involving two distinct, parallel neural networks. One form of empathic processing relies on shared representations (SR) of others' mental states, while the other is associated with explicit mental state attribution (MSA). SR processing is visceral and automatic, contributing to attunement, but also emotional contagion. MSA processing contributes to deliberate, perspectival forms of empathic understanding. Empathic dysfunction in BPD may involve hyper-reactivity of SR networks and impairment of MSA networks. Nevertheless, this empathic dysfunction is subtle, but contributes to interpersonal difficulties. Interaction between genetic factors and traumatic attachment stressors may contribute to development of BPD, with painful attachment insecurity and disorganization affecting SR and MSA network functioning. Future avenues for BPD research will include developmental assessment of attachment and neurobiological functioning under varying conditions.

  4. Neurobiological linkage between stress and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Wellman, Laurie L.

    2012-10-01

    Stress can have a significant negative impact on health and stress-induced alterations in sleep are implicated in both human sleep disorders and in psychiatric disorders in which sleep is affected. We have demonstrated that the amygdala, a region critical for regulating emotion, is a key modulator of sleep. Our current research is focused on understanding how the amygdala and stressful emotion affect sleep and on the role sleep plays in recovery from stress. We have implemented animal models to examine the how stress and stress-related memories impact sleep. Experiencing uncontrollable stress and reminders of uncontrollable stress can produce significant reductions in sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep. We are using these models to explore the neurobiology linking stress-related emotion and sleep. This research is relevant for sleep disorders such as insomnia and into mental disorders in which sleep is affected such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is typically characterized by a prominent sleep disturbance in the aftermath of exposure to a psychologically traumatic event.

  5. [MicroRNAs in neurobiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as a new regulatory factor of gene expression. They mediate translational repression or degradation of their target mRNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The expression of each microRNA is tightly regulated in a development- and cell-specific manner by various mechanisms such as blockade of let-7 family expression by Lin-28 or RNA editing. They also act as regulatory switches for development, organogenesis, and cellular differentiation or for controlling distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of each tissue and cell subtypes. The abundant expression of microRNAs as well as the exclusive expression of certain microRNAs in the central nervous system highlights their biological importance at all stages of neural development and in postmitotic and differentiated neurons. Further, some microRNAs, such as miRNA-134, and miRNA-132 are localized and are synthesized in part at synaptic sites in dendrites to regulate synaptic formation and plasticity. In addition to the imparting of basic knowledge about the biogenesis and mechanism of action of microRNAs, this review focuses on the recent advances in microRNA studies in neurobiology, including the expression pattern of microRNAs in the mammalian brain, the role of microRNAs in neural differentiation and maturation, formation and plasticity of synaptic connections, and maintenance of neural function such as the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in selected neurons. Finally, the possible connection between microRNA dysfunction and neurological diseases, and future implications for diagnosis, and treatment of defects in human brain development and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  6. Schizophrenia: from phenomenology to neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Albert Hung Choy; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2003-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and debilitating illness, characterized by chronic psychotic symptoms and psychosocial impairment that exact considerable human and economic costs. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, treatment, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Although studied extensively from a clinical, psychological, biological and genetic perspective, our expanding knowledge of schizophrenia provides only an incomplete understanding of this complex disorder. Recent advances in neuroscience have allowed the confirmation or refutation of earlier findings in schizophrenia, and permit useful comparisons between the different levels of organization from which the illness has been studied. Schizophrenia is defined as a clinical syndrome that may include a collection of diseases that share a common presentation. Genetic factors are the most important in the etiology of the disease, with unknown environmental factors potentially modulating the expression of symptoms. Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder in which many genes may be implicated, with the possibility of gene-gene interactions and a diversity of genetic causes in different families or populations. A neurodevelopmental rather than degenerative process has received more empirical support as a general explanation of the pathophysiology, although simple dichotomies are not particularly helpful in such a complicated disease. Structural brain changes are present in vivo and post-mortem, with both histopathological and imaging studies in overall agreement that the temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are the most affected. Functional imaging, neuropsychological testing and clinical observation are also generally consistent in demonstrating deficits in cognitive ability that correlate with abnormalities in the areas of the brain with structural abnormalities. The dopamine and other

  7. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  8. Music medicine. A neurobiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Music medicine is a relatively new medical specialty for most countries in the world and a rediscovery of a discipline for some countries in Europe. In the scope of music medicine are health problems of musicians like stage fright and psychic stress, pain syndromes and motor disturbances. Specific demands of musicianship like performing before the public, performing under the constant critical scrutiny of conductors, being expected to perform perfectly, and the physical demands of performing on a musical instrument were seen as the determinants of the complaints, and treatment does usually not differ between musicians and non-musicians with comparable diseases. In the present article, growing neurobiological evidence will be summarized showing that musicians differ from non-musicians on brain structure and function and on some hormonal and immunological parameters. Musicians tend to have atypical brain organization for verbal and non-verbal materials, their auditory system tracks sound levels more accurately, musicians attend pre-consciously to musical material and they react to music as if it is a stressor, i.e. with increased activity of the autonomic nervous system and with an increase in stress hormone production. A musician is more likely than a non-musician to be non-righthanded and to be vulnerable to atopic diseases. Testosterone levels are assumed to be lower (male) and higher (female) than controls. Melatonin was found to be elevated, and ACTH was related to musical talent. His/her brain reflects early music practice by enlarged structures, like the anterior part of the corpus callosum and the representation for piano tones and for the left thumb and little finger in string players. In addition, the left planum temporale was found to be larger in musicians with absolute pitch. These differences between musicians and non-musicians may have implications for music medicine in theory and practice, and further research should help to improve treatment of

  9. The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Diamond

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our “temporal dynamics” model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced amnesia. An important feature of the model is the idea that endogenous mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala are rapidly activated for a relatively short period of time by a strong emotional learning experience. Following this activational period, both structures undergo a state in which the induction of new plasticity is suppressed, which facilitates the memory consolidation process. We further propose that with the onset of strong emotionality, the hippocampus rapidly shifts from a “configural/cognitive map” mode to a “flashbulb memory” mode, which underlies the long-lasting, but fragmented, nature of traumatic memories. Finally, we have speculated on the significance of stress-LTP interactions in the context of the Yerkes-Dodson Law, a well-cited, but misunderstood, century-old principle which states that the relationship between arousal and behavioral performance can be linear or curvilinear, depending on the difficulty of the task.

  10. The phenomenology and neurobiology of delusion formation during psychosis onset: Jaspers, Truman symptoms, and aberrant salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Aaron L; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Following the publication of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology (1913), delusions have been characterized as being nonunderstandable in terms of the person's biography, motivations, and historical-cultural context. According to Jaspers, this loss of understandability is due to an underlying neurobiological process, which has interrupted the normal development of the individual's personality. Inheriting the 19th-century division between the natural- and human-historical sciences, Jaspers emphasizes the psychological understanding of mental disorders as narrative-based, holistic, and contextual. By doing so, he embraces cultural, ethnic, and individual differences and anticipates a person-centered medicine. However, he also affirms the value of explanatory neurobiological approaches, especially in the research and diagnosis of delusions. The phenomenological approach leads to neurobiological hypotheses, which can be tested experimentally. The present article addresses these issues by illustrating Jaspers' fundamental contribution to current neurobiological research concerning the formation of delusions during early phases of psychosis. Specifically, we present delusional mood and Truman symptoms as core phenomenological features at the origin of psychosis onset, and we discuss their neurobiological substrate with the aberrant salience and dopamine dysregulation models. Jaspers and his successors' phenomenological approach suggests that delusion is formed through loss of context in its experiential-perceptual origins. This is consistent with the more recent neurobiological models.

  11. Placebo effects: clinical aspects and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Barry S

    2008-11-01

    Placebo effects are beneficial health outcomes not related to the relatively direct biological effects of an intervention and can be elicited by an agent that, by itself, is inert. Understanding these placebo effects will help to improve clinical trial design, especially for interventions such as surgery, CNS-active drugs and behavioural interventions which are often non-blinded. A literature review was performed to retrieve articles discussing placebo implications of clinical trials, the neurobiology of placebo effects and the implications of placebo effect for several disorders of neurological relevance. Recent research in placebo analgesia and other conditions has demonstrated that several neurotransmitter systems, such as opiate and dopamine, are involved with the placebo effect. Brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia have been activated following administration of placebo. A patient's expectancy of improvement may influence outcomes as much as some active interventions and this effect may be greater for novel interventions and for procedures. Maximizing this expectancy effect is important for clinicians to optimize the health of their patient. There have been many relatively acute placebo studies that are now being extended into clinically relevant models of placebo effect.

  12. Lens Biology is a Dimension of Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Peter; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2017-02-04

    There is a second cell type in your body that expresses scores of the most intensively studied genes in neuroscience and exclusively shares critical interdependent modes of molecular regulation that include a network first described as responsible for the basic bifurcation of neuronal from non-neuronal gene expression in vertebrates. Neurons and lens cells are among the most ancient animal cell types, yet neurons have an exclusive status also attributed to roles underlying sensation, movement, and cognition. However, this status is challenged by cells in the lens of the eye. The extent and detail of internally consistent parallels with neuron biology now catalogued in their second native cell type in the lens provide a detailed model of interdependent neuron gene expression in lens development and non-neuronal role in vision. These comprehensive parallels identify the lens as a dimension of neurobiology and a fundamental new perspective on neurodevelopment and its disorders. Finally, this understanding identifies that hallmark neuronal gene expression and key modes of associated molecular regulation evolved in tandem in the lens.

  13. Exercise and bipolar disorder: a review of neurobiological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Kucyi, Aaron; Law, Candy W Y; McIntyre, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    Extant evidence indicates that individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are differentially affected by overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Excess weight is associated with a more complex illness presentation, non-recovery, and recurrence. Herein, we sought to review literature describing the effects of structured individualized physical exercise on disparate neurobiological substrates implicated in the pathophysiology of BD. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between 1966 and July 2008 with BD cross-referenced with the following search terms: exercise, neurobiology, pathophysiology, pathoetiology, brain, cognition, neuroplasticity, and neurodegeneration. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, the use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall manuscript quality. Contemporary models of disease pathophysiology in BD implicate disturbances in cellular resilience, plasticity, and survival in the central nervous system. Individualized exercise interventions are capable of alleviating the severity of affective and cognitive difficulties in heterogeneous samples. It is posited that exercise is a pleiotropic intervention that engages aberrant neurobiological systems implicated in metabolism, immuno-inflammatory function, and cellular respiration. Structured exercise regimens exert a salutary effect on interacting networks mediating metabolism, immuno-inflammatory function, and cellular respiration. In keeping this view, buttressed by controlled evidence describing robust anti-depressant effects with exercise (e.g., public health dose), a testable hypothesis is that structured exercise is capable of improving psychiatric and somatic health in BD.

  14. Integrating Tax Preparation with FAFSA Completion: Three Case Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan; Mabry, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research compares three different models implemented in four cities. The models integrated free tax-preparation services to assist low-income families with their completion of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). There has been an increased focus on simplifying the FAFSA process. However, simplification is not the only…

  15. Linking Dimensional Models of Internalizing Psychopathology to Neurobiological Systems: Affect-Modulated Startle as an Indicator of Fear and Distress Disorders and Affiliated Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Integrative hierarchical models have sought to account for the extensive comorbidity between various internalizing disorders in terms of broad individual difference factors these disorders share. However, such models have been developed largely on the basis of self-report and diagnostic symptom data. Toward the goal of linking such models to…

  16. Microfluidics: a new cosset for neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyi; Ren, Li; Li, Li; Liu, Wenming; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Wenhao; Tong, Denwen; Chen, Shulin

    2009-03-07

    Recently, microfluidic systems have shown great potential in the study of molecular and cellular biology. With its excellent properties, such as miniaturization, integration and automation, to name just a few, microfluidics creates new opportunities for the spatial and temporal control of cell growth and environmental stimuli in vitro. In the field of neuroscience, microfluidic devices offer precise control of the microenvironment surrounding individual cells, and the delivery of biochemical or physical cues to neural networks or single neurons. The intent of this review is to outline recent advances in microfluidic-based applications in neurobiology, with emphasis on neuron culture, neuron manipulation, neural stem cell differentiation, neuropharmacology, neuroelectrophysiology, and neuron biosensors. It also aims to stimulate development of microfluidic-based applications in neurobiology by involving scientists from various disciplines, especially neurobiology and microtechnology.

  17. The clinical neurobiology of drug craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita

    2013-08-01

    Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving-related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse, and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction. A conceptualization of drug craving on the continuum of healthy desire and compulsive seeking, and the associated neurobiological adaptations associated with the development of an increased craving/wanting state is presented. Altered dopamine neurochemistry as well as disrupted prefrontal control and hyperactive striatal-limbic responses in experiencing drug cues, stress, drug intake and in basal relaxed states are identified as neurobiological signatures that predict drug craving and drug use. Thus, the clinical and neurobiological features of the craving/wanting state are presented with specific attention to alterations in these cortico-limbic-striatal and prefrontal self-control circuits that predict drug craving and relapse risk. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed to further develop the evolving conceptual approach to the neuroscience of drug craving is presented, with a focus on identification and validation of biomarkers associated with the craving state and treatment approaches that may be of benefit in reversing the neurobiological adaptations associated with drug craving to improve treatment outcomes in addiction.

  18. IMPROVEMENTS OF RIVER MODELING 1D DATA PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION-MARIAN MOISOIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements of river modeling 1D data preparation. The importance of hydrographical networks data and the need for detailed studies do generate an increase of projects in this specialized area and a diversification of river mathematical modeling software. River mathematical modeling can be done in two ways, namely; the "2D mode" and the “1D mode”. The “2D mode” is where a digital terrain model of a full hydrographical basin must be produced and "1D mode" is where only cross sections, long sections and structures elevations needs to be presented in a graphical environment and in a specific formats for the mathematical modeling software. This paper will show the principle of a custom built GIS, specially created to help the preparation of 1D river modeling data. The benefits are; elimination of human errors, automated processing, increasing productivity, flexible output and cost reduction.

  19. Can we develop a neurobiological model of human social-emotional development? Integrative thoughts on the effects of separation on parent-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles A

    2003-12-01

    After summarizing the main points raised in articles by Kaslow et al. and Plotsk, a number of questions that derive from these authors' work are listed. Additional questions are then posed, the answers to which will likely facilitate one's ability to translate animal models of child psychopathology into human terms. After summarizing the various advantages and disadvantages to models using mice, rats, and monkeys, several examples of recent research that have attempted to meld animal models with human studies are described.

  20. Developing Mathematics for Insight into Sensorimotor Neurobiology

    CERN Document Server

    McCollum, G

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research program to express the organization of sensorimotor control by specifying physiological states and the conditions for transitions among them. By a slight change in standard notation, conditional dynamics provides a moving spotlight, focussing on salient subspaces within a high-dimensional space. This mathematical approach serves as a window on the organization of sensorimotor neurobiology. The intertwined efforts to express the intrinsic organization of neurobiology and to clarify it mathematically are yielding a mathematical structure that is growing on fertile empirical ground.

  1. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  2. 3-D rheologic model of earthquake preparation (Ⅲ): Precursor field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the theory of viscoelastic displacement and strain field for the three-dimensional rheologic model of earthquake preparation, this paper mainly studies the theoretical solution of precursor field for the three-dimensional rheologic model of earthquake preparation. We derive the viscoelastic analytical expressions of the ground tilt, underground water level, earth resistivity at an arbitrary point (x, y, z) in the rheologic medium, and analyzed the earth resistivity preliminarily, providing a certain theoretical basis for the precursor analysis of seismogenic process.

  3. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions.

  4. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL AT THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS PREPARATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Pavletic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper expresses base for an operational quality improvement model at the manufacturing process preparation level. A numerous appropriate related quality assurance and improvement methods and tools are identified. Main manufacturing process principles are investigated in order to scrutinize one general model of manufacturing process and to define a manufacturing process preparation level. Development and introduction of the operational quality improvement model is based on a research conducted and results of methods and tools application possibilities in real manufacturing processes shipbuilding and automotive industry. Basic model structure is described and presented by appropriate general algorithm. Operational quality improvement model developed lays down main guidelines for practical and systematic application of quality improvements methods and tools.

  5. Operational Model for Career Development and Vocational Preparation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Anne L.; Barrett, Samuel L.

    Three California State Department units (vocational education, pupil personnel services, and career education) and two school districts (Fremont Unified and Huntington Beach Union High) established a consortium to develop demonstration sites for model career development and vocational preparation systems and staff development programs. The…

  6. Teacher Leader Model Standards: Implications for Preparation, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill Harrison; Carver, Cynthia L.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leadership is increasingly recognized as a resource for instructional improvement. Consequently, teacher leader initiatives have expanded rapidly despite limited knowledge about how to prepare and support teacher leaders. In this context, the "Teacher Leader Model Standards" represent an important development in the field. In…

  7. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rihard F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes recent research findings in the area of neurobiology and its relationship to learning and memory. The article provides definitions of associative and nonassociative learning, identifies essential memory trace circuits of the mammalian brain, and discusses some neural mechanisms of learning. (TW)

  8. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  9. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  10. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and it

  11. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Lateralization of Neurobiological Response in Adolescents with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related to Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse: the Tri-Modal Reaction (T-MR) Model of Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutluer, Tuba; Şar, Vedat; Kose-Demiray, Çiğdem; Arslan, Harun; Tamer, Sibel; Inal, Serap; Kaçar, Anıl Ş

    2017-03-10

    This study inquires into neurobiological response to stress and its clinical correlates among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cerebral anatomy were carried out on 23 female adolescents with PTSD related to severe childhood sexual abuse and 21 matched healthy controls. Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents, Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Beck Depression Scale, and a set of neuro-cognitive tests were administered to all participants. Compared to controls, PTSD group bilaterally had smaller amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and thinner prefrontal cortex but normal thalamus. Further analyses within the PTSD group suggested an association between symptoms of PTSD and sizes of right brain structures including smaller amygdala but larger hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Thinner right prefrontal cortex and larger right thalamus seemed to be related to denial and response prevention, respectively. Being related to both hemispheres, dissociative amnesia was negatively associated with proportion of the right amygdala to right thalamus and to both left and right prefrontal cortex. Suggesting a neuro-protective effect against traumatic stress at least through adolescence, depersonalization-derealization and identity alteration were correlated with thicker left prefrontal cortex. Unlike the lateralization within PTSD group, correlations between regions of interest were rather symmetrical in controls. The graded response to stress seemed to be aimed at mental protection by lateralization of brain functions and possibly diminished connection between two hemispheres. A Tri-Modal Reaction (T-MR) Model of protection is proposed.

  13. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  14. [Why do we need induced pluripotent stem cells in neurobiology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewska, Ewa; Jaworski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells made possible to study in vitro inaccessible human cells, such as different types of neurons. Almost immediate consequence of the emergence of this technology was the development of a number of cellular models of the nervous system diseases. They are used both to explore the cellular mechanisms of these diseases and for the development of new pharmacological strategies. Reprogrammed cells are also a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells for transplantation. This article presents the most important achievements in the use of cell reprogramming technology in neurobiology and at the same time points out the limitations of the methodology and the expected directions of its development.

  15. Analysis of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation in a ball for modeling the Voltage-Current relation in neurobiological microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartailler, J.; Schuss, Z.; Holcman, D.

    2017-01-01

    The electro-diffusion of ions is often described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations, which couple nonlinearly the charge concentration and the electric potential. This model is used, among others, to describe the motion of ions in neuronal micro-compartments. It remains at this time an open question how to determine the relaxation and the steady state distribution of voltage when an initial charge of ions is injected into a domain bounded by an impermeable dielectric membrane. The purpose of this paper is to construct an asymptotic approximation to the solution of the stationary PNP equations in a d-dimensional ball (d = 1 , 2 , 3) in the limit of large total charge. In this geometry the PNP system reduces to the Liouville-Gelfand-Bratú (LGB) equation, with the difference that the boundary condition is Neumann, not Dirichlet, and there is a minus sign in the exponent of the exponential term. The entire boundary is impermeable to ions and the electric field satisfies the compatibility condition of Poisson's equation. These differences replace attraction by repulsion in the LGB equation, thus completely changing the solution. We find that the voltage is maximal in the center and decreases toward the boundary. We also find that the potential drop between the center and the surface increases logarithmically in the total number of charges and not linearly, as in classical capacitance theory. This logarithmic singularity is obtained for d = 3 from an asymptotic argument and cannot be derived from the analysis of the phase portrait. These results are used to derive the relation between the outward current and the voltage in a dendritic spine, which is idealized as a dielectric sphere connected smoothly to the nerve axon by a narrow neck. This is a fundamental microdomain involved in neuronal communication. We compute the escape rate of an ion from the steady density in a ball, which models a neuronal spine head, to a small absorbing window in the sphere. We

  16. The Neurobiology of Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Joseph Zak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for collective action. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly collective action.

  17. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  18. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  19. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... parameter variations are presented and discussed with the aim of presenting specific guidelines for optimizing the microstructure of cathodes prepared by infiltration....

  20. The neurobiological basis of temperament: towards a better understanding of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The ability to characterise psychopathologies on the basis of their underlying neurobiology is critical in improving our understanding of disorder etiology and making more effective diagnostic and treatment decisions. Given the well-documented relationship between temperament (i.e. core personality traits) and psychopathology, research investigating the neurobiological substrates that underlie temperament is potentially key to our understanding of the biological basis of mental disorder. We present evidence that specific areas of the prefrontal cortex (including the dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices) and limbic structures (including the amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) are key regions associated with three fundamental dimensions of temperament: Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Constraint. Proposed relationships are based on two types of research: (a) research into the neurobiological correlates of affective and cognitive processes underlying these dimensions; and (b) research into the neurobiology of various psychopathologies, which have been correlated with these dimensions. A model is proposed detailing how these structures might comprise neural networks whose functioning underlies the three temperaments. Recommendations are made for future research into the neurobiology of temperament, including the need to focus on neural networks rather than individual structures, and the importance of prospective, longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies in at-risk youth.

  1. Sleep-specific mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder: integrative review and neurobiological hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Buysse, Daniel J; Nofzinger, Eric

    2008-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that is associated with poor clinical and health outcomes, and considerable health care utilization and costs. Recent estimates suggest that 5-20% of military personnel who serve in current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Clinically, sleep disturbances are core features of PTSD that are often resistant to first-line treatments, independently contribute to poor daytime functioning, and often require sleep-focused treatments. Physiologically, these observations suggest that PTSD is partially mediated by sleep disruption and its neurobiological correlates that are not adequately addressed by first-line treatments. However, polysomnographic studies have provided limited insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD during sleep. There is an urgent need to apply state-of-the-science sleep measurement methods to bridge the apparent gap between the clinical significance of sleep disturbances in PTSD and the limited understanding of their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we propose an integrative review of findings derived from neurobiological models of fear conditioning and fear extinction, PTSD, and sleep-wake regulation, suggesting that the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex can directly contribute to sleep disturbances in PTSD. Testable hypotheses regarding the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD across the sleep-wake cycle are offered.

  2. Complexity in neurobiology: perspectives from the study of noise in human motor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Torre, Kjerstin

    2012-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the themed special issue on "Complex Systems in Neurobiology." The study of complexity in neurobiology has been sensitive to the stochastic processes that dominate the micro-level architecture of neurobiological systems and the deterministic processes that govern the macroscopic behavior of these systems. A large body of research has traversed these scales of interest, seeking to determine how noise at one spatial or temporal scale influences the activity of the system at another scale. In introducing this special issue, we pay special attention to the history of inquiry in complex systems and why scientists have tended to favor linear, causally driven, reductionist approaches in Neurobiology. We follow this with an elaboration of how an alternative approach might be formulated. To illustrate our position on how the sciences of complexity and the study of noise can inform neurobiology, we use three systematic examples from the study of human motor control and learning: 1) phase transitions in bimanual coordination; 2) balance, intermittency, and discontinuous control; and 3) sensorimotor synchronization and timing. Using these examples and showing that noise is adaptively utilized by the nervous system, we make the case for the studying complexity with a perspective of understanding the macroscopic stability in biological systems by focusing on component processes at extended spatial and temporal scales. This special issue continues this theme with contributions in topics as diverse as neural network models, physical biology, motor learning, and statistical physics.

  3. Neurobiology and treatment of compulsive hoarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sanjaya

    2008-09-01

    Compulsive hoarding is a common and often disabling neuropsychiatric disorder. This article reviews the phenomenology, etiology, neurobiology, and treatment of compulsive hoarding. Compulsive hoarding is part of a discrete clinical syndrome that includes difficulty discarding, urges to save, clutter, excessive acquisition, indecisiveness, perfectionism, procrastination, disorganization, and avoidance. Epidemiological and taxometric studies indicate that compulsive hoarding is a separate but related obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder that is frequently comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Compulsive hoarding is a genetically discrete, strongly heritable phenotype. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies indicate that compulsive hoarding is neurobiologically distinct from OCD and implicate dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex and other ventral and medial prefrontal cortical areas that mediate decision-making, attention, and emotional regulation. Effective treatments for compulsive hoarding include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. More research will be required to determine the etiology and pathophysiology of compulsive hoarding, and to develop better treatments for this disorder.

  4. Neurocontrol and neurobiology - New developments and connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbos, Paul J.; Pellionisz, Andras J.

    1992-01-01

    At McDonnell-Douglas, controllers which combine adaptive critic networks with the use of backpropagation in real time have solved difficult control problems crucial to the feasibility of building the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) able to reach earth orbit. As details emerged, parallels to neurobiology have grown stronger and have begun to lead to empirical possibilities of importance to neuroscience. This has led to thoughts of institutional collaboration facilitating what could become a Newtonian revolution in neuroscience, with cognitive implications as well. The authors elaborate on each of these points. The topics discussed are recent progress in neurocontrol; progress in optimization and reinforcement learning; implications for neurobiology and science policy; and a new view of the brain.

  5. The neurobiological link between compassion and love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2011-02-25

    Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general 'positive state', even 'spiritual' at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain's limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly 'amazing'.

  6. The neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Brewer, Judson A; Potenza, Marc N

    2006-12-01

    Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, represent significant public health concerns and are associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and mortality. Although research into the biology of these behaviors is still in the early stages, recent advances in the understanding of motivation, reward, and addiction have provided insight into the possible pathophysiology of these disorders. Biochemical, functional neuroimaging, genetic studies, and treatment research have suggested a strong neurobiological link between behavioral addictions and substance use disorders. Given the substantial co-occurrence of these groups of disorders, improved understanding of their relationship has important implications not only for further understanding the neurobiology of both categories of disorders but also for improving prevention and treatment strategies.

  7. The Neurobiological Toll of Early Human Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Charles A.; Bos, Karen; Gunnar, Megan R.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in institutions frequently suffer from a variety of behavioral, emotional, and neuropsychological sequelae, including deficits in attention, executive functions, disorders of attachment and in some cases a syndrome that mimics autism. The extent and severity of these disorders appears to be mediated, in part, by the age at which the child entered and, in some cases, left the institution. Here we review the neurobiological literature on early institutionalization that may accou...

  8. [Fetal pain - neurobiological causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rebelo, Sandra; Tavares, Isaura

    2010-01-01

    The existence of putatively painful situations to the fetus demands a careful evaluation of the issue of fetal pain. Several indirect approaches are used to evaluate the existence of fetal pain. Neurobiological studies showed that from the 30th week on, the anatomical and physiological system for pain transmission is already developed, with the connections from the periphery to the cortex being successively established. Stress responses to a painful stimulation are complex but they can be detected from the 16th week on. There is activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system and hemodynamic changes in response to nociceptive stimulation. In prematures exposed to pain there are significant increases of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, hemodynamic changes, motor reflexes and facial reactions. The changes induced by strong nociceptive stimulation of newborns have important postnatal consequences since they affect future reactions to noxious stimuli. Central sensitization and immaturity of the pain inhibitory system are the main neurobiological explanations for the increased pain. Detailed studies of the neurobiological mechanisms of the transmission of painful stimuli along with follow-up studies of the consequences of exposure to pain during the development of the fetus are necessary to fully understand fetal pain.

  9. Neurobiological findings related to Internet use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeongsu; Han, Doug Hyun; Roh, Sungwon

    2016-07-23

    In the last 10 years, numerous neurobiological studies have been conducted on Internet addiction or Internet use disorder. Various neurobiological research methods - such as magnetic resonance imaging; nuclear imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography; molecular genetics; and neurophysiologic methods - have made it possible to discover structural or functional impairments in the brains of individuals with Internet use disorder. Specifically, Internet use disorder is associated with structural or functional impairment in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. These regions are associated with the processing of reward, motivation, memory, and cognitive control. Early neurobiological research results in this area indicated that Internet use disorder shares many similarities with substance use disorders, including, to a certain extent, a shared pathophysiology. However, recent studies suggest that differences in biological and psychological markers exist between Internet use disorder and substance use disorders. Further research is required for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of Internet use disorder.

  10. Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Ramoz, Nicolas; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, has been associated with various structural and functional CNS abnormalities but findings about neurobiological mechanisms linking genes to brain phenotypes are just beginning to emerge. Despite the high heritability of the disorder and its main symptom dimensions, common individual genetic variants are likely to account for a small proportion of the phenotype's variance. Recent findings have drawn attention to the involvement of rare genetic variants in the pathophysiology of ADHD, some being shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Traditionally, neurobiological research on ADHD has focused on catecholaminergic pathways, the main target of pharmacological treatments. However, more distal and basic neuronal processes in relation with cell architecture and function might also play a role, possibly accounting for the coexistence of both diffuse and specific alterations of brain structure and activation patterns. This article aims to provide an overview of recent findings in the rapidly evolving field of ADHD neurobiology with a focus on novel strategies regarding pathophysiological analyses.

  11. Context Processing and the Neurobiology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Abelson, James L

    2016-10-05

    Progress in clinical and affective neuroscience is redefining psychiatric illness as symptomatic expression of cellular/molecular dysfunctions in specific brain circuits. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been an exemplar of this progress, with improved understanding of neurobiological systems subserving fear learning, salience detection, and emotion regulation explaining much of its phenomenology and neurobiology. However, many features remain unexplained and a parsimonious model that more fully accounts for symptoms and the core neurobiology remains elusive. Contextual processing is a key modulatory function of hippocampal-prefrontal-thalamic circuitry, allowing organisms to disambiguate cues and derive situation-specific meaning from the world. We propose that dysregulation within this context-processing circuit is at the core of PTSD pathophysiology, accounting for much of its phenomenology and most of its biological findings. Understanding core mechanisms like this, and their underlying neural circuits, will sharpen diagnostic precision and understanding of risk factors, enhancing our ability to develop preventive and "personalized" interventions.

  12. Application of product modelling - seen from a work preparation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    Manufacturing companies spends an increasing amount of the total work resources in the manufacturing planning system with the activities of e.g. specifying products and methods, scheduling, procurement etc. By this the potential for obtaining increased productivity moves from the direct costs...... the specification work. The theoretical fundament of the project include four elements. The first element (work preparation) consider methods for analysing and preparing the direct work in the production, pointing to an analogy between analysing the direct work in the production and the work in the planning systems......, over building a model, and to the final programming of an application. It has been stressed out to carry out all the phases in the outline of procedure in the empirical work, one of the reasons being to prove that it is possible, with a reasonable consumption of resources, to build an application...

  13. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation.

  14. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration.

