WorldWideScience

Sample records for model l4 monthly

  1. NLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This monthly climatology data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American...

  2. NLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This monthly climatology data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American...

  3. GLDAS CLM Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Common Land Model (CLM) V2.0 model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)....

  4. NLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  5. NLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  6. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  7. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  8. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 2.7.1 model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The data are in...

  9. GLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The data are in 1.0...

  10. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 2.7.1 model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The data are in...

  11. GLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System...

  12. NLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_MOS0125_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This monthly climatology data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American...

  13. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_VIC0125_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  14. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_EA_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The monthly climatology data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS...

  15. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  16. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  17. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  18. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Western Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  19. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  20. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  1. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  2. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  3. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  4. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  5. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  6. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  7. Ocean Biogeochemistry in the California Current System 2007-2010 L4 Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model (the MITgcm with BLING biogeochemistry) is a least squares fit to all available ocean observations in the region of the...

  8. LPJmL4 - a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land - Part 1: Model description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Biemans, Hester; Forkel, Matthias; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Knauer, Jürgen; Langerwisch, Fanny; Lucht, Wolfgang; Müller, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne; Waha, Katharina

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive description of the newest version of the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model with managed Land, LPJmL4. This model simulates - internally consistently - the growth and productivity of both natural and agricultural vegetation as coherently linked through their water, carbon, and energy fluxes. These features render LPJmL4 suitable for assessing a broad range of feedbacks within and impacts upon the terrestrial biosphere as increasingly shaped by human activities such as climate change and land use change. Here we describe the core model structure, including recently developed modules now unified in LPJmL4. Thereby, we also review LPJmL model developments and evaluations in the field of permafrost, human and ecological water demand, and improved representation of crop types. We summarize and discuss LPJmL model applications dealing with the impacts of historical and future environmental change on the terrestrial biosphere at regional and global scale and provide a comprehensive overview of LPJmL publications since the first model description in 2007. To demonstrate the main features of the LPJmL4 model, we display reference simulation results for key processes such as the current global distribution of natural and managed ecosystems, their productivities, and associated water fluxes. A thorough evaluation of the model is provided in a companion paper. By making the model source code freely available at https://gitlab.pik-potsdam.de/lpjml/LPJmL, we hope to stimulate the application and further development of LPJmL4 across scientific communities in support of major activities such as the IPCC and SDG process.

  9. GOZCARDS Source Temperature 1 month L4 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid V1 (GozSmlpT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Temperature 1 month L4 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpT) contains zonal means and related...

  10. Comparative morphometry of L4 vertebrae: comparison of large animal models for the human lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Robert F; Yerby, Scott A; Moseley, Timothy A

    2002-04-15

    Anatomic analysis of L4 vertebral morphometry comparing specimens harvested from humans and five common large animal species. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in the vertebral bodies of commonly used experimental animals relative to human vertebrae. Animal models are commonly used for assessment of spine fusion, instrumentation techniques, and vertebral bone biology. Among the animals used, the lumbar vertebrae exhibit considerable anatomic variability. The goal of this study was to determine which of the animals commonly used for spine research is best suited as an anatomic model for the human lumbar spine. Morphometric features of the L4 vertebrae of five common research animals were compared with those of the human L4 vertebrae. Mature canines, immature pigs, mature micropigs, mature dairy goats, and mature sheep were analyzed. These species were chosen because they are commonly selected research animals, and most research facilities do not need to be modified to use them. The samples included ten L4 vertebrae of each animal species and seven human L4 vertebrae. Each specimen was meticulously cleaned of all soft tissue. The measurements were grouped into vertebral body parameters, neural canal dimensions, and pedicle and facet morphometery. The mean of each anatomic measurement was compared using a single factor analysis of variance and a Scheffe's post hoc test, with 0.05 denoting significance. The human vertebral body was significantly wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals studied. However, the mean vertebral body height of the sheep and goat significantly exceeded that of the human specimens. The mean pedicle angle of every animal species was significantly greater than that of the human. The mean pedicle width of the micropig and goat were significantly narrower than the human pedicles, and the dog specimens lacked a definable pedicle altogether. There was no significant difference in mean pedicle

  11. NLDAS Secondary Forcing Data L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly secondary forcing data "File B" for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data are in 1/8th...

  12. NLDAS Primary Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly climatology data of the primary forcing data for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data...

  13. NLDAS Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly climatology data of the forcing data for Phase 1 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-1). The data are in...

  14. NLDAS Secondary Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly climatology data of the secondary forcing data for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data...

  15. NLDAS Primary Forcing Data L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly primary forcing data "File A" for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data are in 1/8th...

  16. CARVE: L4 Gridded Particle Trajectories for WRF-STILT model, 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model inputs for particle receptors located at...

  17. NLDAS Primary Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_FORA0125_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly climatology data of the primary forcing data for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data...

  18. NLDAS Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V001 (NLDAS_FOR0125_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly climatology data of the forcing data for Phase 1 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-1). The data are in...

  19. NLDAS Secondary Forcing Data L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_FORB0125_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly climatology data of the secondary forcing data for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data...

  20. NLDAS Secondary Forcing Data L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_FORB0125_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly secondary forcing data "File B" for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data are in 1/8th...

  1. NLDAS Primary Forcing Data L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_FORA0125_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the monthly primary forcing data "File A" for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). The data are in 1/8th...

  2. A finite element model of the L4-L5-S1 human spine segment including the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Hector E; Gómez, Lessby; García, Jose J

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to study disc degeneration and the risk of injury during occupational activities, a new finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5-S1 segment of the human spine was developed based on the anthropometry of a typical Colombian worker. Beginning with medical images, the programs CATIA and SOLIDWORKS were used to generate and assemble the vertebrae and create the soft structures of the segment. The software ABAQUS was used to run the analyses, which included a detailed model calibration using the experimental step-wise reduction data for the L4-L5 component, while the L5-S1 segment was calibrated in the intact condition. The range of motion curves, the intradiscal pressure and the lateral bulging under pure moments were considered for the calibration. As opposed to other FE models that include the L5-S1 disc, the model developed in this study considered the regional variations and anisotropy of the annulus as well as a realistic description of the nucleus geometry, which allowed an improved representation of experimental data during the validation process. Hence, the model can be used to analyze the stress and strain distributions in the L4-L5 and L5-S1 discs of workers performing activities such as lifting and carrying tasks.

  3. GLDAS CLM Land Surface Model L4 3 Hourly 1.0 x 1.0 degree Subsetted V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Common Land Model (CLM) V2.0 model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)....

  4. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 3 Hourly 1.0 x 1.0 degree Subsetted V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 2.7.1 model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The data are in...

  5. GLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 3 Hourly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System...

  6. NLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  7. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  8. GLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 3 Hourly 1.0 x 1.0 degree Subsetted V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The data are in 1.0...

  9. NLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  10. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 3 Hourly 0.25 x 0.25 degree Subsetted V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 2.7.1 model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The data are in...

  11. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  12. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V2.0 (GLDAS_NOAH10_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (hereafter, GLDAS-2) has two components: one forced entirely with the Princeton meteorological forcing data...

  13. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree Version 2.0 V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (hereafter, GLDAS-2) has two components: one forced entirely with the Princeton meteorological forcing data...

  14. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree Version 2.0 V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (hereafter, GLDAS-2) has two components: one forced entirely with the Princeton meteorological forcing data...

  15. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree V2.0 (GLDAS_NOAH025_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (hereafter, GLDAS-2) has two components: one forced entirely with the Princeton meteorological forcing data...

  16. NLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_NOAH0125_H) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  17. NLDAS Mosaic Land Surface Model L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_MOS0125_H) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Mosaic land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  18. Modeling of the Monthly Rainfall-Runoff Process Through Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Aranda Daniel Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems associated with the assessment of water resources of a river, the modeling of the rainfall-runoff process (RRP allows the deduction of runoff missing data and to extend its record, since generally the information available on precipitation is larger. It also enables the estimation of inputs to reservoirs, when their building led to the suppression of the gauging station. The simplest mathematical model that can be set for the RRP is the linear regression or curve on a monthly basis. Such a model is described in detail and is calibrated with the simultaneous record of monthly rainfall and runoff in Ballesmi hydrometric station, which covers 35 years. Since the runoff of this station has an important contribution from the spring discharge, the record is corrected first by removing that contribution. In order to do this a procedure was developed based either on the monthly average regional runoff coefficients or on nearby and similar watershed; in this case the Tancuilín gauging station was used. Both stations belong to the Partial Hydrologic Region No. 26 (Lower Rio Panuco and are located within the state of San Luis Potosi, México. The study performed indicates that the monthly regression model, due to its conceptual approach, faithfully reproduces monthly average runoff volumes and achieves an excellent approximation in relation to the dispersion, proved by calculation of the means and standard deviations.

  19. Uncertainty in a monthly water balance model using the generalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uncertainty in a monthly water balance model using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology. Diego Rivera1,∗. , Yessica Rivas. 2 and Alex Godoy. 3. 1. Laboratory of Comparative Policy in Water Resources Management, University of Concepcion,. CONICYT/FONDAP 15130015, Concepcion, Chile. 2.

  20. A complex autoregressive model and application to monthly temperature forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Gu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex autoregressive model was established based on the mathematic derivation of the least squares for the complex number domain which is referred to as the complex least squares. The model is different from the conventional way that the real number and the imaginary number are separately calculated. An application of this new model shows a better forecast than forecasts from other conventional statistical models, in predicting monthly temperature anomalies in July at 160 meteorological stations in mainland China. The conventional statistical models include an autoregressive model, where the real number and the imaginary number are separately disposed, an autoregressive model in the real number domain, and a persistence-forecast model.

  1. Modelling raster-based monthly water balance components for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmen, C.

    2000-11-01

    The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)

  2. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss from GRACE Monthly Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    , as is the case with those estimated from GRACE data. In this chapter we have used a generalized inversion method to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass change from the monthly global gravity solutions, provided by three different GRACE processing centers; CSR, JPL and GFZ. In order to derive mass change from...... these monthly global gravity models, we first calculate the gravity trend from these. When isolating the gravity trend signal, which is caused by the ice mass change, we first subtract the signal produced by the postglacial rebound (PGR) in Greenland. This is done by a simple method based on the ice history......The Greenland ice sheet is currently experiencing a net mass loss. There are however large discrepancies between the published qualitative mass loss estimates, based on different data sets and methods. There are even large differences between the results based on the same data sources...

  3. Modelling and forecasting monthly swordfish catches in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos I. Stergiou

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the X-11 census technique for modelling and forecasting the monthly swordfish (Xiphias gladius catches in the Greek Seas during 1982-1996 and 1997 respectively, using catches reported by the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG. Forecasts built with X-11 were also compared with those derived from ARIMA andWinter’s exponential smoothing (WES models. The X-11 method captured the features of the study series and outperformed the other two methods, in terms of both fitting and forecasting performance, for all the accuracy measures used. Thus, with the exception of October, November and December 1997, when the corresponding absolute percentage error(APE values were very high (as high as 178.6% because of the low level of the catches, monthly catches during the remaining months of 1997 were predicted accurately, with a mean APE of 12.5%. In contrast, the mean APE values of the other two methods for the same months were higher (ARIMA: 14.6%; WES: 16.6%. The overall good performance of X-11 andthe fact that it provides an insight into the various components (i.e. the seasonal, trend-cycle and irregular components of the time series of interest justify its use in fisheries research. The basic features of the swordfish catches revealed by the application of the X-11 method, the effect of the length of the forecasting horizon on forecasting accuracy and the accuracy of the catches reported by NSSG are also discussed.

  4. Monthly to seasonal low flow prediction: statistical versus dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Klein, Bastian; Meissner, Dennis; Rademacher, Silke

    2016-04-01

    While the societal and economical impacts of floods are well documented and assessable, the impacts of lows flows are less studied and sometimes overlooked. For example, over the western part of Europe, due to intense inland waterway transportation, the economical loses due to low flows are often similar compared to the ones due to floods. In general, the low flow aspect has the tendency to be underestimated by the scientific community. One of the best examples in this respect is the facts that at European level most of the countries have an (early) flood alert system, but in many cases no real information regarding the development, evolution and impacts of droughts. Low flows, occurring during dry periods, may result in several types of problems to society and economy: e.g. lack of water for drinking, irrigation, industrial use and power production, deterioration of water quality, inland waterway transport, agriculture, tourism, issuing and renewing waste disposal permits, and for assessing the impact of prolonged drought on aquatic ecosystems. As such, the ever-increasing demand on water resources calls for better a management, understanding and prediction of the water deficit situation and for more reliable and extended studies regarding the evolution of the low flow situations. In order to find an optimized monthly to seasonal forecast procedure for the German waterways, the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) is exploring multiple approaches at the moment. On the one hand, based on the operational short- to medium-range forecasting chain, existing hydrological models are forced with two different hydro-meteorological inputs: (i) resampled historical meteorology generated by the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction approach and (ii) ensemble (re-) forecasts of ECMWF's global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model, which have to be downscaled and bias corrected before feeding the hydrological models. As a second approach BfG evaluates in cooperation with

  5. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 40; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Assessment Report for the Beta-Release L4_SM Data Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public beta release scheduled for 30 October 2015. The primary objective of the beta release is to allow users to familiarize themselves with the data product before the validated product becomes available. The beta release also allows users to conduct their own assessment of the data and to provide feedback to the L4_SM science data product team. The assessment of the L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to upscaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 1 validation and supports the beta release of the data. The validation against

  6. PODAAC-ERSST-L4N40

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Smith & Reynolds Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) Level 4 dataset provides a historical reconstruction of monthly global ocean surface...

  7. Monthly water balance model for Ndarugu basin, Kenya | Nyadawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... model in Ndarugu river basin in Kenya. The model is slightly modified to suit hydrologic conditions in the basin. The study apart from establishing relevant model parameters has recommended optimum length of period for continuous simulation to reduce effect dynamic changes in the basin. Journal of Civil Engineering, ...

  8. Rotational properties of L4 Trojan asteroids from K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Sharkey, Benjamin N. L.

    2016-10-01

    Our understanding of solar system formation is undergoing a renaissance as new planetary systems are found, often unlike our own. Many questions now ask how the giant planets and their satellite systems accreted and if there is evidence that they migrated to new orbital positions. One of the keys to understanding these questions within our own solar system is the Jupiter Trojan population which is co-orbital with Jupiter. The two Trojan clouds at the stable L4 and L5 Lagrangian points are in orbits which are stable over the age of the Solar System, unlike many other present epoch small body populations. Planetary migration models suggest that the Trojan asteroids, and the dynamically hot (i.e. "scattered"), population of Kuiper Belt objects originate from the same region in the early solar system. While these objects would have started with the same compositions, establishing compositional linkages is challenging and complicated due to a paucity of distinct and easily identifiable mineralogical features in the optical, where these objects are the brightest. While the surface compositions and colors of the Trojans match objects in the inner solar system, as well as the Kuiper Belt, physical characterization of this large population of objects has been scarce. During Campaign 6 in late 2015, the 115 square degree K2 spacecraft field of view overlapped with the L4 Trojan cloud, allowing for long term monitoring. We report on the fitted rotational periods and lightcurve amplitudes from 56 Trojan asteroids that were observed for an average of 11 days by K2. We find ~20% of objects have rotational periods longer than 50 hours and ~40% of the objects have lightcurves with shapes characteristic of contact binary systems.

  9. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_EA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  10. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_SA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  11. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_WA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  12. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_EA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  13. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_SA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  14. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_WA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  16. Temporal variation and scaling of parameters for a monthly hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Liu, Pan; Wang, Dingbao; Wang, Weiguang

    2018-03-01

    The temporal variation of model parameters is affected by the catchment conditions and has a significant impact on hydrological simulation. This study aims to evaluate the seasonality and downscaling of model parameter across time scales based on monthly and mean annual water balance models with a common model framework. Two parameters of the monthly model, i.e., k and m, are assumed to be time-variant at different months. Based on the hydrological data set from 121 MOPEX catchments in the United States, we firstly analyzed the correlation between parameters (k and m) and catchment properties (NDVI and frequency of rainfall events, α). The results show that parameter k is positively correlated with NDVI or α, while the correlation is opposite for parameter m, indicating that precipitation and vegetation affect monthly water balance by controlling temporal variation of parameters k and m. The multiple linear regression is then used to fit the relationship between ε and the means and coefficient of variations of parameters k and m. Based on the empirical equation and the correlations between the time-variant parameters and NDVI, the mean annual parameter ε is downscaled to monthly k and m. The results show that it has lower NSEs than these from model with time-variant k and m being calibrated through SCE-UA, while for several study catchments, it has higher NSEs than that of the model with constant parameters. The proposed method is feasible and provides a useful tool for temporal scaling of model parameter.

  17. NLDAS Forcing Data L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the forcing data for Phase 1 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-1). The data are in 1/8th degree grid spacing and...

  18. REYNOLDS_NCEP_L4_SST_OPT_INTERP_MONTHLY_V2:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multichannel sea-surface temperatures (MCSST) have been computed from AVHRR radiances operational since 1981. In-situ data is derived from both ship and buoys. Both...

  19. Predicting monthly precipitation along coastal Ecuador: ENSO and transfer function models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guenni, Lelys B.; García, Mariangel; Muñoz, Ángel G.; Santos, José L.; Cedeño, Alexandra; Perugachi, Carlos; Castillo, José

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modifies precipitation patterns in several parts of the world. One of the most impacted areas is the western coast of South America, where Ecuador is located. El Niño events that occurred in 1982-1983, 1987-1988, 1991-1992, and 1997-1998 produced important positive rainfall anomalies in the coastal zone of Ecuador, bringing considerable damage to livelihoods, agriculture, and infrastructure. Operational climate forecasts in the region provide only seasonal scale (e.g., 3-month averages) information, but during ENSO events it is key for decision-makers to use reliable sub-seasonal scale forecasts, which at the present time are still non-existent in most parts of the world. This study analyzes the potential predictability of coastal Ecuador rainfall at monthly scale. Instead of the discrete approach that considers training models using only particular seasons, continuous (i.e., all available months are used) transfer function models are built using standard ENSO indices to explore rainfall forecast skill along the Ecuadorian coast and Galápagos Islands. The modeling approach considers a large-scale contribution, represented by the role of a sea-surface temperature index, and a local-scale contribution represented here via the use of previous precipitation observed in the same station. The study found that the Niño3 index is the best ENSO predictor of monthly coastal rainfall, with a lagged response varying from 0 months (simultaneous) for Galápagos up to 3 months for the continental locations considered. Model validation indicates that the skill is similar to the one obtained using principal component regression models for the same kind of experiments. It is suggested that the proposed approach could provide skillful rainfall forecasts at monthly scale for up to a few months in advance.

  20. NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model assimilating ESRID data global monthly 2/3x1.25 degrees VR2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model -- Assimilated Monthly Data The NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) is a comprehensive, interactive ocean biogeochemical model...