  15. What can medical education learn from the neurobiology of learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Michael J; Andrews, Linda; Armstrong, Elizabeth G; Aschenbrenner, Carol; Kass, Joseph S; Ogden, Paul; Schwartzstein, Richard; Viggiano, Thomas R

    2011-04-01

    The last several decades have seen a large increase in knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms that serve learning and memory. The insights gleaned from neurobiological and cognitive neuroscientific experimentation in humans and in animal models have identified many of the processes at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels that occur during learning and the formation, storage, and recall of memories. Moreover, with the advent of noninvasive technologies to monitor patterns of neural activity during various forms of human cognition, the efficacy of different strategies for effective teaching can be compared. Considerable insight has also been developed as to how to most effectively engage these processes to facilitate learning, retention, recall, and effective use and application of the learned information. However, this knowledge has not systematically found its way into the medical education process. Thus, there are considerable opportunities for the integration of current knowledge about the biology of learning with educational strategies and curricular design. By teaching medical students in ways that use this knowledge, there is an opportunity to make medical education easier and more effective. The authors present 10 key aspects of learning that they believe can be incorporated into effective teaching paradigms in multiple ways. They also present recommendations for applying the current knowledge of the neurobiology of learning throughout the medical education continuum.

  16. Attachment, neurobiology, and mentalizing along the psychosis continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Debbané

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to the psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioural studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis.

  17. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis.

  18. [Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Grosbellet, Edith; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and disabling condition in school children, with cognitive and behavioral symptoms persisting into adulthood in a majority of patients. Etiology of ADHD is considered multifactorial and heterogenous, with an important contribution of genetic factors. Apart from genetic risk factors, emphasis has been put on the early environment, and prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with subsequent ADHD symptoms. This article reviews recent findings in neurobiology, genetics and neuroimaging of ADHD. Despite their clinical heterogeneity and frequent comorbidities, key symptoms of ADHD, such as impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention are regularly improved by dopaminergic agonists, leading to consider dopaminergic dysfunction a possibly contributing factor in ADHD. Norepinephrine agonists also have clinical efficacy on ADHD symptoms and several other neurotransmission systems are likely involved in the etiology of ADHD. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems have been related to impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory control and working memory. Cognitive tasks focusing on reaction time and verbal working memory fit certain criteria for ADHD endophenotypes, offering a pathway to bridge the gap between observed traits and genetic vulnerability. Despite ADHD being a highly heritable disorder, most candidate genes with replicated findings across association studies only account for a small proportion of genetic variance. Neuroimaging studies using treatment effect or cognitive tasks show differential activation patterns in ADHD patients, with trends towards normalization under treatment. Further insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved in ADHD will arise from collaborative networks and combination of imaging, genetic and neurobiological techniques with consideration of the developmental aspects of ADHD.

  19. The neurobiology of relapse in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Gary; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Fervaha, Gagan; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Hahn, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine's proposed role in psychosis proved a starting point in our understanding of the neurobiology of relapse, fitting given the central role positive symptoms play. This link is reflected in early work examining neurotransmitter metabolite and drug (e.g. amphetamine, methylphenidate) challenge studies as a means of better understanding relapse and predictors. Since, lines of investigation have expanded (e.g. electrophysiological, immunological, hormonal, stress), an important step forward if relapse per se is the question. Arguably, perturbations in dopamine represent the final common pathway in psychosis but it is evident that, like schizophrenia, relapse is heterogeneous and multidimensional. In understanding the neurobiology of relapse, greater gains are likely to be made if these distinctions are acknowledged; for example, efforts to identify trait markers might better be served by distinguishing primary (i.e. idiopathic) and secondary (e.g. substance abuse, medication nonadherence) forms of relapse. Similarly, it has been suggested that relapse is 'neurotoxic', yet individuals do very well on clozapine after multiple relapses and the designation of treatment resistance. An alternative explanation holds that schizophrenia is characterized by different trajectories, at least to some extent biologically and/or structurally distinguishable from the outset, with differential patterns of response and relapse. Just as with schizophrenia, it seems naïve to conceptualize the neurobiology of relapse as a singular process. We propose that it is shaped by the form of illness and in place from the outset, modified by constitutional factors like resilience, as well as treatment, and confounded by secondary forms of relapse.

  20. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  1. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  2. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  3. The Neurobiological Toll of Early Human Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles A; Bos, Karen; Gunnar, Megan R; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2011-12-01

    Children raised in institutions frequently suffer from a variety of behavioral, emotional, and neuropsychological sequelae, including deficits in attention, executive functions, disorders of attachment and in some cases a syndrome that mimics autism. The extent and severity of these disorders appears to be mediated, in part, by the age at which the child entered and, in some cases, left the institution. Here we review the neurobiological literature on early institutionalization that may account for the psychological and neurological sequelae discussed in other chapters in this volume.

  4. Recent advances in stem cell neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenfeld, T; Svendsen, C N

    2003-01-01

    delivery and the expression of therapeutic proteins. In this regard, they may be eminently suitable for the correction of genetically-determined CNS disorders and in the management of certain tumors responsive to cytokines. Since large numbers of stem cells can be generated efficiently in culture, they may obviate some of the technical and ethical limitations associated with the use of fresh (primary) embryonic neural tissue in current transplantation strategies. 5. While considerable recent progress has been made in terms of developing new techniques allowing for the long-term culture of human stem cells, the successful clinical application of these cells is presently limited by our understanding of both (i) the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of stem cell proliferation and (ii) those factors controlling cell lineage determination and differentiation. Although such cells may also provide accessible model systems for studying neural development, progress in the field has been further limited by the lack of suitable markers needed for the identification and selection of cells within proliferating heterogeneous populations of precursor cells. There is a further need to distinguish between the committed fate (defined during normal development) and the potential specification (implying flexibility of fate through manipulation of its environment) of stem cells undergoing differentiation. 6. With these challenges lying ahead, it is the opinion of the authors that stem-cell therapy is likely to remain within the experimental arena for the foreseeable future. In this regard, few (if any) of the in vivo studies employing neural stem cell grafts have shown convincingly that behavioural recovery can be achieved in the various model paradigms. Moreover, issues relating to the quality control of cultured cells and their safety following transplantation have only begun to be addressed. 7. While on the one hand cell biotechnologists have been quick to realise the potential commercial

  5. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  6. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  7. Neurobiology Research Findings: How the Brain Works during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweldju, Siusana

    2015-01-01

    In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…

  8. Research Review: The Neurobiology and Genetics of Maltreatment and Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in…

  9. Optogenetics: a new enlightenment age for zebrafish neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, Filippo; Wyart, Claire

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish became a model of choice for neurobiology because of the transparency of its brain and because of its amenability to genetic manipulation. In particular, at early stages of development the intact larva is an ideal system to apply optical techniques for deep imaging in the nervous system, as well as genetically encoded tools for targeting subsets of neurons and monitoring and manipulating their activity. For these applications,new genetically encoded optical tools, fluorescent sensors, and light-gated channels have been generated,creating the field of "optogenetics." It is now possible to monitor and control neuronal activity with minimal perturbation and unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution.We describe here the main achievements that have occurred in the last decade in imaging and manipulating neuronal activity in intact zebrafish larvae. We provide also examples of functional dissection of neuronal circuits achieved with the applications of these techniques in the visual and locomotor systems.

  10. Consciousness, Neurobiology and Quantum Mechanics: The Case for a Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart

    Consciousness is generally considered to emerge from synaptic computation among brain neurons, but this approach cannot account for its critical features. The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model suggests that consciousness is a sequence of quantum computations in microtubules within brain neurons, shielded from decoherence to reach threshold for objective reduction (OR), the Penrose quantum gravity solution to the measurement problem. The quantum computations are "orchestrated" by neuronal/synaptic inputs (hence "Orch OR"), and extend throughout cortex by tunneling through gap junctions. Each Orch OR is proposed as a conscious event, akin to Whitehead's philosophical "occasion of experience", occurring in concert with brain electrophysiology. This chapter discusses the need for such an approach and its neurobiological requirements.

  11. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiological markers. Converging evidence also points to a role for the major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in one or more aspects of SAD. Ultimately, as with other psychiatric illnesses, SAD is best considered as a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several vulnerability factors acting at different levels, the various genetic mechanisms that underlie them, and the physical environment. Models of SAD that emphasize its potential role in human evolution will also be discussed.

  12. Speech perception at the interface of neurobiology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppel, David; Idsardi, William J; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2008-03-12

    Speech perception consists of a set of computations that take continuously varying acoustic waveforms as input and generate discrete representations that make contact with the lexical representations stored in long-term memory as output. Because the perceptual objects that are recognized by the speech perception enter into subsequent linguistic computation, the format that is used for lexical representation and processing fundamentally constrains the speech perceptual processes. Consequently, theories of speech perception must, at some level, be tightly linked to theories of lexical representation. Minimally, speech perception must yield representations that smoothly and rapidly interface with stored lexical items. Adopting the perspective of Marr, we argue and provide neurobiological and psychophysical evidence for the following research programme. First, at the implementational level, speech perception is a multi-time resolution process, with perceptual analyses occurring concurrently on at least two time scales (approx. 20-80 ms, approx. 150-300 ms), commensurate with (sub)segmental and syllabic analyses, respectively. Second, at the algorithmic level, we suggest that perception proceeds on the basis of internal forward models, or uses an 'analysis-by-synthesis' approach. Third, at the computational level (in the sense of Marr), the theory of lexical representation that we adopt is principally informed by phonological research and assumes that words are represented in the mental lexicon in terms of sequences of discrete segments composed of distinctive features. One important goal of the research programme is to develop linking hypotheses between putative neurobiological primitives (e.g. temporal primitives) and those primitives derived from linguistic inquiry, to arrive ultimately at a biologically sensible and theoretically satisfying model of representation and computation in speech.

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  14. What links schizophrenia and dreaming? Common phenomenological and neurobiological features of schizophrenia and REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypińska, Dagna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this theoretical study is to present common phenomenological and neurobiological features of schizophrenia and REM sleep.Results. A review of professional literature was conducted in order to synthesize current findings about associations between schizophrenia and REM sleep. Many researches reveal that both states share some common phenomenological and neurobiological features. Autism, lack of insight and a loss of autonomy in relation to mental content are just some of the characteristics that occur on a phenomenological level in both dreams during REM sleep (lucid dreaming excluded and schizophrenia. Data from experimental conditions revealed that the waking mentation of patients suffering from schizophrenia has a similar degree of formal cognitive bizarreness as dream narratives obtained from both non-clinical and clinical populations. On the other hand, some common neurobiological features of the REM sleep stage and schizophrenia are: lack of central inhibitory processes, intracerebral disconnections, dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or nucleus accumbens and disturbed responsiveness. Moreover, there is similaractivation of dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin and glutamate in both states.Conclusions. Common phenomenological and neurobiological characteristics of these two states suggest that data about REM sleep could help introduce a useful experimental model of schizophrenia.

  15. PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Švec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it can´t be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc. taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  16. Preparation of the Digital Elevation Model for Orthophoto CR Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Z.; Pavelka, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it cańt be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc.) taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  17. Integrating ecology, psychology and neurobiology within a food-hoarding paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Smulders, Tom V

    2010-03-27

    Many animals regularly hoard food for future use, which appears to be an important adaptation to a seasonally and/or unpredictably changing environment. This food-hoarding paradigm is an excellent example of a natural system that has broadly influenced both theoretical and empirical work in the field of biology. The food-hoarding paradigm has played a major role in the conceptual framework of numerous fields from ecology (e.g. plant-animal interactions) and evolution (e.g. the coevolution of caching, spatial memory and the hippocampus) to psychology (e.g. memory and cognition) and neurobiology (e.g. neurogenesis and the neurobiology of learning and memory). Many food-hoarding animals retrieve caches by using spatial memory. This memory-based behavioural system has the inherent advantage of being tractable for study in both the field and laboratory and has been shaped by natural selection, which produces variation with strong fitness consequences in a variety of taxa. Thus, food hoarding is an excellent model for a highly integrative approach to understanding numerous questions across a variety of disciplines. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the complexity of animal cognition such as future planning and episodic-like-memory as well as in the relationship between memory, the environment and the brain. In addition, new breakthroughs in neurobiology have enhanced our ability to address the mechanisms underlying these behaviours. Consequently, the field is necessarily becoming more integrative by assessing behavioural questions in the context of natural ecological systems and by addressing mechanisms through neurobiology and psychology, but, importantly, within an evolutionary and ecological framework. In this issue, we aim to bring together a series of papers providing a modern synthesis of ecology, psychology, physiology and neurobiology and identifying new directions and developments in the use of food-hoarding animals as a model system.

  18. Neurobiology of inflammation-associated anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gautron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients.

  19. Autism spectrum disorders: from genes to neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; State, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Advances in genome-wide technology, coupled with the availability of large cohorts, are finally yielding a steady stream of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes carrying mutations of large effect. These findings represent important molecular clues, but at the same time present notable challenges to traditional strategies for moving from genes to neurobiology. A remarkable degree of genetic heterogeneity, the biological pleiotropy of ASD genes, and the tremendous complexity of the human brain are prompting the development of new strategies for translating genetic discoveries into therapeutic targets. Recent developments in systems biology approaches that 'contextualize' these genetic findings along spatial, temporal, and cellular axes of human brain development are beginning to bridge the gap between high-throughput gene discovery and testable pathophysiological hypotheses.

  20. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug.

  1. Neurobiology of the circadian system: meeting metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of physiology postulated the necessity of the constancy of the internal environment to maintain a physiological equilibrium and do not front serious consequences in health. Now we know that physiology is rhythmic and that a break of this rhythmicity can generate serious consequences in health which even could be lethal. Circadian clocks, headed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the central nervous system, are the responsible for the generation of circadian rhythms. These clocks are affected by external signals as light (day-night cycles and feeding. This review examines the basic principles of the circadian system and the current knowledge in the neurobiology of biological clocks, making emphasis in the relationship between the circadian system, feeding behaviour, nutrition and metabolism, and the consequences that occur when these systems are not coordinated each other, as the development of metabolic and circadian pathologies.

  2. Contactins in the neurobiology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuko, Amila; Kleijer, Kristel T E; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kas, Martien J H; van Daalen, Emma; van der Zwaag, Bert; Burbach, J Peter H

    2013-11-05

    Autism is a disease of brain plasticity. Inspiring work of Willem Hendrik Gispen on neuronal plasticity has stimulated us to investigate gene defects in autism and the consequences for brain development. The central process in the pathogenesis of autism is local dendritic mRNA translation which is dependent on axodendritic communication. Hence, most autism-related gene products (i) are part of the protein synthesis machinery itself, (ii) are components of the mTOR signal transduction pathway, or (iii) shape synaptic activity and plasticity. Accordingly, prototype drugs have been recognized that interfere with these pathways. The contactin (CNTN) family of Ig cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) harbours at least three members that have genetically been implicated in autism: CNTN4, CNTN5, and CNTN6. In this chapter we review the genetic and neurobiological data underpinning their role in normal and abnormal development of brain systems, and the consequences for behavior. Although data on each of these CNTNs are far from complete, we tentatively conclude that these three contactins play roles in brain development in a critical phase of establishing brain systems and their plasticity. They modulate neuronal activities, such as neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, survival, guidance of projections and terminal branching of axons in forming neural circuits. Current research on these CNTNs concentrate on the neurobiological mechanism of their developmental functions. A future task will be to establish if proposed pharmacological strategies to counteract ASD-related symptomes can also be applied to reversal of phenotypes caused by genetic defects in these CNTN genes.

  3. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C L; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-09-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the 'extreme male brain' theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P neurobiology of autism.

  4. Neurobiology of Everyday Communication: What Have We Learned From Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2016-06-09

    Sound is an invisible but powerful force that is central to everyday life. Studies in the neurobiology of everyday communication seek to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying sound processing, their stability, their plasticity, and their links to language abilities and disabilities. This sound processing lies at the nexus of cognitive, sensorimotor, and reward networks. Music provides a powerful experimental model to understand these biological foundations of communication, especially with regard to auditory learning. We review studies of music training that employ a biological approach to reveal the integrity of sound processing in the brain, the bearing these mechanisms have on everyday communication, and how these processes are shaped by experience. Together, these experiments illustrate that music works in synergistic partnerships with language skills and the ability to make sense of speech in complex, everyday listening environments. The active, repeated engagement with sound demanded by music making augments the neural processing of speech, eventually cascading to listening and language. This generalization from music to everyday communications illustrates both that these auditory brain mechanisms have a profound potential for plasticity and that sound processing is biologically intertwined with listening and language skills. A new wave of studies has pushed neuroscience beyond the traditional laboratory by revealing the effects of community music training in underserved populations. These community-based studies reinforce laboratory work highlight how the auditory system achieves a remarkable balance between stability and flexibility in processing speech. Moreover, these community studies have the potential to inform health care, education, and social policy by lending a neurobiological perspective to their efficacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. AKD AND ASA MODEL SURFACES: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Laine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Model surfaces of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD and alkenyl succinic anhyd-ride (ASA were prepared by casting and spin-coating methods. The surface chemical composition and surface topography were investigated by XPS, ellipsometry, AFM and contact angle studies. Spin-coating resulted in layered structure of AKD and ASA surfaces; the molecular layer thickness of both AKD and ASA was found to be ca. 2.5 nm. To achieve a covering surface layer, an average thickness of ca. 35 nm was required. The rms roughness of the created surfaces was 1 - 6 nm. Colloidal probe adhesion measurements were performed to verify that the roughness was in a range suitable for these measurements. The high reactivity of ASA with water generated stability problems with the ASA layers and it has to be recognized that surface force measurements with ASA in aqueous environment are very difficult, if not impossible. How-ever, surfaces created in this way were found to be useful in providing explanations of earlier ASA adhesion studies. The contact angle measurements on ASA layers also indicated that it might be possible to asses the hydrolysis rate issues through a set of similar measurements.

  6. Mask process matching using a model based data preparation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Brian; Saib, Mohamed; Figueiro, Thiago; Petroni, Paolo; Progler, Chris; Schiavone, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Process matching is the ability to precisely reproduce the signature of a given fabrication process while using a different one. A process signature is typically described as systematic CD variation driven by feature geometry as a function of feature size, local density or distance to neighboring structures. The interest of performing process matching is usually to address differences in the mask fabrication process without altering the signature of the mask, which is already validated by OPC models and already used in production. The need for such process matching typically arises from the expansion of the production capacity within the same or different mask fabrication facilities, from the introduction of new, perhaps more advanced, equipment to deliver same process of record masks and/or from the re-alignment of processes which have altered over time. For state-of-the-art logic and memory mask processes, such matching requirements can be well below 2nm and are expected to reduce below 1nm in near future. In this paper, a data preparation solution for process matching is presented and discussed. Instead of adapting the physical process itself, a calibrated model is used to modify the data to be exposed by the source process in order to induce the results to match the one obtained while running the target process. This strategy consists in using the differences among measurements from the source and target processes, in the calibration of a single differential model. In this approach, no information other than the metrology results is required from either process. Experimental results were obtained by matching two different processes at Photronics. The standard deviation between both processes was of 2.4nm. After applying the process matching technique, the average absolute difference between the processes was reduced to 1.0nm with a standard deviation of 1.3nm. The methods used to achieve the result will be described along with implementation considerations, to

  7. Utilizing the PREPaRE Model When Multiple Classrooms Witness a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lisa J.; Rittle, Carrie; Roberts, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an account of how the Charleston County School District responded to an event by utilizing the PREPaRE model (Brock, et al., 2009). The acronym, PREPaRE, refers to a range of crisis response activities: P (prevent and prepare for psychological trauma), R (reaffirm physical health and perceptions of security and safety), E…

  8. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2011-06-22

    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values.

  9. A Biometric for Neurobiology of Influence with Social Informatics Using Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rahmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is constructed on the premise that human belief dependent emotions can be triggered by story-telling or narratives. With recent technological advancements to measure neurobiological measurements of the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and non-invasive brain computing interface (BCI equipment, these technologies can allow for visualization and data collection of brain activation patterns showing unconsciously controlled responses to narratives or stories. Current game theory application to belief networks has been modeled to help explain observed behavior when material payoffs of others matters to the individual. We discuss a method of how game theory, utilizing communication packet theory, can now be modeled to belief dependent emotions and intentions measured through a new biometric tool correlating neurobiological emotional states and responses.

  10. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour

  11. Quantum and Multidimensional Explanations in a Neurobiological Context of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possible relevance of physical-mathematical multidimensional or quantum concepts aiming at understanding the (human) mind in a neurobiological context. Some typical features of the quantum and multidimensional concepts are briefly introduced, including entanglement, superpo

  12. Social Context Effects on Decision-Making: A Neurobiological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stallen (Mirre)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis explores how social context influences the neurobiological processes underlying decision-making. To this end, this research takes an interdisciplinary approach, combining methods and insights from Psychology, Marketing, Economics, and Neuroscience. In particular, behavioural

  13. Social Context Effects on Decision-Making: A Neurobiological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stallen (Mirre)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis explores how social context influences the neurobiological processes underlying decision-making. To this end, this research takes an interdisciplinary approach, combining methods and insights from Psychology, Marketing, Economics, and Neuroscience. In particular, behavioural

  14. An embodied view of octopus neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Binyamin

    2012-10-23

    Octopuses have a unique flexible body and unusual morphology, but nevertheless they are undoubtedly a great evolutionary success. They compete successfully with vertebrates in their ecological niche using a rich behavioral repertoire more typical of an intelligent predator which includes extremely effective defensive behavior--fast escape swimming and an astonishing ability to adapt their shape and color to their environment. The most obvious characteristic feature of an octopus is its eight long and flexible arms, but these pose a great challenge for achieving the level of motor and sensory information processing necessary for their behaviors. First, coordinating motion is a formidable task because of the infinite degrees of freedom that have to be controlled; and second, it is hard to use body coordinates in this flexible animal to represent sensory information in a central control system. Here I will review experimental results suggesting that these difficulties, arising from the animal's morphology, have imposed the evolution of unique brain/body/behavior relationships best explained as intelligent behavior which emerges from the octopus's embodied organization. The term 'intelligent embodiment' comes from robotics and refers to an approach to designing autonomous robots in which the behavior emerges from the dynamic physical and sensory interactions of the agent's materials, morphology and environment. Consideration of the unusual neurobiology of the octopus in the light of its unique morphology suggests that similar embodied principles are instrumental for understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior in all biological systems.

  15. Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2005-10-01

    Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic plasticity. This article describes the neurobiological bases of pathogenic memory disruption to provide some insight into how psychotherapy works. At least two mechanisms of unwanted memory erasing appear to be implicated in the effects of psychotherapy: inhibition of memory consolidation/reconsolidation and extinction. Behavioral evidence demonstrated that these two ways to forget are profoundly distinct in nature, and it is increasingly clear that their cellular, synaptic, and molecular underpinnings are different. Accordingly, the blockade of consolidation/reconsolidation erases memories by reversing the plasticity associated with memory maintenance, whereas extinction is a totally new form of plasticity that, similar to the plasticity underlying the old memory, requires protein synthesis-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  16. [Drug resistant epilepsy. Clinical and neurobiological concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Jovel, Camilo A; Sobrino-Mejía, Fidel E

    2015-08-16

    Drug-resistant epilepsy, is a condition defined by the International League Against Epilepsy as persistent seizures despite having used at least two appropriate and adequate antiepileptic drug treatments. Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy are going to be resistant to antiepileptic drugs, with different patterns of clinical presentation, which are related to the biological basis of this disease (de novo resistance, relapsing-remitting and progressive). Drug resistant epilepsy, impacts negatively the quality of life and significantly increases the risk of premature death. From the neurobiological point of view, this medical condition is the result of the interaction of multiple variables related to the underlying disease, drug interactions and proper genetic aspects of each patient. Thanks to advances in pharmacogenetics and molecular biology research, currently some hypotheses may explain the cause of this condition and promote the study of new therapeutic options. Currently, overexpression of membrane transporters such as P-glycoprotein, appears to be one of the most important mechanisms in the development of drug resistant epilepsy. The objective of this review is to deepen the general aspects of this clinical condition, addressing the definition, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and the pathophysiological bases.

  17. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  18. Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2010-12-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

  19. The Neurobiology of Moral Behavior: Review and Neuropsychiatric Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mario F. Mendez

    2009-01-01

    Morality may be innate to the human brain. This review examines the neurobiological evidence from research involving functional magnetic resonance imaging of normal subjects, developmental sociopathy, acquired sociopathy from brain lesions, and frontotemporal dementia. These studies indicate a “neuromoral” network for responding to moral dilemmas centered in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and its connections, particularly on the right. The neurobiological evidence indicates the existence ...

  20. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area.

  1. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Debbané; George Salaminios; Patrick Luyten; Deborah Badoud; Marco Armando; Alessandra Solida Tozzi; Peter Fonagy; Benjamin Brent

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to the psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also con...

  2. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  3. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structure...

  4. Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yekta, S.S.; Lampert, F.; Kazemi, S.; Kazemi, R.; Brand, H.S.; Baart, J.A.; Mazandarani, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by thr

  5. Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yekta, S.S.; Lampert, F.; Kazemi, S.; Kazemi, R.; Brand, H.S.; Baart, J.A.; Mazandarani, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by

  6. The neurobiology of social attachment: A comparative approach to behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly A; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2008-11-01

    The formation and maintenance of social bonds in adulthood is an essential component of human health. However studies investigating the underlying neurobiology of such behaviors have been scarce. Microtine rodents offer a unique comparative animal model to explore the neural processes responsible for pair bonding and its associated behaviors. Studies using monogamous prairie voles and other related species have recently offered insight into the neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurochemical underpinnings of social attachment. In this review, we will discuss the utility of the microtine rodents in comparative studies by exploring their natural history and social behavior in the laboratory. We will then summarize the data implicating vasopressin, oxytocin, and dopamine in the regulation of pair bonding. Finally, we will discuss the ways in which these neurochemical systems may interact to mediate this complex behavior.

  7. A model for preparing faculty to teach model C clinical nurse leader students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sherry; McKeon, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Model C clinical nurse leader (CNL) programs are complex because they must meet the The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice and The Essentials of Master's Education in Nursing, as well as the graduate level competencies outlined in the white paper Competencies and Curricular Expectations for Clinical Nurse Leader Education and Practice. Faculty assigned to teach in these programs may be experts in education or areas of clinical specialty, but they may not have a clear understanding of the CNL role to teach and mentor CNL students. This article describes a faculty development model that includes an introduction to the CNL role, course mapping of the essentials, integration of CNL professional values into clinical evaluation, consultation with practicing model C graduates, and participation in a comprehensive CNL certification review course. The model was effective in preparing faculty to teach and mentor students in a model C CNL program.

  8. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  9. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  10. Laboratory of molecular neurobiology (1988-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    While Dr. Costa was the Director of FGIN he became interested in the regulation of genes encoding various neurotransmitter receptors. More specifically, there was increasing evidence supporting a role for tetanic stimulation of the NMDA-subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the development of long term potentiation and long term depression. Moreover, the protein products of the immediate early gene family, such as c-fos and c-jun, were known modulators of downstream signaling events that facilitated changes in neuronal transcriptomes in response to incoming afferent stimulation. The immediate early gene products were known transcriptional factors that activated gene expression in response to excitatory stimulation. In fact, the expression of c-fos/c-jun was often used to map neuronal circuits linked through a common initiation point such as occurs in focally-evoked seizures. Dr. Costa firmly believed that excitatory and inhibitory transmission was balanced in the central nervous system and that this might come about through changes in the expression of the genes encoding these neurotransmitter receptors. In other words, persistent stimulation of NMDA receptors would be expected to increase expression of the inhibitory GABAA receptors to accommodate the increased excitation. That this receptor crosstalk might occur through the products of the immediate early genes was testable and the focus of the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory from 1988 to 1994. In a broader sense, stimulation of ionotropic NMDA-selective glutamate receptors has been associated with numerous downstream molecular and cellular processes. How these processes are linked to changes in gene expression has been the focus of studies in the neurosciences for many years.

  11. The neurobiology of MMN and implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Patricia T; Malmierca, Manuel S; Harms, Lauren; Todd, Juanita

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific community appears to know a lot about MMN, about its neural generators and the computational processes that underlie its generation, do we have sufficient knowledge to understand what causes the reduction of MMN amplitude in schizophrenia? Here we attempt to integrate the evidence presented in this series of papers for the special issue on MMN in schizophrenia together with evidence from other new relevant research and ask--what have we learnt? While MMN research was the purview for decades of psychophysiologists interested in event-related potentials derived from scalp recorded EEG, it is now part of mainstream neuroscience research attracting the interest of basic auditory neuroscientists, neurobiologists and computational modellers. The confluence of these developments together with increasing clinical research has certainly advanced our understanding of the causes of reduced MMN in schizophrenia as this integrative review attempts to demonstrate--but much remains to be learnt. Future advances will rely on the application of multiple methodologies and approaches in order to arrive at better understanding of the neurobiology of MMN and implications for schizophrenia.

  12. The Influence of Prebiotics on Neurobiology and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, A C C; Harty, S; Burnet, P W J

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions. There are also compelling data showing the robust and favorable effects of prebiotics on several behavioral paradigms including, anxiety, learning, and memory. At present, studies in humans are limited, though there is strong evidence for prebiotics modulating emotional processes and the neuroendocrine stress response that may underlie the pathophysiology of anxiety. While the mechanistic details linking the enteric microbiota to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated, there are a number of considerations that can guide future studies. These include the modulation of intestinal endocrine systems and inflammatory cascades, as well as direct interaction with the enteric nervous system and gut mucosa. Our knowledge of gut microbiome-brain communication is steadily progressing, and thorough investigations validating the use of prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders would be highly valued and are encouraged. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trauma, genes, and the neurobiology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; New, Antonia; Siever, Larry

    2004-12-01

    A model for personality dysfunction posits an interaction between inherited susceptibility and environmental factors such as childhood trauma. Core biological vulnerabilities in personality include dimensions of affective instability, impulsive aggression, and cognition/perceptual domains. For the dimension of impulsive aggression, often seen in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the underlying neurobiology involves deficits in central serotonin function and alterations in specific brain regions in the cingulate and the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. The role of trauma in the development of personality disorder and especially for BPD remains unclear. Although recent studies suggest that BPD is not a trauma-spectrum disorder and that it is biologically distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder, high rates of childhood abuse and neglect do exist for individuals with personality dysfunction. Personality symptom clusters seem to be unrelated to specific abuses, but they may relate to more enduring aspects of interpersonal and family environments in childhood. Whereas twin and family studies indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, studies of serotonin-related genes to date suggest only modest contributions to behavior. Gene-environment interactions involving childhood maltreatment are demonstrated in recent studies on antisocial behaviors and aggressive rhesus monkeys and highlight the need for further research in this important area.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder under ongoing threat: a review of neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iro Fragkaki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. Objective: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment. Method: Eighteen studies that examined brain functioning and cortisol levels in relation to PTSD in individuals exposed to intimate partner violence, police officers, and fire fighters were included. Results: Hippocampal volume was decreased in PTSD under ongoing threat, although not consistently associated with symptom severity. The neuroimaging studies revealed that PTSD under ongoing threat was not characterized by reduced volume of amygdala or parahippocampal gyrus. The neurocircuitry model of PTSD after finished trauma with hyperactivation of amygdala and hypoactivation of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was also confirmed in PTSD under ongoing threat. The neuroendocrine findings were inconsistent, revealing increased, decreased, or no association between cortisol levels and PTSD under ongoing threat. Conclusions: Although PTSD under ongoing threat is characterized by abnormal neurocircuitry patterns similar to those previously found in PTSD after finished trauma, this is less so for other neurobiological and in particular neuroendocrine findings. Direct comparisons between samples with ongoing versus finished trauma are needed in future research to draw more solid conclusions before administering cortisol to patients with PTSD under ongoing threat who may already exhibit increased endogenous

  15. [Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemí; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2011-01-01

    The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The aim of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards a neurobiological understanding of alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Meza-Concha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Si bien la literatura especializada sobre la etiología de la alexitimia es controvertida, la investigación neurobiológica sobre el fenómeno ha demostrado importantes avances. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la evidencia disponible en relación a las bases neurofisiológicas de la alexitimia. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de artículos disponibles en MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO y SciELO. Inicialmente, se vinculó a la alexitimia con una conexión cerebral interhemisférica reducida. Desde la perspectiva traumática infantil, la corteza prefrontal derecha y la red neuronal por defecto experimentarían alteraciones, primero hipermetabólicas (desregulación dopaminérgica y glutamatérgica y luego hipometabólicas-disociativas (desregulación serotoninérgica y opioide, resultando en una consciencia interoceptiva y emocional distorsionada. Las neuronas espejo son el sustrato neurobiológico fundamental de la teoría de la mente y la cognición social, intrínsecamente vinculadas con la alexitimia, involucrando cortezas como la parietal, la temporal, la premotora, la cingulada y el giro frontal inferior. Otras estructuras involucradas son amígdala (expresión facial y reactividad emocional, ínsula (interocepción, integración emocional y empatía y cerebelo (cerebelo límbico y consciencia somatosensorial. La genética molecular ha detectado polimorfismos en el gen del transportador de serotonina, en los genes de las enzimas del metabolismo dopaminérgico y del factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro, mientras que el rol de la oxitocina es controvertido. En conclusión, numerosos estudios demuestran contundentemente la existencia de una neurobiología subyacente a la alexitimia. Sin embargo, la investigación es aún poco concluyente y debe considerar los factores ambientales, traumáticos, sociales y psicológicos que contribuyen al origen del fenómeno.