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_SM Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf Helmut; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Chen, Fan; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Crow, Wade; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    core validation site comparisons indicate that "Version 2" of the L4_SM data product meets the self-imposed L4_SM accuracy requirement, which is formulated in terms of the ubRMSE: the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) after removal of the long-term mean difference. The overall ubRMSE of the 3-hourly L4_SM surface soil moisture at the 9 km scale is 0.035 cubic meters per cubic meter requirement. The corresponding ubRMSE for L4_SM root zone soil moisture is 0.024 cubic meters per cubic meter requirement. Both of these metrics are comfortably below the 0.04 cubic meters per cubic meter requirement. The L4_SM estimates are an improvement over estimates from a model-only SMAP Nature Run version 4 (NRv4), which demonstrates the beneficial impact of the SMAP brightness temperature data. L4_SM surface soil moisture estimates are consistently more skillful than NRv4 estimates, although not by a statistically significant margin. The lack of statistical significance is not surprising given the limited data record available to date. Root zone soil moisture estimates from L4_SM and NRv4 have similar skill. Results from comparisons of the L4_SM product to in situ measurements from nearly 400 sparse network sites corroborate the core validation site results. The instantaneous soil moisture and soil temperature analysis increments are within a reasonable range and result in spatially smooth soil moisture analyses. The O-F residuals exhibit only small biases on the order of 1-3 degrees Kelvin between the (re-scaled) SMAP brightness temperature observations and the L4_SM model forecast, which indicates that the assimilation system is largely unbiased. The spatially averaged time series standard deviation of the O-F residuals is 5.9 degrees Kelvin, which reduces to 4.0 degrees Kelvin for the observation-minus-analysis (O-A) residuals, reflecting the impact of the SMAP observations on the L4_SM system. Averaged globally, the time series standard deviation of the normalized O-F residuals is

  2. An assessment of Box-Jenkins models: Forcados monthly rainfall as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of Box-Jenkins models: Forcados monthly rainfall as case study. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... The goodness of fit of the model was assessed by estimating the autocorrelations of the residuals of the historical data (from January 1931 to December 1960) for lags one to twelve.

  3. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian

    2017-05-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  4. Chiropractic and rehabilitation management of a patient with extraforaminal entrapment of L4 nerve with balance problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Disc herniation is one of the most common causes of low back pain with radicular pain. Among various types of disc herniation, the extraforaminal disc herniation is a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy. The aim of presenting this case study is to demonstrate the benefits of Chiropractic care including spine and extremity manipulation and rehabilitation in the treatment of a rare case of extraforaminal L4 nerve entrapment causing severe L4 radiculopathy and chronic mild low back pain (LBP). The aim of presenting this case study is to demonstrate the benefits of Chiropractic care including spine and extremity manipulation and rehabilitation in treatment of rare case of extraforaminal L4 nerve entrapment which caused severe L4 radiculopathy and chronic mild low back pain (LBP). A 45-year old female patient arrived at the clinic with chronic mild low back pain and right buttock pain, all of which had presented for two years' duration. During the preceding month, the radicular pain initiated in medium to high intensity, radiating to her right leg following the L4 dermatomal pattern with a periodic tingling sensation in her right foot. A neuro exam demonstrated a proprioception deficit in her right leg. A Romberg test was positive. The patient was treated by low amplitude high velocity spinal and extremity manipulation for 10 consecutive sessions (2 weeks), followed by rehabilitation and exercise therapy including advanced myofascial release therapy for an additional 12 sessions (4 weeks). After treatment, the patient reported a significant improvement in her low back pain and radiculopathy. In addition, she achieved some improvement in balance. It seems that Chiropractic care and rehabilitation therapy may be a safe and effective modality in treatment of an L4 radiculopathy in a patient with an extraforaminal L4 nerve entrapment. Although it is rare, an L4 extraforaminal disc herniation should be considered as a possible cause of symptoms in patients with chronic mild

  5. Statistical modelling of monthly mean sea level at coastal tide gauge stations along the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; Das, V.K.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    quite high at particular months, in respect of all the three models, for Bhavnagar. The RMSE has been normalized by the range of mean sea level at each station, in order to make better comparison of the performance of the models, as Table 4... such as Bhavnagar, where the seasonal variability is quite high. Eventhough the performance of the three models is satisfactory, it would be worthwhile to investigate alternate models e.g. AutoRegressive, Integrated and Moving Average (ARIMA) model, which...

  6. Regional parametrisation of a monthly hydrological model for estimating discharges in ungaued catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavcova, K.; Szolgay, J.; Kohnova, S.; Kalas, M.

    2003-04-01

    In the case of the absence of measured runoff optimisation techniques cannot be used to estimate the parameters of monthly rainfall-runoff models. In such a case usually empirical regression methods were used for relating the model parameters to the catchment characteristics in a given region. In the paper a different method for the regional calibration of a monthly water balance model, which can be used for planning purposes, is proposed. Instead of using the regional regression approach a method is proposed, which involves the calibration of a monthly water balance model to gauged sites in the given region simultaneously. A regional objective function was constructed and for the calibration a genetic programming algorithm was employed. It is expected, that the regionally calibrated model parameters can be used in ungauged basins with similar physiographic conditions. The comparison of the performance of such a regional calibration scheme was compared with two single site calibration methods in a region of West Slovakia. The results are based on a study that aimed at computing surface water inflow into a lowland area with valuable groundwater resources. Monthly discharge time series had to be estimated in small ungauged rivers entering the study area.

  7. Prediction of Monthly Summer Monsoon Rainfall Using Global Climate Models Through Artificial Neural Network Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Archana; Singh, Gurjeet; Mohanty, U. C.

    2018-01-01

    The monthly prediction of summer monsoon rainfall is very challenging because of its complex and chaotic nature. In this study, a non-linear technique known as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed on the outputs of Global Climate Models (GCMs) to bring out the vagaries inherent in monthly rainfall prediction. The GCMs that are considered in the study are from the International Research Institute (IRI) (2-tier CCM3v6) and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (Coupled-CFSv2). The ANN technique is applied on different ensemble members of the individual GCMs to obtain monthly scale prediction over India as a whole and over its spatial grid points. In the present study, a double-cross-validation and simple randomization technique was used to avoid the over-fitting during training process of the ANN model. The performance of the ANN-predicted rainfall from GCMs is judged by analysing the absolute error, box plots, percentile and difference in linear error in probability space. Results suggest that there is significant improvement in prediction skill of these GCMs after applying the ANN technique. The performance analysis reveals that the ANN model is able to capture the year to year variations in monsoon months with fairly good accuracy in extreme years as well. ANN model is also able to simulate the correct signs of rainfall anomalies over different spatial points of the Indian domain.

  8. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Forecasting monthly inflow discharge of the Iffezheim reservoir using data-driven models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Aljoumani, Basem; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    River stream flow is an essential element in hydrology study fields, especially for reservoir management, since it defines input into reservoirs. Forecasting this stream flow plays an important role in short or long-term planning and management in the reservoir, e.g. optimized reservoir and hydroelectric operation or agricultural irrigation. Highly accurate flow forecasting can significantly reduce economic losses and is always pursued by reservoir operators. Therefore, hydrologic time series forecasting has received tremendous attention of researchers. Many models have been proposed to improve the hydrological forecasting. Due to the fact that most natural phenomena occurring in environmental systems appear to behave in random or probabilistic ways, different cases may need a different methods to forecast the inflow and even a unique treatment to improve the forecast accuracy. The purpose of this study is to determine an appropriate model for forecasting monthly inflow to the Iffezheim reservoir in Germany, which is the last of the barrages in the Upper Rhine. Monthly time series of discharges, measured from 1946 to 2001 at the Plittersdorf station, which is located 6 km downstream of the Iffezheim reservoir, were applied. The accuracies of the used stochastic models - Fiering model and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average models (ARIMA) are compared with Artificial Intelligence (AI) models - single Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet ANN models (WANN). The Fiering model is a linear stochastic model and used for generating synthetic monthly data. The basic idea in modeling time series using ARIMA is to identify a simple model with as few model parameters as possible in order to provide a good statistical fit to the data. To identify and fit the ARIMA models, four phase approaches were used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, is utilized

  10. Wavelet-linear genetic programming: A new approach for modeling monthly streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravansalar, Masoud; Rajaee, Taher; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-06-01

    The streamflows are important and effective factors in stream ecosystems and its accurate prediction is an essential and important issue in water resources and environmental engineering systems. A hybrid wavelet-linear genetic programming (WLGP) model, which includes a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and a linear genetic programming (LGP) to predict the monthly streamflow (Q) in two gauging stations, Pataveh and Shahmokhtar, on the Beshar River at the Yasuj, Iran were used in this study. In the proposed WLGP model, the wavelet analysis was linked to the LGP model where the original time series of streamflow were decomposed into the sub-time series comprising wavelet coefficients. The results were compared with the single LGP, artificial neural network (ANN), a hybrid wavelet-ANN (WANN) and Multi Linear Regression (MLR) models. The comparisons were done by some of the commonly utilized relevant physical statistics. The Nash coefficients (E) were found as 0.877 and 0.817 for the WLGP model, for the Pataveh and Shahmokhtar stations, respectively. The comparison of the results showed that the WLGP model could significantly increase the streamflow prediction accuracy in both stations. Since, the results demonstrate a closer approximation of the peak streamflow values by the WLGP model, this model could be utilized for the simulation of cumulative streamflow data prediction in one month ahead.

  11. Motor vehicle mpg and market shares report: first six months of model year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Greene, D.L.; Till, L.E.

    1984-10-01

    This issue of the publication reports the sales, market shares, estimated sales-weighted fuel economies, and other estimated sales-weighted vehicle characteristics of automobiles and light trucks for the first six months of model year 1984 and for the previous five model years. Comparisons and observations are made on the trends in these vehicles from one model year to the next. An improved methodology is used to allocate the yearly mpg changes among eight components, rather than the four reported in the previous reports. Sales of automobiles showed an increase of 21.8% from the first half of model year 1983. An even more striking increase was observed in the sales of light trucks: 42.2% from the first half of model year 1983. The first six months of model year 1984 experienced a gain of 0.21 mpg in sales-weighted automobile fuel economy. In contrast, light trucks experienced a loss of 0.83 mpg in fuel economy, from 20.52 mpg in model year 1983 to 19.69 mpg in the first half of model year 1984.

  12. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  13. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima; Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP satellite was successfully launched January 31st 2015, and began acquiring Earth observation data following in-orbit sensor calibration. Global data products derived from the SMAP L-band microwave measurements include Level 1 calibrated and geolocated radiometric brightness temperatures, Level 23 surface soil moisture and freezethaw geophysical retrievals mapped to a fixed Earth grid, and model enhanced Level 4 data products for surface to root zone soil moisture and terrestrial carbon (CO2) fluxes. The post-launch SMAP mission CalVal Phase had two primary objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product pertaining to the validated release. The L4_C validated product release effectively replaces an earlier L4_C beta-product release (Kimball et al. 2015). The validated release described in this report incorporates a longer data record and benefits from algorithm and CalVal refinements acquired during the SMAP post-launch CalVal intensive period. The SMAP L4_C algorithms utilize a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and component carbon fluxes for vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw (FT) controls on GPP and respiration (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and

  14. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater–surface runoff interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall–runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, 'Ernies' (control, fully forested and 'Lemon' (54% cleared are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while 'Salmon' (control, fully forested and 'Wights' (100% cleared are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall–runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii a transient stream zone store, (ii a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and

  15. Modeling and forecasting monthly movement of annual average solar insolation based on the least-squares Fourier-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zong-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce a finite Fourier-series model for evaluating monthly movement of annual average solar insolation. • Present a forecast method for predicting its movement based on the extended Fourier-series model in the least-squares. • Shown its movement is well described by a low numbers of harmonics with approximately 6-term Fourier series. • Predict its movement most fitting with less than 6-term Fourier series. - Abstract: Solar insolation is one of the most important measurement parameters in many fields. Modeling and forecasting monthly movement of annual average solar insolation is of increasingly importance in areas of engineering, science and economics. In this study, Fourier-analysis employing finite Fourier-series is proposed for evaluating monthly movement of annual average solar insolation and extended in the least-squares for forecasting. The conventional Fourier analysis, which is the most common analysis method in the frequency domain, cannot be directly applied for prediction. Incorporated with the least-square method, the introduced Fourier-series model is extended to predict its movement. The extended Fourier-series forecasting model obtains its optimums Fourier coefficients in the least-square sense based on its previous monthly movements. The proposed method is applied to experiments and yields satisfying results in the different cities (states). It is indicated that monthly movement of annual average solar insolation is well described by a low numbers of harmonics with approximately 6-term Fourier series. The extended Fourier forecasting model predicts the monthly movement of annual average solar insolation most fitting with less than 6-term Fourier series

  16. Progress and achievements of the ITER L-4 blanket project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.; Toschi, R.; Cardella, A.

    1999-01-01

    The L-4 Blanket Project embraces the R and D of the ITER Shielding Blanket, and its main objective is the fabrication of prototype components. This paper summarises the main conclusions from the materials R and D and the development of technologies which were required for the prototype specifications and manufacturing. The main results of the ongoing testing activities, and of the component manufacture are outlined.The main objectives of the project have been achieved including improvements of the material properties and of joining technologies, which resulted in good component quality and high performance in qualification tests. (author)

  17. Progress and achievements of the ITER L-4 blanket project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.; Toschi, R.; Cardella, A.

    2001-01-01

    The L-4 Blanket Project embraces the R and D of the ITER Shielding Blanket, and its main objective is the fabrication of prototype components. This paper summarises the main conclusions from the materials R and D and the development of technologies which were required for the prototype specifications and manufacturing. The main results of the ongoing testing activities, and of the component manufacture are outlined. The main objectives of the project have been achieved including improvements of the material properties and of joining technologies, which resulted in good component quality and high performance in qualification tests. (author)

  18. A mathematical model of the nine-month pregnant woman for calculating specific absorbed fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Existing models that allow calculation of internal doses from radionuclide intakes by both men and women are based on a mathematical model of Reference Man. No attempt has been made to allow for the changing geometric relationships that occur during pregnancy which would affect the doses to the mother's organs and to the fetus. As pregnancy progresses, many of the mother's abdominal organs are repositioned, and their shapes may be somewhat changed. Estimation of specific absorbed fractions requires that existing mathematical models be modified to accommodate these changes. Specific absorbed fractions for Reference Woman at three, six, and nine months of pregnancy should be sufficient for estimating the doses to the pregnant woman and the fetus. This report describes a model for the pregnant woman at nine months. An enlarged uterus was incorporated into a model for Reference Woman. Several abdominal organs as well as the exterior of the trunk were modified to accommodate the new uterus. This model will allow calculation of specific absorbed fractions for the fetus from photon emitters in maternal organs. Specific absorbed fractions for the repositioned maternal organs from other organs can also be calculated. 14 refs., 2 figs

  19. Application of SARIMA model to forecasting monthly flows in Waterval River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Kassahun Birhanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of future river flow information is fundamental for development and management of a river system. In this study, Waterval River flow was forecasted by SARIMA model using GRETL statistical software. Mean monthly flows from 1960 to 2016 were used for modelling and forecasting. Different unit root and Mann–Kendall trend analysis proved the stationarity of the observed flow time series. Based on seasonally differenced correlogram characteristics, different SARIMA models were evaluated; their parameters were optimized, and diagnostic check up of forecasts was made using white noise and heteroscedasticity tests. Finally, based on minimum Akaike Information (AI and Hannan–Quinn (HQ criteria, SARIMA (3, 0, 2 x (3, 1, 312 model was selected for Waterval River flow forecasting. Comparison of forecast performance of SARIMA models with that of computational intelligent forecasting techniques was recommended for future study.

  20. Modelling and forecasting monthly and daily river discharge data using hybrid models and considering autoregressive heteroscedasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolgayova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Hybrid modelling, used for simulation and forecasting of hydrological time series, involving both process-based and data-driven types of models combines the available domain knowledge and process physics with the recent advances in data driven tools. In this way, complex hydrological processes can be modelled and forecasted by decomposing the problem into several smaller sub - problems and using process physics based models where these are most appropriate, and data dictated tools (such as ANN, time series models or traditional statistics) for the residual data, when necessary. The fitting and forecasting performance of such models have to be explored case based. So far, only a few attempts to apply various nonlinear time series models within such a framework were reported in the hydrological modelling literature. This contribution presents results concerning the possibility to use GARCH type of models for such purposes. More specifically, error time series from two hydrological conceptual models were analyzed (applied on time series measured from the Hron and Morava Rivers in Slovakia), concentrating on the improvement of the modelling and forecasting performance of these models. The goal of investigation was to try to expand the knowledge in the time series modelling of hydrological model error time series with the aim to test and develop appropriate methods for various time steps from the GARCH family of models. In order to achieve this, following steps were taken: 1. The presence of heteroscedasticity was verified in time series. 2. A model from the GARCH family was fitted on the data, comparing the fit with a fit of an ARMA model. 3. One - step - ahead forecasts from the fitted models were produced, performing comparisons. The investigation of model properties and performances was thoroughly tested under various conditions of their future practical applications. In general, heteroscedasticity was present in the majority of the error time series of the

  1. Modeling summer month hydrological drought probabilities in the United States using antecedent flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Nelms, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change raises concern that risks of hydrological drought may be increasing. We estimate hydrological drought probabilities for rivers and streams in the United States (U.S.) using maximum likelihood logistic regression (MLLR). Streamflow data from winter months are used to estimate the chance of hydrological drought during summer months. Daily streamflow data collected from 9,144 stream gages from January 1, 1884 through January 9, 2014 provide hydrological drought streamflow probabilities for July, August, and September as functions of streamflows during October, November, December, January, and February, estimating outcomes 5-11 months ahead of their occurrence. Few drought prediction methods exploit temporal links among streamflows. We find MLLR modeling of drought streamflow probabilities exploits the explanatory power of temporally linked water flows. MLLR models with strong correct classification rates were produced for streams throughout the U.S. One ad hoc test of correct prediction rates of September 2013 hydrological droughts exceeded 90% correct classification. Some of the best-performing models coincide with areas of high concern including the West, the Midwest, Texas, the Southeast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Using hydrological drought MLLR probability estimates in a water management context can inform understanding of drought streamflow conditions, provide warning of future drought conditions, and aid water management decision making.

  2. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater-surface runoff interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall-runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, "Ernies" (control, fully forested) and "Lemon" (54% cleared) are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while "Salmon" (control, fully forested) and "Wights" (100% cleared) are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall-runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i) immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii) through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i) an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii) a transient stream zone store, (ii) a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv) a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and predicted

  3. Influence of daily versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Niño droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into global models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to daily and sub-daily scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and daily Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of global models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to daily can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: daily resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.

  4. Diffuse radiation models and monthly-average, daily, diffuse data for a wide latitude range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan, K.K.; Soler, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several years of measured data on global and diffuse radiation and sunshine duration for 40 widely spread locations in the latitude range 36° S to 60° N are used to develop and test models for estimating monthly-mean, daily, diffuse radiation on horizontal surfaces. Applicability of the clearness-index (K) and sunshine fraction (SSO) models for diffuse estimation and the effect of combining several variables into a single multilinear equation are tested. Correlations connecting the diffuse to global fraction (HdH) with K and SSO predict Hd values more accurately than their separate use. Among clearness-index and sunshine-fraction models, SSO models are found to have better accuracy if correlations are developed for wide latitude ranges. By including a term for declinations in the correlation, the accuracy of the estimated data can be marginally improved. The addition of latitude to the equation does not help to improve the accuracy further. (author)

  5. Empirical models of monthly and annual surface albedo in managed boreal forests of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Astrup, Rasmus; Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-04-01

    As forest management activities play an increasingly important role in climate change mitigation strategies of Nordic regions such as Norway, Sweden, and Finland -- the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the types and magnitude of biogeophysical climate effects and their various tradeoffs with the global carbon cycle becomes essential to avoid implementation of sub-optimal policy. Forest harvest in these regions reduces the albedo "masking effect" and impacts Earth's radiation budget in opposing ways to that of concomitant carbon cycle perturbations; thus, policies based solely on biogeochemical considerations in these regions risk being counterproductive. There is therefore a need to better understand how human disturbances (i.e., forest management activities) affect important biophysical factors like surface albedo. An 11-year remotely sensed surface albedo dataset coupled with stand-level forest management data for a variety of stands in Norway's most productive logging region are used to develop regression models describing temporal changes in monthly and annual forest albedo following clear-cut harvest disturbance events. Datasets are grouped by dominant tree species and site indices (productivity), and two alternate multiple regression models are developed and tested following a potential plus modifier approach. This resulted in an annual albedo model with statistically significant parameters that explains a large proportion of the observed variation, requiring as few as two predictor variables: i) average stand age - a canopy modifier predictor of albedo, and ii) stand elevation - a local climate predictor of a forest's potential albedo. The same model structure is used to derive monthly albedo models, with models for winter months generally found superior to summer models, and conifer models generally outperforming deciduous. We demonstrate how these statistical models can be applied to routine forest inventory data to predict the albedo

  6. Comparison of Spatial Interpolation and Regression Analysis Models for an Estimation of Monthly Near Surface Air Temperature in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near surface air temperature (NSAT is a primary descriptor of terrestrial environmental conditions. In recent decades, many efforts have been made to develop various methods for obtaining spatially continuous NSAT from gauge or station observations. This study compared three spatial interpolation (i.e., Kriging, Spline, and Inversion Distance Weighting (IDW and two regression analysis (i.e., Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR models for predicting monthly minimum, mean, and maximum NSAT in China, a domain with a large area, complex topography, and highly variable station density. This was conducted for a period of 12 months of 2010. The accuracy of the GWR model is better than the MLR model with an improvement of about 3 °C in the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE, which indicates that the GWR model is more suitable for predicting monthly NSAT than the MLR model over a large scale. For three spatial interpolation models, the RMSEs of the predicted monthly NSAT are greater in the warmer months, and the mean RMSEs of the predicted monthly mean NSAT for 12 months in 2010 are 1.56 °C for the Kriging model, 1.74 °C for the IDW model, and 2.39 °C for the Spline model, respectively. The GWR model is better than the Kriging model in the warmer months, while the Kriging model is superior to the GWR model in the colder months. The total precision of the GWR model is slightly higher than the Kriging model. The assessment result indicated that the higher standard deviation and the lower mean of NSAT from sample data would be associated with a better performance of predicting monthly NSAT using spatial interpolation models.