  17. “Love” Phenomenon and Neurobiology of Love Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Evren Tufan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology; especially the neurobiological features of the “love” phenomenon has recently started to attract attention. Love relations and attachment, which is closely related with them, are known to be important in health and disease. Love and love relations are found to be complex neurobiological phenomena based on activation of the limbic system of the brain. Those processes involve oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine and serotonergic functions. Additionally, endorphine and endogenous opiate systems as well as nitrous oxide play role in those processes. The stages of love and love relations may demonstrate different neurochemical and neurophysiological features and may partially overlap with m aternal, romantic and sexual love and attachments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the common neurobiological pathways underlying the “love” phenomenon as well as their importance in medicine and health.

  18. Neurobiological determinism: human freedom of choice and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Hardegger, Judith; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Moskvitin, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    Several authors have argued that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. This assumption not only questions the concept of free will and a person's responsibility for his or her own actions but also the principle of guilt in criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results are not sufficient to support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior. Moreover, the assumption of total neurobiological determination of human behavior and the impossibility of individual responsibility are characterized by both faulty empiricism and methodical misconceptions. The principle of relative determinism and the analysis of the offender's behavior at the time of the offense thus remain the central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility.

  19. Animal models of schizophrenia: developmental preparation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Piotr; Wozniak, Anna; Nowakowska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia manifests itself primarily with positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive disorders. Animal models of mental diseases seem to be an important tool in understanding key theories related with pathophysiology of the disorder and are used to assess efficacy of new drugs. References describe four basic groups of animal models of schizophrenia, such as: models created by pharmacological intervention, genetic models, lesion models and models of developmental disorders of primary brain structures. Of the models referred to above, the group of developmental disorder models is particularly noteworthy, as they are primarily easy to use, and the methods are highly sensitive. High scientific value of these models is associated with the neurodevelopmental theory which stipulates that at an early stage of body development, a number of interactions between genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of neurons which may cause disorders of brain cytoarchitecture development. We review six developmental models of schizophrenia in rats (MAM--methylooxymethanol acetate, prenatal stress, maternal deprivation, isolation rearing, prenatal immune challenge and maternal malnutrition) that are all validated by disruption in PPI.

  20. Avances en neurobiología de la conducta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Raggi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia diaria nos enseña que el cerebro tiene una notable capacidad de adaptarse a cambios ambientales,de almacenar memoria y determinar la conducta. Pero hasta que punto esta adaptación del cerebroadulto, depende de reordcnamicntos en las conexiones entre las células nerviosas, sigue siendo uno de losmayores desafios de la neurobiología moderna. Los mecanismos sioápticos de la plasticidad en la cortezaadulta, dependiente de la experiencia, aún se desconocen. En esta breve revisión se comunican algunos delos avances en la neurobiología de la plasticidad neuronal.

  1. Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter

    2008-04-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders of unknown etiology that most commonly begin during adolescence in women. AN and BN have unique and puzzling symptoms, such as restricted eating or binge-purge behaviors, body image distortions, denial of emaciation, and resistance to treatment. These are often chronic and relapsing disorders, and AN has the highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder. The lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of this illness has hindered the development of effective interventions, particularly for AN. Individuals with AN and BN are consistently characterized by perfectionism, obsessive-compulsiveness, and dysphoric mood. Individuals with AN tend to have high constraint, constriction of affect and emotional expressiveness, ahendonia and asceticism, whereas individuals with BN tend to be more impulsive and sensation seeking. Such symptoms often begin in childhood, before the onset of an eating disorder, and persist after recovery, suggesting they are traits that create a vulnerability for developing an ED. There is growing acknowledgement that neurobiological vulnerabilities make a substantial contribution to the pathogenesis of AN and BN. Considerable evidence suggests that altered brain serotonin (5-HT) function contributes to dysregulation of appetite, mood, and impulse control in AN and BN. Brain imaging studies, using 5-HT specific ligands, show that disturbances of 5-HT function occur when people are ill, and persist after recovery from AN and BN. It is possible that a trait-related disturbance of 5-HT neuronal modulation predates the onset of AN and contributes to premorbid symptoms of anxiety, obsessionality, and inhibition. This dysphoric temperament may involve an inherent dysregulation of emotional and reward pathways which also mediate the hedonic aspects of feeding, thus making these individuals vulnerable to disturbed appetitive behaviors. Restricting food intake may become powerfully

  2. Neurobiology of Fear and Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, René

    Fear, which can be expressed innately or after conditioning, is triggered when a danger or a stimulus predicting immediate danger is perceived. Its role is to prepare the body to face this danger. However, dysfunction in fear processing can lead to psychiatric disorders in which fear outweighs the danger or possibility of harm. Although recognized…

  3. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task, tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner, while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect. Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects.

  4. Study on Model for Assessmentof Quality Management Performance of Coal Preparation Plant in CIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the method to calculate intangible quality cost is put forward for the first time based on theproduction and management characteristics of coal preparation plant. A model for assessment of quality manage-ment performance of coal preparation plant is established on the ground of quality cost. By using of CIMS integra-tion environment the strategy to carry out the model and the application example are also offered. It provides a newand feasible way to assess performance quality management of coal preparation plant.

  5. Preparing for success: Readiness models for rural telehealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennett P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Readiness is an integral and preliminary step in the successful implementation of telehealth services into existing health systems within rural communities. Methods and Materials: This paper details and critiques published international peer-reviewed studies that have focused on assessing telehealth readiness for rural and remote health. Background specific to readiness and change theories is provided, followed by a critique of identified telehealth readiness models, including a commentary on their readiness assessment tools. Results: Four current readiness models resulted from the search process. The four models varied across settings, such as rural outpatient practices, hospice programs, rural communities, as well as government agencies, national associations, and organizations. All models provided frameworks for readiness tools. Two specifically provided a mechanism by which communities could be categorized by their level of telehealth readiness. Discussion: Common themes across models included: an appreciation of practice context, strong leadership, and a perceived need to improve practice. Broad dissemination of these telehealth readiness models and tools is necessary to promote awareness and assessment of readiness. This will significantly aid organizations to facilitate the implementation of telehealth.

  6. The neurobiology of offensive aggression : Revealing a modular view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S F; Olivier, B; Veening, J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies aimed at understanding the neurobiology of aggression started in the early 20th century, and by employing increasingly sophisticated tools of functional neuroanatomy (i.e., from electric/chemical lesion and stimulation techniques to neurochemical mapping and manipulations) have

  7. What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersson, K.M.; Vasiliki, F.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-lin

  8. What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersson, K.M.; Folia, V.; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    : In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-l

  9. Depression management - from neurobiology to a shared care approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Darby, Laura; Furczyk, Karolina; Holland, Janathon; Khosravi-Nik, Mo; Vyas, Vishal; Zhang, Junyi

    2011-09-01

    The management of depression has recently been the focus of several articles, in particular regarding the efficacy of pharmacological and other treatments. In order for these to be effective as possible, correct diagnosis, consideration of the underlying neurobiology and an appropriate provision of healthcare services must be ensured.

  10. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth-Bühler, M; Mann, K

    2017-01-01

    The number of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM-5. The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment. Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling (PG)-so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified.

  11. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  12. An Emerging Technology Framework for the Neurobiology of Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternson, Scott M; Atasoy, Deniz; Betley, J Nicholas; Henry, Fredrick E; Xu, Shengjin

    2016-02-09

    Advances in neuro-technology for mapping, manipulating, and monitoring molecularly defined cell types are rapidly advancing insight into neural circuits that regulate appetite. Here, we review these important tools and their applications in circuits that control food seeking and consumption. Technical capabilities provided by these tools establish a rigorous experimental framework for research into the neurobiology of hunger.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  14. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  15. Matching the Neurobiology of Learning to Teaching Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Nelle; Fleisher, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe principles of good teaching drawn from meta-analyses of research on teaching effectiveness. Recent developments in neurobiology are presented and aligned to provide biological support for these principles. To make it easier for college faculty to try out sample instructional strategies, the authors map principles of good…

  16. Neurobiological Underpinnings of Math and Reading Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…

  17. Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

  18. Range-dependent sonar performance modelling during Battlespace Preparation 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, L.A. te; Lam, F.P.A.; Schouten M.W.; Janmaat, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in sound speed can have substantial effects on sound propagation and hence sonar performance. Operational oceanographic models can provide forecasts of oceanographic variables as temperature, salinity and sound speed up to several days ahead. These four-dimensional fo

  19. Preparing Secondary Mathematics Teachers: A Focus on Modeling in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunyi; Mintos, Alexia; Newton, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed the opportunities to learn (OTL) modeling in algebra provided to secondary mathematics pre-service teachers (PSTs). To investigate these OTL, we interviewed five instructors of required mathematics and mathematics education courses that had the potential to include opportunities for PSTs to learn algebra at three universities.…

  20. Professional Development Schools: A Model for Preparing School Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam; Williams, Franklyn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a training model, based on The Education Trust, The American School Counselor Association, and The Holmes Partnership, consisting of school counselor trainees completing their clinical experiences in a Professional Development School. A case study demonstrating the role of the school counselor is presented along with…

  1. A Model for Using Triadic Supervision in Counselor Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gerard; Hein, Serge F.; Getz, Hildy

    2009-01-01

    The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2001) has approved the use of triadic supervision as an alternative to individual supervision in clinical instruction. However, literature describing this mode of supervision is very limited. A model for triadic supervision is described, including presession planning,…

  2. Preparing radiology staff to meet service goals: a training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardone, E B; Stepanovich, P H; West, V T

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a model used to train radiology staff in customer service relations at a large southeastern medical center. Information about the needs of the radiology department and staff was acquired through quantitative and qualitative assessments. The primary goal of the training was twofold: 1) to develop employee awareness of customer expectations and 2) to develop problem-solving skills to respond to customer service related issues. Instructional methods compatible with adult learning were used and training results were assessed. Positive changes in employee attitudes and behaviors are described and recommendations for training development and implementation are discussed.

  3. Review of Neurobiologically Based Mobile Robot Navigation System Research Performed Since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to better understand how the navigation part of the brain works and to possibly create smarter and more reliable navigation systems, many papers have been written in the field of biomimetic systems. This paper presents a literature survey of state-of-the-art research performed since the year 2000 on rodent neurobiological and neurophysiologically based navigation systems that incorporate models of spatial awareness and navigation brain cells. The main focus is to explore the functionality of the cognitive maps developed in these mobile robot systems with respect to route planning, as well as a discussion/analysis of the computational complexity required to scale these systems.

  4. Beyond simple reinforcement learning: the computational neurobiology of reward-learning and valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, John P

    2012-04-01

    Neural computational accounts of reward-learning have been dominated by the hypothesis that dopamine neurons behave like a reward-prediction error and thus facilitate reinforcement learning in striatal target neurons. While this framework is consistent with a lot of behavioral and neural evidence, this theory fails to account for a number of behavioral and neurobiological observations. In this special issue of EJN we feature a combination of theoretical and experimental papers highlighting some of the explanatory challenges faced by simple reinforcement-learning models and describing some of the ways in which the framework is being extended in order to address these challenges.

  5. Value-Added Models for Teacher Preparation Programs: Validity and Reliability Threats, and a Manageable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Heiser, Lawrence A.; McCormick, Jazarae K.; Forgan, James

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized student assessments are increasingly used in value-added evaluation models to connect teacher performance to P-12 student learning. These assessments are also being used to evaluate teacher preparation programs, despite validity and reliability threats. A more rational model linking student performance to candidates who…

  6. Development of Mathematical Model on Preparation of Functionally Graded Material by Co-sedimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the process of sedimentation the mathematical relationshipsamong deposition volume and powder properties as well as sedimentation parameters were deduced. Based on the formula a mathematical model was set up and simulated through the computer. At last the validity of mathematical model was supported by the representative experiment on Ti-Mo system FGM prepared by co-sedimentation.

  7. Neurobiologically inspired mobile robot navigation and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Quoy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  8. Aspects of psychodynamic neuropsychiatry III: magic spells, the placebo effect, and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study, the importance of supporting the positive transference is stressed-from both a psychological and neurobiological perspective. The article argues that the neurobiology of expectation underlies transference. This neurobiology has been investigated particularly over the past several decades in work concerning the placebo effect. By understanding the neurobiology of expectation, one gains a better understanding of the neurobiology of the transference. This enables clinical predictions-and decisions-that are informed not just by the teachings of psychology but also by the science of biology.

  9. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  10. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  11. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates – A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, James; Karanth, Siddharth; Revere, Frances Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20–60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT) every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers. Results At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society’s willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY). Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy. Conclusions Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%. PMID:27936028

  12. The effect of rosemary preparations on the microbial quality and TBARS value of model pork batters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hać-Szymańczuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts have a potent antioxidant and antibacterial activity and are widely used in the food industry. The effect of added rosemary preparations on the microbiological quality and process of lipid oxidation of model pork batters, immediately after preparation (“0” and 1, 3 and 7 days of chill-storage (4-6°C was analysed in the study. Material and methods. Experiments were conducted with three types of rosemary preparations, i.e.: dried spice, essential oil and a commercial preparation (TasteGuard P. The experimental material consisted of meat batter produced from porcine musculus longissimus dorsi and water. Microbiological examinations covered determinations of the total count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms and enterococci. In turn, chemical analyses involved determination of the TBARS value. Results. The rosemary preparations did not exhibit either antibacterial properties against aerobic mesophilic or psychrophilic bacteria. The essential rosemary oil was observed to inhibit the growth of coliform bacteria and enterococci, whereas the dried spice examined was found to increase the counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms and enterococci. None of the rosemary preparations terminated the lipid oxidation process. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study point to the necessity of continuing investigations to determine the dose of rosemary preparations that would inhibit the growth of microflora being the most frequent cause of raw materials and products spoilage and, simultaneously, restrict oxidation of their lipids.

  13. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Order Review and Parenteral Nutrition Preparation, Including Compounding: The ASPEN Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi

    2016-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff.

  14. On the pursuit of the brain network for proto-syntactic learning in non-human primates: conceptual issues and neurobiological hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I; Wilson, Benjamin

    2012-07-19

    Songbirds have become impressive neurobiological models for aspects of human verbal communication because they learn to sequence their song elements, analogous, in some ways, to how humans learn to produce spoken sequences with syntactic structure. However, mammals such as non-human primates are considered to be at best limited-vocal learners and not able to sequence their vocalizations, although some of these animals can learn certain 'artificial grammar' sequences. Thus, conceptual issues have slowed the progress in exploring potential neurobiological homologues to language-related processes in species that are taxonomically closely related to humans. We consider some of the conceptual issues impeding a pursuit of, as we define them, 'proto-syntactic' capabilities and their neuronal substrates in non-human animals. We also discuss ways to better bridge comparative behavioural and neurobiological data between humans and other animals. Finally, we propose guiding neurobiological hypotheses with which we aim to facilitate the future testing of the level of correspondence between the human brain network for syntactic-learning and related neurobiological networks present in other primates. Insights from the study of non-human primates and other mammals are likely to complement those being obtained in birds to further our knowledge of the human language-related network at the cellular level.

  15. Insomnia: psychological and neurobiological aspects and non-pharmacological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, Yara Fleury; Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; Prado, Lucila Bizari Fernandes do; Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia involves difficulty in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or having refreshing sleep. This review gathers the existing informations seeking to explain insomnia, including those that focus on psychological aspects and those considered neurobiological. Insomnia has been defined in psychological (cognitive components, such as worries and rumination, and behavioral aspects, such as classic conditioning) and physiological terms (increased metabolic rate, with increased muscle tone, heart rate and temperature). From the neurobiological point of view, there are two perspectives: one which proposes that insomnia occurs in association with a failure to inhibit wakefulness and another that considers hyperarousal as having an important role in the physiology of sleep. The non-pharmacological interventions developed to face different aspects of insomnia are presented.

  16. [Pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Neurobiological risk factors and possible endophenotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pászthy, Bea; Törzsök-Sonnevend, Mária

    2014-01-26

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious, chronical state of illness which often starts in childhood or adolescence and has serious consequences on the quality of life. This review focuses on the heterogenity of the disease with emphasis on special diagnostic implications in case of childhood onset. Research findings of the last decade showed that genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities are at least as potent risk factors as psychological, family constellations and sociocultural preferences. The heritability of eating disorders levels those of diseases predominantly influenced by biological factors. The authors give a summary of the most investigated neurobiologic and neurocognitive factors which could be the fundaments of a biological vulnerablilty. To date, no common risk factor could be identified, but some existing adversities can clearly be related to distinct subgroups with the disorder. The concept of endo- and subphenotypes leads to more specific and more efficient methods of therapy in other somatic and psychiatric diseases.

  17. Evolutionary themes in the neurobiology of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitekamp, Chelsea A; Hofmann, Hans A

    2014-10-01

    Remarkable examples of social cognition have been described across a diverse range of species, yet surprisingly little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of these behaviors. Recent studies suggest that the molecular pathways and neural networks that mediate social behavior have been relatively conserved across vertebrate evolution, suggesting that shared mechanisms may drive adaptive behavioral responses to social stimuli. Here, we review recent advances in the neurobiology of flexible and context-dependent social behaviors across vertebrate taxa, focusing on female mate choice, pair-bonding, and aggressive behavior. Furthermore, we highlight the outstanding opportunities for uncovering the mechanisms mediating cooperative behavior, an exemplar of social cognition. We suggest a framework for investigating context-dependent neural organization and the evoked neural response to social stimuli.

  18. How Electroconvulsive Therapy Works?: Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a time tested treatment modality for the management of various psychiatric disorders. There have been a lot of modifications in the techniques of delivering ECT over decades. Despite lots of criticisms encountered, ECT has still been used commonly in clinical practice due to its safety and efficacy. Research evidences found multiple neuro-biological mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of ECT. ECT brings about various neuro-physiological as well as neuro-chemical changes in the macro- and micro-environment of the brain. Diverse changes involving expression of genes, functional connectivity, neurochemicals, permeability of blood-brain-barrier, alteration in immune system has been suggested to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of ECT. This article reviews different neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. PMID:28783929

  19. Neurobiological Correlates of the Attitude Toward Human Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gentili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, integrated philosophical and neuroscientific studies of empathy have been steadily growing, because of the pivotal role that empathy plays in social cognition and ethics, as well as in the understanding of human behavior both under physiological conditions and in the presence of mental disorders. The umbrella concept of empathy embraces multi-faceted characteristics, including affective and cognitive processes, such as so-called emotional contagion and concern and perspective-taking. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of knowledge about the neurobiology of empathy. Specifically, we examine studies regarding empathy for pain, emotional imitation and expression and their alterations in psychopathological conditions. We also consider studies on the theory of mind (ToM and the mirror neuron system (MNS. Finally, we propose measures of brain resting state activity as a potential neurobiological marker of proneness to be empathic.

  20. Molecular Neurobiology and Promising New Treatment in Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Jeon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The limited effects of currently available antidepressants are becoming an urgent issue in depression research. It takes a long time to determine treatment effects, and the overall remission rate is low. Although we expect the development of non-monoamine antidepressants in the near future, efforts in this regard over the past several decades have not yet been compensated. Thus, researchers and clinicians should clarify the neurobiological mechanisms of integrated modulators that regulate changes in genes, cells, the brain, and behaviors associated with depression. In this study, we review molecular neurobiological theories and new treatments for depression. Beyond neuroanatomy and monoamine theory, we discuss cells and molecules, neural plasticity, neurotrophisms, endocrine mechanisms, immunological mechanisms, genetics, circadian rhythms, and metabolic regulation in depression. In addition, we introduce the possibility of new antidepressant drug development using protein translation signaling (mTOR pathways.

  1. Insomnia: psychological and neurobiological aspects and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Fleury Molen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia involves difficulty in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or having refreshing sleep. This review gathers the existing informations seeking to explain insomnia, including those that focus on psychological aspects and those considered neurobiological. Insomnia has been defined in psychological (cognitive components, such as worries and rumination, and behavioral aspects, such as classic conditioning and physiological terms (increased metabolic rate, with increased muscle tone, heart rate and temperature. From the neurobiological point of view, there are two perspectives: one which proposes that insomnia occurs in association with a failure to inhibit wakefulness and another that considers hyperarousal as having an important role in the physiology of sleep. The non-pharmacological interventions developed to face different aspects of insomnia are presented.

  2. Neuroscience of Exercise: Association Among Neurobiological Mechanisms and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience is an emergent research field that comprises many multidisciplinary investigations, searches for explanations about the relationship between the body and the brain. Here, we will give a little summary of this field showing the main current findings. We discuss the lack of consistent data about the relationship among exercise for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, sports performance and rehabilitation, and therefore, the difficult to describe cause-effect associations or to describe in detail the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations.

  3. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Levitan

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiologi...

  4. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Specifies language acquisition processes in terms of brain mechanisms to explain the variable success achieved by early and late learners and proposes a brain-based model for language acquisition on the basis of the literature. Two conditions for full acquisition of a language are motivation and grammatical ability. The neural underpinnings for…

  5. The Neurobiology of Autism: Theoretical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jessica H.; Desrocher, Mary; Bebko, James M.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurological disorders characterized by heterogeneity in skills and impairments. A variety of models have been developed to describe the disorders and a wide range of brain processes have been implicated. This review attempts to integrate some of the consistent neurological findings in the research with…

  6. Neurobiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custodio; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; de Souza, Andressa; Deitos, Alícia; Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is affordable and easy to operate compared to other neuromodulation techniques. Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability, while the cathodal stimulation decreases it. Although tDCS is a promising treatment approach for chronic pain as well as for neuropsychiatric diseases and other neurological disorders, several complex neurobiological mechanisms that are not well understood are involved in its effect. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the effects of tDCS. The initial search resulted in 171 articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we screened 32 full-text articles to extract findings about the neurobiology of tDCS effects including investigation of cortical excitability parameters. Overall, these findings show that tDCS involves a cascade of events at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, tDCS is associated with glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic activity modulation. Though these studies provide important advancements toward the understanding of mechanisms underlying tDCS effects, further studies are needed to integrate these mechanisms as to optimize clinical development of tDCS.

  7. Controlling legs for locomotion-insights from robotics and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Thomas; Ewald, Alexander; von Twickel, Arndt; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-06-29

    Walking is the most common terrestrial form of locomotion in animals. Its great versatility and flexibility has led to many attempts at building walking machines with similar capabilities. The control of walking is an active research area both in neurobiology and robotics, with a large and growing body of work. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on the control of legged locomotion in animals and machines and attempts to give walking control researchers from biology and robotics an overview of the current knowledge in both fields. We try to summarize the knowledge on the neurobiological basis of walking control in animals, emphasizing common principles seen in different species. In a section on walking robots, we review common approaches to walking controller design with a slight emphasis on biped walking control. We show where parallels between robotic and neurobiological walking controllers exist and how robotics and biology may benefit from each other. Finally, we discuss where research in the two fields diverges and suggest ways to bridge these gaps.

  8. Gut memories: towards a cognitive neurobiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Clarke, Gerard; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Groeger, John A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-01-01

    The brain and the gut are engaged in continual crosstalk along a number of pathways collectively termed the 'brain-gut axis'. Over recent years it has become increasingly clear that dysregulation of the axis at a number of levels can result in disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). With recent advances in neuroimaging technologies, insights into the neurobiology of IBS are beginning to emerge. However the cognitive neurobiology of IBS has remained relatively unexplored to date. In this review we summarise the available data on cognitive function in IBS. Moreover, we specifically address three key pathophysiological factors, namely; stress, immune activation and chronic pain, together with other factors involved in the manifestation of IBS, and explore how each of these components may impact centrally, what neurobiological mechanisms might be involved, and consider the implications for cognitive functioning in IBS. We conclude that each factor addressed could significantly impinge on central nervous system function, supporting the view that future research efforts must be directed towards a detailed assessment of cognitive function in IBS.

  9. Psychoanalysis, a bridge between attachment research and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    2008-06-01

    Attachment theory and neurobiology are at the forefront of scientific research, particularly in the area of child psychiatry. Several authors have encountered a surprising isomorphism between findings in these areas and concepts central in psychoanalysis. The author postulates that attachment theory is an outcome of the history of the transformation of the old concept of libido now applied interpersonally. The author also postulates that the neurobiology of attachment mediates but does not substitute psychoanalysis for the final understanding of the human bond. Findings in both fields, attachment theory and psychobiology, often compellingly lead to psychoanalytic concepts; on the other hand, the neurobiology of the psyche does not make full sense without the wealth of research conducted by psychoanalysts during the 20th century. The concept of seduction in particular, in its broad sense, is akin to mirroring and attachment and a useful tool in this regard. Although some cling to the idea of the purity of psychoanalysis and see these kin areas as a threat to its integrity, the author believes that psychoanalysis, serving as a bridge between them, can only be enriched by their empirical and experimental outcomes. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (2008) 68, 148-155. doi:10.1057/ajp.2008.4.

  10. Meeting report: 2012 Caenorhabditis elegans Neurobiology meeting, EMBL Advanced Training Centre, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, James; Dallière, Nicolas; Dillon, James

    2013-06-01

    Some of the finest minds in the field of Caenorhabditis elegans neurobiology were brought together from 14 June to 17 June 2012 in the small, quaint and picturesque German city of Heidelberg for the biannual C. elegans neurobiology conference. Held at the EMBL Advanced Training Centre and wonderfully organised by Diah Yulianti, Jean-Louis Bessereau, Gert Jansen and William Schafer, the meeting contained 62 verbal presentations and hundreds of posters that were displayed around the double-helical walkways that looped throughout the conference centre. Presentations on recent advances in microfluidics, cell ablation and targeted gene expression exemplified the strengths of C. elegans as a model organism, with these advances allowing detailed high-throughput analysis and study. Interesting behaviours that were previously poorly characterised were widely discussed, as were the advantages of C. elegans as a model for neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration and the investigation of neuropeptide function. The examples discussed in this meeting report seek to illustrate the breadth and depth of presentations given on these recurring topics.

  11. Love is more than just a kiss: a neurobiological perspective on love and affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A; van Buel, E M; Ter Horst, G J

    2012-01-10

    Love, attachment, and truth of human monogamy have become important research themes in neuroscience. After the introduction of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), neuroscientists have demonstrated increased interest in the neurobiology and neurochemistry of emotions, including love and affection. Neurobiologists have studied pair-bonding mechanisms in animal models of mate choice to elucidate neurochemical mechanisms underlying attachment and showed possible roles for oxytocin, vasopressin, and dopamine and their receptors in pair-bonding and monogamy. Unresolved is whether these substances are also critically involved in human attachment. The limited number of available imaging studies on love and affection is hampered by selection bias on gender, duration of a love affair, and cultural differences. Brain activity patterns associated with romantic love, shown with fMRI, overlapped with regions expressing oxytocin receptors in the animal models, but definite proof for a role of oxytocin in human attachment is still lacking. There is also evidence for a role of serotonin, cortisol, nerve growth factor, and testosterone in love and attachment. Changes in brain activity related to the various stages of a love affair, gender, and cultural differences are unresolved and will probably become important research themes in this field in the near future. In this review we give a resume of the current knowledge of the neurobiology of love and attachment and we discuss in brief the truth of human monogamy.

  12. Targets for a comparative neurobiology of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eKiggins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One longstanding impediment to progress in understanding the neural basis of language is the development of model systems that retain language-relevant cognitive behaviors yet permit invasive cellular neuroscience methods. Recent experiments in songbirds suggest that this group may be developed into a powerful animal model, particularly for components of grammatical processing. It remains unknown, however, what a neuroscience of grammatical processing may look like when instantiated at the cellular or network level. Here we deconstruct grammatical processing into a minimal set of cognitive processes necessary to support syntactic processing. We then review the current state of our understanding about the neural mechanisms of these requisite cognitive processes in songbirds. We note where current knowledge is lacking, and suggest how these mechanisms may ultimately combine to support an emergent mechanism capable of processing grammatical structures of differing complexity.

  13. Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Panic Disorder and agoraphobia offer considerable diagnostic and management challenges, particularly in general practice. We describe a typical case of panic disorder in a young adult. The recent advances in our understanding of brain functions can be used to explain to a certain extent the biologic basis of panic disorder. A hypothetical model integrating current views on panic disorder and agoraphobia has been proposed. The management principles including the role of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy have been discussed.

  14. Western Kentucky University's Teacher Preparation Evaluation Model Phase I, Cycle I. Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ronald D.