  7. Non-linear modelling of monthly mean vorticity time changes: an application to the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Finizio

    Full Text Available Starting from a number of observables in the form of time-series of meteorological elements in various areas of the northern hemisphere, a model capable of fitting past records and predicting monthly vorticity time changes in the western Mediterranean is implemented. A new powerful statistical methodology is introduced (MARS in order to capture the non-linear dynamics of time-series representing the available 40-year history of the hemispheric circulation. The developed model is tested on a suitable independent data set. An ensemble forecast exercise is also carried out to check model stability in reference to the uncertainty of input quantities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · General circulation ocean-atmosphere interactions · Synoptic-scale meteorology

  8. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  9. Three cases of L4-5 Baastrup's disease due to L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Lee, Sang-Ho; Keum, Han Joong; Eun, Sang Soo

    2017-05-01

    Baastrup's disease is characterized by degeneration of spinous processes and interspinous soft tissue, which may cause spinal stenosis. Purpose of this article is to report the possible new cause of Baastrup's disease and result of surgical treatments. Authors treated three cases of Baastrup's disease on L4-L5 with L5-S1 spondylolytic listhesis. Conservative treatment did not relieve the pain; therefore, surgical treatments were planned according to each specific disease condition. In one case, anterior lumbar interbody fusion of L5-S1 was performed, and after surgery, the size of epidural cyst on L4-L5 was decreased. L4-L5 bilateral laminectomy was performed to directly decompress posterior epidural cyst in a case with stable L5-S1 spondylolytic listhesis. In last case, facet joints and spinous process were removed by L5-S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. After the surgery, patients' back and leg pain was improved and postoperative MRI revealed successful decompression of the spinal canal. Improvement in back and leg symptoms was noted at 12-month follow-up. Baastrup's disease at the L4-L5 level may have developed from the instability caused by L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Viable treatment options include the fusion of L5-S1 or a laminectomy at the L4-L5 level.

  10. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Homayounfar

    Full Text Available So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i having a discrete nature; and (ii working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance of the state variable (water level in the reservoir is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP, and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG. By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in

  11. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  12. NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model assimilating satellite chlorophyll data global monthly VR2017 (NOBM_MON) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the assimilated monthly data from NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM). The NOBM is a comprehensive, interactive ocean biogeochemical model coupled with a...

  13. Advanced finite element analysis of L4-L5 implanted spine segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Marek; Domański, Janusz; Suchocki, Cyprian

    2015-09-01

    In the paper finite element (FE) analysis of implanted lumbar spine segment is presented. The segment model consists of two lumbar vertebrae L4 and L5 and the prosthesis. The model of the intervertebral disc prosthesis consists of two metallic plates and a polyurethane core. Bone tissue is modelled as a linear viscoelastic material. The prosthesis core is made of a polyurethane nanocomposite. It is modelled as a non-linear viscoelastic material. The constitutive law of the core, derived in one of the previous papers, is implemented into the FE software Abaqus®. It was done by means of the User-supplied procedure UMAT. The metallic plates are elastic. The most important parts of the paper include: description of the prosthesis geometrical and numerical modelling, mathematical derivation of stiffness tensor and Kirchhoff stress and implementation of the constitutive model of the polyurethane core into Abaqus® software. Two load cases were considered, i.e. compression and stress relaxation under constant displacement. The goal of the paper is to numerically validate the constitutive law, which was previously formulated, and to perform advanced FE analyses of the implanted L4-L5 spine segment in which non-standard constitutive law for one of the model materials, i.e. the prosthesis core, is implemented.

  14. The Turn-of-the-Month-Effect: Evidence from Periodic Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (PGARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Giovanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the turn of the month effect on stock returns in 20 countries. This will allow us to explore whether the seasonal patterns usually found in global data; America, Australia, Europe and Asia. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS is problematic as it leads to unreliable estimations; because of the autocorrelation and Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH effects existence. For this reason Generalized GARCH models are estimated. Two approaches are followed. The first is the symmetric Generalized ARCH (1,1 model. However, previous studies found that volatility tends to increase more when the stock market index decreases than when the stock market index increases by the same amount. In addition there is higher seasonality in volatility rather on average returns. For this reason the Periodic-GARCH (1,1 is estimated. The findings support the persistence of the specific calendar effect in 19 out of 20 countries examined.

  15. The G2 erosion model: An algorithm for month-time step assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydas, Christos G; Panagos, Panos

    2018-02-01

    A detailed description of the G2 erosion model is presented, in order to support potential users. G2 is a complete, quantitative algorithm for mapping soil loss and sediment yield rates on month-time intervals. G2 has been designed to run in a GIS environment, taking input from geodatabases available by European or other international institutions. G2 adopts fundamental equations from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Erosion Potential Method (EPM), especially for rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and sediment delivery ratio. However, it has developed its own equations and matrices for the vegetation cover and management factor and the effect of landscape alterations on erosion. Provision of month-time step assessments is expected to improve understanding of erosion processes, especially in relation to land uses and climate change. In parallel, G2 has full potential to decision-making support with standardised maps on a regular basis. Geospatial layers of rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and terrain influence, recently developed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) on a European or global scale, will further facilitate applications of G2. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards medium-term (order of months) morphodynamic modelling of the Teign estuary, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Marcos E. C.; Davidson, Mark A.; Dyer, Keith R.; George, Ken J.

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to address the principal mechanisms involved in the medium-term (order of months to years) morphodynamic evolution of estuaries through the application of a process-based numerical modelling. The Teign estuary (Teignmouth, UK) is the selected site. The system is forced by the macrotidal semi-diurnal tide in the English Channel and is perturbed to a minor extent by high river discharge events (freshets). Although waves have a definite influence on the adjacent coastal area, Wells (Teignmouth Quay Development Environmental Statement: Changes to Physical Processes. Report R.984c:140. ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd., Southampton, 2002b) suggested that swell waves do not enter the estuary. Hence, wave effects are neglected in this study, as only tides and the river discharge are taken into account. The sediment grain size is highly variable, but mainly sandy. Within the frame of the COAST3D project ( http://www.hrwallingford.co.uk/projects/COAST3D ), four bathymetric surveys of the adjacent coastal area were carried out at a nearly weekly intervals. The outer estuary and the adjacent coastal area were also surveyed every 6 months as part of the COASTVIEW project ( http://thecoastviewproject.org ). Based on these data and on continuously measured parameters, such as water level, waves, wind and river discharge, numerical modelling of the morphodynamic processes can be tested. To replicate the morphological changes in the medium-term within a feasible simulation time, forcing conditions are reduced through the use of an input reduction method (called ensemble technique). In this study, simulations are based on the coupling between Telemac-2D and its non-cohesive sediment transport module, Sisyphe (version 5.3 for both modules). Three different sediment transport formulae were tested: (1) Engelund and Hansen (A monograph on sediment transport in alluvial streams, 3rd edn. Technological University of Denmark, Copenhagen, 1967

  17. Student Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect: Retention Months After Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Gold, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Individual understanding of climate science, and the greenhouse effect in particular, is one factor important for societal decision-making. Ideally, learning opportunities about the greenhouse effect will not only move people toward expert-like ideas but will also have long-lasting effects for those individuals. We assessed university students' mental models of the greenhouse effect before and after specific learning experiences, on a final exam, then again a few months later. Our aim was to measure retention after students had not necessarily been thinking about, nor studying, the greenhouse effect recently. How sticky were the ideas learned? 164 students in an introductory science course participated in a sequence of two learning activities and assessments regarding the greenhouse effect. The first lesson involved the full class, then, for the second lesson, half the students completed a simulation-based activity and the other half completed a data-driven activity. We assessed student thinking through concept sketches, multiple choice and short answer questions. All students generated concept sketches four times, and completed a set of multiple choice (MCQs) and short answer questions twice. Later, 3-4 months after the course ended, 27 students ('retention students') completed an additional concept sketch and answered the questions again, as a retention assessment. These 27 students were nearly evenly split between the two contrasting second lessons in the sequence and included both high and low-achieving students. We then compared student sketches and scores to 'expert' answers. The general pattern over time showed a significant increase in student scores from before the lesson sequence to after, both on concept sketches and MCQs, then an additional increase in concept sketch score on the final exam (MCQs were not asked on the final exam). The scores for the retention students were not significantly different from the full class. Within the retention group

  18. A Poisson regression approach to model monthly hail occurrence in Northern Switzerland using large-scale environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Erica; Ginsbourger, David; Martius, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    In Switzerland, hail regularly causes substantial damage to agriculture, cars and infrastructure, however, little is known about its long-term variability. To study the variability, the monthly number of days with hail in northern Switzerland is modeled in a regression framework using large-scale predictors derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis. The model is developed and verified using radar-based hail observations for the extended summer season (April-September) in the period 2002-2014. The seasonality of hail is explicitly modeled with a categorical predictor (month) and monthly anomalies of several large-scale predictors are used to capture the year-to-year variability. Several regression models are applied and their performance tested with respect to standard scores and cross-validation. The chosen model includes four predictors: the monthly anomaly of the two meter temperature, the monthly anomaly of the logarithm of the convective available potential energy (CAPE), the monthly anomaly of the wind shear and the month. This model well captures the intra-annual variability and slightly underestimates its inter-annual variability. The regression model is applied to the reanalysis data back in time to 1980. The resulting hail day time series shows an increase of the number of hail days per month, which is (in the model) related to an increase in temperature and CAPE. The trend corresponds to approximately 0.5 days per month per decade. The results of the regression model have been compared to two independent data sets. All data sets agree on the sign of the trend, but the trend is weaker in the other data sets.

  19. Transfer function modeling of the monthly accumulated rainfall series over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Vidal L.; Garcia, Jose A.; Serrano, Antonio; De la Cruz Gallego, Maria [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In order to improve the results given by Autoregressive Moving-Average (ARMA) modeling for the monthly accumulated rainfall series taken at 19 observatories of the Iberian Peninsula, a Discrete Linear Transfer Function Noise (DLTFN) model was applied taking the local pressure series (LP), North Atlantic sea level pressure series (SLP) and North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) as input variables, and the rainfall series as the output series. In all cases, the performance of the DLTFN models, measured by the explained variance of the rainfall series, is better than the performance given by the ARMA modeling. The best performance is given by the models that take the local pressure as the input variable, followed by the sea level pressure models and the sea surface temperature models. Geographically speaking, the models fitted to those observatories located in the west of the Iberian Peninsula work better than those on the north and east of the Peninsula. Also, it was found that there is a region located between 0 N and 20 N, which shows the highest cross-correlation between SST and the peninsula rainfalls. This region moves to the west and northwest off the Peninsula when the SLP series are used. [Spanish] Con el objeto de mejorar los resultados porporcionados por los modelos Autorregresivo Media Movil (ARMA) ajustados a las precipitaciones mensuales acumuladas registradas en 19 observatorios de la Peninsula Iberica se han usado modelos de funcion de transferencia (DLTFN) en los que se han empleado como variable independiente la presion local (LP), la presion a nivel del mar (SLP) o la temperatura de agua del mar (SST) en el Atlantico Norte. En todos los casos analizados, los resultados obtenidos con los modelos DLTFN, medidos mediante la varianza explicada por el modelo, han sido mejores que los resultados proporcionados por los modelos ARMA. Los mejores resultados han sido dados por aquellos modelos que usan la presion local como variable de entrada, seguidos

  20. Monthly and Fortnightly Tidal Variations of the Earth's Rotation Rate Predicted by a TOPEX/POSEIDON Empirical Ocean Tide Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S.; Wahr, J.

    1998-01-01

    Empirical models of the two largest constituents of the long-period ocean tides, the monthly and the fortnightly constituents, are estimated from repeat cycles 10 to 210 of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) mission.

  1. Comparison of forecasts of mean monthly water level in the Paraguay River, Brazil, from two fractionally differenced models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prass, Taiane S.; Bravo, Juan Martin; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Lopes, SíLvia R. C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper compares forecasts of mean monthly water levels up to six months ahead at Ladário, on the Upper Paraguay River, Brazil, estimated from two long-range dependence models. In one of them, the marked seasonal cycle was removed and a fractionally differenced model was fitted to the transformed series. In the other, a seasonal fractionally differenced model was fitted to water levels without transformation. Forecasts from both models for periods up to six months ahead were compared with forecasts given by simpler "short-range dependence" Box-Jenkins models, one fitted to the transformed series, the other a seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. Estimates of parameters in the four models (two "long-range dependence", two "short-range dependence") were updated at six-monthly intervals over a 20 year period, and forecasts were compared using root mean square errors (rmse) between water-level forecasts and observed levels. As judged by rmse, performances of the two long-range dependence models, and of the ARMA (1,1) short-range dependence model, were very similar; all three out-performed the seasonal short-range dependence ARMA model. There was evidence that all models performed better during recession periods, than on the hydrograph rising limb.

  2. Comprehensive modeling of monthly mean soil temperature using multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-07-01

    Soil temperature (T s) and its thermal regime are the most important factors in plant growth, biological activities, and water movement in soil. Due to scarcity of the T s data, estimation of soil temperature is an important issue in different fields of sciences. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the accuracy of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and support vector machine (SVM) methods for estimating the T s. For this aim, the monthly mean data of the T s (at depths of 5, 10, 50, and 100 cm) and meteorological parameters of 30 synoptic stations in Iran were utilized. To develop the MARS and SVM models, various combinations of minimum, maximum, and mean air temperatures (T min, T max, T); actual and maximum possible sunshine duration; sunshine duration ratio (n, N, n/N); actual, net, and extraterrestrial solar radiation data (R s, R n, R a); precipitation (P); relative humidity (RH); wind speed at 2 m height (u 2); and water vapor pressure (Vp) were used as input variables. Three error statistics including root-mean-square-error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and determination coefficient (R 2) were used to check the performance of MARS and SVM models. The results indicated that the MARS was superior to the SVM at different depths. In the test and validation phases, the most accurate estimations for the MARS were obtained at the depth of 10 cm for T max, T min, T inputs (RMSE = 0.71 °C, MAE = 0.54 °C, and R 2 = 0.995) and for RH, V p, P, and u 2 inputs (RMSE = 0.80 °C, MAE = 0.61 °C, and R 2 = 0.996), respectively.

  3. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  4. a multi-period markov model for monthly rainfall in lagos, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    monthly rainfall forecasting using monthly rainfall data for ... Note above, rj is the autocorrelation of the nor- malized variates belonging to period j to those immediately preceding them (period j-1). Index i is consecutively numbered from 1 to total no of data whilst ...... relevance vector machine, extreme learning machine and ...

  5. Predicting the 6-month risk of severe hypoglycemia among adults with diabetes: Development and external validation of a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Emily B; Xu, Stan; Goodrich, Glenn K; Nichols, Gregory A; O'Connor, Patrick J; Steiner, John F

    2017-07-01

    To develop and externally validate a prediction model for the 6-month risk of a severe hypoglycemic event among individuals with pharmacologically treated diabetes. The development cohort consisted of 31,674 Kaiser Permanente Colorado members with pharmacologically treated diabetes (2007-2015). The validation cohorts consisted of 38,764 Kaiser Permanente Northwest members and 12,035 HealthPartners members. Variables were chosen that would be available in electronic health records. We developed 16-variable and 6-variable models, using a Cox counting model process that allows for the inclusion of multiple 6-month observation periods per person. Across the three cohorts, there were 850,992 6-month observation periods, and 10,448 periods with at least one severe hypoglycemic event. The six-variable model contained age, diabetes type, HgbA1c, eGFR, history of a hypoglycemic event in the prior year, and insulin use. Both prediction models performed well, with good calibration and c-statistics of 0.84 and 0.81 for the 16-variable and 6-variable models, respectively. In the external validation cohorts, the c-statistics were 0.80-0.84. We developed and validated two prediction models for predicting the 6-month risk of hypoglycemia. The 16-variable model had slightly better performance than the 6-variable model, but in some practice settings, use of the simpler model may be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Viviane Regina Hernandez; Jacob, Charbel; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Batista, Jos? Lucas; Brazolino, Marcus Alexandre Novo; Maia, Thiago Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. RESULTS: Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, an...

  7. Avulsion of the L4 spinous process: an unusual injury in a professional rugby player: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alwyn; Andrews, John; Shoaib, Amer; Lyons, Kath; Ahuja, Sashin; Howes, John; Davies, Paul

    2005-06-01

    A case of L4 spinous process avulsion following a hyperflexion injury treated with surgical excision. To show that single photon emission computerized tomography is essential for the diagnosis and that excision can provide a successful outcome. The avulsion resulted from a forced hyperflexion injury at the L4/5 area, where the interspinous ligament provides a high resistance to flexion. A 29-year-old international rugby football player injured his low back during a match. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal the injury. Single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography showed the lesion. Initial conservative therapy failed to control the symptoms, and, therefore, late excision was performed with pain-free return to contact sports at 3 months. Few cases of interspinous process avulsions have been described, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rugby football player who had a successful outcome with late surgical excision.

  8. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Viviane Regina Hernandez; Jacob, Charbel; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Batista, José Lucas; Brazolino, Marcus Alexandre Novo; Maia, Thiago Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, and mean PI of 45. In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level, a mean tilt of 22.1, mean slope of 38.3, and mean PI of 61.4 were observed. This article reinforces the finding that the high mean tilt and PI are related to the onset of degenerative spondylolisthesis, and also concluded that the same angles, when low, increase the risk for disk herniation.

  9. Multi-Satellite Air Quality Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Database Long-Term L4 Global V1 (MSAQSO2L4) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are a part of Multi-Decadal Sulfur Dioxide Climatology from Satellite Instrument (MEaSUREs-12-0022 project). The catalogue MSAQSO2L4 file contains the...

  10. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Regina Hernandez Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. RESULTS: Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, and mean PI of 45. In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level, a mean tilt of 22.1, mean slope of 38.3, and mean PI of 61.4 were observed. CONCLUSION: This article reinforces the finding that the high mean tilt and PI are related to the onset of degenerative spondylolisthesis, and also concluded that the same angles, when low, increase the risk for disk herniation.