    A teacher preparation evaluation model was developed at Western Kentucky University. A total of 18 secondary and 20 elementary student teachers participated in the study. Instrumentation and records used for data collection consisted of five general types: a questionnaire, a personality scale, rating scales, direct classroom observational systems,…

  15. Piloting a Co-Teaching Model for Mathematics Teacher Preparation: Learning to Teach Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Ruth Helen; Ellis, Mark W.; Bonsangue, Martin V.; Duarte, Thomas; Meza, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This study offers insights from an initial pilot of a co-teaching model for mathematics teacher preparation developed both to support experienced teachers in shifting their practice toward the vision set forth by NCTM and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association, 2010; NCTM, 2000, 2009) and to provide…

  16. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes in porous media for ceramic composite preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    A continuum phenomenological model is presented to describe chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of solid product inside porous substrate media for the preparation of reinforced ceramic-matrix composites [by the chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) process] and ceramic membrane composites (by a modified C

  17. Using of Video Modeling in Teaching a Simple Meal Preparation Skill for Pupils of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…

  18. Unlock The Genıus Within:NEUROBIOLOGICAL TRAUMA, TEACHING, AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojde

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, Daniel S. Janik, MD, PhD, argues replacing education and teaching with non-traumatic, curiosity-based, discovery-driven, and mentor-assisted transformational learning. Unlock the Genius Within is an easy read that explains-in conversational manner-the newest ideas on neurobiological and transformational learning beginning with what's wrong with education and ending with a call for reader participation in developing an applying neurobiological learning and transformational learning theory and methodology. Janik draws extensively from his own experiences first as a physician working with psychological recovery from trauma, and then as an educator and linguist in applying neurobiological-based transformational learning in clinics, classrooms, and tutoring. Features:· Descriptions of classical and contemporary research alongside allusions to popular movies and television programs· Suggested further readings· Neurobiological learning web resourcesThroughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL, administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers. http://www.rowmaneducation.com/ISBN/1578862914 Throughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL, administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers. About The Author Dr. Daniel S. Janik is a physician and University Studies Coordinator at Intercultural Communications College, a private English second language and college preparation school in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Reviews for Unlock the Genius Within: Neurobiological Trauma

  19. Introduction to the neurobiology of interval timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Time is a fundamental variable that organisms must quantify in order to survive. In humans, for example, the gradual development of the sense of duration and rhythm is an essential skill in many facets of social behavior such as speaking, dancing to-, listening to- or playing music, performing a wide variety of sports, and driving a car (Merchant H, Harrington DL, Meck WH. Annu Rev Neurosci. 36:313-36, 2013). During the last 10 years there has been a rapid growth of research on the neural underpinnings of timing in the subsecond and suprasecond scales, using a variety of methodological approaches in the human being, as well as in varied animal and theoretical models. In this introductory chapter we attempt to give a conceptual framework that defines time processing as a family of different phenomena. The brain circuits and neural underpinnings of temporal quantification seem to largely depend on its time scale and the sensorimotor nature of specific behaviors. Therefore, we describe the main time scales and their associated behaviors and show how the perception and execution of timing events in the subsecond and second scales may depend on similar or different neural mechanisms.

  20. Neurobiological consequences of juvenile stress: A GABAergic perspective on risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Anne; Müller, Iris; Ardi, Ziv; Çalışkan, Gürsel; Gruber, David; Ivens, Sebastian; Segal, Menahem; Behr, Joachim; Heinemann, Uwe; Stork, Oliver; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2017-03-01

    ALBRECHT, A., MÜLLER, I., ARDI, Z., ÇALIŞKAN, G., GRUBER, D., IVENS, S., SEGAL, M., BEHR, J., HEINEMANN, U., STORK, O., and RICHTER-LEVIN, G. Neurobiological consequences of juvenile stress: A GABAergic perspective on risk and resilience. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2016.- Childhood adversity is among the most potent risk factors for developing mood and anxiety disorders later in life. Therefore, understanding how stress during childhood shapes and rewires the brain may optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies for these disorders. To this end, animal models of stress exposure in rodents during their post-weaning and pre-pubertal life phase have been developed. Such 'juvenile stress' has a long-lasting impact on mood and anxiety-like behavior and on stress coping in adulthood, accompanied by alterations of the GABAergic system within core regions for the stress processing such as the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. While many regionally diverse molecular and electrophysiological changes are observed, not all of them correlate with juvenile stress-induced behavioral disturbances. It rather seems that certain juvenile stress-induced alterations reflect the system's attempts to maintain homeostasis and thus promote stress resilience. Analysis tools such as individual behavioral profiling may allow the association of behavioral and neurobiological alterations more clearly and the dissection of alterations related to the pathology from those related to resilience.

  1. Neurobiological mechanisms of acupuncture for some common illnesses: a clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwokming James

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents some previously proposed neurobiological mechanisms on how acupuncture may work in some clinical applications from a clinician's perspective. For the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, the proposed mechanisms included microinjury, increased local blood flow, facilitated healing, and analgesia. Acupuncture may trigger a somatic autonomic reflex, thereby affecting the gastric and cardiovascular functions. Acupuncture may also change the levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thereby affecting the emotional state and craving. This mechanism may form the basis for the treatment of smoking cessation. By affecting other pain-modulating neurotransmitters such as met-enkephalin and substance P along the nociceptive pathway, acupuncture may relieve headache. Acupuncture may affect the hypothalamus pituitary axis and reduce the release of the luteinizing hormone in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. In addition, two other approaches to the acupuncture mechanism, the fascia connective tissue network and the primo vascular system, are briefly reviewed. Finally, the idea of true versus sham acupuncture points, which are commonly used in clinical trials, is examined because the difference between true and sham points does not exist in the neurobiological model.

  2. Developing a Laboratory Model for the Professional Preparation of Future Science Teachers: A Situated Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin E.; Paradis, Jeffrey A.

    2004-04-01

    Although laboratory activities are widely acknowledged as being fundamental to the teaching of science, many secondary science school teachers have limited knowledge of how to design and run effective teaching laboratories. Utilising a situated cognition theoretical framework, we discuss our collaborative efforts to develop a laboratory based model for the professional preparation of secondary level science teachers. Findings from the study suggest that the learning which occurs in the laboratory context may be transferred (with appropriate modifications) to the secondary science classroom. Implications also are presented for science teacher preparation, ongoing professional development, and further study.

  3. Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Song, Cai; Berridge, Kent C; Graybiel, Ann M; Fentress, John C

    2016-01-01

    Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry. Assessment of rodent self-grooming may also be useful for understanding the neural circuits that are involved in complex sequential patterns of action.

  4. A quantitative exposure model simulating human norovirus transmission during preparation of deli sandwiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stals, Ambroos; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Baert, Leen; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-02

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of food borne gastroenteritis worldwide. They are often transmitted via infected and shedding food handlers manipulating foods such as deli sandwiches. The presented study aimed to simulate HuNoV transmission during the preparation of deli sandwiches in a sandwich bar. A quantitative exposure model was developed by combining the GoldSim® and @Risk® software packages. Input data were collected from scientific literature and from a two week observational study performed at two sandwich bars. The model included three food handlers working during a three hour shift on a shared working surface where deli sandwiches are prepared. The model consisted of three components. The first component simulated the preparation of the deli sandwiches and contained the HuNoV reservoirs, locations within the model allowing the accumulation of NoV and the working of intervention measures. The second component covered the contamination sources being (1) the initial HuNoV contaminated lettuce used on the sandwiches and (2) HuNoV originating from a shedding food handler. The third component included four possible intervention measures to reduce HuNoV transmission: hand and surface disinfection during preparation of the sandwiches, hand gloving and hand washing after a restroom visit. A single HuNoV shedding food handler could cause mean levels of 43±18, 81±37 and 18±7 HuNoV particles present on the deli sandwiches, hands and working surfaces, respectively. Introduction of contaminated lettuce as the only source of HuNoV resulted in the presence of 6.4±0.8 and 4.3±0.4 HuNoV on the food and hand reservoirs. The inclusion of hand and surface disinfection and hand gloving as a single intervention measure was not effective in the model as only marginal reductions of HuNoV levels were noticeable in the different reservoirs. High compliance of hand washing after a restroom visit did reduce HuNoV presence substantially on all reservoirs. The

  5. Neurobiological, Psychosocial and Environmental Causes of Violence and Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozhan Yalcin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In psychiatric practice psychotic disorders, mania, substance and alcohol related disorders, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, delirium, stereotypical movement disorders, trichotillomania, eating disorders and other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, major depressive disorder, mixt episodes are closely related with agression towards surrounding and other people and towards self. Although as in suicide agression and violence are not always related to prominent psychopatology, violence and agression are closely associated with crime. In some societies, especially ritualistic agressive behaviours towards self are perceived as culturally normative. Sex, temperamental and cognitive patterns, medical factors also neurobiological and neuropsychiatric causes like neurotransmitters and hormonal factors and their metabolism, glucocorticoid and cholesterol metabolism, genetic factors and also ecological, toxical, nutritional factors, psychosocial and psychodynamic factors can be related with development and severity of agression and violence towards surrounding, other people and towards self. Although it is accepted that there isn’t single explanation of the individual differences about the tendency to violence, there are contradicting points of view among researchers about the most significant risc factor. Probably development or alleveation of violent behavior is influenced by the reciprocal interaction between psychosocial, psychodynamic, temperamental, neuropsychiatric, enviromental, genetic factors, parenting styles, quality of nurturition and education and school mental health interventions. Positive psychosocial, familial, educational factors, psychiatric interventions, protective mental health quality and positive government political attitudes can restorate negative genetic

  6. Investigating biological traces of traumatic stress in changing societies: challenges and directions from the ESTSS Task Force on Neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Thomaes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to advances in preventive and treatment interventions. To promote the possibility for clinical implementation of novel research findings, this brief review describes timely conceptual and methodological challenges and directions in neurobiological trauma research on behalf of the Task Force “Neurobiology of Traumatic Stress” of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS. The most important conceptual challenges are the heterogeneity of disorders and existence of subtypes across diagnostic categories: differential latent profiles and trajectories regarding symptom expression and neural correlates are being unraveled; however, similar latent classes’ approaches for treatment response and neurobiological data remain scarce thus far. The key to improving the efficacy of currently available preventive interventions and treatments for trauma-related disorders lies in a better understanding and characterization of individual differences in response to trauma and interventions. This could lead to personalized treatment strategies for trauma-related disorders, based on objective information indicating whether individuals are expected to benefit from them. The most important methodological challenge identified here is the need for large consortia and meta-analyses or, rather, mega-analyses on existent data as a first step. In addition, large multicenter studies, combining novel methods for repeated sampling with more advanced statistical modeling techniques, such as machine learning, should aim to translate identified disease mechanisms into molecular blood-based biomarker combinations to predict disorder vulnerability and treatment responses.

  7. Investigating biological traces of traumatic stress in changing societies: challenges and directions from the ESTSS Task Force on Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; de Kloet, Carien; Wilker, Sarah; El-Hage, Wissam; Schäfer, Ingo; Kleim, Birgit; Schmahl, Christian; van Zuiden, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to advances in preventive and treatment interventions. To promote the possibility for clinical implementation of novel research findings, this brief review describes timely conceptual and methodological challenges and directions in neurobiological trauma research on behalf of the Task Force “Neurobiology of Traumatic Stress” of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS). The most important conceptual challenges are the heterogeneity of disorders and existence of subtypes across diagnostic categories: differential latent profiles and trajectories regarding symptom expression and neural correlates are being unraveled; however, similar latent classes’ approaches for treatment response and neurobiological data remain scarce thus far. The key to improving the efficacy of currently available preventive interventions and treatments for trauma-related disorders lies in a better understanding and characterization of individual differences in response to trauma and interventions. This could lead to personalized treatment strategies for trauma-related disorders, based on objective information indicating whether individuals are expected to benefit from them. The most important methodological challenge identified here is the need for large consortia and meta-analyses or, rather, mega-analyses on existent data as a first step. In addition, large multicenter studies, combining novel methods for repeated sampling with more advanced statistical modeling techniques, such as machine learning, should aim to translate identified disease mechanisms into molecular blood-based biomarker combinations to predict disorder vulnerability and treatment responses. PMID:26996535

  8. A cricket Gene Index: a genomic resource for studying neurobiology, speciation, and molecular evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quackenbush John

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the developmental costs of genomic tools decline, genomic approaches to non-model systems are becoming more feasible. Many of these systems may lack advanced genetic tools but are extremely valuable models in other biological fields. Here we report the development of expressed sequence tags (EST's in an orthopteroid insect, a model for the study of neurobiology, speciation, and evolution. Results We report the sequencing of 14,502 EST's from clones derived from a nerve cord cDNA library, and the subsequent construction of a Gene Index from these sequences, from the Hawaiian trigonidiine cricket Laupala kohalensis. The Gene Index contains 8607 unique sequences comprised of 2575 tentative consensus (TC sequences and 6032 singletons. For each of the unique sequences, an attempt was made to assign a provisional annotation and to categorize its function using a Gene Ontology-based classification through a sequence-based comparison to known proteins. In addition, a set of unique 70 base pair oligomers that can be used for DNA microarrays was developed. All Gene Index information is posted at the DFCI Gene Indices web page Conclusion Orthopterans are models used to understand the neurophysiological basis of complex motor patterns such as flight and stridulation. The sequences presented in the cricket Gene Index will provide neurophysiologists with many genetic tools that have been largely absent in this field. The cricket Gene Index is one of only two gene indices to be developed in an evolutionary model system. Species within the genus Laupala have speciated recently, rapidly, and extensively. Therefore, the genes identified in the cricket Gene Index can be used to study the genomics of speciation. Furthermore, this gene index represents a significant EST resources for basal insects. As such, this resource is a valuable comparative tool for the understanding of invertebrate molecular evolution. The sequences presented here will

  9. 3-D rheologic model of earthquake preparation (Ⅰ)--Displacement field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋治平; 尹祥础; 梅世蓉

    2003-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional elastic inclusion model proposed by Dobrovolskii, we developed athree-dimensional rheologic inclusion model and theory to study the earthquake preparation process. By usingcorrespondence principle in the theory of rheologic mechanics, we derived the analytic expression of the viscoe-lastic displacement at an arbitrary point (x, y, z) in three directions of x, y and z-axes (i. e., U(r, t), V*(r, t) and W(r,t)) produced by a three-dimension inclusion in the semi-infinite rheologic medium defined by the standard linearrheologic model.

  10. ["Acquired psychopathy" and the neurobiology of emotion and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Schuierer, Gerhard; Marienhagen, Jörg; Putzhammer, Albert; Klein, Helmfried E

    2003-05-01

    "Psychopathy" describes a type of personality disorder characterized by a dysregulation of emotion processing. Social behaviour, emotion regulation and competency are of particular relevance in forensic psychiatry. Structural-morphological and functional imaging studies prove that emotion regulation, aggressive-impulsive behaviour and learning from negative experiences are greatly influenced by frontal brain regions. These abilities are impaired in severe cases of dissocial personality disorders and in traumatic "pseudopsychopathy". We illustrate the importance functional neurobiological changes in patients personality disorders and "acquired psychopathy" by two case reports on patients who were admitted to a forensic-psychiatric facility for sexual crimes.

  11. Advances in the neurobiological bases for food 'liking' versus 'wanting'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D C; Berridge, K C

    2014-09-01

    The neural basis of food sensory pleasure has become an increasingly studied topic in neuroscience and psychology. Progress has been aided by the discovery of localized brain subregions called hedonic hotspots in the early 2000s, which are able to causally amplify positive affective reactions to palatable tastes ('liking') in response to particular neurochemical or neurobiological stimulations. Those hedonic mechanisms are at least partly distinct from larger mesocorticolimbic circuitry that generates the incentive motivation to eat ('wanting'). In this review, we aim to describe findings on these brain hedonic hotspots, especially in the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum, and discuss their role in generating food pleasure and appetite.

  12. Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said Yekta, Sareh; Lampert, Friedrich; Kazemi, Saeid; Kazemi, Reza; Brand, Henk S; Baart, Jacques A; Mazandarani, Mina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by three observers, and the feedback from the model was registered. After completion of the practical session, the opinion of the dental students was explored with a ten-item questionnaire. Thirty dental students (91 percent) performed the injection correctly according to the feedback of the model, and twenty-eight students (85 percent) did so according to the expert opinion. The agreement between feedback from the training model and the expert opinion was high. The students were very satisfied with the opportunity to practice with the training model, as indicated by the high scores on each item of the questionnaire. These results suggest that use of this preclinical training model in anesthesia teaching may have beneficial effects on the administration of local anesthetics by dental students.

  13. Preparation of Blood-Deficient Model and Research of Angelica Polysaccharide on Enriching Blood in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Hou; Yongzhan Bao; Qian Li; Wanyu Shi

    2012-01-01

    In this study cyclophosphamide was used to prepare the blood-deficient model. The red blood cell count and hemoglobin content were measured. The experimental chickens presented the symptoms of blood-deficient syndrome, dullness, shrinkinginto oneself, broken winded, loose feather, waxy eyelid, and pale tongue. At the same time, red blood cell count and hemoglobin content decreased significantly. Angelica polysaccharide as the effective component of Angelica Sinensis could significantly increa...

  14. Development and Validation of a Materials Preparation Model from the Perspective of Transformative Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Barjesteh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on the design, development, and validation of a model within the main tenets of critical pedagogy (CP with a hope to implement in education in general and applied linguistics in particular. To develop a transformative L2 materials preparation (TLMP model, the researchers drew on Crawford’s (1978 principles of CP as a springboard. These principles provide the theoretical framework of the ELT program in general, but they need to be adapted to the specific features of L2 materials development. To this end, Nation and Macalister’s (2010 model of materials development were utilized to base different aspects of materials preparation. The newly developed model has driven 22 principles which was validated through a stepwise process. It was administered among 110 participants in 15 cities of Iran. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. The results indicated a high level of internal consistency and satisfactory construct validity. The TLMP model could be conducive for language policy makers, ELT professionals, materials and curriculum developers. Keywords: Critical pedagogy, materials development, transformative model, ELT community, development, validation

  15. Neurobiological and anthropological aspects of compulsions and rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, A

    1999-11-01

    Obsessions and compulsions frequently accompany motor and vocal tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). The occurrence of motor tics and compulsions helps to understand the neurobiological foundation of repetitive behavior patterns. Based on a review of the literature and our own studies in GTS, we suggest that simple motor tics are caused by a stimulus-dependent disinhibition of stereotypies encoded in the head of the caudate, while more complex compulsions are associated with a serotonergic disinhibition of frontocortical-striatal circuits in GTS and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings indicate that obsessions and compulsions do not simply result from a lack of cortical control of phylogenetically primitive behavior patterns. Rather, an activation of the orbitofrontal cortex seems to be essential for the induction of anxiety and the disinhibition of subcortical stereotypies. The neurobiological findings may help to clarify why compulsions differ from cultural rituals. Cultural rituals are performed cyclically, represent important social conflicts and are usually not accompanied by fear or anxiety. Obsessions, on the other hand, seem to be generated in a self perpetuating cycle of cortico-subcortical activation and are associated with anxiety and ineffective repetition of stereotypies.

  16. Neurobiological systems for lexical representation and analysis in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Tyler, Lorraine K; Su, Li; Wingfield, Cai; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2013-10-01

    Current research suggests that language comprehension engages two joint but functionally distinguishable neurobiological processes: a distributed bilateral system, which supports general perceptual and interpretative processes underpinning speech comprehension, and a left hemisphere (LH) frontotemporal system, selectively tuned to the processing of combinatorial grammatical sequences, such as regularly inflected verbs in English [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. Morphology, language and the brain: The decompositional substrate for language comprehension. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 362, 823-836, 2007]. Here we investigated how English derivationally complex words engage these systems, asking whether they selectively activate the LH system in the same way as inflections or whether they primarily engage the bilateral system that support nondecompositional access. In an fMRI study, we saw no evidence for selective activation of the LH frontotemporal system, even for highly transparent forms like bravely. Instead, a combination of univariate and multivariate analyses revealed the engagement of a distributed bilateral system, modulated by factors of perceptual complexity and semantic transparency. We discuss the implications for theories of the processing and representation of English derivational morphology and highlight the importance of neurobiological constraints in understanding these processes.

  17. The Neurobiological Impact of Ghrelin Suppression after Oesophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor F. Murphy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin, discovered in 1999, is a 28-amino-acid hormone, best recognized as a stimulator of growth hormone secretion, but with pleiotropic functions in the area of energy homeostasis, such as appetite stimulation and energy expenditure regulation. As the intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R, ghrelin appears to have a broad array of effects, but its primary role is still an area of debate. Produced mainly from oxyntic glands in the stomach, but with a multitude of extra-metabolic roles, ghrelin is implicated in complex neurobiological processes. Comprehensive studies within the areas of obesity and metabolic surgery have clarified the mechanism of these operations. As a stimulator of growth hormone (GH, and an apparent inducer of positive energy balance, other areas of interest include its impact on carcinogenesis and tumour proliferation and its role in the cancer cachexia syndrome. This has led several authors to study the hormone in the cancer setting. Ghrelin levels are acutely reduced following an oesophagectomy, a primary treatment modality for oesophageal cancer. We sought to investigate the nature of this postoperative ghrelin suppression, and its neurobiological implications.

  18. The Neurobiological Impact of Ghrelin Suppression after Oesophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Conor F.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin, discovered in 1999, is a 28-amino-acid hormone, best recognized as a stimulator of growth hormone secretion, but with pleiotropic functions in the area of energy homeostasis, such as appetite stimulation and energy expenditure regulation. As the intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), ghrelin appears to have a broad array of effects, but its primary role is still an area of debate. Produced mainly from oxyntic glands in the stomach, but with a multitude of extra-metabolic roles, ghrelin is implicated in complex neurobiological processes. Comprehensive studies within the areas of obesity and metabolic surgery have clarified the mechanism of these operations. As a stimulator of growth hormone (GH), and an apparent inducer of positive energy balance, other areas of interest include its impact on carcinogenesis and tumour proliferation and its role in the cancer cachexia syndrome. This has led several authors to study the hormone in the cancer setting. Ghrelin levels are acutely reduced following an oesophagectomy, a primary treatment modality for oesophageal cancer. We sought to investigate the nature of this postoperative ghrelin suppression, and its neurobiological implications. PMID:28035969

  19. Theodore H. Bullock: pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, G K H; Zupanc, M M

    2008-02-01

    Theodore H. Bullock (1905-2005) was a pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology and one of the founders of neuroethology. His work--distinguished by the tremendous number of different research themes and animal taxa studied--provided the basis for a comprehensive analysis of brain evolution. Among his major achievements are: one of the first physiological analyses of rhythmic central pattern generators; the first simultaneous recording from both the presynaptic and postsynaptic region of a chemical synapse; the demonstration of intercellular communication through graded potentials; and the discovery of two novel sensory organs formed by infrared receptors in pit vipers and electroreceptors in electric fish. He was also one of the first who applied computational tools to the analysis of complex neural signals and to perform a comparative analysis of cognitive events. His two-volume treatise "Structure and function in the nervous system of invertebrates" (with G. Adrian Horridge) remains the most comprehensive, authoritative review of this topic ever written. In addition to his research merits, his legacy is particularly based on his cosmopolitan way of thinking and acting, his large, worldwide school of students, and his committed advocacy for comparative and systems-oriented neurobiology.

  20. Calibration and scaling of GRACE, GOCO03S and classical hydrosphere models for further model combination preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birylo, Monika; Kuczynska-Siehien, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    Equivalent water thickness (EWT) observation is a crucial part of a water cycle monitoring. A phenomenon which is going to be analyzed is an elementary natural issue. Monitoring and understanding of the water cycle phenomenon is an important part of economy, can provide a possibility of drought and flood prediction, atmosphere monitoring, river state, storage of drink water. Evaluating a method of a modern, effective and accurate water cycle monitoring will give an opportunity to prevent many disasters. Authors will test a new hydrosphere model that will be a combination of gradiometric and classical hydrosphere models. A sample area will be a territory of Poland, but an idea is to evaluate a method that can be used globally. Two satellite models will give a modern, almost in real-time presentation, while classical models will give details. The aim of the paper is to calibrate and scale to the same level all mentioned models as a basis for further model combination preparation.

  1. A possible role for the endocannabinoid system in the neurobiology of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratta Walter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present review synthetically describes the currently advanced hypotheses for a neurobiological basis of depression, ranging from the classical monoaminergic to the more recent neurotrophic hypothesis. Moreover, the Authors review the available preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting a possible role for the endocannabinoid system in the physiopathology of depression. Indeed, in spite of the reporting of conflicting results, the pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid activity at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor level appears to exert an antidepressant-like effect in some animal models of depression. On the contrary, a reduced activity of the endogenous cannabinoid system seems to be associated with the animal model of depression, namely the chronic mild stress model. Moreover, a few studies have reported an interaction of antidepressants with the endocannabinoid system. With regard to clinical studies, several authors have reported an alteration of endocannabinoid serum levels in depression, while post mortem studies have demonstrated increased levels of endocannabinoids associated to a concomitant hyperactivity of CB1 receptor in the prefrontal cortex of suicide victims. No clinical trials carried out using cannabinoids in the treatment of affective disorders have been published to date, although anecdotal reports have described both antidepressant and antimanic properties of cannabis as well as the ability of cannabis to induce mania that has also been documented. These findings are discussed, leading us to conclude that, although data available are sufficient to suggest a possible involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the neurobiology of depression, additional studies should be performed in order to better elucidate the role of this system in the physiopathology of depression.

  2. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  3. Curating and Preparing High-Throughput Screening Data for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Marlene T; Wang, Wenyi; Sedykh, Alexander; Zhu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Publicly available bioassay data often contains errors. Curating massive bioassay data, especially high-throughput screening (HTS) data, for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling requires the assistance of automated data curation tools. Using automated data curation tools are beneficial to users, especially ones without prior computer skills, because many platforms have been developed and optimized based on standardized requirements. As a result, the users do not need to extensively configure the curation tool prior to the application procedure. In this chapter, a freely available automatic tool to curate and prepare HTS data for QSAR modeling purposes will be described.

  4. Application of the PEE Model to essay composition in an IELTS preparation class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Orlando Velasco Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on two case studies, this study investigates the application of the Point, Explanation, Example (PEE model to essay composition in a multi-lingual IELTS preparation class. This model was incorporated into an eight-week programme of instruction to ESL adults in London, England. Students preparing for the IELTS exam were asked to write pre and post instruction essays on a given topic within 40 minutes. Employing the IELTS band descriptors (IELTS, 2013b and analyses of coherence and cohesion in line with Systemic Functional Linguistic concepts (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; McCarthy, 1991, samples of students’ writing were analysed. Data from students’ pre and post instruction interviews was also gathered and analysed. The findings of this study suggest that the PEE model is to some extent effective in improving the essay composition performance of IELTS students, in particular in the area of cohesion and coherence. Students find the PEE model useful in regard to the clarity and structure that the model seems to add to their essays.

  5. Synthesis of cell-penetrating peptides and their application in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Gunnar P H; Bähr, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Short basic amino acid sequences, often called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), allow the delivery of proteins and other molecules into cells and across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although the ability of basic proteins to facilitate such trafficking is known for a long time, only the application of genetic methods and overexpression of fusion proteins in Escherichia coli has lead to a wide application of CPP in many research areas, including signal transduction, cancer, angiogenesis, apoptosis, bone development, cardioprotection, cell cycle, neurobiology, and many others. For the neuroscientist, CPPs are particularly attractive, as a number of articles in the last 5 years have reported their use for neuronal rescue in a number of models for neurodegenerative diseases in vitro and in vivo in rats, mice, or gerbils. Here, we give a detailed description of the protein purification methodology and applications in neuroscience.

  6. The effect of music on cognitive performance: insight from neurobiological and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S; Toukhsati, Samia R; Field, Simone E

    2005-12-01

    The past 50 years have seen numerous claims that music exposure enhances human cognitive performance. Critical evaluation of studies across a variety of contexts, however, reveals important methodological weaknesses. The current article argues that an interdisciplinary approach is required to advance this research. A case is made for the use of appropriate animal models to avoid many confounds associated with human music research. Although such research has validity limitations for humans, reductionist methodology enables a more controlled exploration of music's elementary effects. This article also explores candidate mechanisms for this putative effect. A review of neurobiological evidence from human and comparative animal studies confirms that musical stimuli modify autonomic and neurochemical arousal indices, and may also modify synaptic plasticity. It is proposed that understanding how music affects animals provides a valuable conjunct to human research and may be vital in uncovering how music might be used to enhance cognitive performance.

  7. Neurobiology of stress, depression, and rapid acting antidepressants: remodeling synaptic connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Ronald S

    2014-04-01

    Stress and depression are associated with atrophy and loss of neurons in limbic and cortical brain regions that could contribute to the symptoms of depression. Typical monoamine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants have only modest efficacy and require long-term treatment, and are only weakly effective in blocking or reversing these structural changes caused by stress. Recent findings demonstrate that ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant actions in difficult to treat depressed patients. In addition, preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine rapidly increases synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex by increasing glutamate signaling and activation of pathways that control the synthesis of synaptic proteins. Moreover, ketamine rapidly reverses the synaptic deficits caused by exposure to chronic stress in rodent models. Studies of the signaling mechanisms underlying the actions of ketamine have provided novel approaches and targets for new rapid acting antidepressants with decreased side effects, as well as a better understanding of the neurobiology of stress, depression, and treatment response.

  8. Anxiety: a systematic review of neurobiology, traditional pharmaceuticals and novel alternatives from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Érica Aparecida; Rosa, Daiane Santos; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Pathologic anxiety is a disproportional reaction of individuals to anticipation or misinterpretation of a potential danger, which affects individual social and personal life. Despite the advances already accomplished, further studies are still necessary in order to understand the mechanisms involved in anxiety. These may provide more effective and safer treatments to aid in the control of anxiety and improve patient quality of life. In this work, we review the current issue about anxiety disorders, covering general aspects such as basic epidemiology and classification, an overview of the pharmacological treatments employed and the current search for natural anxiolytics. Also, a compilation of data investigating the neurobiology that underlies anxiety disorders and a brief discussion evolving the most usual animal experimental models to study anxiety is presented.

  9. Computational neurobiology is a useful tool in translational neurology: the example of ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry-Ann eBrown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary ataxia, or motor incoordination, affects approximately 150,000 Americans and hundreds of thousands of individuals worldwide with onset from as early as mid-childhood. Affected individuals exhibit dysarthria, dysmetria, action tremor, and diadochokinesia. In this review, we consider an array of computational studies derived from experimental observations relevant to human neuropathology. A survey of related studies illustrates the impact of integrating clinical evidence with data from mouse models and computational simulations. Results from these studies may help explain findings in mice, and after extensive laboratory study, may ultimately be translated to ataxic individuals. This inquiry lays a foundation for using computation to understand neurobiochemical and electrophysiological pathophysiology of spinocerebellar ataxias and may contribute to development of therapeutics. The interdisciplinary analysis suggests that computational neurobiology can be an important tool for translational neurology.

  10. Novel preparation of intercellular lipid models of the stratum corneum containing stereoactive ceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obata, Yasuko; Onuki, Yoshinori; Ishida, Kenya; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure formed by intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum is important for the barrier function of the skin. However, the correlation between lipid composition and microstructure has not yet been clarified. To elucidate the microstructure of intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum, an intercellular lipid model was prepared from ceramide 5 (CER5), cholesterol (CHOL), and palmitic acid (PA), considering the nonuniformity of the lipid components of the stratum corneum. A response surface method incorporating thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) was employed to prepare the CER5/CHOL/PA lipid bilayers. Fluorescence anisotropy of the CER5/CHOL/PA bilayers showed four distinct clusters based on Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOM). At the centroid formulation of those clusters, the microstructures of CER5/CHOL/PA bilayers were determined using synchrotron X-ray scattering. Three kinds of lamellar structures and two kinds of lateral packing-namely, hexagonal and orthorhombic-were formed. The microstructure of the CER5/CHOL/PA bilayers was likely to be intrinsic to the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum. In conclusion, the CER5/CHOL/PA bilayers prepared based on RSM-S and SOM were useful as models of the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum.

  11. ALL OUR SONS: THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY AND NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF BOYS AT RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2017-01-01

    Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain. I present interdisciplinary research which indicates that the stress-regulating circuits of the male brain mature more slowly than those of the female in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal critical periods, and that this differential structural maturation is reflected in normal gender differences in right-brain attachment functions. Due to this maturational delay, developing males also are more vulnerable over a longer period of time to stressors in the social environment (attachment trauma) and toxins in the physical environment (endocrine disruptors) that negatively impact right-brain development. In terms of differences in gender-related psychopathology, I describe the early developmental neuroendocrinological and neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in the increased vulnerability of males to autism, early onset schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders as well as the epigenetic mechanisms that can account for the recent widespread increase of these disorders in U.S. culture. I also offer a clinical formulation of early assessments of boys at risk, discuss the impact of early childcare on male psychopathogenesis, and end with a neurobiological model of optimal adult male socioemotional functions.

  12. Understanding and Modeling the Liquid Uptake in Porous Compacted Powder Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Jesús; Moxon, Thomas E; Simons, Tom A H; Bakalis, Serafim; Fryer, Peter J

    2017-07-18

    Porous solid materials commonly undergo coating processes during their manufacture, where liquids are put in contact with solids for different purposes. The study of liquid penetration in porous substrates is a process of high relevance in activities in several industries. In particular, powder detergents are subject to coating with surfactants that will boost their performance, although this may affect the flowability and even cause caking of the particulate material, which can be detrimental to consumer acceptance. Here we present a methodology to make compacted preparations of powders relevant to detergent making and evaluate the internal structure of such porous substrates by means of X-ray microcomputed tomography. Liquid penetration in the preparation and the total mass uptake of fluid were monitored by a gravimetric technique based on a modified Wilhelmy plate method consisting of consecutive cycles. Taking into account the geometry of the system, two models were proposed to describe the liquid uptake based on the process being driven by mass (model 1) or pressure (model 2) gradients. A comparison between both from statistical and physical points of view led to the conclusion that the latter was more appropriate for describing the process and retrieving values of the permeability of the solid between 0.03 × 10(-12) and 0.95 × 10(-12) m(2). Finally, with the parameters retrieved from model 2, the force balance observed throughout the experiment was simulated satisfactorily.

  13. Slowing down: age-related neurobiological predictors of processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Eckert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-relatedcognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed - dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging.

  14. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means.

  15. Adapting to Stress: Understanding the Neurobiology of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Carlos; Probert, Thomas; Jones, Edgar; Young, Allan H; Robbins, Ian

    2017-01-01

    There is significant variation in the way individuals react and respond to extreme stress and adversity. While some individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder, others recover from stressful experiences without displaying significant symptoms of psychological ill-health, demonstrating stress-resilience. To understand why some individuals exhibit characteristics of a resilient profile, the interplay between neurochemical, genetic, and epigenetic processes over time needs to be explained. In this review, we examine the hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and neural circuits associated with resilience and vulnerability to stress-related disorders. We debate how this increasing body of knowledge could also be useful in the creation of a stress-resilient profile. Additionally, identification of the underlying neurobiological components related to resilience may offer a contribution to improved approaches toward the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders.

  16. Current understanding of the neurobiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, Anca Livia; Gheorman, Victor; Bondari, Dan; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2015-01-01

    Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 340 million people worldwide suffer from depression at any given time. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is responsible for the greatest proportion of burden associated with non-fatal health outcomes and accounts for approximately 12% total years lived with disability. Probably no single risk factor can be completely isolated in major depressive disorder (MDD), as interactions between many sources of vulnerability are the most likely explanation. Buttressing the identification of grief, demoralization, hopelessness and styles of psychological coping of the depressed patient are vital, ongoing scientific developments that flow from an increased understanding of this interplay amongst the immune system, endocrine system and brain. The rapidly accumulating body of neurobiological knowledge has catalyzed fundamental changes in how we conceptualize depressive symptoms and has important implications regarding the treatment and even prevention of depressive symptoms in patients.

  17. New resolving power for light microscopy: applications to neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Adish; Huang, Bo

    2010-10-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy brings more than an order of magnitude gain in the spatial resolution of light microscopy. New opportunities keep emerging with the multicolor, three-dimensional, and live imaging functionalities gained in the past three years. The power of this technology has been demonstrated by imaging the organization of organelles and molecular complexes, with recent applications increasingly showing its potential in neurobiology. These developments are exemplified by the visualization of components inside dendritic spines to fine morphologies of neurons. In combination with correlative electron microscopy, functional imaging, and electrical/optogenetic stimulation tools, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has the potential to provide further insights ranging from the molecular details of neurons up to the functional mechanisms of neuronal circuits.

  18. Micro-scale and microfluidic devices for neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne M; Jeon, Noo Li

    2010-10-01

    The precise spatial and temporal control afforded by microfluidic devices make them uniquely suited as experimental tools for cellular neuroscience. Micro-structures have been developed to direct the placement of cells and small organisms within a device. Microfluidics can precisely define pharmacological microenvironments, mimicking conditions found in vivo with the advantage of defined parameters which are usually difficult to control and manipulate in vivo. These devices are compatible with high-resolution microscopy, are simple to assemble, and are reproducible. In this review we will focus on microfluidic devices that have recently been developed for small, whole organisms such as C. elegans and dissociated cultured neurons. These devices have improved control over the placement of cells or organisms and allowed unprecedented experimental access, enabling novel investigations in neurobiology.

  19. Integrating neuroimmune systems in the neurobiology of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohleb, Eric S; Franklin, Tina; Iwata, Masaaki; Duman, Ronald S

    2016-08-01

    Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that immune dysregulation, specifically of inflammatory processes, is associated with symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and concomitant activation of brain-resident microglia can lead to depressive behavioural symptoms. Repeated exposure to psychological stress has a profound impact on peripheral immune responses and perturbs the function of brain microglia, which may contribute to neurobiological changes underlying MDD. Here, we review these findings and discuss ongoing studies examining neuroimmune mechanisms that influence neuronal activity as well as synaptic plasticity. Interventions targeting immune-related cellular and molecular pathways may benefit subsets of MDD patients with immune dysregulation.

  20. Neurobiological mechanisms of social attachment and pair bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V; Young, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Species have evolved diverse social behavior and mating strategies in response to selective forces in their environments. While promiscuity is the predominant mating strategy across most vertebrate taxa, convergent evolution of monogamous mating systems has occurred multiple times across distant lineages. Monogamous behavior is thought to be facilitated by a neurobiological capacity to form and maintain selective social attachments, or pair bonds, with a mating partner. The neural mechanisms of pair bonding behavior have been investigated most rigorously in Microtine rodents, which exhibit diverse social organizations. These studies have highlighted mesolimbic dopamine pathways, social neuropeptides (oxytocin and vasopressin), and other neural systems as integral factors in the formation, maintenance, and expression of pair bonds.

  1. Experiments and Modeling of the Preparation of Ultrafine Calcium Carbonate in Spouted Beds with Inert Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林诚; 朱涛; 朱跃姿; 张济宇

    2003-01-01

    A novel reaction-drying process was carried out in a spouted bed reactor with inert particles and used to prepare ultrafine CaCO3 particles. Effects of concentrations of CO2 and Ca(OH)2, and reaction temperature on Ca(OH)2 conversion were experimentally investigated. The particle sizes and composition of CaCO3 produced were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that ultrafine CaCO3 particles with mean size of 80 nm could be obtained with this novel process.By modifying the Arrhenius Equation and considering the Ca(OH)2 state, a kinetic model was established to describe the process in the spouted bed. The model parameters estimated from the reaction-drying experiments were found to fit well the experimental data, indicating the applicability of the proposed kinetic model.

  2. Neurobiological correlates of EMDR monitoring - an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have yet to be fully disclosed. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG was used to fully monitor neuronal activation throughout EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Ten patients with major psychological trauma were investigated during their first EMDR session (T0 and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma (T1. Neuropsychological tests were administered at the same time. Comparisons were performed between EEGs of patients at T0 and T1 and between EEGs of patients and 10 controls who underwent the same EMDR procedure at T0. Connectivity analyses were carried out by lagged phase synchronization. RESULTS: During bilateral ocular stimulation (BS of EMDR sessions EEG showed a significantly higher activity on the orbito-frontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in patients at T0 shifting towards left temporo-occipital regions at T1. A similar trend was found for autobiographical script with a higher firing in fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0 moving to right temporo-occipital cortex at T1. The comparisons between patients and controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex of patients occurring before trauma processing. Connectivity analysis showed decreased pair-wise interactions between prefrontal and cingulate cortex during BS in patients as compared to controls and between fusiform gyrus and visual cortex during script listening in patients at T1 as compared to T0. These changes correlated significantly with those occurring in neuropsychological tests. CONCLUSIONS: The ground-breaking methodology enabled our study to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions typical of EMDR protocol. The findings suggest that traumatic events are processed at cognitive level following successful

  3. Phenomenology and neurobiology of self disorder in schizophrenia: Primary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Juan P; Sass, Louis A

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome, varying between persons and over course of illness. In this and a companion article, we argue that comprehension of this condition or set of conditions may require combining a phenomenological perspective emphasizing disorders of basic-self experience ("ipseity disturbance") with a multidimensional appreciation of possible neurobiological correlates--both primary and secondary. Previous attempts to link phenomenology and neurobiology generally focus on a single neurocognitive factor. We consider diverse aspects of schizophrenia in light of a diverse, albeit interacting, set of neurocognitive abnormalities, examining both synchronic (structural) interdependence and diachronic (temporal) succession. In this article we focus on the primary or foundational role of early perceptual and motoric disturbances that affect perceptual organization and especially intermodal or multisensory perceptual integration (“perceptual dys-integration”). These disturbances are discussed in terms of their implications for three interconnected aspects of selfhood in schizophrenia, primary forms of: disrupted "hold" or "grip" on the world, hyperreflexivity, diminished self-presence (self-affection). Disturbances of organization or integration imply forms of perceptual incoherence or diminished cognitive coordination. The effect is to disrupt one's ability to apprehend the world in holistic, vital, or contextually grounded fashion, or to fully identify with or experience the unity of one's own body or thinking--thereby generating an early and profound (albeit often subtle) disruption or diminishment of basic or core self and of the sense of existing in a coherent world. We discuss interrelationships or possible complementarities between these three aspects, and consider their relevance for a neurodevelopmental account of schizophrenia.

  4. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. Permeability of the reconstructed human epidermis model Episkin in comparison to various human skin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzlaff, Frank; Kaca, Monika; Bock, Udo; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Meiers, Peter; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schaefer, Ulrich F

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the barrier function of the small diameter reconstructed human epidermis model Episkin (d=12 mm) to human skin in vitro. For that purpose a modification for the Franz diffusion cell (d=15mm) had to be developed so as to allow direct comparison with the following human skin preparations: Full thickness skin (FTS), split thickness skin (STS), heat-separated epidermis (HSE), and trypsin isolated stratum corneum (TISC). Among the tested preparations, HSE appeared to be the most preferable due to its clear morphological structure and ease of preparation. The lipid profile of HSE and Episkin was analyzed and showed significant differences in terms of cholesterol, ceramides and triglycerides contents, whereas cholesterol esters and fatty acids were not different. Permeation data with HSE and Episkin were then gathered using caffeine and testosterone. Both test compounds permeated much faster through Episkin than through HSE. Moreover, opposed to Episkin, HSE differentiated between the two test compounds. In spite of the remarkable progress in developing RHEs in the past years at this time Episkin can obviously not yet fully replace human skin for in vitro permeability experiments.

  6. Preparing for the ingestion of SWOT data into continental-scale river models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Cédric; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Beighley, Edward; Famiglietti, James; Boone, Aaron; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Gaborit, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is currently scheduled to launch at the end of this decade. SWOT should retrieve unprecedented measurements of water extent, elevation, and slope in the largest terrestrial water bodies. Such potential transformative information motivates the investigation of our ability to ingest the associated data into continental-scale models of terrestrial hydrology. In preparation for the expected SWOT observations, an inter-comparison of continental-scale river models is being designed. This comparison experiment focuses on four of the world's largest river basins: the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Niger, and the Saint-Lawrence. This ongoing project focuses on two main research questions: 1) How can we best prepare for the expected SWOT continental to global measurements before SWOT even flies?, and 2) What is the added value of including SWOT terrestrial measurements into global hydro models for enhancing our understanding of the terrestrial water cycle and the climate system? We present here the preliminary architecture of the inter-comparison in hope to motivate community feedback and involvement.

  7. Separating limits on preparation versus online processing in multitasking paradigms: Evidence for resource models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Victor; Miller, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We conducted 2 multitasking experiments to examine the finding that first-task reaction times (RTs) are slower in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm than in the prioritized processing (PP) paradigm. To see whether this difference between the 2 paradigms could be explained entirely by differences in first-task preparation, which would be consistent with the standard response selection bottleneck (RSB) model for multitasking interference, we compared the size of this difference for trials in which a second-task stimulus actually occurred against the size of the difference for trials without any second-task stimulus. The slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm was larger when the second-task stimulus appeared than when it did not, indicating that the difference cannot be explained entirely by between-paradigm differences in first-task preparation. Instead, the results suggest that the slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm is partly because of differences between paradigms in the online reallocation of processing capacity to tasks. Thus, the present results provide new evidence supporting resource models over the RSB model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The effect of treatment history on therapeutic outcome: psychological and neurobiological underpinnings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kessner

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognized that the efficacy of medical treatments is determined in critical part by the therapeutic context in which it is delivered. An important characteristic of that context is treatment history. We recently reported first evidence for a carry-over of treatment experience to subsequent treatment response across different treatment approaches. Here we expand on these findings by exploring the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of the effect of treatment experience on future treatment response in an experimental model of placebo analgesia with a conditioning procedure. In a combined behavioral and neuroimaging study we experimentally induced positive or negative experiences with an analgesic treatment in two groups of healthy human subjects. Subsequently we compared responses to a second, different analgesic treatment between both groups. We found that participants with an experimentally induced negative experience with the first treatment showed a substantially reduced response to a second analgesic treatment. Intriguingly, several psychological trait variables including anxiety, depression and locus of control modulate the susceptibility for the effects of prior treatment experiences on future treatment outcome. These behavioral effects were supported by neuroimaging data which showed significant differences in brain regions encoding pain and analgesia between groups. These differences in activation patterns were present not only during the pain phase, but also already prior to painful stimulation and scaled with the individual treatment response. Our data provide behavioral and neurobiological evidence showing that the influence of treatment history transfers over time and over therapeutic approaches. Our experimental findings emphasize the careful consideration of treatment history and a strictly systematic treatment approach to avoid negative carry-over effects.

  9. Structural neurobiological correlates of Mayer-Salovery-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test performance in early course schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalik, Jessica A; Eack, Shaun M; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-01-10

    The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a key measure of social cognition in schizophrenia that has good psychometric properties and is recommended by the MATRICS committee. As a way to further investigate the validity of the MSCEIT, this study sought to examine the neurobiological correlates of MSCEIT performance in patients with early course schizophrenia. A total of 51 patients diagnosed with early course, stabilized schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and the MSCEIT. Investigation of the associations between MSCEIT performance and gray matter morphology was examined by conducting voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses across hypothesized social-cognitive regions of interest using automated anatomical labeling in Statistical Parametric Mapping Software, version 5 (SPM5). All VBM analyses utilized general linear models examining gray matter density partitioned images, adjusting for demographic and illness-related confounds. VBM results were then followed up with confirmatory volumetric analyses. Patients with poorer overall and Facilitating, Understanding, and Managing Emotions subscale performances on the MSCEIT showed significantly reduced gray matter density in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Additionally, attenuated performance on the Facilitating and Managing Emotions subscales was significantly associated with reduced right posterior cingulate gray matter density. All associations observed between MSCEIT performance and gray matter density were supported with confirmatory gray matter volumetric analyses, with the exception of the association between the right posterior cingulate and the facilitation of emotions. These findings provide additional evidence for the MSCEIT as a valid social-cognitive measure by elucidating its correlates with neurobiological structures commonly implicated in emotion processing. These findings provide additional biological evidence

  10. The Neurobiology of Imagination: Possible Role of Interaction-Dominant Dynamics and Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Francesco Agnati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at presenting some hypotheses about the potential neurobiological substrate of imagery and imagination. For the present purposes, we will define imagery as the production of mental images associated with previous percepts, and imagination as the faculty of forming mental images of a novel character relating to something that has never been actually experienced by the subject but at a great extent emerges from his inner world.The two processes appear intimately related and imagery can arguably be considered as one of the main components of imagination. In this proposal, we argue that exaptation and redeployment, two basic concepts capturing important aspects of the evolution of biological structures and functions (Anderson 2007, could also be useful in explaining imagery and imagination. As far as imagery is concerned it is proposed that neural structures originally implicated in performing certain functions, e.g. motor actions, can be reused for the imagery of the virtual execution of that function. As far as imagination is concerned we speculate that it can be the result of a tinkering that combines and modifies stored perceptual information and concepts leading to the creation of novel mental objects that are shaped by the subject peculiar inner world. Hence it is related to his self-awareness. The neurobiological substrate of the tinkering process could be found in a hierarchical model of the brain characterized by a multiplicity of functional modules (FMs that can be assembled according to different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it is surmised that a possible mechanism for the emergence of imagination could be represented by modulatory mechanisms controlling the perviousness of modifiers along the communication channels within and between FMs leading to their dynamically reassembling into novel configurations.

  11. Stability and physicochemical properties of model salad dressings prepared with pregelatinized potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnowska, Grażyna; Balejko, Jerzy; Schube, Violetta; Tokarczyk, Grzegorz; Krzemińska, Natalia; Mojka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-13

    The effects of pregelatinized potato starch concentration (PSC) ranged from 0 to 5 wt% on the physical stability, color, rheological, textural, and sensory properties of model salad dressings prepared with 2 wt% dried egg yolk (DEY) or sodium caseinate (SC) were explored. All dressings showed shear-thinning behavior with yield stress. Raising PSC increased storage (G') and loss (G") moduli decreasing loss tangent (tanδ) and samples containing ≥ 3 wt% starch showed a weak gel-like (tanδpotato starch may be suitable ingredient in low-fat dressings applications.

  12. ALGORITHM OF PREPARATION OF THE TRAINING SAMPLE USING 3D-FACE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Samal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of preparation and sampling for training of the multiclass qualifier of support vector machines (SVM is provided. The described approach based on the modeling of possible changes of the face features of recognized person. Additional features like perspectives of shooting, conditions of lighting, tilt angles were introduced to get improved identification results. These synthetic generated changes have some impact on the classifier learning expanding the range of possible variations of the initial image. The classifier learned with such extended example is ready to recognize unknown objects better. The age, emotional looks, turns of the head, various conditions of lighting, noise, and also some combinations of the listed parameters are chosen as the key considered parameters for modeling. The third-party software ‘FaceGen’ allowing to model up to 150 parameters and available in a demoversion for free downloading is used for 3D-modeling.The SVM classifier was chosen to test the impact of the introduced modifications of training sample. The preparation and preliminary processing of images contains the following constituents like detection and localization of area of the person on the image, assessment of an angle of rotation and an inclination, extension of the range of brightness of pixels and an equalization of the histogram to smooth the brightness and contrast characteristics of the processed images, scaling of the localized and processed area of the person, creation of a vector of features of the scaled and processed image of the person by a Principal component analysis (algorithm NIPALS, training of the multiclass SVM-classifier.The provided algorithm of expansion of the training selection is oriented to be used in practice and allows to expand using 3D-models the processed range of 2D – photographs of persons that positively affects results of identification in system of face recognition. This approach allows to compensate

  13. Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti-social behaviour: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2015-02-01

    A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical position to this effect has been adopted with respect to offender treatment, but there has been no systematic review of empirical literature on this point. This study aimed to ascertain from published literature firstly whether there is evidence of change in neuropsychological or physiological measures after behavioural treatments/programmes for people with anti-social behaviour and secondly whether these neurobiological changes are associated with behavioural change. A systematic search strategy was formulated to include studies considering 'neurobiological factors', 'anti-social population', 'treatment' and 'treatment outcome'. The Maryland Scientific Methods Scale was used to select relevant studies of sufficient methodological quality. Eleven studies were found, only one with adults. Overall, the values of specific neurobiological risk factors, particularly of basal cortisol, become less abnormal following intervention. There was some evidence for a link between change in neurobiological functioning and behavioural improvement. Findings, although provisional, may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of interventions for anti-social behaviour. Future studies that include pre-treatment neurobiological assessment could help reveal physical vulnerabilities that interventions should target to improve treatment efficacy, and provide for objective, independent corroboration of change. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Tuning, Diagnostics & Data Preparation for Generalized Linear Models Supervised Algorithm in Data Mining Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Bhaskar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques are the result of a long process of research and product development. Large amount of data are searched by the practice of Data Mining to find out the trends and patterns that go beyond simple analysis. For segmentation of data and also to evaluate the possibility of future events, complex mathematical algorithms are used here. Specific algorithm produces each Data Mining model. More than one algorithms are used to solve in best way by some Data Mining problems. Data Mining technologies can be used through Oracle. Generalized Linear Models (GLM Algorithm is used in Regression and Classification Oracle Data Mining functions. For linear modelling, GLM is one the popular statistical techniques. For regression and binary classification, GLM is implemented by Oracle Data Mining. Row diagnostics as well as model statistics and extensive co-efficient statistics are provided by GLM. It also supports confidence bounds.. This paper outlines and produces analysis of GLM algorithm, which will guide to understand the tuning, diagnostics & data preparation process and the importance of Regression & Classification supervised Oracle Data Mining functions and it is utilized in marketing, time series prediction, financial forecasting, overall business planning, trend analysis, environmental modelling, biomedical and drug response modelling, etc.

  15. Mathematical models of hydrocyclone performance in various copper ores preparation circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedoba Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ores located in the Lubin-Glogow Copper Basin contain three main lithological fractions: sandstone, carbonate and shale. This fact is the basic problem of organization and conducting ore preparation to flotation. The existing circuit of feed preparation contains (in ZG Rudna five classification nodes of hydrocyclones which fit for various purposes. The elaboration of concept of monitoring work of these nodes should be based on appropriate mathematical models of process. It was decided that either regressive or non-dimensional models that is classification according to Svarovsky, and particularly Plitt’s, will be suitable, in the aspects of d50 and partition sharpness. Errors resulting from determination of the features being part of the equations were also important. In this paper the errors were divided into technical and technological. The issue of experiments organization (mineralogical investigation connected with each classification node was also addressed. It is obvious that each classification node must obtain its characteristics because of various comminution products directed to classification.

  16. Model-based Acceleration of Parameter mapping (MAP) for saturation prepared radially acquired data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Stäb, Daniel; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert

    2013-12-01

    A reconstruction technique called Model-based Acceleration of Parameter mapping (MAP) is presented allowing for quantification of longitudinal relaxation time and proton density from radial single-shot measurements after saturation recovery magnetization preparation. Using a mono-exponential model in image space, an iterative fitting algorithm is used to reconstruct one well resolved and consistent image for each of the projections acquired during the saturation recovery relaxation process. The functionality of the algorithm is examined in numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo studies. MAP reconstructions of single-shot acquisitions feature the same image quality and resolution as fully sampled reference images in phantom and in-vivo studies. The longitudinal relaxation times obtained from the MAP reconstructions are in very good agreement with the reference values in numerical simulations as well as phantom and in-vivo measurements. Compared to available contrast manipulation techniques, no averaging of projections acquired at different time points of the relaxation process is required in MAP imaging. The proposed technique offers new ways of extracting quantitative information from single-shot measurements acquired after magnetization preparation. The reconstruction simultaneously yields images with high spatiotemporal resolution fully consistent with the acquired data as well as maps of the effective longitudinal relaxation parameter and the relative proton density. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Erosion study of Fe–W binary mixed layer prepared as model system for RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, K., E-mail: kazuyoshi.sugiyama@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Roth, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Alimov, V.Kh. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Elgeti, S.; Koch, F.; Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Maier, H.; Jacob, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Fe–W binary mixed layers were prepared as a model system for reduced-activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steel for studying their dynamic erosion behavior resulting from energetic deuterium (D) irradiation. This investigation aims toward an assessment of RAFM steels as plasma-facing material. The surface composition of the model layers is modified by D irradiation. W is enriched at the surface with D irradiation fluence due to the preferential sputtering of Fe. It depends on the D impinging energy as well as the initial W fraction of the Fe–W layer. No significant development of surface topography was observed within the examined conditions. The erosion yield of a Fe–W layer is comparable to that of pure Fe in the low-fluence range and decreases with increasing D fluence. These results indicate that the dynamic change of erosion yield is significantly correlated with the surface W enrichment.

  18. Does intensity or youth affect the neurobiological effect of exercise on major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Henning; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Sergio; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Wegner, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the different neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents and to provide additional explanations to this well written systematic review. This commentary highlights the effects of exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a crucial role in MDD. We address the questions of whether age and different exercise intensities may provide additional information on the neurobiological effects of acute or chronic exercise on MDD. Previous findings clearly suggest that the etiology of MDD is complex and multifaceted, involving numerous neurobiological systems, which are additionally influenced by these two factors.

  19. Preparation of Peracetic Acid from Acetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide: Experimentation and Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪冰; 张婷; 周玉杰; 刘德华

    2008-01-01

    Based on the kinetic equations and equilibrium constants, some mathematic models were developed for calculating peracetic acid (PAA) concentration, equilibrium conversion rate of hydrogen peroxide, etc. The effects of several parameters on PAA synthesis were investigated by experimentation and modeling. The equilibrium constants determined from the forward and reverse rate constants at 293, 303,313 and 323 K were 2.91, 2.81, 2.72 and 2.63, respectively. The models could predict the values of equilibrium concentration of PAA with average relative deviation of less than 10%. Both of the experimental and model-calculated results demonstrated that temperature and catalyst loading were the most important factors affecting the rate of PAA synthesis, but high temperature led to the decrease of equilibrium concentration of PAA. According to the model, the reaction could achieve equilibrium within 24 h when operated at 303 K with 1%~1.5%(ω) sulfuric acid as catalyst. Additionally, when using anhydrous acetic acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide to prepare PAA, the volumetric ratio of the two solutions should be in the range of 1.2~1.5 in order to obtain the highest equilibrium concentration of PAA. This study can serve as a step towards the further optimization of PAA synthesis and some other related investigations.

  20. [Neurobiological inscriptions of psychological trauma during early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, I

    2012-06-01

    Neurodevelopment is a highly complex process, influenced by a wide range of interacting genetic and environmental factors. Recent developments in fetal, neonatal and infant behavioural genetics and brain imaging methods have allowed for more detailed investigation of the effects of early adverse environment on the developing brain. This review aims to provide background for neurobiological understanding of how the prolonged exposure to stress or trauma during early childhood affects subsequent cognitive, emotional and social development. Initially, a brief overview of brain development is provided - focusing, in particular, on the limbic system structures, which are closely linked to emotional experiences and reactions, learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on the concept of neural plasticity, which is the biological base of memory and learning - the two most important mechanisms through which the environment affects the behavior. Moreover, the concept of sensitive periods, that is to say periods of "vulnerability" or "opportunity" during which particular experiences affect brain growth, functional organization and maturation, is discussed. Brief overview of the neuroendocrine stress response system and the long-term effects of prolonged exposure to stress hormones on early brain development clarify further why children are more vulnerable than adults to the effects of stress. The section dealing with the memory, which is closely linked to the limbic system, attempts to discuss how early exposure to chronic stress or psychological trauma, through neurobiological effects and the process of learning, can lead to dysfunctional behaviors, which in its extreme form can be mental disorders. The two types of memory are discussed: (a) the implicit (nondeclarative), which develops during the prelingual stage of child's development and refers to unconscious memories of previous experiences, and (b) the explicit (declarative) memory, which is closely linked to language

  1. The neurobiology of offensive aggression: Revealing a modular view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, S F; Olivier, B; Veening, J; Koolhaas, J M

    2015-07-01

    Experimental studies aimed at understanding the neurobiology of aggression started in the early 20th century, and by employing increasingly sophisticated tools of functional neuroanatomy (i.e., from electric/chemical lesion and stimulation techniques to neurochemical mapping and manipulations) have provided the important framework for the functional brain circuit organization of aggressive behaviors. Recently, newly emerging technologies for mapping,measuring and manipulating neural circuitry at the level of molecular and genetically defined neuronal subtypes promise to further delineate the precise neural microcircuits mediating the initiation and termination of aggressive behavior, and characterize its dynamic neuromolecular functioning. This paper will review some of the behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurochemical evidence in support of a modular view of the neurobiology of offensive aggressive behavior. Although aggressive behavior likely arises from a specific concerted activity within a distributed neural network across multiple brain regions, emerging opto- and pharmacogenetic neuronal manipulation studies make it clear that manipulation of molecularly-defined neurons within a single node of this global interconnected network seems to be both necessary and sufficient to evoke aggressive attacks. However, the evidence so far also indicates that in addition to behavior-specific neurons there are neuronal systems that should be considered as more general behavioral control modules. The answer to the question of behavioral specificity of brain structures at the level of individual neurons requires a change of the traditional experimental setup. Studies using c-fos expression mapping usually compare the activation patterns induced by for example aggression with a home cage control. However, to reveal the behavioral specificity of this neuronal activation pattern, a comparison with other social and non-social related behaviors such as mating, defensive burying

  2. Neurobiologia das emoções Neurobiology of the emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Esperidião-Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A "natureza" das emoções é um dos temas arcaicos do pensamento ocidental, sendo tematizada em diferentes manifestações da cultura como a arte, a religião, a filosofia e a ciência, desde tempos imemoriais. Nos últimos anos, o avanço das neurociências possibilitou a construção de hipóteses para a explicação das emoções, especialmente a partir dos estudos envolvendo o sistema límbico. OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma discussão atualizada acerca da neurobiologia dos processos relativos às emoções, demarcando suas conexões com o controle neurovegetativo. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura e reflexão crítica dos textos obtidos. RESULTADOS: Apresentação das principais estruturas neurais relativas às emoções, suas vias e circuitos de maior relevância, os neurotransmissores implicados, seguindo-se uma discussão sobre as principais emoções. CONCLUSÕES: Espera-se que o presente manuscrito possa contribuir à difusão de idéias sobre o sistema das emoções, as quais poderão motivar futuros estudos capazes de elucidar pontos ainda em aberto.BACKGROUND: The "nature" of emotions is one of the archaic subjects of the western thought, being the theme choice in diverse manifestations of culture - as in art, religion, philosophy and science - from time immemorial. In recent years the advances in Neurosciences have made it possible to build hypotheses to explain emotions, a possibility derived particularly from the studies involving the limbic system. OBJECTIVES: To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of the processes relating to emotions and their connections with neurovegetative control. METHODS: Review of the literature on the subject. RESULTS: An updated account of the main neural structures related with emotions, the pathways and circuits of greater relevance as well as the regarding neurotransmitters. The neurobiological aspects of emotions are also discussed. DISCUSSION: It is expected that the present

  3. [Preparation of monoclonal antibody against 4-amylphenol and homology modeling of its Fv fragment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Wu, Haizhen; Fei, Jing; Zhang, Lujia; Ye, Jiang; Zhang, Huizhan

    2017-03-01

    Objective To prepare and characterize a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against 4-amylphenol (4-AP), clone its cDNA sequence and make homology modeling for its Fv fragment. Methods A high-affinity anti-4-AP mAb was generated from a hybridoma cell line F10 using electrofusion between splenocytes from APA-BSA-immunized mouse and Sp2/0 myeloma cells. Then we extracted the mRNA of F10 cells and cloned the cDNA of mAb. The homology modeling and molecular docking of its Fv fragment was conducted with biological software. Results Under the optimum conditions, the ic-ELISA equation was y=A2+(A1-A2)/(1+(x/x0)(p)) (A1=1.28; A2=-0.066; x0=12560.75; p=0.74) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.997. The lowest detectable limit was 0.65 μg/mL. The heavy and light chains of mAb respectively belonged to IgG1 and Kappa. The homology modeling and molecular docking studies revealed that the binding of 4-Ap and mAb was attributed to the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. Conclusion The study successfully established a stable 4-AP mAb-secreting hybridoma cell line. The study on spatial structure of Fv fragment using homology modeling provided a reference for the development and design of single chain variable fragments.