  11. CARVE: Monthly Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (2009-2013) and Modeled Fluxes, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports monthly averages of atmospheric CO2 concentration from satellite and airborne observations between 2009 and 2013 and simulated present and...

  12. Long-term success and failure with SG is predictable by 3 months: a multivariate model using simple office markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Austin; Billing, Josiah; Cottam, Daniel; Billing, Peter; Cottam, Samuel; Zaveri, Hinali; Surve, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Despite being the most common surgery in the United States, little is known about predicting weight loss success and failure with sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Papers that have been published are inconclusive. We decided to use multivariate analysis from 2 practices to design a model to predict weight loss outcomes using data widely available to any surgical practice at 3 months to determine weight loss outcomes at 1 year. Two private practices in the United States. A retrospective review of 613 patients from 2 bariatric institutions were included in this study. Co-morbidities and other preoperative characteristics were gathered, and %EWL was calculated for 1, 3, and 12 months. Excess weight loss (%EWL)failure. Multiple variate analysis was used to find factors that affect %EWL at 12 months. Preoperative sleep apnea, preoperative diabetes, %EWL at 1 month, and %EWL at 3 months all affect %EWL at 1 year. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of our model was 72% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 91%, respectively. One-year results of the SG can be predicted by diabetes, sleep apnea, and weight loss velocity at 3 months postoperatively. This can help surgeons direct surgical or medical interventions for patients at 3 months rather than at 1 year or beyond. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The structure of carbon nanotubes formed of graphene layers L4-8, L5-7, L3-12, L4-6-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K. E.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    We geometrically calculate the optimized structure of nanotubes based on the graphene layers, using the method of molecular mechanics MM+. It was found that only the nanotubes, based on the graphene layers L4-8, L5-7, L3-12, L4-6-12, have a cylindrical form. Calculations of the sublimation energy, carried out using the semi-empirical quantum-mechanic method PM3, show that energy increases with the increase of nanotube diameters.

  14. The SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf; Crow, Wade; Koster, Randal; Kimball, John

    2010-01-01

    that are informed by and consistent with SMAP observations. Such estimates are obtained by merging SMAP observations with estimates from a land surface model in a soil moisture data assimilation system. The land surface model component of the assimilation system is driven with observations-based surface meteorological forcing data, including precipitation, which is the most important driver for soil moisture. The model also encapsulates knowledge of key land surface processes, including the vertical transfer of soil moisture between the surface and root zone reservoirs. Finally, the model interpolates and extrapolates SMAP observations in time and in space. The L4_SM product thus provides a comprehensive and consistent picture of land surface hydrological conditions based on SMAP observations and complementary information from a variety of sources. The assimilation algorithm considers the respective uncertainties of each component and yields a product that is superior to satellite or model data alone. Error estimates for the L4_SM product are generated as a by-product of the data assimilation system.

  15. Electron and VLF travel time differences for wave-particle interactions at L=4: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rash, J.P.S.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Dougherty, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron resonance or gyroresonance interaction has been widely invoked as a generation mechanism for discrete VLF emissions and plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction involves electrons and VLF waves travelling in opposite directions along a geomagnetic field line. We examine, for an interaction region in the equatorial plane at L=4, the energy of the resonant electrons as a function of VLF wave frequency and ambient equatorial electron density. Then for two different spatial configurations of the interaction and two standard plasma distribution models we examine the difference in travel times to a ground-based observer in the Southern hemisphere for the electrons and waves taking part in the interaction. This difference in travel times is shown as a function of VLF wave frequency and equatorial electron density. The results, and their significance for observations of auroral electrons and VLF at Sanae, Antarctica, are discussed and compared with similar results for the Cerenkov interaction discussed in an earlier paper

  16. Estimating the monthly discharge of a photovoltaic water pumping system: Model verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, E.H.; Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A simple algorithm has been adopted for estimating the long term performance of a photovoltaic water pumping system without battery storage. The method uses the standard solar utilizability correlation equation to calculate the flow rate of the system, knowing an insolation threshold value. The method uses the monthly average solar radiation as the only input. The nonlinear relation between flow rate and solar insolation has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The meteorological data collected instantaneously at the site of the pumping system has been used to obtain the monthly average values for solar radiation that are needed by the method. The method has been validated by predicting the performance of two PV pumping systems. The average output of the systems predicted by the method has been compared with experimental measurements. The estimated discharge differs by about 5% from the experimental measurements

  17. The Benefish consortium 24 month report WP6: productivity modelling of OWI's and welfare intervention measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Schram, E.; Noble, C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately model all costs and benefits associated with welfare interventions for farmed fish it is necessary to establish how any welfare actions affect productivity. Productivity modelling within Benefish has been conducted in WP6. WP6 aimed to model relationships between welfare

  18. A joint stochastic-deterministic approach for long-term and short-term modelling of monthly flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Milan; Kostić, Srđan; Plavšić, Jasna; Prohaska, Stevan

    2017-01-01

    The authors present a detailed procedure for modelling of mean monthly flow time-series using records of the Great Morava River (Serbia). The proposed procedure overcomes a major challenge of other available methods by disaggregating the time series in order to capture the main properties of the hydrologic process in both long-run and short-run. The main assumption of the conducted research is that a time series of monthly flow rates represents a stochastic process comprised of deterministic, stochastic and random components, the former of which can be further decomposed into a composite trend and two periodic components (short-term or seasonal periodicity and long-term or multi-annual periodicity). In the present paper, the deterministic component of a monthly flow time-series is assessed by spectral analysis, whereas its stochastic component is modelled using cross-correlation transfer functions, artificial neural networks and polynomial regression. The results suggest that the deterministic component can be expressed solely as a function of time, whereas the stochastic component changes as a nonlinear function of climatic factors (rainfall and temperature). For the calibration period, the results of the analysis infers a lower value of Kling-Gupta Efficiency in the case of transfer functions (0.736), whereas artificial neural networks and polynomial regression suggest a significantly better match between the observed and simulated values, 0.841 and 0.891, respectively. It seems that transfer functions fail to capture high monthly flow rates, whereas the model based on polynomial regression reproduces high monthly flows much better because it is able to successfully capture a highly nonlinear relationship between the inputs and the output. The proposed methodology that uses a combination of artificial neural networks, spectral analysis and polynomial regression for deterministic and stochastic components can be applied to forecast monthly or seasonal flow rates.

  19. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneade Mary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT, a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%. Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65, with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64. Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681

  20. Evaluation of Thompson-type trend and monthly weather data models for corn yields in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation was made of Thompson-Type models which use trend terms (as a surrogate for technology), meteorological variables based on monthly average temperature, and total precipitation to forecast and estimate corn yields in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. Pooled and unpooled Thompson-type models were compared. Neither was found to be consistently superior to the other. Yield reliability indicators show that the models are of limited use for large area yield estimation. The models are objective and consistent with scientific knowledge. Timely yield forecasts and estimates can be made during the growing season by using normals or long range weather forecasts. The models are not costly to operate and are easy to use and understand. The model standard errors of prediction do not provide a useful current measure of modeled yield reliability.

  1. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasa D; Schiopu M; Tunas A; Baz R; Hancu Anca

    2016-01-01

    An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification) at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10) the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2....

  2. The Benefish consortium 24 month report WP6: productivity modelling of OWI's and welfare intervention measures

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, O.; Schram, E.; Noble, C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately model all costs and benefits associated with welfare interventions for farmed fish it is necessary to establish how any welfare actions affect productivity. Productivity modelling within Benefish has been conducted in WP6. WP6 aimed to model relationships between welfare interventions, changes in OWI’s and measures of productivity. It did so focusing only on the effects which were biological in nature: economic costs and benefits attributed to changes in productivity ar...

  3. A Conditionally Beta Distributed Time-Series Model With Application to Monthly US Corporate Default Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thor Pajhede

    2017-01-01

    We consider an observation driven, conditionally Beta distributed model for variables restricted to the unit interval. The model includes both explanatory variables and autoregressive dependence in the mean and precision parameters using the mean-precision parametrization of the beta distribution...

  4. Isospin breaking and radiative corrections in K{sub l4} decays; Brisure d'isospin et corrections radiatives au processus K{sub l4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuplov, V

    2004-04-15

    This thesis is dedicated to the impact of electromagnetic corrections on the decays of K{sub l4}. 2 types of electromagnetic contributions have to be considered: first the exchange of virtual photons and secondly the non-perturbative part of meson-photon interactions. We have also considered the effects of isospin breaking. We have shown that the isospin breaking and the electromagnetic corrections affect K{sub l4} decays in the neutral and mixed channels (respectively by 8% and -2%), while the charged channel is unaffected. It also appears that the tree approximation for the computation of the decay rates, is not accurate enough to explain experimental data. In the second part of this work, we give the analytical expressions of the F and G form factors associated with the amplitude of the K{sub l4} process in the charged mode. Infra-red divergencies counterbalance each other in the decay rates calculation when we consider the process K{sub l4{gamma}} where 1 photon is emitted with an energy below the sensitivity of the detector. We have found that the calculation in one loop order represents 75% of the measured value. The impact of radiative corrections is about 0.9% while the isospin breaking effect is about 1.6 per cent.

  5. The Shifting Seasonal Mean Autoregressive Model and Seasonality in the Central England Monthly Temperature Series, 1772-2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Changli; Kang, Jian; Terasvirta, Timo

    In this paper we introduce an autoregressive model with seasonal dummy variables in which coefficients of seasonal dummies vary smoothly and deterministically over time. The error variance of the model is seasonally heteroskedastic and multiplicatively decomposed, the decomposition being similar...... to that in well known ARCH and GARCH models. This variance is also allowed to be smoothly and deterministically time-varying. Under regularity conditions, consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimators of parameters of this model is proved. A test of constancy of the seasonal...... coefficients is derived. The test is generalised to specifying the parametric structure of the model. A test of constancy over time of the heteroskedastic error variance is presented. The purpose of building this model is to use it for describing changing seasonality in the well-known monthly central England...

  6. Summary and evaluation: fuel dynamics loss-of-flow experiments (tests L2, L3, and L4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barts, E.W.; Deitrich, L.W.; Eberhart, J.G.; Fischer, A.K.; Meek, C.C.

    1975-09-01

    Three similar experiments conducted to support the analyses of hypothetical LMFBR unprotected-loss-of-flow accidents are summarized and evaluated. The tests, designated L2, L3, and L4, provided experimental data against which accident-analysis codes could be compared, so as to guide further analysis and modeling of the initiating phases of the hypothetical accident. The tests were conducted using seven-pin bundles of mixed-oxide fuel pins in Mark-II flowing-sodium loops in the TREAT reactor. Test L2 used fresh fuel. Tests L3 and L4 used irradiated fuel pins having, respectively, ''intermediate-power'' (no central void) and ''high-power'' (fully developed central void) microstructure. 12 references

  7. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  8. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  9. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Wei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Liu, Shuyun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Mei [Hanyang Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ye, Linxiang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Qi, E-mail: lwq95@126.com [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yikai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  10. EX1504L4 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  11. EX1504L4 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  12. EX1504L4 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  13. EX1504L4 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  14. EX1504L4 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  15. A Real-Time Programmer's Tour of General-Purpose L4 Microkernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract L4-embedded is a microkernel successfully deployed in mobile devices with soft real-time requirements. It now faces the challenges of tightly integrated systems, in which user interface, multimedia, OS, wireless protocols, and even software-defined radios must run on a single CPU. In this paper we discuss the pros and cons of L4-embedded for real-time systems design, focusing on the issues caused by the extreme speed optimisations it inherited from its general-purpose ancestors. Since these issues can be addressed with a minimal performance loss, we conclude that, overall, the design of real-time systems based on L4-embedded is possible, and facilitated by a number of design features unique to microkernels and the L4 family.

  16. SMAP L4 Global Daily 9 km Carbon Net Ecosystem Exchange V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-4 (L4) carbon product (SPL4CMDL) provides global gridded daily estimates of net ecosystem carbon (CO2) exchange derived using a satellite data based...

  17. EX0909L4 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L4: Mapping Field Trials -...

  18. EX1504L4 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  19. GHRSST_NCDC_GLOB_L4_AVHRR_AMSR_OI_SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A GHRSST L4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center using optimal interpolation from AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5...

  20. Trojan asteroids - Populations, dynamical structure and origin of the L4 and L5 swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Shoemaker, C.S.; Wolfe, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The origin of Trojan asteroids, their populations, and dynamical structures are examined. Data available of Trojan asteroids reveal that the total population of Trojans of greater than 15-km diam is roughly half that estimated for the main-belt asteroids. Two-thirds of the known Trojans are in the L4 swarm. Bright Trojans are as numerous in the L5 swarm as in L4 swarm, but faint L5 Trojans are only half as numerous. Similarities of characteristic orbital parameters among certain Trojans indicate the presence of five and possibly as many as eight collisional groups in the L4 swarm. It is suggested that the magnitude distribution of L4 Trojans is probably a result of strong collisional evolution. It is suggested that the present Trojans are chiefly fragments of Jupiter planetesimals that were captured during an episode of heavy flux near Jupiter during the dispersal of the planetesimal swarm. 40 refs

  1. GHRSST_NCDC_GLOB_L4_AVHRR_OI_SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A GHRSST L4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center using optimal interpolation from AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5...

  2. EX1504L4 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address Pacific...

  3. EX1504L4 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  4. EX1504L4 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  5. EX1504L4 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  6. EX1504L4 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  7. EX1504L4 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  8. EX1504L4 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  9. EX1504L4 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  10. [Construction of a diagnostic prediction model of severe bacterial infection in febrile infants under 3 months old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Pinto, Enrique; Sánchez-Bayle, Marciano

    2017-12-01

    Fever is a common cause of paediatric admissions in emergency departments. An aetiological diagnosis is difficult to obtain in those less than 3 months of age, as they tend to have a higher rate of serious bacterial infection (SBI). The aim of this study is to find a predictor index of SBI in children under 3 months old with fever of unknown origin. A study was conducted on all children under 3 months of age with fever admitted to hospital, with additional tests being performed according to the clinical protocol. Rochester criteria for identifying febrile infants at low risk for SBI were also analysed. A predictive model for SBI and positive cultures was designed, including the following variables in the maximum model: C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and meeting not less than four of the Rochester criteria. A total of 702 subjects were included, of which 22.64% had an SBI and 20.65% had positive cultures. Children who had SBI and a positive culture showed higher values of white cells, total neutrophils, CRP and PCT. A statistical significance was observed with less than 4 Rochester criteria, CRP and PCT levels, an SBI (area under the curve [AUC] 0.877), or for positive cultures (AUC 0.888). Using regression analysis a predictive index was calculated for SBI or a positive culture, with a sensitivity of 87.7 and 91%, a specificity of 70.1 and 87.7%, an LR+ of 2.93 and 3.62, and a LR- of 0.17 and 0.10, respectively. The predictive models are valid and slightly improve the validity of the Rochester criteria for positive culture in children less than 3 months admitted with fever. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Recovery after fracture dislocation of L3/L4 ASIA B: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caldera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In fracture dislocations of the lumbar region, two anatomical facts can help preserve neurological damage in patients, when compared with trauma in the cervical or thoracic region. Firstly, the spinal cord in adults extends only to the lower edge of the first lumbar vertebra, and secondly, the large vertebral space in this region gives ample space for the roots of the cauda equine. As a result, the nerve injury may be minimal, because the nerve roots in this region are accommodated in a larger area, with less content and space. This study presents the case of a 48-year-old male, a construction worker, who suffered a fall from a height of approximately 15 meters, directly hitting the lumbar region against a beam, and presenting pain and inability to move the legs. The patient was brought to the emergency room 1 hour after the accident, clinically assessed, submitted to x-rays and a CT scan, and diagnosed as having an ASIA B L3-L4 fracture dislocation. Three hours after the accident, reduction was performed via posterior transpedicular fixation. One week later, an anterior approach was performed. The patient progressed to ASIA C 24 hours after the first surgery. Three months later, the patient was functional with ASIA D and good sphincter control. The author's purpose is to show the results obtained by an intervention in the initial hours of the trauma, which helped promote the evolution from a nonfunctional injury to a functional one, with near-total recovery. Keywords: Spine fracture, Recovery, Neurological deficit, Asia scale, Dislocation

  12. Validation of CRASH Model in Prediction of 14-day Mortality and 6-month Unfavorable Outcome of Head Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients withtraumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importancefor their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognosticmodel in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO of patients withtraumatic brain injury. Methods: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discriminationof CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department. Variablesrequired for calculating CRASH expected risks (ER, and observed 14-DM and 6-MUO were gathered. Then ERof 14-DM and 6-MUO were calculated. The patients were followed for 6 months and their 14-DM and 6-MUOwere recorded. Finally, the correlation of CRASH ER and the observed outcome of the patients was evaluated.The data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: In this study, 323 patients with the mean age of 34.0´s 19.4 years were evaluated (87.3% male. Calibration of the basic and CT models in prediction of 14-day and6-month outcome were in the desirable range (P Ç 0.05. Area under the curve in the basic model for predictionof 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89–0.96 and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.95, respectively. In addition,area under the curve in the CT model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.97 and0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, respectively. There was no significant difference between the discriminations of thetwo models in prediction of 14-DM (p Æ 0.11 and 6-MUO (p Æ 0.1. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy showed that CRASH prediction model has proper discrimination and calibration in predicting 14-DMand6-MUO of head trauma patients. Since there was no difference between the values of the basic and CT models,using the basic model is recommended to simplify the risk

  13. Assessing Intelligent Models in Forecasting Monthly Rainfall by Means of Teleconnection Patterns (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Nazarieh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rainfall is affected by changes in the global sea level change, especially changes in sea surface temperature SST Sea Surface Temperature and sea level pressure SLP Sea level Pressure. Climate anomalies being related to each other at large distance is called teleconnection. As physical relationships between rainfall and teleconnection patterns are not defined clearly, we used intelligent models for forecasting rainfall. The intelligent models used in this study included Fuzzy Inference Systems, neural network and Neuro-fuzzy. In this study, first the teleconnection indices that could affect rainfall in the study area were identified. Then intelligent models were trained for rainfall forecasting. Finally, the most capable model for forecasting rainfall was presented. The study area for this research is the Khorasan Razavi Province. In order to present a model for rainfall forecasting, rainfall data of seven synoptic stations including Mashhad, Golmakan, Nishapur, Sabzevar, Kashmar, Torbate and Sharks since 1991 to 2010 were used. Materials and Methods: Based on previous studies about Teleconnection Patterns in the study area, effective Teleconnection indexes were identified. After calculating the correlation between the identified teleconnection indices and rainfall in one, two and three months ahead for all stations, fourteen teleconnection indices were chosen as inputs for intelligent models. These indices include, SLP Adriatic , SLP northern Red Sea, SLP Mediterranean Sea, SLP Aral sea, SST Sea surface temperature Labrador sea, SST Oman Sea, SST Caspian Sea, SST Persian Gulf, North Pacific pattern, SST Tropical Pacific in NINO12 and NINO3 regions, North Pacific Oscillation, Trans-Nino Index, Multivariable Enso Index. Inputs of the intelligent models include fourteen teleconnection indices, latitude and altitude of each station and their outputs are the prediction of rainfall for one, two and three months ahead. For calibration of

  14. In vitro dynamic model simulating the digestive tract of 6-month-old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Marianna; Tornatore, Fabio; Frasso, Annalisa; Saccone, Giulia; Budelli, Andrea; Barone, Maria V.

    2017-01-01

    Background In vivo assays cannot always be conducted because of ethical reasons, technical constraints or costs, but a better understanding of the digestive process, especially in infants, could be of great help in preventing food-related pathologies and in developing new formulas with health benefits. In this context, in vitro dynamic systems to simulate human digestion and, in particular, infant digestion could become increasingly valuable. Objective To simulate the digestive process through the use of a dynamic model of the infant gastroenteric apparatus to study the digestibility of starch-based infant foods. Design Using M.I.D.A (Model of an Infant Digestive Apparatus), the oral, gastric and intestinal digestibility of two starch-based products were measured: 1) rice starch mixed with distilled water and treated using two different sterilization methods (the classical method with a holding temperature of 121°C for 37 min and the HTST method with a holding temperature of 137°C for 70 sec) and 2) a rice cream with (premium product) or without (basic product) an aliquot of rice flour fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74. After the digestion the foods were analyzed for the starch concentration, the amount of D-glucose released and the percentage of hydrolyzed starch. Results An in vitro dynamic system, which was referred to as M.I.D.A., was obtained. Using this system, the starch digestion occurred only during the oral and intestinal phase, as expected. The D-glucose released during the intestinal phase was different between the classical and HTST methods (0.795 grams for the HTST versus 0.512 for the classical product). The same analysis was performed for the basic and premium products. In this case, the premium product had a significant difference in terms of the starch hydrolysis percentage during the entire process. Conclusions The M.I.D.A. system was able to digest simple starches and a more complex food in the correct compartments. In this study

  15. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green leaf area index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  16. Evaluation of three energy balance-based evaporation models for estimating monthly evaporation for five lakes using derived heat storage changes from a hysteresis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Z.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    The heat storage changes (Qt) can be a significant component of the energy balance in lakes, and it is important to account for Qt for reasonable estimation of evaporation at monthly and finer timescales if the energy balance-based evaporation models are used. However, Qt has been often neglected in

  17. Partitioning of the L4-L5 dynamic moment into disc, ligamentous, and muscular components during lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, S M; Norman, R W

    1986-09-01

    This work describes a dynamic model of the low back that incorporates extensive anatomical detail of a three-dimensional musculo-ligamentous-skeletal system. The reactive moment about L4-L5, determined from sagittal plane lifts, was partitioned into restorative components provided by the disc in bending, ligament strain, and active muscle contraction. Skeletal kinematics were obtained from cine analysis of markers on the rib cage and pelvis. The musculature was driven from surface EMG collected from six sites. When compared with past models, features of this model included improved anatomical modeling, improved monitoring of vertebral motion unit kinematics, improved estimation of neural activation of the musculature, and consideration of the effects of muscle length, velocity, cross-sectional area and passive elasticity in force estimation. Estimations of L4-L5 disc compression and shear were, on average, 16.2% and 42.5% lower, respectively, than those calculated from a simple 5 cm erector tissue moment arm length. There was no need to invoke intra-abdominal pressure or other contentious compression-reducing mechanisms. Muscle activity, particularly that of the sacrospinalis, dominated the generation of the restorative moment. Ligaments played a very minor role in the lifts studied. High muscle loads are consistent with the common clinical observation of muscle strain often produced by load handling.

  18. Diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean: Results of monthly mean sea surface topography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.

    A three-dimensional diagnostic model has been developed to compute the monthly mean circulation and sea surface topography in the Western Tropical Indian Ocean north of 20 degrees S and west of 80 degrees E. The diagnostic model equations...

  19. A binary genetic programing model for teleconnection identification between global sea surface temperature and local maximum monthly rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Nourani, Vahid; Hrnjica, Bahrudin; Molajou, Amir

    2017-12-01

    The effectiveness of genetic programming (GP) for solving regression problems in hydrology has been recognized in recent studies. However, its capability to solve classification problems has not been sufficiently explored so far. This study develops and applies a novel classification-forecasting model, namely Binary GP (BGP), for teleconnection studies between sea surface temperature (SST) variations and maximum monthly rainfall (MMR) events. The BGP integrates certain types of data pre-processing and post-processing methods with conventional GP engine to enhance its ability to solve both regression and classification problems simultaneously. The model was trained and tested using SST series of Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Red Sea as potential predictors as well as classified MMR events at two locations in Iran as predictand. Skill of the model was measured in regard to different rainfall thresholds and SST lags and compared to that of the hybrid decision tree-association rule (DTAR) model available in the literature. The results indicated that the proposed model can identify potential teleconnection signals of surrounding seas beneficial to long-term forecasting of the occurrence of the classified MMR events.

  20. A Radiographic Measurement of the Anterior Epidural Space at L4-5 Disc Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Sheng; Wu, Jie-Shi; Lu, Hai-Dan; Zhu, Hao-Gang; Li, Xia; Dong, Jian; Yuan, Feng-Lai

    2017-05-01

    To observe the morphology character of the anterior epidural space at the L 4-5 disc level and to provide an anatomical basis for safely and accurately performing a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). Fifty-five cases with L 5 S 1 lumbar disc herniation were included in this study, and cases with L 4-5 disease were excluded. When the puncture needle reached the epidural space at the L 5 S 1 level, iohexol was injected at the pressure of 50 cm H 2 O during the PELD, then C-Arm fluoroscopy was used to obtain standard lumbar frontal and lateral images. The widths of epidural space at the level of the L 4 lower endplate, the L 5 upper endplate, as well as the middle point of the L 4-5 disc were measured from the lumbar lateral X-ray film. Epidural space at the L 4-5 disc plane performs like a trapezium chart with a short side at the head end and a long side at the tail end in the lumbar lateral X-ray radiograph, while the average widths of epidural space were 10.2 ± 2.5, 12.3 ± 2.3, and 13.8 ± 2.6 mm at the upper, middle, and lower level of the L 4-5 disc. Understanding the morphological characteristics of epidural space will contribute to improving the safety of the tranforaminal percutaneous endoscopy technique. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  2. Spatial validation of large scale land surface models against monthly land surface temperature patterns using innovative performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Julian; Siemann, Amanda; Stisen, Simon; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are a key tool to enhance process understanding and to provide predictions of the terrestrial hydrosphere and its atmospheric coupling. Distributed LSMs predict hydrological states and fluxes, such as land surface temperature (LST) or actual evapotranspiration (aET), at each grid cell. LST observations are widely available through satellite remote sensing platforms that enable comprehensive spatial validations of LSMs. In spite of the availability of LST data, most validation studies rely on simple cell to cell comparisons and thus do not regard true spatial pattern information. This study features two innovative spatial performance metrics, namely EOF- and connectivity-analysis, to validate predicted LST patterns by three LSMs (Mosaic, Noah, VIC) over the contiguous USA. The LST validation dataset is derived from global High-Resolution-Infrared-Radiometric-Sounder (HIRS) retrievals for a 30 year period. The metrics are bias insensitive, which is an important feature in order to truly validate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis evaluates the spatial variability and pattern seasonality, and attests better performance to VIC in the warm months and to Mosaic and Noah in the cold months. Further, more than 75% of the LST variability can be captured by a single pattern that is strongly driven by air temperature. The connectivity analysis assesses the homogeneity and smoothness of patterns. The LSMs are most reliable at predicting cold LST patterns in the warm months and vice versa. Lastly, the coupling between aET and LST is investigated at flux tower sites and compared against LSMs to explain the identified LST shortcomings.

  3. Biallelic expression of Tssc4, Nap1l4, Phlda2 and Osbpl5 in adult ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , kidney, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous fat using polymorphism-based sequencing approach. It was found that all the four genes showed biallelic expression in tissues in which transcripts were detected. Nap1l4 and Tssc4 were detected in ...

  4. GE~L ~4J SIR HE~R Y TI~SO~ LUKI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GE~L ~4J SIR HE~R Y TI~SO~ LUKI~. Herkoms en Jeugjare. Fulham is 'n voorstad van Londen. Oit is daar waar Henry Timson Lukin op 24 Mei 1860 as die oudste en enigste seun van Robert Henry. Lukin gebore is. Alhoewel 'n gekwalifiseerde advokaat wat daarby talle oorsese ekspedisies onderneem het, het Robert ...

  5. Influence of laser power on the deposition Ti64l4V/W composite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndou, N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser power on the deposited of Ti64l4V/W composites was investigated. The energy flow rates were varied while every single other parameter were kept at a steady. The evolving microstructure and the hardness of the composites were...

  6. Cytotoxicity of poly(96L/4D-lactide) : the influence of degradation and sterilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, FW; Joziasse, CAP; Schmitz, JP; Bos, RRM; Rozema, FR; Pennings, AJ

    2000-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of poly(96L/4D-lactide) (PLA96), and of its accumulated degradation products, was investigated following different sterilization methods and pre-determined heat-accelerated degradation intervals. PLA96 samples sterilized by either steam, ethylene oxide, or gamma irradiation were

  7. A Method for the Monthly Electricity Demand Forecasting in Colombia based on Wavelet Analysis and a Nonlinear Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Moreno-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a monthly electricity forecast method for the National Interconnected System (SIN of Colombia. The method preprocesses the time series using a Multiresolution Analysis (MRA with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT; a study for the selection of the mother wavelet and her order, as well as the level decomposition was carried out. Given that original series follows a non-linear behaviour, a neural nonlinear autoregressive (NAR model was used. The prediction was obtained by adding the forecast trend with the estimated obtained by the residual series combined with further components extracted from preprocessing. A bibliographic review of studies conducted internationally and in Colombia is included, in addition to references to investigations made with wavelet transform applied to electric energy prediction and studies reporting the use of NAR in prediction.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Profile of a 2-Month Dose Regimen of Aripiprazole Lauroxil: A Phase I Study and a Population Pharmacokinetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Marjie L; Mills, Richard J; Sadler, Brian M; Wehr, Angela Y; Weiden, Peter J; von Moltke, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) is a long-acting injectable medication approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. Current AL regimens are 441 mg, 662 mg, and 882 mg administered monthly (every 4 weeks [q4wk]), or 882 mg administered every 6 weeks (q6wk). We examined the feasibility of a 2-month (every 8 weeks [q8wk]) dosing interval of AL in a phase I open-label pharmacokinetic study investigating AL 1064 mg administered q8wk for 24 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of safety and pharmacokinetic measurements (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02320032). Second, a population pharmacokinetic model (referred to as the 2MPopPK model) was generated using data collected from the present trial, as well as data obtained from earlier studies. The phase I study included patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder maintained on an oral antipsychotic (n = 140) who were assigned to one of three groups: AL 441 mg q4wk, AL 882 mg q6wk, or AL 1064 mg q8wk, with a total of seven, five, or four injections administered, respectively. No oral aripiprazole lead-in supplementation was administered and patients continued on maintenance oral antipsychotics. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected at various time points during the 24-week study period and the 20-week follow-up period. Plasma concentrations obtained from the phase I study were analyzed using non-compartmental methods. Additionally, the data were combined with data collected from prior studies to develop the 2MPopPK model. Following the final injection of AL in the phase I study, maximum aripiprazole concentrations were achieved 24.4-35.2 days after the last dose and persisted for the duration of the study. The mean C avg,ss values were 125.8 ng/ml, 131.1 ng/ml, and 140.7 ng/ml for the 441 mg q4wk, 882 mg q6wk, and 1064 mg q8wk doses, respectively. The mean elimination half-life of aripiprazole following the last dose was 53.9 days for the 1064 mg dose, 55.1 days for the 882 mg dose, and 57.2 days for

  9. Statistical comparison of models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse radiation at a subtropical African site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashahu, M. [University of Burundi, Bujumbura (Burundi). Institute of Applied Pedagogy, Department of Physics and Technology

    2003-07-01

    Nine correlations have been developed in this paper to estimate the monthly average diffuse radiation for Dakar, Senegal. A 16-year period data on the global (H) and diffuse (H{sub d}) radiation, together with data on the bright sunshine hours (N), the fraction of the sky's (Ne/8), the water vapour pressure in the air (e) and the ambient temperature (T) have been used for that purpose. A model inter-comparison based on the MBE, RMSE and t statistical tests has shown that estimates in any of the obtained correlations are not significantly different from their measured counterparts, thus all the nine models are recommended for the aforesaid location. Three of them should be particularly selected for their simplicity, universal applicability and high accuracy. Those are simple linear correlations between K{sub d} and N/N{sub d}, Ne/8 or K{sub t}. Even presenting adequate performance, the remaining correlations are either simple but less accurate, or multiple or nonlinear regressions needing one or two input variables. (author)

  10. Statistical comparison of models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse radiation at a subtropical African site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashahu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nine correlations have been developed in this paper to estimate the monthly average diffuse radiation for Dakar, Senegal. A 16-year period data on the global (H) and diffuse (H d ) radiation, together with data on the bright sunshine hours (N), the fraction of the sky's (Ne/8), the water vapour pressure in the air (e) and the ambient temperature (T) have been used for that purpose. A model inter-comparison based on the MBE, RMSE and t statistical tests has shown that estimates in any of the obtained correlations are not significantly different from their measured counterparts, thus all the nine models are recommended for the aforesaid location. Three of them should be particularly selected for their simplicity, universal applicability and high accuracy. Those are simple linear correlations between K d and N/N d , Ne/8 or K t . Even presenting adequate performance, the remaining correlations are either simple but less accurate, or multiple or nonlinear regressions needing one or two input variables. (author)

  11. Operationalizing the TANIC and NICA-L3/L4 Tools to Improve Informatics Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Carolyn; McGonigle, Dee; Hunter, Kathy; Hebda, Toni; Hill, Taryn; Lamblin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Two tools were developed for nurses to self-assess different levels of informatics competencies. The TANIC is used for all nurses to self-assess; the NICA-L3/L4 is a tool for the informatics nurse specialist (INS) to self-assess skill levels. There are 167 informatics items in the TANIC and 178 advanced informatics items in the NICA-L3/L4. These tools were piloted; the results presented here. Based on the evaluation, the tools have been integrated into informatics courses at the BSN and MSN programs at Chamberlain College of Nursing, and presented in two AACN webinars and other national conferences. Numerous requests have been honored to provide the tools for other schools of nursing to use in their courses, including DNP programs. Other requests include those from CNIOs and managers to include in their job descriptions for informatics nurses.

  12. CESM Lakes Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains monthly aggregates of 2D near-surface fields from the WRF model simulations labeled "default" (using WRF default approach to setting lake...

  13. CARVE: L4 Gridded Footprints from WRF-STILT model, 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) Footprint data products for particle receptors...

  14. Motor function deficits in the 12 month-old female 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T P; Robertson, A; Chipman, P H; Rafuse, V F; Brown, R E

    2018-01-30

    Motor problems occur early in some patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as the disease progresses many patients develop motor dysfunction. Motor dysfunction has been reported in some mouse models of AD, including the 5xFAD mouse, thus this model may be particularly useful for studying motor dysfunction in AD. In order to determine the extent of motor dysfunction in these mice, we tested 11-13 month old female 5xFAD and wildtype (WT) control mice in a battery of motor behaviour tasks. The 5xFAD mice showed hind limb clasping, weighed less and had slower righting reflexes than WT mice. In the open field, the 5xFAD mice travelled a shorter distance than the WT mice, spent less time moving and had a slower movement speed. The 5xFAD mice fell faster than the WT mice from the balance beam, wire suspension, grid suspension and rotarod tasks, indicating dysfunctions in balance, grip strength, motor co-ordination and motor learning. The 5xFAD mice had a short, shuffling gait with a shorter stride length than WT mice and had a slower swim speed. The 5xFAD mice also failed to show an acoustic startle response, likely due to motor dysfunction and previously reported hearing impairment. The 5xFAD mice did not show deficits in the ability of peripheral motor nerves to drive muscle output, suggesting that motor impairments are not due to dysfunction in peripheral motor nerves. These results indicate that the aged 5xFAD mice are deficient in numerous motor behaviours, and suggest that these mice may prove to be a good model for studying the mechanisms of motor dysfunction in AD, and motor behaviour might prove useful for assessing the efficacy of AD therapeutics. Motor dysfunction in 5xFAD mice must also be considered in behavioural tests of sensory and cognitive function so that performance is not confounded by impaired locomotor or swimming behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear inelastic scattering cross sections for the transitions to L = 4 and L = 5 states in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasmin Rahman, S.; Haque, Sangita; Rahman, A.Md.

    2004-07-01

    The generalized scattering amplitudes of the adiabatic distorted waves theory have been developed by Austem and Blair, connecting the inelastic scattering amplitudes in terms of the elastic scattering amplitudes. Potgieter and Frahn obtained simple, closed and explicit expressions for the inelastic scattering amplitudes, again in the adiabatic approximation, under strong absorption condition. These are analogous to the strong absorption model formulae for elastic scattering. In a previous communication, inelastic scattering cross section leading to the population of L = 2 and L = 3 states in nuclei are derived by us, using the general formulations due to Potgieter and Fahn. We derive here closed expressions for the cross sections for the inelastic scattering, transiting to L = 4 and L = 5 states in nuclei in the same line as before and satisfactory and simultaneous fits to the elastic as well as inelastic angular distributions are obtained. (author)

  16. Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised.

  17. A Comprehensive Modeling Study on Regional Climate Model (RCM Application — Regional Warming Projections in Monthly Resolutions under IPCC A1B Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mujibur Rahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major dimensions of climate change include increase in surface temperature, longer spells of droughts in significant portions of the world, associated higher evapotranspiration rates, and so on. It is therefore essential to comprehend the future possible scenario of climate change in terms of global warming. A high resolution limited area Regional Climate Model (RCM can produce reasonably appropriate projections to be used for climate-scenario generation in country-scale. This paper features the development of future surface temperature projections for Bangladesh on monthly resolution for each year from 2011 to 2100 applying Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS, and it explains in detail the modeling processes including the model features, domain size selection, bias identification as well as construction of change field for the concerned climatic variable, in this case, surface temperature. PRECIS was run on a 50 km horizontal grid-spacing under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A1B scenario and it was found to perform reasonably well in simulating future surface temperature of Bangladesh. The linear regression between observed and model simulated results of monthly average temperatures, within the 30-year period from 1971 to 2000, gives a high correlation of 0.93. The applied change field in average annual temperature shows only 0.5 °C–1 °C deviation from the observed values over the period from 2005 to 2008. Eventually, from the projected average temperature change during the years 1971–2000, it is apparent that warming in Bangladesh prevails invariably every month, which might eventually result in an average annual increase of 4 °C by the year 2100. Calculated anomalies in country-average annual temperature mostly remain on the positive side throughout the period of 2071–2100 indicating an overall up-shift. Apart from these quantitative analyses of temporal changes of temperature

  18. Human impact parameterization in global hydrological models improves estimates of monthly discharges and hydrological extremes: a multi-model validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Ward, Philip; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen; Muller Schmied, Hannes; Portmann, Felix; Zhao, Fang; Gerten, Dieter; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Pokhrel, Yadu; Satoh, Yusuke; Gosling, Simon; Zaherpour, Jamal; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Human impacts on freshwater resources and hydrological features form the core of present-day water related hazards, like flooding, droughts, water scarcity, and water quality issues. Driven by the societal and scientific needs to correctly model such water related hazards a fair amount of resources has been invested over the past decades to represent human activities and their interactions with the hydrological cycle in global hydrological models (GHMs). Use of these GHMs - including the human dimension - is widespread, especially in water resources research. Evaluation or comparative assessments of the ability of such GHMs to represent real-world hydrological conditions are, unfortunately, however often limited to (near-)natural river basins. Such studies are, therefore, not able to test the model representation of human activities and its associated impact on estimates of freshwater resources or assessments of hydrological extremes. Studies that did perform a validation exercise - including the human dimension and looking into managed catchments - either focused only on one hydrological model, and/or incorporated only a few data points (i.e. river basins) for validation. To date, a comprehensive comparative analysis that evaluates whether and where incorporating the human dimension actually improves the performance of different GHMs with respect to their representation of real-world hydrological conditions and extremes is missing. The absence of such study limits the potential benchmarking of GHMs and their outcomes in hydrological hazard and risk assessments significantly, potentially hampering incorporation of GHMs and their modelling results in actual policy making and decision support with respect to water resources management. To address this issue, we evaluate in this study the performance of five state-of-the-art GHMs that include anthropogenic activities in their modelling scheme, with respect to their representation of monthly discharges and hydrological

  19. Short-term outcomes of lateral lumbar interbody fusion without decompression for the treatment of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter G; Nunley, Pierce D; Cavanaugh, David; Kerr, Eubulus; Utter, Philip Andrew; Frank, Kelly; Stone, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recently, authors have called into question the utility and complication index of the lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedure at the L4-5 level. Furthermore, the need for direct decompression has also been debated. Here, the authors report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion, relying only on indirect decompression to treat patients with neurogenic claudication secondary to Grade 1 and 2 spondylolisthesis at the L4-5 level. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of 18 consecutive patients with Grade 1 or 2 spondylolisthesis from a prospectively maintained database. All patients underwent a transpsoas approach, followed by posterior percutaneous instrumentation without decompression. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and SF-12 were administered during the clinical evaluations. Radiographic evaluation was also performed. The mean follow-up was 6.2 months. RESULTS Fifteen patients with Grade 1 and 3 patients with Grade 2 spondylolisthesis were identified and underwent fusion at a total of 20 levels. The mean operative time was 165 minutes for the combined anterior and posterior phases of the operation. The estimated blood loss was 113 ml. The most common cage width in the anteroposterior dimension was 22 mm (78%). Anterior thigh dysesthesia was identified on detailed sensory evaluation in 6 of 18 patients (33%); all patients experienced resolution within 6 months postoperatively. No patient had lasting sensory loss or motor deficit. The average ODI score improved 26 points by the 6-month follow-up. At the 6-month follow-up, the SF-12 mean Physical and Mental Component Summary scores improved by 11.9% and 9.6%, respectively. No patient required additional decompression postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS This study offers clinical results to establish lateral lumbar interbody fusion as an effective technique for the treatment of Grade 1 or 2 degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-5. The use of this surgical

  20. Multilevel Thoracolumbar Spondylolysis with Spondylolisthesis at L4 on L5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Whoan Jeang; Song, Young Dong; Choy, Won Sik

    2015-09-01

    A 24-year-old male patient was initially evaluated for persistent back pain. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 7 points. Physical examination revealed a decreased range of lumbar spinal motion, which caused pain. Simple X-ray revealed Meyerding grade 1 spondylolisthesis at L4 on L5, with mild dome-shaped superior endplate and consecutive multilevel spondylolysis at T12-L5. Standing anteroposterior and lateral views of the entire spine revealed normal balance of sagittal and coronal alignment. A computed tomography scan revealed bilateral spondylolysis at T12-L4, left unilateral spondylolysis at L5, and spina bifida at L5 to sacral region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed mild dural ectasia at the lumbar region. Due to the absence of any neurological symptoms, the patient was managed conservatively. He was rested a few weeks with corset brace and physiotherapy. After treatment, his back pain improved, VAS score changed from 7 to 2, and he was able to return to normal activity.