  4. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres are prepared by mixing homogeneous dispersions of vinyl-functional PDMS and a curing agent using mechanical stirring in a series of aqueous solutions, and curing at 80 8C for 2 h. In order to verify the experimental diameter and size distributions of the P......Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres are prepared by mixing homogeneous dispersions of vinyl-functional PDMS and a curing agent using mechanical stirring in a series of aqueous solutions, and curing at 80 8C for 2 h. In order to verify the experimental diameter and size distributions...... of the PDMS microspheres, the Hinze-Kolmogorov theory is applied to predict the mean diameter, and a population balance model as well as the maximum entropy formalism are used to describe the size distribution. Close agreement is found between experimental and theoretical results. Furthermore, vinyl...... functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA...

  5. Preparation and characterization of planar Ni–Au bimetallic model catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan, E-mail: fan.yang@chem.tamu.edu; Yao, Yunxi; Yan, Zhen; Min, Hlaing; Goodman, D. Wayne

    2013-10-15

    Ni–Au bimetallic model catalysts were prepared as thin films on Re(0 0 0 1) or Ru(0 0 0 1) single crystal substrates. Surface compositions and electronic structures of the Ni–Au thin films were characterized by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Surface alloys were prepared by annealing Ni–Au thin films from 500 to 800 K, resulting in substantial surface enrichment of Au. Annealing a Ni–Au thin film with a 1:1 bulk composition ratio at 700 K for 10 min resulted in a surface alloy with 84% (atomic concentration) of Au in the outermost surface layer. The surface atomic structure was investigated using CO as probe molecules, which exclusively adsorbs on the Ni atoms rather than on the Au atoms at room temperature. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of CO adsorption on Ni–Au surface alloys showed that CO adsorption on two-fold bridge sites decreased and finally disappeared with an increase of Au surface concentration. The absence of Ni bridge site CO adsorption indicated that Ni atoms were isolated by Au atoms on Ni–Au alloyed surface.

  6. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to

  7. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    .... But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects...

  8. Love is more than just a kiss : A neurobiological perspective on love and affection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.; van Buel, E. M.; ter Horst, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Love, attachment, and truth of human monogamy have become important research themes in neuroscience. After the introduction of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), neuroscientists have demonstrated increased interest in the neurobiology and

  9. Love is more than just a kiss : A neurobiological perspective on love and affection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.; van Buel, E. M.; ter Horst, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Love, attachment, and truth of human monogamy have become important research themes in neuroscience. After the introduction of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), neuroscientists have demonstrated increased interest in the neurobiology and neurochemis

  10. The neurobiology of moral sense: facts or hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Landi, Paola; Ceresoli, Diana; Dell'osso, Liliana

    2013-03-06

    One of the most intriguing frontiers of current neuroscientific research is represented by the investigation of the possible neural substrates of morality. The assumption is that in humans an innate moral sense would exist. If this is true, with no doubt it should be regulated by specific brain mechanisms selected over the course of evolution, as they would promote our species' survival. In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have been carried out to explore the neural bases of human morality.The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the data regarding the neurobiological origin of the moral sense, through a Medline search of English-language articles from 1980 to February 2012.The available findings would suggest that there might be a main integrative centre for the innate morality, in particular the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with its multiple connections with the limbic lobe, thalamus and brainstem. The subjective moral sense would be the result of an integration of multiple automatic responses, mainly associated with social emotions and interpretation of others' behaviours and intentions.Since converging observations outline how lesions of the proposed neural networks may underlie some personality changes and criminal behaviours, the implications of the studies in this field encompass many areas of the scientific domain.

  11. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M. E.

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight.

  12. Targeting Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia in Clinical Treatment: Neurobiological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arout, Caroline A; Edens, Ellen; Petrakis, Ismene L; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2015-06-01

    Opioid analgesics have become a cornerstone in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, resulting in a steady rise of opioid prescriptions. Subsequently, there has been a striking increase in the number of opioid-dependent individuals, opioid-related overdoses, and fatalities. Clinical use of opioids is further complicated by an increasingly deleterious profile of side effects beyond addiction, including tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), where OIH is defined as an increased sensitivity to already painful stimuli. This paradoxical state of increased nociception results from acute and long-term exposure to opioids, and appears to develop in a substantial subset of patients using opioids. Recently, there has been considerable interest in developing an efficacious treatment regimen for acute and chronic pain. However, there are currently no well-established treatments for OIH. Several substrates have emerged as potential modulators of OIH, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors, and most notably, the innate neuroimmune system. This review summarizes the neurobiology of OIH in the context of clinical treatment; specifically, we review evidence for several pathways that show promise for the treatment of pain going forward, as prospective adjuvants to opioid analgesics. Overall, we suggest that this paradoxical state be considered an additional target of clinical treatment for chronic pain.

  13. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Nancey; O’Connor, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of...

  14. A conceptual framework for the neurobiological study of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The well-replicated observation that many people maintain mental health despite exposure to severe psychological or physical adversity has ignited interest in the mechanisms that protect against stress-related mental illness. Focusing on resilience rather than pathophysiology in many ways represents a paradigm shift in clinical-psychological and psychiatric research that has great potential for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies. More recently, research into resilience also arrived in the neurobiological community, posing nontrivial questions about ecological validity and translatability. Drawing on concepts and findings from transdiagnostic psychiatry, emotion research, and behavioral and cognitive neuroscience, we propose a unified theoretical framework for the neuroscientific study of general resilience mechanisms. The framework is applicable to both animal and human research and supports the design and interpretation of translational studies. The theory emphasizes the causal role of stimulus appraisal (evaluation) processes in the generation of emotional responses, including responses to potential stressors. On this basis, it posits that a positive (non-negative) appraisal style is the key mechanism that protects against the detrimental effects of stress and mediates the effects of other known resilience factors. Appraisal style is shaped by three classes of cognitive processes--positive situation classification, reappraisal, and interference inhibition--that can be investigated at the neural level. Prospects for the future development of resilience research are discussed.

  15. Neuroscience of exercise: from neurobiology mechanisms to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo; Cevada, Thais; Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Renato; Teixeira Guimarães, Thiago; da Cruz Rubini, Ercole; Lattari, Eduardo; Blois, Charlene; Camaz Deslandes, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The neuroscience of exercise is a growing research area that is dedicated to furthering our understanding of the effects that exercise has on mental health and athletic performance. The present study examined three specific topics: (1) the relationship between exercise and mental disorders (e.g. major depressive disorder, dementia and Parkinson's disease), (2) the effects of exercise on the mood and mental health of athletes, and (3) the possible neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise. Positive responses to regular physical exercise, such as enhanced functional capacity, increased autonomy and improved self-esteem, are frequently described in the recent literature, and these responses are all good reasons for recommending regular exercise. In addition, physical exercise may improve both mood and adherence to an exercise program in healthy individuals and might modulate both the performance and mental health of athletes. Exercise is associated with the increased synthesis and release of both neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and these increases may be associated with neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. This review is a call-to-action that urges researchers to consider the importance of understanding the neuroscience of physical exercise and its contributions to sports science.

  16. Neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional mechanisms in Melodic Intonation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn L Merrett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Singing has been used in language rehabilitation for decades, yet controversy remains over its effectiveness and mechanisms of action. Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT is the most well-known singing-based therapy; however, speculation surrounds when and how it might improve outcomes in aphasia and other language disorders. While positive treatment effects have been variously attributed to different MIT components, including melody, rhythm, hand-tapping, and the choral nature of the singing, there is uncertainty about the components that are truly necessary and beneficial. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the components operate are not well understood. Within the literature to date, proposed mechanisms can be broadly grouped into four categories: 1 neuroplastic reorganization of language function, 2 activation of the mirror neuron system and multi-modal integration, 3 utilization of shared or specific features of music and language, and 4 motivation and mood. In this paper, we review available evidence for each mechanism and propose that these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, but rather represent different levels of explanation, reflecting the neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional effects of MIT. Thus, instead of competing, each of these mechanisms may contribute to language rehabilitation, with a better understanding of their relative roles and interactions allowing the design of protocols that maximize the effectiveness of singing therapy for aphasia.

  17. The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbergen, Gilian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Frieling, Helge; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M.; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.

    2015-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neuropsychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas. With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations. PMID:26157372

  18. Unraveling the neurobiology of nicotine dependence using genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Astrid K; Markou, Athina

    2013-08-01

    This review article provides an overview of recent studies of nicotine dependence and withdrawal that used genetically engineered mice. Major progress has been made in recent years with mutant mice that have knockout and gain-of-function of specific neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes. Nicotine exerts its actions by binding to neuronal nAChRs that consist of five subunits. The different nAChR subunits that combine to compose a receptor determine the distinct pharmacological and kinetic properties of the specific nAChR. Recent findings in genetically engineered mice have indicated that while α4-containing and β2-containing nAChRs are involved in the acquisition of nicotine self-administration and initial stages of nicotine dependence, α7 homomeric nAChRs appear to be involved in the later stages of nicotine dependence. In the medial habenula, α5-containing, α3-containing, and β4-containing nAChRs were shown to be crucially important in the regulation of the aversive aspects of nicotine. Studies of the involvement of α6 nAChR subunits in nicotine dependence have only recently emerged. The use of genetically engineered mice continues to vastly improve our understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and withdrawal.

  19. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  20. The Neurobiological Grounding of Persistent Stuttering: from Structure to Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies which have recently implicated disrupted white matter connectivity in stuttering. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in persistent stuttering has been reported at several different loci. Our meta-analysis revealed consistent deficits in the left dorsal stream and in the interhemispheric connections between the sensorimotor cortices. In addition, recent fMRI meta-analyses link stuttering to reduced left fronto-parieto-temporal activation while greater fluency is associated with boosted co-activations of right fronto-parieto-temporal areas. However, the physiological foundation of these irregularities is not accessible with MRI. Complementary, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reveals local excitatory and inhibitory regulation of cortical dynamics. Applied to a speech motor area, TMS revealed reduced speech-planning-related neuronal dynamics at the level of the primary motor cortex in stuttering. Together, this review provides a focused view of the neurobiology of stuttering to date and may guide the rational design of future research. This future needs to account for the perpetual dynamic interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and speech motor circuits that shape fluent speech.

  1. Resilience in mental health: linking psychological and neurobiological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, B P F; Hammels, C; Geschwind, N; Menne-Lothmann, C; Pishva, E; Schruers, K; van den Hove, D; Kenis, G; van Os, J; Wichers, M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on psychological and biological findings on resilience (i.e. the successful adaptation and swift recovery after experiencing life adversities) at the level of the individual, and to integrate findings from animal and human studies. Method Electronic and manual literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO, using a range of search terms around biological and psychological factors influencing resilience as observed in human and experimental animal studies, complemented by review articles and cross-references. Results The term resilience is used in the literature for different phenomena ranging from prevention of mental health disturbance to successful adaptation and swift recovery after experiencing life adversities, and may also include post-traumatic psychological growth. Secure attachment, experiencing positive emotions and having a purpose in life are three important psychological building blocks of resilience. Overlap between psychological and biological findings on resilience in the literature is most apparent for the topic of stress sensitivity, although recent results suggest a crucial role for reward experience in resilience. Conclusion Improving the understanding of the links between genetic endowment, environmental impact and gene–environment interactions with developmental psychology and biology is crucial for elucidating the neurobiological and psychological underpinnings of resilience. PMID:23488807

  2. Dispositional negativity: An integrative psychological and neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Alexander J; Tromp, Do P M; Stockbridge, Melissa D; Kaplan, Claire M; Tillman, Rachael M; Fox, Andrew S

    2016-12-01

    Dispositional negativity-the propensity to experience and express more frequent, intense, or enduring negative affect-is a fundamental dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity can have profound consequences for health, wealth, and happiness, drawing the attention of clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the psychological and neurobiological processes linking stable individual differences in dispositional negativity to momentary emotional states. Self-report data suggest that 3 key pathways-increased stressor reactivity, tonic increases in negative affect, and increased stressor exposure-explain most of the heightened negative affect that characterizes individuals with a more negative disposition. Of these 3 pathways, tonically elevated, indiscriminate negative affect appears to be most central to daily life and most relevant to the development of psychopathology. New behavioral and biological data provide insights into the neural systems underlying these 3 pathways and motivate the hypothesis that seemingly "tonic" increases in negative affect may actually reflect increased reactivity to stressors that are remote, uncertain, or diffuse. Research focused on humans, monkeys, and rodents suggests that this indiscriminate negative affect reflects trait-like variation in the activity and connectivity of several key brain regions, including the central extended amygdala and parts of the prefrontal cortex. Collectively, these observations provide an integrative psychobiological framework for understanding the dynamic cascade of processes that bind emotional traits to emotional states and, ultimately, to emotional disorders and other kinds of adverse outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Maternal neglect: oxytocin, dopamine and the neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathearn, L

    2011-11-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. I provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, aiming to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified that contribute to maternal caregiving behaviour, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioural response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarised that demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomised placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioural interventions for maternal neglect.

  4. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  5. Neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional mechanisms in melodic intonation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Dawn L; Peretz, Isabelle; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Singing has been used in language rehabilitation for decades, yet controversy remains over its effectiveness and mechanisms of action. Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is the most well-known singing-based therapy; however, speculation surrounds when and how it might improve outcomes in aphasia and other language disorders. While positive treatment effects have been variously attributed to different MIT components, including melody, rhythm, hand-tapping, and the choral nature of the singing, there is uncertainty about the components that are truly necessary and beneficial. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the components operate are not well understood. Within the literature to date, proposed mechanisms can be broadly grouped into four categories: (1) neuroplastic reorganization of language function, (2) activation of the mirror neuron system and multimodal integration, (3) utilization of shared or specific features of music and language, and (4) motivation and mood. In this paper, we review available evidence for each mechanism and propose that these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, but rather represent different levels of explanation, reflecting the neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional effects of MIT. Thus, instead of competing, each of these mechanisms may contribute to language rehabilitation, with a better understanding of their relative roles and interactions allowing the design of protocols that maximize the effectiveness of singing therapy for aphasia.

  6. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health.

  7. The purpose and neurobiology of theory of mind functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubach, Daniel A

    2008-09-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to a cognitive process which allows an individual to "place him/herself" in the other person's "mind," so as to comprehend the latter's cognitive and emotional status, so as to predict his/her behavior and emotional response to a particular situation. ToM is necessary for everyday interaction among individuals and accounts for such human traits as empathy, compassion, and deceit. It is also particularly important in the relationship between a healer and his or her client, as well as in the God-human relationship. Recent research in the area of neurosciences has identified a specific brain "system" responsible for ToM, as well as described how these functions may be affected in certain neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we discuss the definition and neurobiological substrate of ToM. In addition, we discuss the cognitive steps important to achieve an "accurate" theory of mind, its relevance to "self-knowledge," and its limitations. We also review some of the data concerning abnormalities and "distortion" of ToM in neuropsychiatric disorders and aberrant human behavior.

  8. Sleep Disturbance as Transdiagnostic: Consideration of Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G.; Murray, Greg; Chandler, Rebecca A.; Soehner, Adriane

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is increasingly recognized as an important, but understudied, mechanism in the complex and multi-factorial causation of the symptoms and functional disability associated with psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that it is biologically plausible for sleep disturbance to be mechanistically transdiagnostic. More specifically, we propose that sleep disturbance is aetiologically linked to various forms of psychopathology through: its reciprocal relationship with emotion regulation and its shared/interacting neurobiological substrates in (a) genetics - genes known to be important in the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms have been linked to a range of disorders and (b) dopaminergic and serotonergic function - we review evidence for the interplay between these systems and sleep/circadian biology. The clinical implications include potentially powerful and inexpensive interventions including interventions targeting light exposure, dark exposure, the regulation of social rhythms and the reduction of anxiety. We also consider the possibility of developing a ‘transdiagnostic’ treatment; one treatment that would reduce sleep disturbance across psychiatric disorders. PMID:20471738

  9. The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbergen, Gilian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Frieling, Helge; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2015-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neuropsychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas. With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.

  10. The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilian eTenbergen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI together with neuropsychological studies we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time we are faced with methodological challenges such as group differences between studies including age, intelligence, and comorbidities together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro- biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal and limbic brain areas. With this approach we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.

  11. [Serotonin now: Part 1. Neurobiology and developmental genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegebaum, C; Gutknecht, L; Schmitt, A; Lesch, K-P; Reif, A

    2010-06-01

    As soon as in the 1960's, the role of serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamin, 5-HT) in psychiatric disorders was realized, which was further substantiated by several lines of evidence amounting to a huge body of knowledge. The indolamine 5-HT belongs to the class of monoamine transmitters and can be found in the serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei in the brain stem. In the periphery, it is mainly present in the gastrointestinal system and the pineal gland. 5-HT is implicated in a variety of cognitive, emotional and vegetative behaviors, as well as in the regulation of circadian rhythms. Apart from its role as a neurotransmitter, it has an important function in prenatal development, where its expression pattern is tightly regulated, and in adult neurogenesis. The numerous effects of 5-HT are mediated by specific pre- and postsynaptic receptors, whose localization and functions are further described here. The serotonin transporter (SERT), which accomplishes the re-uptake of 5-HT into the neuron following its release in the synaptic cleft, not only has an important role in the termination of serotonergic neurotransmission but is also an important drug target for antidepressant compounds. In this part of the review, the neurobiological underpinnings of 5-HT synthesis, metabolism, and neurotransmission as well as the corresponding physiological consequences are summarized, while in the second part, an overview on clinical findings is provided and critically discussed.

  12. Preparation and properties of the SmOx/Rh(100) model surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The preparation of SmOx/Rh(100) and CO adsorption on this model surface have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The oxygen adsorption on the SmRh alloy surface leads to the aggregation of Sm on the surface. The thermal treatment of this oxidized surface induces the further agglomeration of SmOx on the Rh(100) surface. Compared with CO TDS on the clean Rh(100) surface, three additional CO desorption peaks can be observed at 176, 331 and 600 K on the SmOx/Rh(100) surface. The CO desorption peak at 176 K may originate from CO adsorbed on SmOx islands, while the appearance of the CO adsorption peaks at 331 and 600 K, depending on the oxidation state of Sm, is attributed to CO species located at the interface of SmOx/Rh(100).

  13. Preparation and properties of dough-modeling compound/fly ash/reclaim powder composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W.L. [Qiqihar University, Qiqihar (China)

    2007-12-15

    A novel composite was prepared with reclaim powder (RP) matrix, dough-modeling compound (DMC) reinforcement and fly ash (FA) filler in this article. The compatibility and crosslinking construction of the FA/RP composites were respectively, studied by the polarizing microscope and IR, the optimal formulation and experimental process were determined by measuring the mechanical properties such as shore A hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, wear resistance and the thermal stability. The results showed that DMC/FA/RP composites exhibited extremely high mechanical and thermal properties when the mass ratio of the DMC/FA/RP composites was 45/25/100, and the cure condition is at 145 {sup o}C for 30 min under 9 MPa.

  14. Molecular modeling, FTIR spectral characterization and mechanical properties of carbonated-hydroxyapatite prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youness, Rasha A. [Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Str., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Taha, Mohammed A. [Solid-State Physics Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Str., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Elhaes, Hanan [Physics Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, Medhat, E-mail: medahmed6@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Str., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline B-type carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (B-CHA) powder has been successively synthesized by mechanochemical method. The effect of milling times on the formation of B-CHA was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, physical as well as mechanical properties were examined as a function of milling time. Furthermore, theoretical model was presented for hydroxyapatite (HA). Semiempirical calculations at PM6 level were used to calculate thermal parameters including entropy; enthalpy; heat capacity; free energy and heat of formation in the temperature range from 200 up to 500 k. The results revealed that single phase B-CHA was successfully formed after 8 h of milling when Ball to Powder Ratio (BPR) equals to 10:1. Results revealed that entropy; enthalpy and heat capacity gradually increased as a function of temperature while, free energy and heat of formation decreased with the increasing of temperature. Comparison with higher level of theory was conducted at HF and DFT using the models HF/3-21g**; B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/LANL2DZ, respectively and indicated that PM6 could be utilized with appropriate accuracy and time to study physical and thermochemical parameters for HA. - Highlights: • Preparation of Nanocrystalline B-type carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (B-CHA) powder by mechanochemical method. • Characterization of CHA. • Semiemperical and DFT models for CHA.

  15. Model features as the basis of preparation of boxers individualization principal level (elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelec O.J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose to improve the system of training boxers of higher categories (elite. Individualization of the training process using the model characteristics special physical preparedness. Materials : The study was conducted during 2000-2010. Participated boxers national team of Ukraine in the amount of 43 people. Of those honored masters of sport 6, masters of sports of international class 16, masters of sports 21. The average age of the athletes 23.5 years. Results : justified and features a specially designed model of physical fitness boxing class. It is established that the boxers middle weight classes (64 75 kg have an advantage over other boxers weight categories (light and after a hard in the development of speed and strength endurance. The presented model characteristics can guide the professional fitness boxing (elite, as representatives of the sport. Conclusions : It is established that the structure of the special physical training boxers depends on many components, such as weight category, tactical fighter role, skill level, stage of preparation.

  16. The effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow in root canals evaluated using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Gogos, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Kastrinakis, E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To evaluate the effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow inside a root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two different needles types, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methodology  A validated CFD model was used to simulate the irrigant flow from either

  17. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  18. Defeating the fear: new insights into the neurobiology of stress susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vaishnav

    2014-11-01

    The psychopathological impact of emotional stress on a specific individual varies markedly: while most escape the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or major depression, a select group of individuals demonstrate a vulnerability to succumb to these conditions. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in animal research into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that govern both vulnerability and resilience to such stressors. In the May 2014 issue, Chou and colleagues employ the mouse social defeat model of chronic stress to demonstrate that defeated susceptible mice display an exaggerated conditioned fear response associated with more pronounced autonomic changes. These physiological alterations were found to be mediated via local increases in the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) within the basolateral amygdala and could be inhibited by the systemic administration of a beta adrenergic antagonist. This mini-review critically examines this manuscript's new mechanistic insights in light of previous results employing similar approaches. The strengths and limitations of the social defeat model, as well as the relevance of these findings to neurologic illness are discussed briefly.

  19. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation. From the perspective of recent findings in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, we discuss the interplay of top-down and bottom-up emotion regulation mechanisms associated with different mindfulness models. From a phenomenological and cognitive perspective, authors have argued that mindfulness elicits a “mindful emotion regulation” strategy; however, from a clinical perspective, this construct has not been properly differentiated from other strategies and interventions within MBIs. In this context we propose the distinction between top-down and bottom-up mindfulness based emotion regulation strategies. Furthermore, we propose an embodied emotion regulation framework as a multilevel approach for understanding psychobiological changes due to mindfulness meditation regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Finally, based on clinical neuroscientific evidence on mindfulness, we open perspectives and dialogues regarding commonalities and differences between MBIs and other psychotherapeutic strategies for emotion regulation. PMID:28321194

  20. Carboxylated ficolls: preparation, characterization, and electrophoretic behavior of model charged nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhong; Kirton, Gavin F; Dubin, Paul L

    2006-10-26

    Carboxylated ficolls were prepared as model spherical colloids of variable charge and size, with radii ranging from 3.0 to 19.3 nm. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), electrophoretic light scattering (ELS), and potentiometric titration were used to determine mobilities as a function of pH, degree of ionization alpha, and surface potential psi(0). Measured mobilities typically display a plateau at high pH, corresponding to high alpha and psi(0), confirming the general nature of this effect for charged spheres, seen also for charged dendrimers and charged latex particles. This result is examined in the context of a discontinuity in mobility predicted by the Wiersema, O'Brien, and White (WOW) theory and a more recent primitive model electrophoresis (PME) theory, in which bound counterions are considered either as point charges or as hard spheres. While no mobility maximum can be determined as expected by these two theories, our data seem more to support Belloni's theoretical expectations on charged polymers and spheres. Here we explain the mobility plateaus in terms of counterions accumulated close to the surface (surface potential-determining ions) or within the shear plane (mobility-determining ions).

  1. Simulation of the dynamic packing behavior of preparative chromatography columns via discrete particle modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Martin; Hekmat, Dariusch

    2016-03-01

    Preparative packed-bed chromatography using polymer-based, compressible, porous resins is a powerful method for purification of macromolecular bioproducts. During operation, a complex, hysteretic, thus, history-dependent packed bed behavior is often observed but theoretical understanding of the causes is limited. Therefore, a rigorous modeling approach of the chromatography column on the particle scale has been made which takes into account interparticle micromechanics and fluid-particle interactions for the first time. A three-dimensional deterministic model was created by applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupled with the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The column packing behavior during either flow or mechanical compression was investigated in-silico and in laboratory experiments. A pronounced axial compression-relaxation profile was identified that differed for both compression strategies. Void spaces were clearly visible in the packed bed after compression. It was assumed that the observed bed inhomogeneity was because of a force-chain network at the particle scale. The simulation satisfactorily reproduced the measured behavior regarding packing compression as well as pressure-flow dependency. Furthermore, the particle Young's modulus and particle-wall friction as well as interparticle friction were identified as crucial parameters affecting packing dynamics. It was concluded that compaction of the chromatographic bed is rather because of particle rearrangement than particle deformation. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:363-371, 2016. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, Sally E; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2008-01-01

    Extraordinary progress in functional brain imaging, primarily advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging, now allows scientists to understand the neural systems serving reading and how these systems differ in dyslexic readers. Scientists now speak of the neural signature of dyslexia, a singular achievement that for the first time has made what was previously a hidden disability, now visible. Paralleling this achievement in understanding the neurobiology of dyslexia, progress in the identification and treatment of dyslexia now offers the hope of identifying children at risk for dyslexia at a very young age and providing evidence-based, effective interventions. Despite these advances, for many dyslexic readers, becoming a skilled, automatic reader remains elusive, in great part because though children with dyslexia can be taught to decode words, teaching children to read fluently and automatically represents the next frontier in research on dyslexia. We suggest that to break through this "fluency" barrier, investigators will need to reexamine the more than 20-year-old central dogma in reading research: the generation of the phonological code from print is modular, that is, automatic and not attention demanding, and not requiring any other cognitive process. Recent findings now present a competing view: other cognitive processes are involved in reading, particularly attentional mechanisms, and that disruption of these attentional mechanisms play a causal role in reading difficulties. Recognition of the role of attentional mechanisms in reading now offer potentially new strategies for interventions in dyslexia. In particular, the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents affecting attentional mechanisms not only may provide a window into the neurochemical mechanisms underlying dyslexia but also may offer a potential adjunct treatment for teaching dyslexic readers to read fluently and automatically. Preliminary studies suggest that agents traditionally used to treat

  3. The Neurobiology of Attachment to Nurturing and Abusive Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that childhood experiences interact with our genetics to change the structure and function of the brain. Within the range of normal experiences, this system enables the brain to be modified during development to adapt to various environments and cultures. Experiences with and attachment to the caregiver appear particularly important, and recent research suggests this may be due, in part, to the attachment circuitry within the brain. Children have brain circuitry to ensure attachment to their caregivers. Attachment depends on the offspring learning about the caregiver in a process that begins prenatally and continues through most of early life. This attachment serves two basic functions. First, attachment ensures the infant remain in the proximity of the caregiver to procure resources for survival and protection. Second, attachment "quality programs" the brain. This programming impacts immediate behaviors, as well as behaviors that emerge later in development. Animal research has uncovered segments of the attachment circuitry within the brain and has highlighted rapid, robust learning to support this attachment. A child attaches to the caregiver regardless of the quality of care received, even if the caregiver is abusive and neglectful. While a neural system that ensures attachment regardless of the quality of care has immediate benefits, this attachment comes with a high cost. Traumatic experiences interact with genetics to change the structure and function of the brain, compromising emotional and cognitive development and initiating a pathway to pathology. Neurobiological research on animals suggests that trauma during attachment is processed differently by the brain, with maternal presence dramatically attenuating the fear center of the brain (amygdala). Thus, the immaturity of the brain combined with the unique processing of trauma may underlie the enduring effects of abuse, which remain largely hidden in early life but emerge as

  4. Neurobiology of Stress-Induced Reproductive Dysfunction In Female Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Centeno, Maria Luisa; Cameron, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well accepted that stress can precipitate mental and physical illness. However, it is becoming clear that given the same stress, some individuals are very vulnerable and will succumb to illness while others are more resilient and cope effectively, rather than becoming ill. This difference between individuals is called stress sensitivity. Stress-sensitivity of an individual appears to be influenced by genetically inherited factors, early life (even prenatal) stress, and by the presence or absence of factors that provide protection from stress. In comparison to other stress-related diseases, the concept of sensitivity versus resilience to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction has received relatively little attention. The studies presented herein were undertaken to begin to identify stable characteristics and the neural underpinnings of individuals with sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. Female cynomolgus macaques with normal menstrual cycles either stop ovulating (Stress Sensitive) or to continue to ovulate (Stress Resilient) upon exposure to a combined metabolic and psychosocial stress. However, even in the absence of stress, the stress sensitive animals have lower secretion of the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, have higher heart rates, have lower serotonin function, have fewer serotonin neurons and lower expression of pivotal serotonin-related genes, have lower expression of 5HT2A and 2C genes in the hypothalamus, have higher gene expression of GAD67 and CRH in the hypothalamus and have reduced GnRH transport to the anterior pituitary. Altogether, the results suggest that the neurobiology of reproductive circuits in stress sensitive individuals is compromised. We speculate that with the application of stress, the dysfunction of these neural systems becomes exacerbated and reproductive function ceases. PMID:18931961

  5. Neurobiological correlates of acupuncture: November 17-18, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napadow, Vitaly; Webb, J Megan; Pearson, Nancy; Hammerschlag, Richard

    2006-11-01

    The "Neurobiological Correlates of Acupuncture" Conference was convened November 17-18, 2005 in Bethesda, Maryland. The conference was sponsored by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Its goals were to encourage exchange of ideas regarding the direction of neuroimaging in acupuncture research as well as to discuss some of the challenges in this field. The use of neuroimaging, a relatively recent advance in the study of acupuncture, holds the promise of localizing and characterizing brain activity associated with acupuncture interventions in real time and in a minimally invasive way. Among the main challenges to research into the biological mechanisms of acupuncture are the multiple treatment variables and the difficulties of selecting appropriate experimental controls. Despite these challenges, numerous findings from acupuncture neuroimaging experiments were presented and discussed at the conference on topics related to possible signaling networks, sham acupuncture controls, acupoint specificity, acupuncture analgesia, acupuncture-associated brain response, and the potential for using neuroimaging in conjunction with translational and clinical acupuncture research. Future directions in acupuncture neuroimaging research, as recommended by conference participants, should focus on (1) continuing exploration of acupuncture signaling networks; (2) establishing standards and recommendations for performing and reporting acupuncture neuroimaging results; (3) enabling data sharing in the acupuncture neuroimaging community; (4) gaining a better understanding of placebo and control groups in acupuncture neuroimaging experiments; and (5) developing biomarkers that relate to physiologically and/or clinically relevant acupuncture responses to neuroimaging results.