  1. Effect of Climate Variables on Monthly Growth in Modeling Biological Yield of Araucaria angustifolia and Pinus taeda in the Juvenile Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Teodoro Zamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of climate variables on monthly growth in diameter and height of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze and of Pinus taeda L., over a six-year period, as well as verifing the contribution of these variables in the composition of the Chapman-Richards model. To this end, we selected 30 trees of each species and measured monthly the diameter and height, between June 2006 and August 2012. The climate variables were obtained from two SIMEPAR meteorological stations near the plantings. A correlation matrix was constructed to determine the effect of climate variables on the monthly growth. Next a principal component analysis (PCA was conducted to determine the climate variables to be included in the fit of the Chapman-Richards model. The results indicated that the climate variables with the highest correlation (about 0.6 with monthly growth in diameter and height of the species were temperature, photoperiod and atmospheric pressure, and precipitation for some years of the study. The fitted model that included climate variables showed reduced Syx% of about 0.8% compared to the traditional biological model. However, ANOVA showed no statistical difference between the production estimates obtained by both models.

  2. Size of isospin breaking in charged $K_{l4}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Nehme, A

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the size of isospin breaking corrections to form factors f and g of the K/sub l4/ decay process K/sup +/ to pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/l/sup +/vl which is actually measured by the extended NA48 setup at CERN. We found that, keeping apart the effect of Coulomb interaction, isospin breaking does not affect the moduli. This is due to the cancellation between corrections of electromagnetic origin and those generated by the difference between up and down quark masses. On the other hand, electromagnetism affects considerably the phases if the infrared divergence is dropped out using a minimal subtraction scheme. Consequently, the greatest care must be taken in the extraction of pi pi phase shifts from experiment.

  3. Progress of and future plans for the L-4 Blanket Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.; Ioki, K.; Cardella, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER L-4 Blanket Project has achieved substantial progress over the last two years. The qualification of materials so far considered as reference for the shield module fabrication has been completed, as well as the developments for joining the triplex First Wall structure. Several Primary Wall, baffle, and limiter mock-ups have been manufactured and tested showing comfortable margins against the loads expected in ITER. Shield prototypes have been manufactured by conventional and advanced technology, which have finally demonstrated the manufacturing feasibility. More recently, activities for the qualification of the module attachment system have been started, and first results from materials and mock-up tests have become available. Several test campaigns are still to be finished to complete the data base for the design. In the meantime, further activities have been initiated to adapt the R and D programme to the ITER-FEAT design features, with the aim to further reduce the cost. (author)

  4. Understanding SMAP-L4 soil moisture estimation skill and their dependence with topography, precipitation and vegetation type using Mesonet and Micronet networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H. A.; Basara, J. B.; Thompson, E.; Bertrand, D.; Johnston, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture measurements using satellite information can benefit from a land data assimilation model Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) and land data assimilation system (LDAS) to improve the representation of fine-scale dynamics and variability. This work presents some advances to understand the predictive skill of L4-SM product across different land-cover types, topography and precipitation totals, by using a dense network of multi-level soil moisture sensors (i.e. Mesonet and Micronet) in Oklahoma. 130 soil moisture stations are used across different precipitation gradients (i.e. arid vs wet), land cover (e.g. forest, shrubland, grasses, crops), elevation (low, mid and high) and slope to assess the improvements by the L4_SM product relative to the raw SMAP L-band brightness temperatures. The comparisons are conducted between July 2015 and July 2016 at the daily time scale. Results show the highest L4-SM overestimations occur in pastures and cultivated crops, during the rainy season and at higher elevation lands (over 800 meters asl). The smallest errors occur in low elevation lands, low rainfall and developed lands. Forested area's soil moisture biases lie in between pastures (max biases) and low intensity/developed lands (min biases). Fine scale assessment of L4-SM should help GEOS-5 and LDAS teams refine model parameters in light of observed differences and improve assimilation techniques in light of land-cover, topography and precipitation regime. Additionally, regional decision makers could have a framework to weight the utility of this product for water resources applications.

  5. A home assistance model for dementia: outcome in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease after three months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Carbone

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of dementias, which are currently incurable pathologies, requires an approach to care that involves both the patients and their families. The effect of alternative interventions, besides the pharmacological approach, therefore warrants evaluation. In this paper, we describe one such intervention, which was provided by our home care team for Alzheimer's Disease. Patients were granted a three-month period of home care assistance, which included physical and cognitive rehabilitation as well as interventions on the home environment and the family, such as psychological support for the main caregivers. The assistance was provided in thrice-weekly sessions, each lasting six hours. Twenty-two patients (age 78.4±6.5 yrs, all of whom had received a diagnosis of probable AD, were enrolled. There was a statistically significant improvement in the NPI score (p = 0.004, Barthel index (p = 0.01, Tinetti's scale (p = 0.013 and CBI score (p = 0.016 at the end of the 3-month treatment period. The patients' caregivers also reported a significant improvement in the physical and social burden at the CBI at the end of the period of home care assistance (p = 0.026 and p = 0.006. In a further evaluation performed 3 months after the end of the treatment period, the beneficial effect previously observed in both patients and caregivers was no longer present.

  6. Prospects of using Bayesian model averaging for the calibration of one-month forecasts of surface air temperature over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chansoo; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the prospect of calibrating probabilistic forecasts of surface air temperature (SAT) over South Korea by using Bayesian model averaging (BMA). We used 63 months of simulation results from four regional climate models (RCMs) with two boundary conditions (NCEP-DOE and ERA-interim) over the CORDEX East Asia. Rank histograms and residual quantile-quantile (R-Q-Q) plots showed that the simulation skills of the RCMs differ according to season and geographic location, but the RCMs show a systematic cold bias irrespective of season and geographic location. As a result, the BMA weights are clearly dependent on geographic location, season, and correlations among the models. The one-month equal weighted ensemble (EWE) outputs for the 59 stations over South Korea were calibrated using the BMA method for 48 monthly time periods based on BMA weights obtained from the previous 15 months of training data. The predictive density function was calibrated using BMA and the individual forecasts were weighted according to their performance. The raw ensemble forecasts were assessed using the flatness of the rank histogram and the R-Q-Q plot. The results showed that BMA improves the calibration of the EWE and the other weighted ensemble forecasts irrespective of season, simulation skill of the RCM, and geographic location. In addition, deterministic-style BMA forecasts usually perform better than the deterministic forecast of the single best member.

  7. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  8. Monthly land cover-specific evapotranspiration models derived from global eddy flux measurements and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan Fang; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Asko Noormets; Jean-Christophe Domec; John King; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xudong Zhang; Guanghui Lin; Guangsheng Zhou; Jingfeng Xiao; Jiquan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is arguably the most uncertain ecohydrologic variable for quantifying watershed water budgets. Although numerous ET and hydrological models exist, accurately predicting the effects of global change on water use and availability remains challenging because of model deficiency and/or a lack of input parameters. The objective of this study was to...

  9. Application of GRACE to the assessment of model-based estimates of monthly Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance (2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.-J. Schlegel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the Greenland Ice Sheet's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task that requires accurate estimates of ice sheet sensitivity to climate change. Forward ice sheet models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior, yet confidence is low because evaluation of historical simulations is challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for model evaluation. Recent advancements in processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data using Bayesian-constrained mass concentration ("mascon" functions have led to improvements in spatial resolution and noise reduction of monthly global gravity fields. Specifically, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution (GRACE_JPL offers an opportunity for the assessment of model-based estimates of ice sheet mass balance (MB at ∼ 300 km spatial scales. Here, we quantify the differences between Greenland monthly observed MB (GRACE_JPL and that estimated by state-of-the-art, high-resolution models, with respect to GRACE_JPL and model uncertainties. To simulate the years 2003–2012, we force the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM with anomalies from three different surface mass balance (SMB products derived from regional climate models. Resulting MB is compared against GRACE_JPL within individual mascons. Overall, we find agreement in the northeast and southwest where MB is assumed to be primarily controlled by SMB. In the interior, we find a discrepancy in trend, which we presume to be related to millennial-scale dynamic thickening not considered by our model. In the northwest, seasonal amplitudes agree, but modeled mass trends are muted relative to GRACE_JPL. Here, discrepancies are likely controlled by temporal variability in ice discharge and other related processes not represented by our model simulations, i.e., hydrological processes and ice–ocean interaction. In the southeast, GRACE_JPL exhibits larger seasonal

  10. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and weight loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  11. AVISO_L4_DYN_TOPO_1DEG_1MO:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The absolute dynamic topography data (similar to sea level but with respect to the geoid) are on monthly 1 degree grids. These data were generated to help support...

  12. Grade 2 Spondylolisthesis at L4-5 Treated by XLIF: Safety and Midterm Results in the “Worst Case Scenario”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Rodgers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spondylolisthesis is one of the most common indications for spinal surgery. However, no one approach has been proven to be more effective in treating spondylolisthesis. Recent advances in minimally invasive spine technology have allowed for different approaches to be applied to this indication, notably extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF. The risk, however, of using XLIF in treating grade II spondylolisthesis is the ventral position of the lumbar plexus, particularly at L4-5. Objective. This study reports the safety and midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients with grade II lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with XLIF. Methods. 63 patients with grade II spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis were treated with XLIF and were available for 12-month followup. Of those, 61 (97% were treated at L4-5. Clinical (VAS, complications, and reoperation rate and radiographic (anterolisthesis, disk height, and fusion parameters were assessed. Study Design. Data were collected via a prospective registry and analyzed retrospectively. Results. Sixty-three patients were available for evaluations at least one year postoperatively. Average pain (visual analog scale decreased from a score of 8.7 at baseline to 2.2 at 12 months postoperatively. Average anterior slippage was reduced by 73% and was well maintained. Average disk height (4.6 mm pre-op and 9.0 mm post-op nearly doubled after surgery. Slight settling (average 1.3 mm occurred over the twelve-month follow-up period. There were no neural injuries and no nonunions noted. Conclusions. XLIF is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment alternative for grade II spondylolisthesis. Real-time neurological monitoring and attention to technique are mandatory.

  13. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF COMETS C/2012 S1 (ISON) AND C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snios, Bradford; Kharchenko, Vasili [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Chandra X-Ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dennerl, Konrad [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Combi, Michael R. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We present our results on the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of the bright Oort Cloud comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS). ISON was observed between 2013 October 31–November 06 during variable speed solar wind (SW), and PanSTARRS was observed between 2013 April 17–23 during fast SW. ISON produced an extended parabolic X-ray morphology consistent with a collisionally thick coma, while PanSTARRS demonstrated only a diffuse X-ray-emitting region. We consider these emissions to be from charge exchange (CX) and model each comet's emission spectrum from first principles accordingly. Our model agrees with the observational spectra and also generates composition ratios for heavy, highly charged SW ions interacting with the cometary atmosphere. We compare our derived SW ion compositions to observational data and find a strong agreement between them. These results further demonstrate the utility of CX emissions as a remote diagnostics tool of both astrophysical plasma interaction and SW composition. In addition, we observe potential soft X-ray emissions via ACIS around 0.2 keV from both comets that are correlated in intensity to the hard X-ray emissions between 0.4–1.0 keV. We fit our CX model to these emissions, but our lack of a unique solution at low energies makes it impossible to conclude if they are cometary CX in origin. Finally, we discuss probable emission mechanism sources for the soft X-rays and explore new opportunities these findings present in understanding cometary emission processes via Chandra.

  14. NLDAS Forcing Data L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V001 (NLDAS_FOR0125_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the forcing data for Phase 1 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-1). The data are in 1/8th degree grid spacing and...

  15. A comparison of monthly precipitation point estimates at 6 locations in Iran using integration of soft computing methods and GARCH time series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation plays an important role in determining the climate of a region. Precise estimation of precipitation is required to manage and plan water resources, as well as other related applications such as hydrology, climatology, meteorology and agriculture. Time series of hydrologic variables such as precipitation are composed of deterministic and stochastic parts. Despite this fact, the stochastic part of the precipitation data is not usually considered in modeling of precipitation process. As an innovation, the present study introduces three new hybrid models by integrating soft computing methods including multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), Bayesian networks (BN) and gene expression programming (GEP) with a time series model, namely generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) for modeling of the monthly precipitation. For this purpose, the deterministic (obtained by soft computing methods) and stochastic (obtained by GARCH time series model) parts are combined with each other. To carry out this research, monthly precipitation data of Babolsar, Bandar Anzali, Gorgan, Ramsar, Tehran and Urmia stations with different climates in Iran were used during the period of 1965-2014. Root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and determination coefficient (R2) were employed to evaluate the performance of conventional/single MARS, BN and GEP, as well as the proposed MARS-GARCH, BN-GARCH and GEP-GARCH hybrid models. It was found that the proposed novel models are more precise than single MARS, BN and GEP models. Overall, MARS-GARCH and BN-GARCH models yielded better accuracy than GEP-GARCH. The results of the present study confirmed the suitability of proposed methodology for precise modeling of precipitation.

  16. Three-Month Study of College Student Disordered Gambling Using the Transtheoretical Model: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J.; Usdan, Stuart; Turner, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Problem: It has been suggested that gambling-related research more closely examine vulnerable population segments. Research indicates that college students are particularly vulnerable to experiencing disordered gambling behavior. Methods: We examined the gambling behavior and gambling-related Transtheoretical Model (TTM) construct (i.e., stage of…

  17. External validation and clinical utility of a prediction model for 6-month mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzley, Brian; Er, Lee; Chiu, Helen Hl; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Martinusen, Dan; Carson, Rachel C; Hargrove, Gaylene; Levin, Adeera; Karim, Mohamud

    2018-02-01

    End-stage kidney disease is associated with poor prognosis. Health care professionals must be prepared to address end-of-life issues and identify those at high risk for dying. A 6-month mortality prediction model for patients on dialysis derived in the United States is used but has not been externally validated. We aimed to assess the external validity and clinical utility in an independent cohort in Canada. We examined the performance of the published 6-month mortality prediction model, using discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analyses. Data were derived from a cohort of 374 prevalent dialysis patients in two regions of British Columbia, Canada, which included serum albumin, age, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, and answers to the "the surprise question" ("Would I be surprised if this patient died within the next year?"). The observed mortality in the validation cohort was 11.5% at 6 months. The prediction model had reasonable discrimination (c-stat = 0.70) but poor calibration (calibration-in-the-large = -0.53 (95% confidence interval: -0.88, -0.18); calibration slope = 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.83)) in our data. Decision curve analysis showed the model only has added value in guiding clinical decision in a small range of threshold probabilities: 8%-20%. Despite reasonable discrimination, the prediction model has poor calibration in this external study cohort; thus, it may have limited clinical utility in settings outside of where it was derived. Decision curve analysis clarifies limitations in clinical utility not apparent by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. This study highlights the importance of external validation of prediction models prior to routine use in clinical practice.

  18. Dynamic stabilization for L4-5 spondylolisthesis: comparison with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with more than 2 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the past decade, dynamic stabilization has been an emerging option of surgical treatment for lumbar spondylosis. However, the application of this dynamic construct for mild spondylolisthesis and its clinical outcomes remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the management of single-level spondylolisthesis at L4-5. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive patients with Meyerding Grade I spondylolisthesis at L4-5 who were managed with surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: DDS and MI-TLIF. The DDS group was composed of patients who underwent standard laminectomy and the DDS system. The MI-TLIF group was composed of patients who underwent MI-TLIF. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores at each time point of evaluation. Evaluations included radiographs and CT scans for every patient for 2 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with L4-5 spondylolisthesis completed the follow-up of more than 2 years and were included in the analysis (follow-up rate of 94.5%). There were 64 patients in the DDS group and 22 patients in the MI-TLIF group, and the overall mean follow-up was 32.7 months. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in demographic data (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) or preoperative clinical evaluations (e.g., visual analog scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores). The mean estimated blood loss of the MI-TLIF group was lower, whereas the operation time was longer compared with the DDS group (both p spondylolisthesis at L4-5. DDS might be an alternative to standard arthrodesis in mild lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, unlike fusion, dynamic implants have issues of wearing and loosening in the long term

  19. Personality and Post-traumatic Growth of Adolescents 42 Months after the Wenchuan Earthquake: A Mediated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan An

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of teenagers’ post-traumatic growth (PTG and personality and coping style by developing a mediating model with matched data from 772 adolescents. The sample consisted of 772 adolescents (mean age = 12.93, SD = 1.80 from several middle schools located in the areas that were most severely affected by the earthquake. Five factor model of personality, Coping Style Scale and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to measure personality, coping and PTG of adolescents respectively. The results showed that the mean of PTG is 2.87 (SD = 0.93. Moreover, the relationship between personality and PTG is mediated by cognitive coping. The model’s fit indices indicated a good fit (CFI = 0.996, TLI = 0.962, NFI = 0.994, RMSEA = 0.055. Results showed that a positive cognition coping style mediated the relationship between personality and PTG.

  20. THE CORRELATION DEPENDENCE OF THE CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND BIOMECHANICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE SPONDYLOLISTHESIS L4 VERTEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Krut’Ko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 59 operated patients with spondylolisthesis L4 vertebra of I degree. All the patients were held clinical-anamnestic, neurological, radiological, radiopaque and biomechanical studies, MRI, CT, as well as puncture performed provocative tests. Revealed correlation of clinical manifestations of degenerative spondylolisthesis L4 and biomechanical parameters of the shape and orientation of the lumbar spine. The most pronounced clinical and morphological changes detected at the level of spondylolisthesis and adjacent segments in the group with hyperlordosis and excessive tilt angle of the chord forward, which is confirmed by MRI, CT, and carried out a disco-puncture provocative tests. A variety of pathological changes of the lumbar spine at L4 vertebra degenerative spondylolisthesis correlated with the biomechanical parameters violation of the shape and orientation of the spine in the sagittal plane.

  1. Determination of proteolytic activity using L-[4,5-3H]leucine-labelled globin as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliopoulou, T.B.; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, A.; Loucopoulos, D.

    1980-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the assay of proteolytic enzyme activity is described. This is based on the digestion of L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine globin by proteolytic enzymes and radioactivity measurement of the trichloroacetic acid soluble cleavage products. (Auth.)

  2. Investigation of market efficiency and Financial Stability between S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange: Monthly and yearly Forecasting of Time Series Stock Returns using ARMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Nassir Zadeh, Farzaneh

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the presence and changes in, long memory features in the returns and volatility dynamics of S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange using ARMA model. Recently, multifractal analysis has been evolved as an important way to explain the complexity of financial markets which can hardly be described by linear methods of efficient market theory. In financial markets, the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that price returns are serially uncorrelated sequences. In other words, prices should follow a random walk behavior. The random walk hypothesis is evaluated against alternatives accommodating either unifractality or multifractality. Several studies find that the return volatility of stocks tends to exhibit long-range dependence, heavy tails, and clustering. Because stochastic processes with self-similarity possess long-range dependence and heavy tails, it has been suggested that self-similar processes be employed to capture these characteristics in return volatility modeling. The present study applies monthly and yearly forecasting of Time Series Stock Returns in S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange using ARMA model. The statistical analysis of S&P 500 shows that the ARMA model for S&P 500 outperforms the London stock exchange and it is capable for predicting medium or long horizons using real known values. The statistical analysis in London Stock Exchange shows that the ARMA model for monthly stock returns outperforms the yearly. ​A comparison between S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange shows that both markets are efficient and have Financial Stability during periods of boom and bust.

  3. Long-term Outcome After Monosegmental L4/5 Stabilization for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With the Dynesys Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sven; Schwarzenbach, Othmar; Aghayev, Emin; Bonel, Harald; Berlemann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical data. To assess the long-term outcome of patients with monosegmental L4/5 degenerative spondylolisthesis treated with the dynamic Dynesys device. The Dynesys system has been used as a semirigid, lumbar dorsal pedicular stabilization device since 1994. Good short-term results have been reported, but little is known about the long-term outcome after treatment for degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4/5 level. A total of 39 consecutive patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis at the L4/5 level were treated with bilateral decompression and Dynesys instrumentation. At a mean follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 5.0-11.2 y), they underwent clinical and radiographic evaluation and quality of life assessment. At final follow-up, back pain improved in 89% and leg pain improved in 86% of patients compared with preoperative status. Eighty-three percent of patients reported global subjective improvement. Ninety-two percent would undergo the surgery again. Eight patients (21%) required further surgery because of symptomatic adjacent segment disease (6 cases), late-onset infection (1 case), and screw breakage (1 case). In 9 cases, radiologic progression of spondylolisthesis at the operated segment was found. Seventy-four percent of operated segments showed limited flexion-extension range of spondylolisthesis at L4/5 shows good long-term results. The rate of secondary surgeries is comparable to other dorsal instrumentation devices. Residual range of motion in the stabilized segment is reduced, and the rate of radiologic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration is low. Patient satisfaction is high. Dynesys stabilization of symptomatic L4/5 degenerative spondylolisthesis is a possible alternative to other stabilization devices.

  4. Assessment of ENSEMBLES regional climate models for the representation of monthly wind characteristics in the Aegean Sea (Greece): Mean and extremes analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Tolika, Konstantia; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2013-04-01

    The main scope of the present study is the assessment of the ability of three of the most updated regional climate models, developed under the frame of the European research project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/), to simulate the wind characteristics in the Aegean Sea in Greece. The examined models are KNMI-RACMO2, MPI-MREMO, and ICTP - RegCM3. They all have the same spatial resolution (25x25km) and for their future projections they are using the A1B SRES emission scenarios. Their simulated wind data (speed and direction) were compared with observational data from several stations over the domain of study for a time period of 25 years, from 1980 to 2004 on a monthly basis. The primer data were available every three or six hours from which we computed the mean daily wind speed and the prevailing daily wind direction. It should be mentioned, that the comparison was made for the grid point that was the closest to each station over land. Moreover, the extreme speed values were also calculated both for the observational and the simulated data, in order to assess the ability of the models in capturing the most intense wind conditions. The first results of the study showed that the prevailing winds during the winter and spring months have a north - northeastern or a south - south western direction in most parts of the Aegean sea. The models under examination seem to capture quite satisfactorily this pattern as well as the general characteristics of the winds in this area. During summer, winds in the Aegean Sea have mainly north direction and the models have quite good agreement both in simulating this direction and the wind speed. Concerning the extreme wind speed (percentiles) it was found that for the stations in the northern Aegean all the models overestimate the extreme wind indices. For the eastern parts of the Aegean the KNMI and the MPI model underestimate the extreme wind speeds while on the other hand the ICTP model overestimates them. Finally for the

  5. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  6. Model to Estimate Monthly Time Horizons for Application of DEA in Selection of Stock Portfolio and for Maintenance of the Selected Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the selecting of stock portfolios, one type of analysis that has shown good results is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. It, however, has been shown to have gaps regarding its estimates of monthly time horizons of data collection for the selection of stock portfolios and of monthly time horizons for the maintenance of a selected portfolio. To better estimate these horizons, this study proposes a model of mathematical programming binary of minimization of square errors. This model is the paper’s main contribution. The model’s results are validated by simulating the estimated annual return indexes of a portfolio that uses both horizons estimated and of other portfolios that do not use these horizons. The simulation shows that portfolios with both horizons estimated have higher indexes, on average 6.99% per year. The hypothesis tests confirm the statistically significant superiority of the results of the proposed mathematical model’s indexes. The model’s indexes are also compared with portfolios that use just one of the horizons estimated; here the indexes of the dual-horizon portfolios outperform the single-horizon portfolios, though with a decrease in percentage of statistically significant superiority.

  7. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. L4 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Xin; Luo, Qifang; Wang, Lin

    2009-09-15

    In this study, an aerobic bacterial strain capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as sole carbon source and energy was isolated from activated sludge collected from a dyeing plant. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, the strain was identified as Rhodococcus ruber. The biodegradation batch tests of DMP, DEP and DBP by the Rhodococcus sp. L4 showed the optimal pH value, temperature and substrate concentration: pH 7.0-8.0, 30-37 degrees C and PAEs concentration Kinetics of degradation have also been performed at different initial concentrations. The results show that the degradation can be described with exponential model. The half-life of degradation was about 1.30 days when the concentration of PAEs mixture was lower than 300 mg/L. PAEs contaminated water samples (300 mg/L) with non-emulsification and completed emulsification were prepared to investigate the effect on PAEs degradation rate. Little difference between the above two sample preparations was observed in terms of ultimate degradation rate. Rhodococcus sp. L4 can also grow on phenol, sodium benzoate or naphthalene solution as sole carbon source and energy which suggests its ability in resisting environmental toxicants. This work provides some new evidence for the possibility of applying Rhodococcus for contaminated water remediation in the area of industry.

  8. L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20 kg standard meal cart (L: 0.5m × W: 0.3 m × H: 0.92 m) loaded with extra 20 kg and 40 kg, respectively on two different surfaces (carpet and linoleum) and at three floor inclinations (-2°, 0° and +2°). Two force transducers were mounted as handles. Two-dimensional movement analysis was performed and a 4D WATBAK modelling tool was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of mobile and nonmobile L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Benjamin D; Kouk, Shalen; Buchanan, Colin; Lubelski, Daniel; Alvin, Matthew D; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E; Tozzi, James

    2015-09-01

    Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (LDS) is often diagnosed by conventional supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numerous studies have shown, however, that the degree of spondylolisthesis can be reduced or disappears when the patient is supine as compared with standing lateral and flexion-extension (SLFE) radiographs. To compare the sensitivity of supine MRI with SLFE radiographs in patients with L4-L5 LDS. A retrospective imaging study. Included patients diagnosed with L4-L5 LDS with both SLFE films and supine MRI. Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis was defined radiographically as a slip greater than 4.5 mm. Mobile LDS was defined as a difference of greater than 3% in slip percentage between lateral radiographs and sagittal MRIs. Additional measurements included L4-L5 facet effusion diameter on axial MRIs. Measurements were performed by two independent examiners. The kappa coefficient was used to assess the interobserver agreement. Of 103 patients assessed, 68% were women and the average age was 66 years. Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis was seen on 101 (98%) lateral films and 80 (78%) MRIs. Average slip was 10.0 mm for lateral standing radiographs and 6.6 mm on MRI (p<.0001). Fifty (48%) patients were identified with mobile LDS. The positive predictive value of facet joint effusion for mobile LDS increased from 52% for effusions greater than 1 mm to 100% for effusions greater than 3.5 mm. This study found that MRI had a sensitivity of 78% for detecting L4-L5 LDS compared with 98% for lateral standing films. We also identified facet effusion size as a marker to predict mobile LDS. These findings suggest that, particularly in the setting of facet effusions, the complete workup of patients in whom LDS is possible should include standing radiographs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification of polyethylene glycol onto solid lipid nanoparticles encapsulating a novel chemotherapeutic agent (PK-L4) to enhance solubility for injection delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Ping; Wu, Pao-Chu; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi; Chen, Yeh-Long; Hung, Yu-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jun; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic potential chemotherapeutic agent 3-Chloro-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) amino]furo[2,3-b]quinoline (PK-L4) is an analog of amsacrine. The half-life of PK-L4 is longer than that of amsacrine; however, PK-L4 is difficult to dissolve in aqueous media, which is problematic for administration by intravenous injection. To utilize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve the delivery of PK-L4 and investigate its biodistribution behavior after intravenous administration. The particle size of the PK-L4-loaded SLNs was 47.3 nm and the size of the PEGylated form was smaller, at 28 nm. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of PK-L4 in SLNs with and without PEG showed a high capacity of approximately 100% encapsulation. Results also showed that the amount of PK-L4 released over a prolonged period from SLNs both with and without PEG was comparable to the non-formulated group, with 16.48% and 30.04%, respectively, of the drug being released, which fit a zero-order equation. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of PK-L4-loaded SLNs with and those without PEG were significantly reduced by 45%-64% in the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549), 99% in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line with estrogen receptor (MCF7), and 95% in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-231). The amount of PK-L4 released by SLNs with PEG was significantly higher than that from the PK-L4 solution (P < 0.05). After intravenous bolus of the PK-L4-loaded SLNs with PEG, there was a marked significant difference in half-life alpha (0.136 ± 0.046 hours) when compared with the PK-L4 solution (0.078 ± 0.023 hours); also the area under the curve from zero to infinity did not change in plasma when compared to the PK-L4 solution. This demonstrated that PK-L4-loaded SLNs were rapidly distributed from central areas to tissues and exhibited higher accumulation in specific organs. The highest deposition of PK-L4-loaded SLNs with PEG was found in the

  11. The significance of the interception in a Thornthwaite-type monthly step water balance model in context of the climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, András; Kalicz, Péter; Kisfaludi, Balázs

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological impacts of the climate change can be dramatic. Our main purpose is the methodical improvement of a previously established Thornthwaite-type monthly step water balance model, which takes the interception item into account, and compare the results of the evapotranspiration and the soil moisture projections for the 21st century of the original and the upgraded models. Both of the models will be calibrated and validated (using remote-sensed actual evapotranspiration data, called CREMAP) and requires only temperature and precipitation time series as inputs. The projections based on 4 bias-corrected regional climate models databases (FORESEE), and the 3 investigation periods are: 2015-2045, 2045-2075, and 2070-2100. The key parameter is the water storage capacity of the soil, which can be also calibrated using the actual evapotranspiration data. The maximal rooting depth is determinable if the physical properties of the soil are available. The interception can be ranges from 5-40% of gross precipitation, which rate are differing in the various plant communities. Generally, the forests canopy intercepts considerable amounts of rainfall and evaporates back into the atmosphere during and after precipitation event. Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most significant factor, which determine the canopies storage capacity. Here, MODIS sensor based LAI time series are applied to estimate the storage capacity. A forest covered experimental catchment is utilized for testing the models near to Sopron, Hungary. The projections will expected to demonstrate increasing actual evapotranspiration values, but decreasing trends for the 10 percentile minimum soil moisture values at the end of the 21st century in both model runs. The seasonal periodicity of evapotranspiration may demonstrates the maximums in June or July, while in case of the soil moisture it may shows minimum values in autumn. With the comparison of the two model runs, we expect lower soil water storage

  12. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  13. Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Črepinšek, Zalika

    2002-02-01

    Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.

  14. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons

  15. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  16. A Monthly Water-Balance Model through a Two-Stage Partitioning of Precipitation Quantified by Budyko Equation and Hedging Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheimi, M.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water operating in reservoir system is similar to natural catchment systems in water regulations. The most contributing role in both systems is found to be mitigating of available water deficits from excessive and keeping it away from prolonged droughts. In this paper, Bodyko equation and hedging rule are presented by two stage portioning monthly water balance model. The first stage is the partitioning of precipitation to evapotranspiration (E) plus future storage (S1) and runoff (Q); the second stage is using hedging rule where evapotranspiration and future storage to be recognized by a tradeoff between evapotranspiration and future water storage. The model introduces a linear two point hedging parameters: starting water availability (y1) and ending of water availability (y2).The calibration of the model is based on five parameters: three derived from Budyko equation (S0, ξ, and Yp) and two from hedging rule (y1 and y2).The catchment climate zone along with its physical properties have an effect on the degree of hedging. The y1 and y2 parameters are indicators of the amount of hedging in dry and wet zones. The span between the starting point (y1) and ending point (y2) of hedging indicate there is hedging against future evapotranspiration shortage. Observation of 187 catchments was examined using this model concept for the period of 21 years starting from 1983 to 2003. After calibration and validation using a genetic algorithm it shows that hedging effect in catchment against future evapotranspiration shortages exists with an abundance of hedging effect in dry areas more than wet areas.

  17. Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with 3D-Navigation Guided Cortical Bone Trajectory Screws for L4/5 Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: 1-Year Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ibrahim; Virk, Michael S; Link, Thomas W; Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Elowitz, Eric

    2018-02-01

    We describe our technique and evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes for patients undergoing L4/5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion with 3D-navigation guided cortical bone trajectory screws (PLIF-CBT) for grade 1 or 2 degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum follow-up time of 12 months. A single-institution series of 18 patients was evaluated with data prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Pain and disability scores were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively, including back and bilateral leg pain visual analog scores (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Radiographic fusion was assessed as complete, partial, or none based on the presence of bridging bones across the disc space, posterior elements, or both. Patients demonstrated statistically significant reductions in back pain VAS (P = 0.0025), leg pain VAS (P fusion at an average of 14.9 months postoperatively was available for 16/18 patients, with 6 patients demonstrating fusion (4/6 with complete fusion; 2/6 with partial fusion). There were no instances of intraoperative complications or delayed complications requiring subsequent interventions. PLIF-CBT can be performed in a safe and reproducible fashion with excellent clinical outcomes at 1 year postoperatively. The outcomes did not correlate with fusion status, which was unexpectedly low at 37.5% without significant hardware abnormalities necessitating reoperations. PLIF-CBT offers several perioperative advantages compared with traditional open PLIF and requires longer-term studies to demonstrate its durability with regard to improvement in clinical pain and radiographic endpoints, including anterior and/or posterior element fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transitions in Prognostic Awareness Among Terminally Ill Cancer Patients in Their Last 6 Months of Life Examined by Multi-State Markov Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu Chen, Chen; Wen, Fur-Hsing; Hou, Ming-Mo; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Chou, Wen-Chi; Chen, Jen-Shi; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Tang, Siew Tzuh

    2017-09-01

    Developing accurate prognostic awareness, a cornerstone of preference-based end-of-life (EOL) care decision-making, is a dynamic process involving more prognostic-awareness states than knowing or not knowing. Understanding the transition probabilities and time spent in each prognostic-awareness state can help clinicians identify trigger points for facilitating transitions toward accurate prognostic awareness. We examined transition probabilities in distinct prognostic-awareness states between consecutive time points in 247 cancer patients' last 6 months and estimated the time spent in each state. Prognostic awareness was categorized into four states: (a) unknown and not wanting to know, state 1; (b) unknown but wanting to know, state 2; (c) inaccurate awareness, state 3; and (d) accurate awareness, state 4. Transitional probabilities were examined by multistate Markov modeling. Initially, 59.5% of patients had accurate prognostic awareness, whereas the probabilities of being in states 1-3 were 8.1%, 17.4%, and 15.0%, respectively. Patients' prognostic awareness generally remained unchanged (probabilities of remaining in the same state: 45.5%-92.9%). If prognostic awareness changed, it tended to shift toward higher prognostic-awareness states (probabilities of shifting to state 4 were 23.2%-36.6% for patients initially in states 1-3, followed by probabilities of shifting to state 3 for those in states 1 and 2 [9.8%-10.1%]). Patients were estimated to spend 1.29, 0.42, 0.68, and 3.61 months in states 1-4, respectively, in their last 6 months. Terminally ill cancer patients' prognostic awareness generally remained unchanged, with a tendency to become more aware of their prognosis. Health care professionals should facilitate patients' transitions toward accurate prognostic awareness in a timely manner to promote preference-based EOL decisions. Terminally ill Taiwanese cancer patients' prognostic awareness generally remained stable, with a tendency toward developing

  19. Structural equation modelling of viral tropism reveals its impact on achieving viral suppression within 6 months in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients after combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoli, Carlo; Andreis, Samantha; Scaggiante, Renzo; Cruciani, Mario; Bosco, Oliviero; Ferretto, Roberto; Leoni, Davide; Maffongelli, Gaetano; Basso, Monica; Torti, Carlo; Sarmati, Loredana; Andreoni, Massimo; Palù, Giorgio; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the role of pre-treatment co-receptor tropism of plasma HIV on the achievement of viral suppression (plasma HIV RNA 1.69 log 10 copies/mL) at the sixth month of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in a cohort of naive patients using, for the first time in this context, a path analysis (PA) approach. Adult patients with chronic infection by subtype B HIV-1 were consecutively enrolled from the start of first-line cART (T0). Genotypic analysis of viral tropism was performed on plasma and interpreted using the bioinformatic tool Geno2pheno, with a false positive rate of 10%. A Bayesian network starting from the viro-immunological data at T0 and at the sixth month of treatment (T1) was set up and this model was evaluated using a PA approach. A total of 262 patients (22.1% bearing an X4 virus) were included; 178 subjects (67.9%) achieved viral suppression. A significant positive indirect effect of bearing X4 virus in plasma at T0 on log 10 HIV RNA at T1 was detected (P = 0.009), the magnitude of this effect was, however, over 10-fold lower than the direct effect of log 10 HIV RNA at T0 on log 10 HIV RNA at T1 (P = 0.000). Moreover, a significant positive indirect effect of bearing an X4 virus on log 10 HIV RNA at T0 (P = 0.003) was apparent. PA overcame the limitations implicit in common multiple regression analysis and showed the possible role of pre-treatment viral tropism at the recommended threshold on the outcome of plasma viraemia in naive patients after 6 months of therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Addressing the immediate need for emergency providers in resource-limited settings: the model of a six-month emergency medicine curriculum in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Shada A; Israel, Kerling; Leandre, Fernet; Pierre, Sosthène; Bollman, Brennan; Marsh, Regan H

    2018-04-06

    In many resource-limited settings, emergency medicine (EM) is underdeveloped and formal EM training limited. Residencies and fellowships are an ideal long-term solution but cannot meet immediate needs for emergency providers, while short-term programs are often too limited in content. We describe a third method successfully implemented in Haiti: a medium-duration certificate program to meet the immediate need for emergency specialists. In conjunction with the Haitian Ministry of Health and National Medical School, we developed and implemented a novel, 6-month EM certificate program to build human resources for health and emergency care capacity. The program consisted of didactic and supervised clinical components, covering core content in EM. Didactics included lectures, simulations, hands-on skill-sessions, and journal clubs. Supervised clinical time reinforced concepts and taught an EM approach to patient care. Fourteen physicians from around Haiti successfully completed the program; all improved from their pre-test to post-test. At the end of the program and 9-month post-program evaluations, participants rated the program highly, and most felt they used their new knowledge daily. Participants found clinical supervision and simulation particularly useful. Key components to our program's success included collaboration with the Ministry of Health and National Medical School, supervised clinical time, and the continual presence of a course director. The program could be improved by a more flexible curriculum and by grouping participants by baseline knowledge levels. Medium-duration certificate programs offer a viable option for addressing immediate human resource gaps in emergency care, and our program offers a model for implementation in resource-limited settings. Similar options should be considered for other emerging specialties in resource-limited settings.