  6. [Current aspects of attachment theory and development psychology as well as neurobiological aspects in psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Rupprecht, R

    2003-11-01

    This review covers basic principles of attachment research and its relationship to and implications for psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. A great number of studies deal with the importance of attachment theory in the development of these disorders associated with distinct attachment styles. The most well-known concept is the attachment theory created by John Bowlby (1907-1990), which has strengthened our knowledge on early mother-infant relationships and influenced guidelines for child care. Within this concept, family structure is of great importance for the psychological development of the child and later the adult. Attachment research indicates that disturbances of patients with psychosomatic, e.g., somatoform disorders, in establishing relations must be seen in a developmental genetic context. A model of vulnerability is introduced which describes the development of psychopathology concerning the formation of representations taking advantage of attachment theory. Additionally, recent progress in cognitive neurosciences addresses attachment theory. During the last decade, neurobiological studies in rodents, primates, and humans indicate that early influences of psychosocial factors could have permanent consequences for brain structure and function. Besides the psychoanalytical and behavioral view concerning psychiatric and especially psychosomatic disorders, the integration of neurobiological findings will be a major challenge for the generation of further concepts.

  7. Social ‘wanting’ dysfunction in autism: neurobiological underpinnings and treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohls Gregor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most behavioral training regimens in autism spectrum disorders (ASD rely on reward-based reinforcement strategies. Although proven to significantly increase both cognitive and social outcomes and successfully reduce aberrant behaviors, this approach fails to benefit a substantial number of affected individuals. Given the enormous amount of clinical and financial resources devoted to behavioral interventions, there is a surprisingly large gap in our knowledge of the basic reward mechanisms of learning in ASD. Understanding the mechanisms for reward responsiveness and reinforcement-based learning is urgently needed to better inform modifications that might improve current treatments. The fundamental goal of this review is to present a fine-grained literature analysis of reward function in ASD with reference to a validated neurobiological model of reward: the ‘wanting’/’liking’ framework. Despite some inconsistencies within the available literature, the evaluation across three converging sets of neurobiological data (neuroimaging, electrophysiological recordings, and neurochemical measures reveals good evidence for disrupted reward-seeking tendencies in ASD, particularly in social contexts. This is most likely caused by dysfunction of the dopaminergic–oxytocinergic ‘wanting’ circuitry, including the ventral striatum, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Such a conclusion is consistent with predictions derived from diagnostic criteria concerning the core social phenotype of ASD, which emphasize difficulties with spontaneous self-initiated seeking of social encounters (that is, social motivation. Existing studies suggest that social ‘wanting’ tendencies vary considerably between individuals with ASD, and that the degree of social motivation is both malleable and predictive of intervention response. Although the topic of reward responsiveness in ASD is very new, with much research still needed, the current data

  8. Reform of neurobiology teaching%神经生物学教学改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海侠; 刘勇; 臧伟进; 陈新林; 杨蓬勃; 刘建新

    2011-01-01

    Neurobiology is a new rising frontier.We started teaching neurobiology for eight-year program medical students in Xi'an Jiaotong University College of Medicine since 2010.The reform and bold attempt had been carried out in several aspects mainly.There was no specified textbook.As for the teaching model,problem-based learning (PBL) was combined with traditional lectures.English was used as the main teaching language and a comprehensive evaluation was carried out to estimate the teaching effect.Students' opinion and suggestions were collected through questionnaire survey and discussion.The results showed that students' interest in study had been triggered and the self-learning ability had been elevated.However,there were still some issues that need to be improved.%神经生物学是一门新兴的前沿学科,西安交通大学医学院从2010年起,为八年制医学生开设了神经生物学课程,在教学内容安排、教材选择、教学模式、教学语言以及综合考评方面进行了改革和尝试.结合“区段整合式”教学改革的需要以及我校神经科学研究工作基础,对教学内容进行调整;打破以课本为主的传统教学模式,不指定教材;教学活动为理论课程大课教学( lecture)和以问题为基础学习( problem-based learning,PBL)相结合;提高了在教学中,使用英语的比例,并将探索和综合能力纳入对学生的考评.通关调查问卷以及与学生座谈的方式,收集了学生对教学改革的意见和建议.结果表明,神经生物学教学改革取得了良好的教学效果,激发了学生的学习兴趣,提高了学生的自主学习的能力并增强了自信心,同时也还存在着一些问题需要进一步改进.

  9. The functional model of optimization of the special physical preparation of students in the period of flying practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpenko V.N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is considered approaches to optimization special physical preparation of students during the period of flying practice. For the construction of functional model of such system new information IDEF technology is utillized (ICAM Definition. The feature of technology is gradual introduction all large levels of working out in detail (decoupligs. It is marked that it is expedient to carry out a decouplig before functions which will realize leaders of physical preparation and instructor of flying preparation. It is well-proven that on the stage of research of function a fundamental place is occupied by a functional design. The result of optimization of maintenance of teaching is systematization of knowledge, abilities, facilities of development and support professionally of meaningful qualities of students. The hierarchical levels of process of systematization of maintenance of teaching are recommended. It is offered directions of realization of functional model through conditioning optimization of pedagogical activity of teacher.

  10. Compensating for instantaneous signal mixing in transfer entropy analysis of neurobiological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    The transfer entropy (TE) has recently emerged as a nonlinear model-free tool, framed in information theory, to detect directed interactions in coupled processes. Unfortunately, when applied to neurobiological time series TE is biased by signal cross-talk due to volume conduction. To compensate for this bias, in this study we introduce a modified TE measure which accounts for possible instantaneous effects between the analyzed time series. The new measure, denoted as compensated TE (cTE), is tested on simulated time series reproducing conditions typical of neuroscience applications, and on real magnetoencephalographic (MEG) multi-trial data measured during a visuo-tactile cognitive experiment. Simulations show that cTE performs similarly to TE in the absence of signal cross-talk, and prevents false positive detection of information transfer in the case of instantaneous mixing of uncoupled signals. When applied to MEG data, cTE detects significant information flow from the visual cortex to the somatosensory area during task execution, suggesting the activation of mechanisms of multisensory integration.

  11. The neurobiology of depression in later-life: clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathophysiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Norrie, Louisa M; Mowszowski, Loren; Hickie, Ian B

    2012-07-01

    As the population ages, the economic and societal impacts of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders are expected to rise sharply. Like dementia, late-life depressive disorders are common and are linked to increased disability, high healthcare utilisation, cognitive decline and premature mortality. Considerable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depression across the life cycle may reflect unique pathophysiological pathways to illness; differentiating those with earlier onset who have grown older (early-onset depression), from those with illness onset after the age of 50 or 60 years (late-onset depression). The last two decades have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of early- and late-onset depression, and has shown that disturbances of fronto-subcortical functioning are implicated. New biomedical models extend well beyond perturbations of traditional monoamine systems to include altered neurotrophins, endocrinologic and immunologic system dysfunction, inflammatory processes and gene expression alterations. This more recent research has highlighted that a range of illness-specific, neurodegenerative and vascular factors appear to contribute to the various phenotypic presentations. This review highlights the major features of late-life depression, with specific reference to its associated aetiological, clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, neuropathological, inflammatory and genetic correlates. Data examining the efficacy of pharmacological, non-pharmacological and novel treatments for depression are discussed. Ultimately, future research must aim to evaluate whether basic biomedical knowledge can be successfully translated into enhanced health outcomes via the implementation of early intervention paradigms.

  12. Chocolate and the brain: neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander N; Pavlova, Marina A; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Cocoa products and chocolate have recently been recognized as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly flavanols, potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with established benefits for cardiovascular health but largely unproven effects on neurocognition and behavior. In this review, we focus on neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions of cocoa flavanols in humans. The absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in the brain regions involved in learning and memory, especially the hippocampus. The neurobiological actions of flavanols are believed to occur in two major ways: (i) via direct interactions with cellular cascades yielding expression of neuroprotective and neuromodulatory proteins that promote neurogenesis, neuronal function and brain connectivity, and (ii) via blood-flow improvement and angiogenesis in the brain and sensory systems. Protective effects of long-term flavanol consumption on neurocognition and behavior, including age- and disease-related cognitive decline, were shown in animal models of normal aging, dementia, and stroke. A few human observational and intervention studies appear to corroborate these findings. Evidence on more immediate action of cocoa flavanols remains limited and inconclusive, but warrants further research. As an outline for future research on cocoa flavanol impact on human cognition, mood, and behavior, we underscore combination of functional neuroimaging with cognitive and behavioral measures of performance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Defining recovery neurobiology of injured spinal cord by synthetic matrix-assisted hMSC implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropper, Alexander E; Thakor, Devang K; Han, InBo; Yu, Dou; Zeng, Xiang; Anderson, Jamie E; Aljuboori, Zaid; Kim, Soo-Woo; Wang, Hongjun; Sidman, Richard L; Zafonte, Ross D; Teng, Yang D

    2017-01-31

    Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system. Also, in rat T9-T10 hemisection spinal cord injury (SCI), we demonstrated that the tailored scaffolding maintained hMSC stemness, engraftment, and led to robust motosensory improvement, neuropathic pain and tissue damage mitigation, and myelin preservation. The scaffolded nontransdifferentiated hMSCs exerted multimodal effects of neurotrophism, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, antiautoimmunity, and antiinflammation. Hindlimb locomotion was restored by reestablished integrity of submidbrain circuits of serotonergic reticulospinal innervation at lumbar levels, the propriospinal projection network, neuromuscular junction, and central pattern generator, providing a platform for investigating molecular events underlying the repair impact of nondifferentiated hMSCs. Our approach enabled investigation of recovery neurobiology components for injured adult mammalian spinal cord that are different from those involved in normal neural function. The uncovered neural circuits and their molecular and cellular targets offer a biological underpinning for development of clinical rehabilitation therapies to treat disabilities and complications of SCI.

  14. The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Helle, Siri; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Kroken, Rune A.; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability × cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics, and neurological soft signs (NSS) in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group, which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings PMID:25477825

  15. The cannabis pathway to non-affective psychosis may reflect less neurobiological vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability x cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics and neurological soft signs (NSS in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings.

  16. Acid-base physiology, neurobiology and behaviour in relation to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Hamilton, Trevor J

    2017-06-15

    Experimental exposure to ocean and freshwater acidification affects the behaviour of multiple aquatic organisms in laboratory tests. One proposed cause involves an imbalance in plasma chloride and bicarbonate ion concentrations as a result of acid-base regulation, causing the reversal of ionic fluxes through GABAA receptors, which leads to altered neuronal function. This model is exclusively based on differential effects of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine on control animals and those exposed to elevated CO2 However, direct measurements of actual chloride and bicarbonate concentrations in neurons and their extracellular fluids and of GABAA receptor properties in aquatic organisms are largely lacking. Similarly, very little is known about potential compensatory mechanisms, and about alternative mechanisms that might lead to ocean acidification-induced behavioural changes. This article reviews the current knowledge on acid-base physiology, neurobiology, pharmacology and behaviour in relation to marine CO2-induced acidification, and identifies important topics for future research that will help us to understand the potential effects of predicted levels of aquatic acidification on organisms. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Model-based mask data preparation (MB-MDP) and its impact on resist heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Bork, Ingo

    2011-04-01

    Complex mask shapes will be required on critical layer masks for 20nm logic node, threatening to explode the mask write times. Model-Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) has been introduced to reduce the shot count required to write complex masks while simultaneously improving resolution and dose margin of sub-100nm features. For production use of MB-MDP, a number of questions have been raised and answered. This paper summarizes these potential issues and their resolutions. In particular, the paper takes an in-depth look at one of the questions: impact of overlapping shots on heating effect. The paper concludes that while heating effect is an important issue for all e-beam writing even with conventional non-overlapping shots, overall dose density per unit time over microns of space is the principal driver behind heating effects. Highly local shot density and shot sequencing does not affect heating significantly, particularly for smaller shots. MB-MDP does not introduce any additional concerns.

  18. Antipyrine-gamma cyclodextrin inclusion complex: Molecular modeling, preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannimani, Ramesh; Perumal, Amanda; Ramesh, Muthusamy; Pillay, Karen; Soliman, Mahmoud E.; Govender, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Molecular docking, semi-empirical and molecular dynamics studies were conducted for α, β and γ-cyclodextrin-associated inclusion complexes of antipyrine. The results of molecular modeling were systematically analyzed to determine the stability of inclusion complexes. In preliminary computational screening, β and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of antipyrine were found to be more stable as compared to α-cyclodextrin based on docking score and binding free energies. Further, inclusion complex of antipyrine with γ-cyclodextrin was prepared by freeze drying method. Formation of the inclusion complex was investigated by solid state characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The changes observed in decomposition temperature, diffractogram, vibrational frequencies and morphological appearance confirmed the formation of inclusion complex. In addition, results from 1H NMR and 2D NOESY studies supported the inclusion phenomenon. The results obtained from computational studies were found to be in consistent with experimental data to ascertain the encapsulation of antipyrine into γ-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complex was found to be non-toxic toward MDCK-1 cell lines. Thus, this approach may be helpful in the formulation of drug molecules using cyclodextrins.

  19. Preparing for the Complexities of Teaching: Modeling Conceptual Thinking in Post-Observation Conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane K. Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n1p91 In order for teacher educators to prepare teachers for complexities of language teaching, their nature needs to be understood. Vygotskian sociocultural theory ofers a useful framework for construing such complexities. Vygotsky distinguished between everyday and scientiic concepts, and saw the interaction of the two as conceptual thinking, the basis for higher order cognitive skills. Johnson (2009 frames learning to teach as the development of conceptual thinking and considers the nature of the dialogue in teacher education activities as crucial to this development. Drawing on longitudinal data from a semester-long case study of the dialogic interactions between a teacher and teacher educator, this study illustrates how the teacher educator modeled conceptual thinking in her language. We propose a taxonomy of conceptualizations about language teaching that may help teacher educators be more purposeful in designing activities for and interacting with novice teachers.

  20. The Reform of School Administrator Preparation: The Western Kentucky University Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, H. D.; And Others

    The myriad of educational reforms directed toward increased quality will drastically change the responsibilities of school principals. To make a consequential contribution to improving the effectiveness of public school education in Kentucky by preparing more effective leaders for administrative positions, a new principal preparation program at…

  1. The School Leader Communication Model: An Emerging Method for Bridging School Leader Preparation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders make countless decisions but do not receive adequate preparation for communicating their decisions to parents, students, and teachers. Building on the need to prepare school leaders for a variety of complex professional situations, this article introduces the medical education pedagogy of standardized patients to the field of school…

  2. Neurobiology of DHEA and effects on sexuality, mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, N; Drakopoulos, P; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Wenger, J M; Petignat, P; Genazzani, A R

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroid hormones in the humans. However, their physiological significance, their mechanisms of action and their possible roles as treatment are not fully clarified. Biological actions of DHEA(S) in the brain involve neuroprotection, neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion, as well as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiglucocorticoid effects. In addition, DHEA affects neurosteroidogenis and endorphin synthesis/release. We also demonstrated in a model of ovariectomized rats that DHEA therapy increases proceptive behaviors, already after 1 week of treatment, affecting central function of sexual drive. In women, the analyses of clinical outcomes are far from being conclusive and many issues should still be addressed. Although DHEA preparations have been available in the market since the 1990s, there are very few definitive reports on the biological functions of this steroid. We demonstrate that 1 year DHEA administration at the dose of 10mg provided a significant improvement in comparison with vitamin D in sexual function and in frequency of sexual intercourse in early postmenopausal women. Among symptomatic women, the spectrum of symptoms responding to DHEA requires further investigation, to define the type of sexual symptoms (e.g. decreased sexual function or hypoactive sexual desire disorder) and the degree of mood/cognitive symptoms that could be responsive to hormonal treatment. In this regard, our findings are promising, although they need further exploration with a larger and more representative sample size. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Essential role of DHEA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling and observation of transionospheric propagation results from ISIS II in preparation for ePOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Gillies

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP is scheduled to be launched as part of the Cascade Demonstrator Small-Sat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE satellite in early 2008. A Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI on ePOP will receive HF transmissions from various ground-based transmitters. In preparation for the ePOP mission, data from a similar transionospheric experiment performed by the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS II satellite has been studied. Prominent features in the received 9.303-MHz signal were periodic Faraday fading of signal intensity at rates up to 13 Hz and a time of arrival delay between the O- and X-modes of up to 0.8 ms. Both features occurred when the satellite was above or south of the Ottawa transmitter. Ionospheric models for ray tracing were constructed using both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI profiles and local peak electron density values from ISIS ionograms. Values for fade rate and differential mode delay were computed and compared to the values observed in the ISIS II data. The computed values showed very good agreement to the observed values of both received signal parameters when the topside sounding foF2 values were used to scale IRI profiles, but not when strictly modelled IRI profiles were used. It was determined that the primary modifier of the received signal parameters was the foF2 density and not the shape of the profile. This dependence was due to refraction, at the 9.303-MHz signal frequency, causing the rays to travel larger distances near the peak density where essentially all the mode splitting occurred. This study should assist in interpretation of ePOP RRI data when they are available.

  4. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-02-12

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the low molecular weight fraction (terpenes in model wines submitted to accelerated aging conditions. The g-IDY preparation did indeed release reduced GSH into the model wines, although this compound did not seem exclusively related to the protective effect on some aroma compounds determined in both model wines. The presence of other sulfur-containing compounds from yeast origin in g-IDY, and also the presence of small yeast peptides, such as methionine/tryptophan/tyrosine-containing tripeptide in both types of IDYs, seemed to be related to the antioxidant activity determined in the two permeates and to the minor loss of some terpenes in the model wines spiked with them.

  5. AERA Statement on Use of Value-Added Models (VAM) for the Evaluation of Educators and Educator Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this statement is to inform those using or considering the use of value-added models (VAM) about their scientific and technical limitations in the evaluation of educators and programs that prepare teachers. The statement briefly reviews the background and current context of using VAM for evaluations, enumerates specific psychometric…

  6. [Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ammar, Nadia; Bolmont, Mylène; Dosch, Alessandra; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial; Widmer, Eric

    2016-03-16

    In the last years, University Fund Maurice Chalumeau (FUMC) launched a dynamic of research designed to promote scientific excellence and the development of Sexology with particular interest regarding sexual desire. The FUMC has supported a research project entitled "Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction". This project, sampled on 600 people (300 men and 300 women) aged between 25 and 46 years, was structured around three studies: a broad sociological study and two more specific ones, focused on some psychological mechanisms and neurobiological factors involved in sexual desire. The results show how the secondary socialization, personal expectations, beliefs and values in sexuality, sexual motivations, body image, as well as the neurobiological foundations and visual patterns, are of vital importance in the dynamics of sexual desire.

  7. Current understanding of the neurobiology and longitudinal course of geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenbach, Sara L; Kumar, Anand

    2014-09-01

    Late life depression is a complex disease associated with a number of contributing neurobiological factors, including cerebrovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and inflammation, which also contribute to its longitudinal prognosis and course. These factors create a context in which the brain is more vulnerable to the impact of stress, and thus, to depression. At the same time, some individuals are protected from late life depression and its consequences, even in the face of neurobiological vulnerability, through benefitting from one or more attributes associated with resilience, including social support, engagement in physical and cognitive activities, and brain reserve. Enhanced understanding of how neurobiological and environmental factors interact in predicting vulnerability and resilience is needed to predict onset and course of depression in late life and develop more effective interventions.

  8. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma chemical reduction of model corrosion brass layers prepared in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkova, Lucie; Mikova, Petra; Prikryl, Radek; Krcma, Frantisek

    2016-08-01

    The brass plates of (50 × 10 × 1) mm3 were prepared with model corrosion layer because the real archaeological artifacts could be damaged during the method optimization. Samples corroded naturally more than 2 years in the soil. Excavated samples were treated in the low pressure (150 Pa) quartz glass plasma reactor (90 cm long and 9.5 cm in diameter) which was surrounded by two external copper electrodes supplied by radio-frequency generator (13.56 MHz). The experiments were carried out in a hydrogen-argon gas mixture at mass flows of 30 sccm for hydrogen and 20 sccm for argon for 90 min. The plasma power was 100, 200, 300 and 400 W in continuous and pulsed mode. Maximum sample temperature was set at 120 °C. The whole process was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy and the obtained data were used to calculate the relative intensity of OH radicals and rotational temperature. The results showed that the higher power had the greater maximum intensity of the OH radicals and rapidly degraded the corrosion layer. Corrosion layer was not completely removed during the reduction, but due to the reactions which occur in the plasma corrosion layer became brittle and after plasma chemical treatment can be removed easily. Finally, the SEM-EDX analysis of the surface composition confirmed removal of chlorine and oxygen from the corrosion products layers. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  10. [Neurobiological determinism: questionable inferences on human freedom of choice and forensic criminal responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniok, F; Hardegger, J; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2006-08-01

    Several authors argue that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. Based on this neurobiological perspective of assumed causality, the concept of free will is questioned, and the theory of neurobiological determinism of all human behavior is put forward, thus maintaining that human beings are not responsible for their actions, and consequently the principle of guilt should be given up in criminal law. In this context the controversial debate on determinism and indeterminism, which has been held for centuries, has flared up anew, especially within the science of criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results do not support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior, nor a theory of an absolute neurobiological determinism. Neither is complete determination of all phenomena in the universe--as maintained--the logical conclusion of the principle of causality, nor is it empirically confirmed. Analyzed methodically, it cannot be falsified, and thus, as a theory which cannot be empirically tested, it represents a dogma against which plausible objections can be made. The criticism of the concept of free will, and even more so of human accountability and criminal responsibility, is not put forward in a valid way. The principle of relative determinism--the evaluation of the degree of determinism of personality factors potentially reducing criminal responsibility, which includes concrete observations and analysis of behavior--thus remains a central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility. To sum up, the theories proposed by some authors on the complete neurobiological determinism of human behavior, and the subsequent impossibility of individual responsibility and guilt, reveal both methodical misconception and a lack of empirical foundation.

  11. Effect of substrate preparation on the structure and chemisorption properties of Pd/MgO model catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. R.; Poppa, H.

    1988-01-01

    Pd/MgO model catalysts are prepared by vapor deposition of Pd particles on MgO thin films which are deposited, at different temperatures, on UHV cleaved mica. MgO films and Pd particles are characterized in situ by Auger electron spectroscopy and energy-loss spectroscopy and ex situ by transmission electron microscopy. Succesive temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of CO shows a different evolution of the morphology of the Pd particles deposited on MgO films prepared at low and high temperature. In addition, on MgO prepared at low temperature, the smallest particles show a continuous decay of CO adsorption during TPD due to contamination by support species.

  12. The role of testosterone in sexuality and paraphilia--a neurobiological approach. Part I: testosterone and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; Stolpmann, Georg; Müller, Jürgen Leo

    2011-11-01

    Antiandrogen therapy has been used for 30 years to treat paraphilic patients and sexual offenders. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain. Furthermore, there is still a lack of comprehensive knowledge about the effects of androgen-lowering therapy in paraphilic patients. This article reviews current neurobiological and clinical knowledge about testosterone and its impact on sexuality, acquired from animal and human basic research. This knowledge may not only enhance our understanding of the great variability of the therapeutic outcome, but could also offer new opportunities to evaluate the effect of androgen-lowering therapy in paraphilia. A comprehensive review of the human and animal literature is presented, considering the classical and non-classical mechanisms of androgens and the androgen brain receptors. Furthermore, the clinical evidence about the impact of testosterone on human sexual behavior is discussed. These are integrated into two current neurobiological theories of sexual behavior, the four-component model and the dual-control model. The wide distribution of androgen receptors throughout the whole brain and their numerous mechanisms demonstrate that androgens can modulate almost every aspect of sexual behavior-i.e., not only autonomic functions, but also emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects. Furthermore, testosterone participates in excitatory and inhibitory processes of sexual functions by modulating the activity of mainly dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Using the data presented, we combine the two models and present a new integrated approach to understand the role of testosterone in the excitation and inhibition of sexual function, at the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and behavioral levels. This knowledge will help us to gain a better understanding of the few and inconsistent data that are currently available concerning (i) the association between testosterone and paraphilic behavior; and (ii) the highly

  13. Preparing Social Work Students for International Interdisciplinary Practice: A Teaching Model and Its Impact on Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Zubaroglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote international social work education and prepare MSW graduates for international careers, several teaching models have been developed, including intensive teaching in international settings, hybrid teaching with study abroad components, and applied learning through service learning and international internships. Benefits of international social work education range from increased knowledge and skills in addressing global issues through policy and advocacy, to significant improvements in multi-cultural competence and awareness upon participation in structured cultural immersion programs. Current challenges for social workers in international development careers point to the need for an interdisciplinary approach to best address complex global social issues. This paper proposes an international interdisciplinary teaching model that aims to prepare social work students for international development practice. Based on a pilot study of the proposed model, students showed significant increases in the self-efficacy of interdisciplinary international knowledge and skills.

  14. Stress, genetics and epigenetic effects on the neurobiology of suicidal behavior and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. J.; Currier, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in a number of neurobiological systems have been associated with suicidal behavior including the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Altered functioning of these systems may stem from both genetic and developmental causes. Adversity in early-life has developmental consequences on these systems that persist into adulthood. Genetic differences may also contribute to alterations in functioning of neurobiological systems. Moreover, the interaction of early- life experiences of adversity and genetic vulnerability is increasing thought to play a role, including via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:20451357

  15. Progress in the genetics of polygenic brain disorders: significant new challenges for neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, Steven A; Hyman, Steven E

    2013-10-30

    Advances in genome analysis, accompanied by the assembly of large patient cohorts, are making possible successful genetic analyses of polygenic brain disorders. If the resulting molecular clues, previously hidden in the genomes of affected individuals, are to yield useful information about pathogenesis and inform the discovery of new treatments, neurobiology will have to rise to many difficult challenges. Here we review the underlying logic of the genetic investigations, describe in more detail progress in schizophrenia and autism, and outline the challenges for neurobiology that lie ahead. We argue that technologies at the disposal of neuroscience are adequately advanced to begin to study the biology of common and devastating polygenic disorders.

  16. Developing the group mind through functional subgrouping: linking systems-centered training (SCT) and interpersonal neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Susan P; Agazarian, Yvonne M

    2010-10-01

    This article introduces the systems-centered concept of the "group mind" by linking systems-centered thinking and interpersonal neurobiology, building on Siegel's definition of mind as the process of regulating the flow of energy and information. Functional subgrouping, the systems-centered group method for resolving conflicts, discriminates and integrates the flow of energy and information within and between group members, subgroups, and the group-as-a-whole, thus potentiating survival, development, and transformation. This article uses the interpersonal neurobiological framework to discuss functional subgrouping as a tool for developing the group mind: considering how functional subgrouping facilitates emotional regulation, creates a secure relational context, and potentiates neural integration.

  17. Can understanding the neurobiology of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) inform treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Susan L; Harrison, Ben J; Castle, David

    2015-08-01

    We aim to provide a clinically focused review of the neurobiological literature in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), with a focus on structural and functional neuroimaging. There has been a recent influx of studies examining the underlying neurobiology of BDD using structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Despite obvious symptom similarities with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), no study to date has directly compared the two groups using neuroimaging techniques. Studies have established that there are limbic and visual cortex abnormalities in BDD, in contrast to fronto-striatal differences in OCD. Such data suggests affect or visual training maybe useful in BDD. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Biomaterial-engineering and neurobiological approaches for regenerating the injured cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki Ajioka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex is responsible for higher functions of the central nervous system (CNS, such as movement, sensation, and cognition. When the cerebral cortex is severely injured, these functions are irreversibly impaired. Although recent neurobiological studies reveal that the cortex has the potential for regeneration, therapies for functional recovery face some technological obstacles. Biomaterials have been used to evoke regenerative potential and promote regeneration in several tissues, including the CNS. This review presents a brief overview of new therapeutic strategies for cortical regeneration from the perspectives of neurobiology and biomaterial engineering, and discusses a promising technology for evoking the regenerative potential of the cerebral cortex.

  19. Model of temperature field for the preparation process of melt-spun NdFeB powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖彬; 李岩峰; 王会杰; 李安华; 朱明刚; 李卫; 张跃

    2014-01-01

    Melt-spun ribbons which are the important raw material for hot-deformed magnets can be prepared by single-roller melt-spinning. In order to prepare well-structured ribbons, the model of temperature field for single-roller melt-spinning process was constructed in this work. The heat conduction in this process was simplified as one dimensional heat conduction problem. It was shown by modeling that, the temperature field in the melt-spinning before solidification in this model could be described as this equa-tionT(x,t)=Tmoexp[-k(x-x0)-k2αt]+T0. The temperatureT(x,t) of the alloy melts decreased with increased positionx and cooling timet exponentially from the wheel-free surface to the wheel-side surface. The constantk determined the decrease speed of alloy tempera-tureT(x,t), which was proportional to the interfacial heat transfer coefficienth and the interfacial area of heat conductionA0, but in-versely proportional to the thermal conductivityK.x0 was the thickness of the alloy melt. With increasedx0, the temperature differ-ence between wheel-free surface and the wheel-side surface became larger, which would lead to larger difference in grain size. In ex-periments, the influence of melt-spinning process parameters on the temperature field model was discussed, such as cooling roller materials, wheel speed, and so on. Melt-spun ribbons prepared by single-roller melt spinning at different wheel speed were investi-gated and magnetic properties of die-upset magnets from melt-spun ribbons on different cooling roller were analyzed. The variation of grain size in the depth direction consisted with temperature field model. This model provided directions for the preparation of melt-spun ribbons with uniformly distributed fine grains, which were very necessary for producing hot-deformed magnets with high magnetic performance.

  20. The Contribution of Prenatal Stress to the Pathogenesis of Autism as a Neurobiological Developmental Disorder: A Dizygotic Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, M.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.; Bosman, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the contribution of prenatal stress to the pathogenesis of autism as a neurobiological developmental disorder in a dizygotic study. The aim was to explore whether the neurobiological impact of stress prior to week 28 of gestation might be related to the pathogenesis of autism. The following data-generating strategies were…

  1. Applications of puni’s link model to the psychological preparation of a football team before competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña Bonilla, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The link model proposed by Puni is based on a number of key steps for the psychological preparation of athletes before competition. Reference is made to (a) the selection of necessary, sufficient, and reliable information regarding details of the next competition and the particularities of the opponent; (b) analysis of the team’s own resources and potential; (c) definition of game strategies and specific individual objectives; (d) updating of personally and socially important motivations in a...

  2. Formation and adaptation of memory : Neurobiological mechanisms underlying learning and reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region that plays a critical role in memory formation. In addition, it has been suggested that this brain region is important for ‘updating’ information that is incorrect or outdated. The main goal of this thesis project was to investigate which neurobiological processes

  3. The Neurobiology of Affect in Language. A Supplement to "Language Learning."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a theory of how the psychology and neurobiology of stimulus appraisal influence variability in second language acquisition, and extends the notion of affect developed for second language acquisition to primary language acquisition and to cognition in general. The first chapter lays out a psychological framework that develops…

  4. Neurobiological factors as predictors of prisoners' response to a cognitive skills training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, L.J.M.; Laan, P.H. van der; Nijman, H.L.I.; Tollenaar, N.; Kogel, C.H. de

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigates the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to detainees' treatment outcome, in order to better understand why some individuals respond favorably to treatment while others do not. It was hypothesized that low levels of heart rate activity are a

  5. The sweetest pill to swallow: how patient neurobiology can be harnessed to maximise placebo effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jubb, J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The burgeoning interest in placebo effects over the last 10-15 years has fallen into two main research areas: elucidation of the neurobiological mechanisms recruited following placebo administration, and investigations into the situations and contexts in which placebo effects are evoked. There has b

  6. STED microscopy of living cells--new frontiers in membrane and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeling, Christian; Willig, Katrin I; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in fluorescence far-field microscopy such as STED microscopy have accomplished observation of the living cell with a spatial resolution far below the diffraction limit. Here, we briefly review the current approaches to super-resolution optical microscopy and present the implementation of STED microscopy for novel insights into live cell mechanisms, with a focus on neurobiology and plasma membrane dynamics.

  7. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  8. Ethology, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Play: Insights into the Evolutionary Origin of the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The author considers the biological basis of the arts in human evolution, which she holds to be grounded in ethology and interpersonal neurobiology. In the arts, she argues, ordinary reality becomes extraordinary by attention-getting, emotionally salient devices that also appear in ritualized animal behaviors, many kinds of play, and the playful…

  9. Bridging Philosophy of Technology and Neurobiological Research: Interpreting Images from the "Slam Freezer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The swiftly growing field of neurobiological research utilizes highly advanced technologies (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, electron microscopy) to mediate between investigators and the brains they investigate. Here, the author analyzes a device called the "slam freezer" that quick-freezes neurons to be studied under the microscope. Employing…

  10. Neurobiological Processes of Risk and Resilience in Adolescence: Implications for Policy and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concepts of risk and resilience and their potential to inform clinical interventions, school-based prevention programs, and social policies. Research suggests that childhood adversity can trigger a cascade of psychological and neurobiological events that can lead to mental disorders in later life. Yet little is known…

  11. Neurobiological Foundations of Acupuncture: The Relevance and Future Prospect Based on Neuroimaging Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Lijun Bai; Lixing Lao

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental facto...

  12. Getting Better. Neurobiological mechanisms of recovery from combat-related PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, S.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    Military personnel often experience traumatic events during deployment. In the aftermath of a traumatic event, a subgroup of trauma survivors develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Most (neurobiological) studies aim at understanding why some trauma survivors develop PTSD whereas others do not

  13. The neurobiological mechanisms of gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence and withdrawal and their clinical relevance: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, R.M.; Noorden, M.S. van; Franzek, E.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective: gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has gained popularity as a drug of abuse. In the Netherlands the number of patients in treatment for GHB dependence has increased sharply. Clinical presentation of GHB withdrawal can be life threatening. We aim, through this overview, to explore the neurobiolog

  14. Formation and adaptation of memory : Neurobiological mechanisms underlying learning and reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region that plays a critical role in memory formation. In addition, it has been suggested that this brain region is important for ‘updating’ information that is incorrect or outdated. The main goal of this thesis project was to investigate which neurobiological processes u

  15. Specificity and divergence in the neurobiologic effects of different metallothioneins after brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Tio, Laura; Giralt, Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    -protein interactions as the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of these proteins because a non-homologous and structurally unrelated MT such as Drosophila MTN functions similarly to mammalian MTs. We have also evaluated for the first time the neurobiologic effects of exogenous MT-III, a major CNS MT...

  16. Preparing Students for College: The Implementation and Impact of the Early College High School Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Bernstein, Lawrence; Glennie, Elizabeth; Willse, John; Arshavsky, Nina; Unlu, Fatih; Bartz, Deborah; Silberman, Todd; Scales, W. David; Dallas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    As implemented in North Carolina, Early College High Schools are small, autonomous schools designed to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and are prepared for postsecondary education. Targeted at students who are underrepresented in college, these schools are most frequently located on college campuses and are intended…

  17. Preparing Students for College: The Implementation and Impact of the Early College High School Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Bernstein, Lawrence; Glennie, Elizabeth; Willse, John; Arshavsky, Nina; Unlu, Fatih; Bartz, Deborah; Silberman, Todd; Scales, W. David; Dallas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    As implemented in North Carolina, Early College High Schools are small, autonomous schools designed to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and are prepared for postsecondary education. Targeted at students who are underrepresented in college, these schools are most frequently located on college campuses and are intended…

  18. Field Experience as the Centerpiece of an Integrated Model for STEM Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Kieboom, Leigh A.; McNew-Birren, Jill C.; Eckman, Ellen W.; Silver-Thorn, M. Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive account of one pathway for preparing high-quality STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) teachers for work in high-need urban schools. In this account, we discuss the supports that STEM majors need in learning how to think about the content that they know well, through an…

  19. Neurobiology of apathy in Alzheimer's disease Neurobiologia da apatia na doença de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is considered the most frequent neuropsychiatric disturbance in dementia and its outcome is generally deleterious. Apathy can be related to a dysfunction of the anatomical-system that supports the generation of voluntary actions, namely the prefrontal cortex and/or the prefrontal-subcortical circuits. In Alzheimer's disease, pathological and neuroimaging data indicate that apathy is likely due to a dysfunction of the medial prefrontal cortex. Accordingly, in this review article, we propose a pathophysiological model to explain apathetic behavior in Alzheimer's disease, combining data from neuroimaging, neuropathology and experimental research on the role of orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and dopamine in decision-making neurobiology.Apatia é considerada a alteração neuropsiquiátrica mais freqüente nas demências e suas conseqüências são habitualmente deletérias. Apatia pode ser relacionada à disfunção do sistema anatômico responsável pela geração de ações voluntárias, conhecido com córtex pré-frontal e/ou circuitos pré-frontais-subcorticais. Na doença de Alzheimer, evidências neuropatológicas e de neuroimagem funcional indicam que a apatia é provavelmente decorrente da disfunção do córtex pré-frontal medial. Assim, neste artigo de revisão, apresentamos uma proposta de um modelo fisiopatológico para explicar o comportamento apático na doença de Alzheimer, combinando dados de neuropatologia, neuroimagem e experimentação animal sobre o papel do córtex órbito-frontal, cíngulo anterior, núcleos da base e dopamina na neurobiologia da tomada de decisão.

  20. An event-based neurobiological recognition system with orientation detector for objects in multiple orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new multiple orientation event-based neurobiological recognition system is proposed by integrating recognition and tracking function in this paper, which is used for asynchronous address-event representation (AER image sensors. The characteristic of this system has been enriched to recognize the objects in multiple orientations with only training samples moving in a single orientation. The system extracts multi-scale and multi-orientation line features inspired by models of the primate visual cortex. An orientation detector based on modified Gaussian blob tracking algorithm is introduced for object tracking and orientation detection. The orientation detector and feature extraction block work in simultaneous mode, without any increase in categorization time. An addresses lookup table (addresses LUT is also presented to adjust the feature maps by addresses mapping and reordering, and they are categorized in the trained spiking neural network. This recognition system is evaluated with the MNIST dataset which have played important roles in the development of computer vision, and the accuracy is increase owing to the use of both ON and OFF events. AER data acquired by a DVS are also tested on the system, such as moving digits, pokers, and vehicles. The experimental results show that the proposed system can realize event-based multi-orientation recognition.The work presented in this paper makes a number of contributions to the event-based vision processing system for multi-orientation object recognition. It develops a new tracking-recognition architecture to feedforward categorization system and an address reorder approach to classify multi-orientation objects using event-based data. It provides a new way to recognize multiple orientation objects with only samples in single orientation.

  1. K+ CHANNELEPSY: progress in the neurobiology of potassium channels and epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina D'Adamo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available K+ channels are important determinants of seizure susceptibility. These membrane proteins, encoded by more than 70 genes, make the largest group of ion channels that fine-tune the electrical activity of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the brain. Their ubiquity and extremely high genetic and functional diversity, unmatched by any other ion channel type, place K+ channels as primary targets of genetic variations or perturbations in K+-dependent homeostasis, even in the absence of a primary channel defect. It is therefore not surprising that numerous inherited or acquired K+ channels dysfunctions have been associated with several neurologic syndromes, including epilepsy, which often generate confusion in the classification of the associated diseases. Therefore, we propose to name the K+ channels defects underlying distinct epilepsies as K+ channelepsies, and introduce a new nomenclature (e.g. Kx.y-channelepsy, following the widely used K+ channel classification, which could be also adopted to easily identify other channelopathies involving Na+ (e.g. Navx.y-phenotype, Ca2+ (e.g. Cavx.y-phenotype, and Cl- channels. Furthermore, we discuss novel genetic defects in K+ channels and associated proteins that underlie distinct epileptic phenotypes in humans, and analyze critically the recent progress in the neurobiology of this disease that has also been provided by investigations on valuable animal models of epilepsy. The abundant and varied lines of evidence discussed here strongly foster assessments for variations in genes encoding for K+ channels and associated proteins in patients with idiopathic epilepsy, provide new avenues for future investigations, and highlight these proteins as critical pharmacological targets.

  2. The behavioral neurobiology of self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, G W; Clarke, A S

    1990-01-01

    1. Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is prevalent among institutionalized children, but the efficacy of current behavioral and pharmacological treatments is marginal. 2. There is evidence that SIB in humans has a neurobiological basis. A better understanding of the neurobiological factors that may promote or cause SIB is necessary for the development of effective pharmacologic treatments. 3. SIB that is similar in some respects to SIB in humans occurs in nonhuman primates that have been deprived of social experience early in life. An analysis of the "cause" of SIB suggests that it is a relatively straight-forward example of the development of neurobiological and behavioral aspects of aggressive behavior in the absence of social factors that would normally bring the behavior under environmental control. Once induced, however, it becomes environmentally autonomous and its proximal cause is neurobiological in nature. 4. There are three lines of evidence that nonhuman primate SIB is linked to malfunctions in the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) neurotransmitter systems. The activity of these systems appears to be altered by psychosocial deprivation. The functional relationship between the two systems appears to be altered or absent in socially deprived monkeys. Pharmacologic agents that act on these systems alter SIB in monkeys. 5. Preliminary data from socially deprived rhesus monkeys are consistent in major respects with studies linking altered serotonin systems to self-injurious behavior and suicidal motivation in humans who also probably suffer from social deprivation. 6. Taken together, these findings indicate that developmental study of biogenic amine systems, particularly finding ways to circumvent deficits in, or restore functional linkages between, the 5HT and NE systems, will lead to a greater understanding of the neurobiologic basis of SIB in humans and animals and will enable us to develop more effective treatments of SIB.

  3. Updating the debate between Piaget and Chomsky in a neurobiological perspective / Atualizando o debate entre Piaget e Chomsky em uma perspectiva neurobiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leandro Eichler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The understandings of language acquisition and of cognitive structures are in debate in the center of the cognitive sciences. It happens despite of a group of academics who, in a rhetorical way, insists on despising Piaget's constructivist model, keeping a connection to Chomsky's innatist theory. This paper recalls the classical debate between these two knowledge systems, rethinking it in a psychobiological perspective and presenting recent neurobiological studies that suggest a correction of commitment between innate and acquired as pointed by Piaget.

  4. Same-Day Surgery Preparation: Reduction of Pediatric Patient Arousal and Distress through Participant Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children (n=26) were exposed to one of three surgery preparatory conditions: participant modeling alone, participant modeling with mother, and standard procedure control. Children exposed to modeling alone had significant reductions in physiological arousal after treatment compared to other groups. Both modeling groups exhibited significantly…

  5. STUDY ON PREPARATION OF MODEL SOIL IN DYNAMIC MODEL TEST%动力模型试验模型土配制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宝华; 邓亚虹; 慕焕东; 薛捷; 孙振峰

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic motel test has been widely applied to the study of soil-structure interaction,in which the preparation of model soil matters the most.This paper prepares samples with foil sampler of different dry densities and water contents according to the soil physical properties,and then subjects the samples to direct shear test to get the original shear modulus.Considering the results,the correlation between the original shear modulus and the soil dry density and water content is analyzed.The request of the preparation of model soil is obtained on the basis of similitude law in dynamic model test.The preparation of model soil without other materials is analyzed through with above findings.Then a qualitative way of the preparation of model soil is obtained.It can provide useful and helpful directions for the preparation of model soil in similar test.%动力模型试验已经广泛应用于土与结构相互作用的研究中,其中模型土的配制尤为重要。根据所选土样的基本物理力学性质,制作了不同干密度、含水率的环刀试样,通过直接剪切试验,得到了不同试样的初始剪切模量。在试验的基础上,探讨了初始剪切模量与试样干密度、含水率之间的关系。基于动力模型试验的相似关系得到了模型土配制的基本要求,结合探讨结果分析了不添加其他材料的模型土配制,得到定性的模型土配制方法,结果可为以后类似试验的模型土配制提供参考。

  6. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  7. Girls Entering Technology, Science, Math and Research Training (get Smart): a Model for Preparing Girls in Science and Engineering Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawasha, P. Ruby; Lam, Paul C.; Vesalo, John; Leitch, Ronda; Rice, Stacey

    In this article, it is postulated that the development of a successful training program for women in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) disciplines is dependent upon a combination of several factors, including (a) career orientation: commitment to SMET as a career, reasons for pursuing SMET as a career, and opportunity to pursue a SMET career; (b) knowledge of SMET: SMET courses completed, SMET achievement, and hands-on SMET activities; (c) academic and social support: diversity initiatives, role models, cooperative learning, and peer counseling; and (d) self-concept: program emphasis on competence and peer competition. The proposed model is based on the GET SMART (Girls Entering Technology, Science, Math and Research Training) workshop program to prepare and develop female high school students as competitive future SMET professionals. The proposed model is not intended to serve as an elaborate theory, but as a general guide in training females entering SMET disciplines.

  8. Update on the Neurobiology of Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abrupt cessation of alcohol intake after prolonged heavy drinking may trigger alcohol withdrawal seizures. Generalized tonic–clonic seizures are the most characteristic and severe type of seizure that occur in this setting. Generalized seizures also occur in rodent models of alcohol withdrawal. In these models, the withdrawal seizures are triggered by neuronal networks in the brainstem, including the inferior colliculus; similar brainstem mechanisms may contribute to alcohol withdrawal seizur...

  9. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare eFinlay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  10. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Clare J; Duty, Susan; Vernon, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  11. The 'switch on-switch off model': Strategies used by nurses to mentally prepare and disengage from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomenidis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    There is considerable research on the experience of nurses during both their work and non-work time. However, we know relatively little about the strategies nurses use immediately before and immediately after their shift. This crossover period, from one shift to another, has critical impact for patient outcomes. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore strategies nurses employ to mentally prepare for their shift (switch on), and mentally disengage after the end of it (switch off). Eleven Greek hospital nurses were recruited for the study. Interviews were audio-taped and analysed using a content analysis approach. Five themes were identified as strategies nurses use to mentally prepare and disengage from their shift: (i) personal care/grooming; (ii) religious rituals; (iii) nicotine/caffeine; (iv) social interaction; and (v) listening to music. Nurses reported using the same strategies before and after their shift, but for different purposes. The authors propose a 'switch on-switch off' model to describe the process of mental preparation and mental disengagement from work. The switch-on/off approach represents an opportunity to increase nurses' resilience and identify individual and organizational factors that contribute to patient outcomes.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and transport of dexamethasone-loaded polymeric nanoparticles across a human placental in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hazem; Kalashnikova, Irina; White, Mark Andrew; Sherman, Michael; Rytting, Erik

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare dexamethasone-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and evaluate their potential for transport across human placenta. Statistical modeling and factorial design was applied to investigate the influence of process parameters on the following nanoparticle characteristics: particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency. Dexamethasone and nanoparticle transport was subsequently investigated using the BeWo b30 cell line, an in vitro model of human placental trophoblast cells, which represent the rate-limiting barrier for maternal-fetal transfer. Encapsulation efficiency and drug transport were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Nanoparticle morphology and drug encapsulation were further characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) were spherical, with particle sizes ranging from 140 to 298 nm, and encapsulation efficiency ranging from 52 to 89%. Nanoencapsulation enhanced the apparent permeability of dexamethasone from the maternal compartment to the fetal compartment more than 10-fold in this model. Particle size was shown to be inversely correlated with drug and nanoparticle permeability, as confirmed with fluorescently labeled nanoparticles. These results highlight the feasibility of designing nanoparticles capable of delivering medication to the fetus, in particular, potential dexamethasone therapy for the prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  13. Characterizing 3-qubit UPB states: violations of LHV models, preparation via nonlocal unitaries and PPT entangled nonlocal orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Altafini, C

    2004-01-01

    For the 3-qubit UPB state, i.e., the bound entangled state constructed from an Unextendable Product Basis of Bennett et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:5385, 1999), we provide a set of violations of Local Hidden Variable (LHV) models based on the particular type of reflection symmetry encoded in this state. The explicit nonlocal unitary operation needed to prepare the state from its reflected separable mixture of pure states is given, as well as a nonlocal one-parameter orbit of states with Positive Partial Transpositions (PPT) which swaps the entanglement between a state and its reflection twice during a period.

  14. A Galvanostatic Modeling for Preparation of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Coatings by Control of Current Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Mohammad Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between the grain size of electrodeposited coatings and the current densities was modeled by considering galvanostatic conditions. In order to test the model by experimental results, nanocrystalline (NC) nickel samples were deposited at different current densities using a Watts bath. The grain size of the deposits was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Model predictions were validated by finding a curve being the best-fit to the experimental results which were gathered from literature for different NC coatings in addition to those data measured in this research for NC nickel coatings. According to our model, the variation of grain size with the reciprocal of the current density follows a power law. A good agreement between the experimental results and model predictions was observed which indicated that the derived analytical model is applicable for producting the nanocrystalline electrodeposits with the desired grain size by controling current density.

  15. Preparation Model Based Control System For Hot Steel Strip Rolling Mill Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, S. E.; Abbassi, H. A.; Moussaoui, A. K.

    2008-06-01

    As part of a research project on El-hadjar Hot Steel Rolling Mill Plant Annaba Algeria a new Model based control system is suggested to improve the performance of the hot strip rolling mill process. In this paper off-line model based controllers and a process simulator are described. The process models are based on the laws of physics. these models can predict the future behavior and the stability of the controlled process very reliably. The control scheme consists of a control algorithm. This Model based Control system is evaluated on a simulation model that represents accurately the dynamic of the process. Finally the usefulness to the Steel Industry of the suggested method is highlighted.

  16. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jennifer E

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis on student competencies such as scientific process, scientific communication, and societal relevance while teaching foundational neurobiological content such as brain anatomy, cellular neurophysiology, and activity modulation. Student feedback indicates that the BRAIN Initiative is an engaging and instructional context for this course. Course module organization, suitable BRAIN Initiative commentary literature, sample primary literature, and important assignments are presented.

  18. Support from neurobiology for spiritual techniques for anxiety: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Kelley Raab

    2009-01-01

    Research in neurobiology supports use of spiritual techniques as a beneficial treatment for anxiety. Psychotherapy, including mindfulness CBT and meditation, has been shown to change brain structure. The amygdala-the brain structure responsible for processing emotion and anxiety-demonstrates plasticity, and the purpose of therapy may be to allow the cortex to establish more effective and efficient synaptic links with the amygdala. A main feature of spiritual approaches is changing one's focus of attention. Instead of worry, one focuses on peaceful thoughts, thoughts of helping others, etc. Research demonstrates that thought, meditation, and other manifestations of mind can alter the brain, sometimes in an enduring way. Few studies have addressed the neurobiological underpinnings of meditation. Limited evidence, however, suggests that brain changes occur during prolonged meditation and that meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system.

  19. New statistical approaches exploit the polygenic architecture of schizophrenia - implications for the underlying neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, Andrew J.; Wang, Yunpeng; Thompson, Wesley K.; Dale, Anders M.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder with high heritability. Recent findings from several large genetic studies suggest a large number of risk variants are involved (i.e., schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder) and analytic approaches could be tailored for this scenario. Novel statistical approaches for analyzing GWAS data have recently been developed to be more sensitive to polygenic traits. These approaches have provided intriguing new insights into neurobiological pathways and support for the involvement of regulatory mechanisms, neurotransmission (glutamate, dopamine, GABA), and immune and neurodevelopmental pathways. Integrating the emerging statistical genetics evidence with sound neurobiological experiments will be a critical, and challenging, next step in deciphering the specific disease mechanisms of schizophrenia. PMID:26555806

  20. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations.

  1. [BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF): NEUROBIOLOGY AND MARKER VALUE IN NEUROPSYCHIATRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levada, O A; Cherednichenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    In this review current publications about neurobiology and marker value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neuropsychiatry are analyzed. It is shown that BDNF is an important member of the family of neurotrophins which widely represented in various structures of the CNS. In prenatal period BDNF is involved in all stages of neuronal networks formation, and in the postnatal period its main role is maintaining the normal brain architectonics, involvement in the processes of neurogenesis and realization of neuroprotective functions. BDNF plays an important role in learning and memory organization, food and motor behavior. BDNF brain expression decreases with age, as well as in degenerative and vascular dementias, affective, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. The reducing of BDNF serum, level reflects the decreasing of its cerebral expression and could be used as a neurobiological marker of these pathological processes but the rising of its concentration could indicate the therapy effectiveness.

  2. The sweetest pill to swallow: how patient neurobiology can be harnessed to maximise placebo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Jayne; Bensing, Jozien M

    2013-12-01

    The burgeoning interest in placebo effects over the last 10-15 years has fallen into two main research areas: elucidation of the neurobiological mechanisms recruited following placebo administration, and investigations into the situations and contexts in which placebo effects are evoked. There has been little attention focused on bridging these two i.e. how to actively translate and apply these neurobiological mechanisms into daily clinical practice in a responsible way. This article addresses this gap, first through a narrative review of the last 15 years of neuroscience findings with special attention focussed on the elucidation of the neurotransmitters, pathways and mechanisms involved in placebo effects, and secondly, at how these psycho(neuro)biological effects could be harnessed in medical care.

  3. The TFOS International Workshop on Contact Lens Discomfort: report of the subcommittee on neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Marfurt, Carl; Golebiowski, Blanka; Rosenblatt, Mark; Bereiter, David; Begley, Carolyn; Dartt, Darlene; Gallar, Juana; Belmonte, Carlos; Hamrah, Pedram; Willcox, Mark

    2013-10-18

    This report characterizes the neurobiology of the ocular surface and highlights relevant mechanisms that may underpin contact lens-related discomfort. While there is limited evidence for the mechanisms involved in contact lens-related discomfort, neurobiological mechanisms in dry eye disease, the inflammatory pathway, the effect of hyperosmolarity on ocular surface nociceptors, and subsequent sensory processing of ocular pain and discomfort have been at least partly elucidated and are presented herein to provide insight in this new arena. The stimulus to the ocular surface from a contact lens is likely to be complex and multifactorial, including components of osmolarity, solution effects, desiccation, thermal effects, inflammation, friction, and mechanical stimulation. Sensory input will arise from stimulation of the lid margin, palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, and the cornea.

  4. Powder Mixing Simulation Using Random Walk Model in Eco-material Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; HU Zai-liang; LIU Zu-de

    2004-01-01

    The eco-material composition is not well-distributed in preparation. The eco-material samples were taken for computer image analysis, and its particle numbers and appearance parameters were measured. Based on the mechanism of connective mixing and diffusion, the particles distribution was simulated by a computer using the random walk with Levy flight. The results show that the eco-material microstructure simulated by a computer has an idealized porous structure. The particles distribution has a cluster characteristic that changes with the different size and number of particles in Levy flight trajectory. Each cluster consists of a collection of clusters and shows a structure of self-similar cluster,hence presents a well-defined fractal property. The results obtained from SEM observation are in good agreement with the numerical simulations, and show that the convective mixing presents in the Levy flight walk.

  5. Music-based interventions in palliative cancer care: a review of quantitative studies and neurobiological literature

    OpenAIRE

    Archie, Patrick; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to review quantitative literature pertaining to studies of music-based interventions in palliative cancer care and to review the neurobiological literature that may bare relevance to the findings from these studies. Methods A narrative review was performed, with particular emphasis on RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. The Cochrane Library, Ovid, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and ProQuest were searched for the subject headings music, music therapy, cancer, ...

  6. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Yingshou Xing; Yang Xia; Keith Kendrick; Xiuxiu Liu; Maosen Wang; Dan Wu; Hua Yang; Wei Jing; Daqing Guo; Dezhong Yao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive ef...

  7. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Yingshou Xing; Yang Xia; Keith Kendrick; Xiuxiu Liu; Maosen Wang; Dan Wu; Hua Yang; Wei Jing; Daqing Guo; Dezhong Yao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive ef...

  8. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety: Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  9. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety:Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  10. Genetic and neurobiological aspects of attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechtman, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews key studies that have addressed genetic and neurobiological aspects in attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Genetic studies can be divided into three distinct types: twin, adoption, and family studies. Evidence for a particular mode of inheritance and the possible specific genetic abnormalities are also explored. There is strong evidence of genetic involvement in this condition, although a clear-cut mode of inheritance and specific genetic abnormalities are yet to be det...

  11. A QMRA Model for Salmonella in Pork Products During Preparation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, A. N.; Leusden, F.; Nauta, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    As part of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) food chain model, this article describes a model for the consumer phase for Salmonella‐contaminated pork products. Three pork products were chosen as a proxy for the entire pork product spectrum: pork cuts, minced meat patties...

  12. Co-Teaching: Towards a New Model for Teacher Preparation in Foreign Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstaedter, Laura Levi; Smith, Judith J.; Fogarty, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This overview article focuses on the co-teaching model, an innovative and comprehensive model for student teaching experiences that provides opportunities to foreign language preservice teachers to develop their knowledge base about teaching and learning foreign languages while gaining in other areas: autonomy, collaboration, and agency. The…

  13. Co-Teaching: Towards a New Model for Teacher Preparation in Foreign Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstaedter, Laura Levi; Smith, Judith J.; Fogarty, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This overview article focuses on the co-teaching model, an innovative and comprehensive model for student teaching experiences that provides opportunities to foreign language preservice teachers to develop their knowledge base about teaching and learning foreign languages while gaining in other areas: autonomy, collaboration, and agency. The…

  14. Neurobiology driving hyperactivity in activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, R A H; Hillebrand, J J G; Danner, U N; Cardona Cano, S; Kas, M J H; Verhagen, L A W

    2011-01-01

    Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is difficult to control and negatively impacts outcome. Hyperactivity is a key driving force to starvation in an animal model named activity-based anorexia (ABA). Recent research has started unraveling what mechanisms underlie this hyperactivity. Besides a general i

  15. Experimental medicine in drug addiction: towards behavioral, cognitive and neurobiological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Theodora; Crombag, Hans S; Stephens, David N

    2011-09-01

    Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand putative processes and mechanisms involved in addiction. Whilst these 'theories of addiction' disagree about importance and/or nature of a number of key psychological processes (e.g. the necessity of craving and/or the involvement of drug-value representations), a number of commonalities exist. For instance, it is widely accepted that Pavlovian associations between cues and environmental contexts and the drug effects acquired over the course of addiction play a critical role, especially in relapse vulnerability in detoxified addicts. Additionally, all theories of addiction (explicitly or implicitly) propose that chronic drug exposure produces persistent neuroplastic changes in neurobiological circuitries underlying critical emotional, cognitive and motivational processes, although disagreement exists as to the precise nature of these neurobiological changes and/or their psychological consequences. The present review, rather than limiting itself to any particular theoretical stance, considers various candidate psychological, neurobiological and/or behavioral processes in addiction and outlines conceptual and procedural approaches for the experimental medicine laboratory. The review discusses (1) extinction, renewal and (re)consolidation of learned associations between cues and drugs, (2) the drug reward value, (3) motivational states contributing to drug seeking and (4) reflective (top-down) and sensory (bottom-up) driven decision-making. In evaluating these psychological and/or behavioral processes and their relationship to addiction we make reference to putative underlying brain structures identified by basic animal studies and/or imaging studies with humans.

  16. Neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Felipe Barreto; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Stubbs, Brendon; Gosmann, Natan Pereira; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Exercise displays promise as an efficacious treatment for people with depression. However, no systematic review has evaluated the neurobiological effects of exercise among people with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this article was to systematically review the acute and chronic biological responses to exercise in people with MDD. Two authors conducted searches using Medline (PubMed), EMBASE and PsycINFO. From the searches, twenty studies were included within the review, representing 1353 people with MDD. The results demonstrate that a single bout of exercise increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), copepetin and growth hormone among people with MDD. Exercise also potentially promotes long-term adaptations of copeptin, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total mean frequency (TMF). However, there is limited evidence that exercise promotes adaptations on neurogenesis, inflammation biomarkers and brain structure. Associations between depressive symptoms improvement and hippocampus volume and IL-1β were found. Nevertheless, the paucity of studies and limitations presented within, precludes a more definitive conclusion of the underlying neurobiological explanation for the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with MDD. Further trials should utilize appropriate assessments of neurobiological markers in order to build upon the results of our review and further clarify the potential mechanisms associated with the antidepressant effects of exercise.

  17. Neurobiology of addiction versus drug use driven by lack of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H; Lenoir, Magalie; Guillem, Karine

    2013-08-01

    Research on the neurobiology of addiction often involves nonhuman animals that are given ready access to drugs for self-administration but without other choices. Here we argue using cocaine as an example that this standard setting may no longer be sufficient and can even lead to the formulation of unrealistic views about the neurobiology of addiction. Addiction as a psychiatric disorder is defined as resulting from brain dysfunctions that affect normal choice-making, not as an expectable response to lack of alternative choices. We encourage neurobiologists involved in addiction research to increase animals' choice during drug access, preferably by supplying alternative rewarding pursuits. Only animals that continue to take and prefer drugs despite and at the expense of other available choices may be considered as having developed an addiction-like behavior in comparison to those that remain able to stop drug use for other pursuits, even after extended drug use. The systematic comparison of these two individual behaviors should reveal new insights about the neurobiology of drug choice and addiction. More generally, this research should also shed a unique light on how the brain 'chooses' among qualitatively different kinds of pursuits.

  18. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A tribute to Peter H Seeburg (1944-2016: a founding father of molecular neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wisden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 22nd August 2016, the fields of molecular neurobiology and endocrinology lost one of their pioneers and true giants, Peter Seeburg, who died aged 72, a day after his birthday. His funeral ceremony took place in Heidelberg where he had worked since 1988, first as a professor at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH and then since 1996 as a director of the Max Plank Institute (Dept. of Molecular Neurobiology. Many of Peter’s former colleagues, students and postdocs came together with his family members to celebrate his life. Touching eulogies were given by no less than two Nobel prize winners: the physiologist Bert Sakmann, who collaborated with Peter for many years, and the developmental biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Vollhard, who was a friend and fellow PhD student with Peter. His professional contemporary, Heinrich Betz, gave a warm and endearing assessment of Peter’s contributions to the field of molecular neurobiology. One of Peter’s sons, Daniel P. Seeburg, now a neuroradiologist in the USA, and biotechnologist Karoly Nikolics, one of Peter’s friends from the days of Genentech, both emotionally summed up the warm and intense character of the man that many of his former students and postdocs knew.

  20. Comparative artificial neural network and partial least squares models for analysis of Metronidazole, Diloxanide, Spiramycin and Cliquinol in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoudary, Mahmoud M; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Hadad, Ghada M

    2014-09-15

    Metronidazole (MNZ) is a widely used antibacterial and amoebicide drug. Therefore, it is important to develop a rapid and specific analytical method for the determination of MNZ in mixture with Spiramycin (SPY), Diloxanide (DIX) and Cliquinol (CLQ) in pharmaceutical preparations. This work describes simple, sensitive and reliable six multivariate calibration methods, namely linear and nonlinear artificial neural networks preceded by genetic algorithm (GA-ANN) and principle component analysis (PCA-ANN) as well as partial least squares (PLS) either alone or preceded by genetic algorithm (GA-PLS) for UV spectrophotometric determination of MNZ, SPY, DIX and CLQ in pharmaceutical preparations with no interference of pharmaceutical additives. The results manifest the problem of nonlinearity and how models like ANN can handle it. Analytical performance of these methods was statistically validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The developed methods indicate the ability of the previously mentioned multivariate calibration models to handle and solve UV spectra of the four components' mixtures using easy and widely used UV spectrophotometer.