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  2. L4 Milestone Report for MixEOS 2016 experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, Eric Nicholas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Denne, Patrick Hagen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Accurate simulations of fluid and plasma flows require accurate thermodynamic properties of the fluids or plasmas. This thermodynamic information is represented by the equations of state of the materials. For pure materials, the equations of state may be represented by analytical models for idealized circumstances, or by tabular means, such as the Sesame tables. However, when a computational cell has a mixture of two or more fluids, the equations of state are not well understood, particularly under the circumstances of high energy densities. This is a particularly difficult issue for Eulerian codes, wherein mixed cells arise simply due to the advection process. LANL Eulerian codes typically assume an “Amagat’s Law” (or Law of Partial Volumes) for the mixture in which the pressures and temperatures of fluids are at an equilibrium that is consistent with the fluids being segregated within the cell. However, for purposes of computing other EOS properties, e.g., bulk modulus, or sound speed, the fluids are considered to be fully “mixed”. LANL has also been investigating implementing instead “Dalton’s Law” in which the total pressure is considered to be the sum of the partial pressures within the cell. For ideal gases, these two laws give the same result. Other possibilities are nonpressure- temperature-equilibrated approaches in which the two fluids are not assumed to “mix” at all, and the EOS properties of the cell are computed from, say, volume-weighted averages of the individual fluid properties. The assumption of the EOS properties within a mixed cell can have a pronounced effect on the behavior of the cell, resulting in, for example, different shock speeds, pressures, temperatures and densities within the cell. There is no apparent consensus as to which approach is best under HED conditions, though we note that under typical atmospheric and near atmospheric conditions the differences may be slight.

  3. Grid expansion: a rhombiclike [L4Fe2(Ag2)2] complex containing Ag2 dumbbells at two vertices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Demeshko, Serhiy; Dechert, Sebastian; Meyer, Franc

    2012-05-07

    The pyrazolate-based ditopic ligand HL forms a strongly hydrogen-bonded corner complex dimer [Fe(II)(HL)(2)](2)(BF(4))(4) (1) with a [2 × 2] gridlike arrangement of four ligand strands. The two empty vertices can then be filled with {Ag(2)}(2+) dumbbells, yielding the unprecedented diferric complex [L(4)Fe(III)(2)(Ag(I)(2))(2)](BF(4))(6) (2) that features a rhombiclike structure with an almost planar hexagon of metal ions.

  4. Prediction of 18-month survival in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome. A regression model and scoring system based on the combination of chromosome findings and the Bournemouth score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlier, V; van Melle, G; Beris, P; Schmidt, P M; Tobler, A; Haller, E; Bellomo, M J

    1995-06-01

    The predictive potential of six selected factors was assessed in 72 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of survival at 18 months. Factors were age (above median of 69 years), dysplastic features in the three myeloid bone marrow cell lineages, presence of chromosome defects, all metaphases abnormal, double or complex chromosome defects (C23), and a Bournemouth score of 2, 3, or 4 (B234). In the multivariate approach, B234 and C23 proved to be significantly associated with a reduction in the survival probability. The similarity of the regression coefficients associated with these two factors means that they have about the same weight. Consequently, the model was simplified by counting the number of factors (0, 1, or 2) present in each patient, thus generating a scoring system called the Lausanne-Bournemouth score (LB score). The LB score combines the well-recognized and easy-to-use Bournemouth score (B score) with the chromosome defect complexity, C23 constituting an additional indicator of patient outcome. The predicted risk of death within 18 months calculated from the model is as follows: 7.1% (confidence interval: 1.7-24.8) for patients with an LB score of 0, 60.1% (44.7-73.8) for an LB score of 1, and 96.8% (84.5-99.4) for an LB score of 2. The scoring system presented here has several interesting features. The LB score may improve the predictive value of the B score, as it is able to recognize two prognostic groups in the intermediate risk category of patients with B scores of 2 or 3. It has also the ability to identify two distinct prognostic subclasses among RAEB and possibly CMML patients. In addition to its above-described usefulness in the prognostic evaluation, the LB score may bring new insights into the understanding of evolution patterns in MDS. We used the combination of the B score and chromosome complexity to define four classes which may be considered four possible states of

  5. Which Approach Is Advantageous to Preventing Development of Adjacent Segment Disease? Comparative Analysis of 3 Different Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques (ALIF, LLIF, and PLIF) in L4-5 Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Woo; Yoon, Kang-Jun; Ha, Sang-Soo

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare radiologic and clinical outcomes in patients with L4-5 lumbar spondylolisthesis who have undergone either instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), especially with regard to the development of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Eighty-two patients with preoperative L4-5 spondylolisthesis and minimal ASD who underwent instrumented L4-5 fusion were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical approach used for treatment (ALIF: 27 patients, LLIF: 24 patients, PLIF: 31 patients). Radiographic measurements including preoperative and postoperative foraminal and disk height, segmental and lumbar lordosis, percentage of vertebral slippage, and reduction rate were reviewed. The incidence of ASD and clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between the 3 groups. ASD was found in 37.0% (10/27), 41.7% (10/24), and 64.5% (20/31) of the patients in the ALIF, LLIF, and PLIF groups, respectively (mean follow-up duration: 35.42 ± 9.35 months). The ALIF and LLIF groups had significantly increased disk and foraminal height compared with the PLIF group. The ALIF group had significantly improved lordosis compared with the PLIF and LLIF groups. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in clinical outcomes assessed by visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index. The 3 different fusion techniques investigated can all produce good outcomes in treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in L4-5, but ALIF and LLIF are more advantageous in preventing the development of ASD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. AirMOSS: L4 Daily Modeled Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), AirMOSS sites, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Level 4 daily estimates of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 at a spatial resolution of 30 arc-seconds (~1 km) for seven of the sites...

  7. Determinants of complementary feeding practices among mothers of 6-24 months failure to thrive children based on behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model, Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Nasibeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to clarify the determining factors of complementary feeding practices among Tehran 6-24 months failure to thrive children in order to use the results for planning the interventions to reduce the possible adverse effects. In this study, 132 mothers of three medical and health centers were chosen by random sampling among those centers operating under the supervision of south of Tehran District Health Center and study data were collected from them. A valid and reliable questionnaire as a data collection instrument developed based on behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model. Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used to determine the statistical relationship between factors associated with complementary feeding practices among mothers. The mothers' knowledge was as follows: 0.8%, 20.4%, and 78.8% of them were good, medium, and poor, respectively. Mean scores for the mothers' performance in terms of supplementary feeding was 66.8. Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the mothers' performance with enabling and reinforcing factors, but there wasn't any significant relationship between the mothers' performance and knowledge about complementary feeding. According to the obtained results, reinforcing factors, and enabling factors are associated with the mothers' performance in terms of complementary feeding. Hence, attention to these issues is essential for better health interventions planning.

  8. Twelve-month effects of the Groningen active living model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; King, Abby C.; Huisman, Mark; Stevens, Martin

    Objective: To determine the effects on energy expenditure, health and fitness outcomes after 12 months of GALM. Methods: Subjects from matched neighbourhoods were assigned to an intervention (IG) (n = 79) or a waiting-list control group (CG) (n = 102). During the 12 months the IG attended two series

  9. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  10. [Value of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of discopathy in the L4-L5-S1 segment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarkowski, P; Lachowski, M; Podgórski, J K; Delimat, L

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was demonstration of the usefulness of CT in the diagnosis of lumbar discopathy. In 110 patients with backache, CT of the L4-L5-S1 part of the spine was done. The observed abnormalities were analysed, including presence of nucleus pulposus herniation, pathological changes of osseous structures of the spine, width of the vertebral canal and lateral recesses, and presence of other lesions there. Comparing the results of (CT) and myelography with intraoperative observations it was possible to confirm the high usefulness and value of CT in such cases. CT may be an important diagnostic method preoperatively in patients with iodine hypersensitivity and those with vertebral canal stenosis.

  11. Modification of polyethylene glycol onto solid lipid nanoparticles encapsulating a novel chemotherapeutic agent (PK-L4 to enhance solubility for injection delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang YP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Ping Fang,1 Pao-Chu Wu,2 Yaw-Bin Huang,3 Cherng-Chyi Tzeng,4 Yeh-Long Chen,4 Yu-Han Hung,2 Ming-Jun Tsai,5,6 Yi-Hung Tsai31Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; 2School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4School of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6School of Medicine, Medical College, China Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanBackground: The synthetic potential chemotherapeutic agent 3-Chloro-4-[(4-methoxyphenylamino]furo[2,3-b]quinoline (PK-L4 is an analog of amsacrine. The half-life of PK-L4 is longer than that of amsacrine; however, PK-L4 is difficult to dissolve in aqueous media, which is problematic for administration by intravenous injection.Aims: To utilize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG to improve the delivery of PK-L4 and investigate its biodistribution behavior after intravenous administration.Results: The particle size of the PK-L4-loaded SLNs was 47.3 nm and the size of the PEGylated form was smaller, at 28 nm. The entrapment efficiency (EE% of PK-L4 in SLNs with and without PEG showed a high capacity of approximately 100% encapsulation. Results also showed that the amount of PK-L4 released over a prolonged period from SLNs both with and without PEG was comparable to the non-formulated group, with 16.48% and 30.04%, respectively, of the drug being released, which fit a zero-order equation. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of PK-L4-loaded SLNs with and those without PEG were significantly reduced by 45%–64% in the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549, 99% in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line with estrogen receptor (MCF7, and 95% in

  12. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  13. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk plants, cattle, fish), seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  14. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  15. Improved patency and reduced intimal hyperplasia in PTFE grafts with luminal immobilized heparin compared with standard PTFE grafts at six months in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G; Laxdal, E; Ellensen, V; Jonung, T; Mattsson, E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts with luminal coating of immobilized heparin to that of standard PTFE grafts at six months. Twenty-eight common carotid arteries in fourteen sheep were bypassed with heparin-coated PTFE grafts (6 mm diameter, 6 cm length) on one side and standard PTFE grafts on the other. The grafts were explanted after six months. The thickness of intimal hyperplasia (IH) in open grafts was measured with histomorphometrical methods. Two of 14 heparinized PTFE grafts and nine of 14 grafts in the control PTFE-group were occluded at explantation (P=0.006). Six-month patency rates for heparinized PTFE grafts and for standard PTFE grafts were 86% and 36%, respectively. Mean graft anastomotic IH thickness in open grafts were 0.074 mm for heparinized PTFE grafts and 0.259 mm for PTFE-grafts (P=0.006). PTFE grafts with luminal coating containing immobilized heparin had significantly better patency and recruited less intimal hyperplasia than standard PTFE grafts at six months.

  16. Six-month effects of the Groningen active living model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Stevens, Martin; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Rispens, Pieter; King, Abby C.; Mulder, Theo

    Objective: To determine the effects on energy expenditure, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary older adults aged 55-65 after 6-month participation in the GALM program. Methods: In three Dutch communities, subjects from matched neighbourhoods were assigned to an intervention (n = 79) or a

  17. Anhedonic-like traits and lack of affective deficits in 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice: Implications for modeling elderly depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatynska, Ewa; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Redkozubova, Olga; Bolkunov, Alexei; Kubatiev, Aslan; Yeritsyan, Naira B; Vignisse, Julie; Bachurin, Sergei; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of depression increases with aging. We hypothesized that like humans, old animals exhibit anhedonic-like behavior, along with signs of behavioral despair. In rodents, anhedonia, a reduced sensitivity to reward, which is listed as a core feature of major depression in the DSM-IVR, can be measured by a decrease in intake of and preference for sweet solutions. Here, sucrose intake, forced swimming, immobility in the modified tail suspension test, novelty exploration, grooming, anxiety and locomotor activity were compared in naïve 3- and 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. The absolute amounts and the ratio of consumed 1% sucrose solution to water intake was significantly smaller in 18-month-old mice than in 3-month-old mice. The consumption of 5%-sucrose solution requiring high levels of drinking effort, novelty exploration in two setups and grooming behavior in the splash test were reduced in older animals. Analysis of other behaviors suggested that the above-mentioned signs of anhedonic-like traits were unlikely to be attributable to the potential effect of aging on metabolic needs for water, taste perception, motor capabilities or the induction of essential anxiety and neophobia. A 4-week treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (7mg/kg/day) or dimebon, a compound with suggested neuroprotective proneurogenic properties (1mg/kg/day) restored sucrose intake and preference in 18-month-old mice. Meanwhile, young and old mice showed no differences in the parameters of behavioral despair evaluated in the forced swim and modified tail suspension tests. Thus, the behavioral profile of aged mice parallels that of humans with elderly depression, in whom the symptoms of hedonic deficits typically outweigh affective disturbances. The assessment of anhedonic-like traits with the sucrose preference test in 18-month-old mice will be useful in preclinical studies of elderly depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Molecule of the Month Isomers of Benzene - Still Pursuing Dreams. J Chandrasekhar. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 80-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month. A Dicopper (II) Complex Hydrolyzes the Phosphate Diester Bond! R N Mukherjee is with the Department of. Chemistry at Indian. Institute of Technology,. Kanpur. 1 DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid;. RNA: Ribonucleic Acid; HPNP: 2-Hydroxypropyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate; Phosphodiester: Di- ester of ...

  20. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule of the Month - Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1232-1237. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  3. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Molecule of the Month Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 66-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  5. Molecule of the Month.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month. Corannulene - A Bucky Bowl. H Surya Prakash Rao. The structure, properties and synthesis of a bowl shaped molecule, which resembles a fragment of fullerene, are described here. Chemistry of aromatic molecules has a long history. Many molecules made up of multiple benzene-like rings have ...

  6. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule of the Month - A Stable Dibismuthene - A Compound with a Bi-Bi Double Bond. V Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 ... Author Affiliations. V Chandrasekhar1. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  7. Results inferred from electron density measurements at Saskatoon, Canada (L = 4.4) by a partial reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, P.; Meek, C.E.; Chakrabarty, D.K.; Manson, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of electron densities at Saskatoon (52 0 N, 106 0 W, L = 4.4) from 1976 to 1979 reveal seasonal variations which cannot be explained solely by solar zenith angle variations. These profiles have been used to infer the variations of nitric oxide density with season and solar activity for quiet-time conditions. It is found that while nitric oxide varies with season, it remains unchanged with the change in solar activity. The summer and spring profiles are much lower than the measured values of Baker et al. (1977) for heights below 85 km, while the winter estimated values show differences from the measured values in the height range 77.5 to 85 km. Above 85 km the values for all the seasons are close to the measured values. A dip in the nitric oxide distribution is obtained in all the cases around 80 to 82 km and the values of nitric oxide at the minimum are less than those measured by Baker et al. (1977) or Meira (1971). (author)

  8. Quantitative Profiling Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Development from Dauer Stage to L4 Stage in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunhee; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Don-Ha; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2016-02-05

    When Caenorhabditis elegans encounters unfavorable growth conditions, it enters the dauer stage, an alternative L3 developmental period. A dauer larva resumes larval development to the normal L4 stage by uncharacterized postdauer reprogramming (PDR) when growth conditions become more favorable. During this transition period, certain heterochronic genes involved in controlling the proper sequence of developmental events are known to act, with their mutations suppressing the Muv (multivulva) phenotype in C. elegans. To identify the specific proteins in which the Muv phenotype is highly suppressed, quantitative proteomic analysis with iTRAQ labeling of samples obtained from worms at L1 + 30 h (for continuous development [CD]) and dauer recovery +3 h (for postdauer development [PD]) was carried out to detect changes in protein abundance in the CD and PD states of both N2 and lin-28(n719). Of the 1661 unique proteins identified with a proteomic approach identifies and quantitates the regulatory proteins potentially involved in PDR in C. elegans, which safeguards the overall lifecycle in response to environmental changes.

  9. Are the Greeks and Trojans Different? --- Comparing the Brightest Objects in Jupiter's L4 and L5 Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph P.; Henry, Todd J.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Cartwright, Richard; Emery, Josh

    2011-02-01

    We propose to make UBVRI photometric observations of at least the 113 brightest Jupiter Trojans from both the L4 (Greek) and the L5 (Trojan) Lagrange points using the CTIO 0.9m, in conjunction with data gathered at Lowell Observatory. With these data we hope to reveal any color trends and/or differences between the largest members of the two camps. A comprehensive database of uniform photometry does not exist for this effectively complete sample, so robust comparisons are virtually impossible at this time. These data will also enable comparisons between the Greek and Trojan swarms and other Solar System populations to discover the possible origins of the two camps, which remain surprisingly obscure. Over the course of the program we will collect several important phase curves that can be used to systematically calibrate the photometry over time. During non- photometric conditions, we will measure light curves that yield information about albedo changes (or a lack thereof,which would also be informative), shapes, and rotation periods. The proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  10. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  11. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Non-stationary Bias Correction of Monthly CMIP5 Temperature Projections over China using a Residual-based Bagging Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    The biases in the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are crucial for understanding future climate changes. Currently, most bias correction methodologies suffer from the assumption that model bias is stationary. This paper provides a non-stationary bias correction model, termed Residual-based Bagging Tree (RBT) model, to reduce simulation biases and to quantify the contributions of single models. Specifically, the proposed model estimates the residuals between individual models and observations, and takes the differences between observations and the ensemble mean into consideration during the model training process. A case study is conducted for 10 major river basins in Mainland China during different seasons. Results show that the proposed model is capable of providing accurate and stable predictions while including the non-stationarities into the modeling framework. Significant reductions in both bias and root mean squared error are achieved with the proposed RBT model, especially for the central and western parts of China. The proposed RBT model has consistently better performance in reducing biases when compared to the raw ensemble mean, the ensemble mean with simple additive bias correction, and the single best model for different seasons. Furthermore, the contribution of each single GCM in reducing the overall bias is quantified. The single model importance varies between 3.1% and 7.2%. For different future scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5), the results from RBT model suggest temperature increases of 1.44 ºC, 2.59 ºC, and 4.71 ºC by the end of the century, respectively, when compared to the average temperature during 1970 - 1999.

  16. Radiation belt electron dynamics at low L (<4): Van Allen Probes era versus previous two solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Baker, D. N.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, K.; Jaynes, A. N.; Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Temerin, M.

    2017-05-01

    Long-term (>2 solar cycles) measurements reveal that MeV electron fluxes, solar wind speed, and geomagnetic activity have been extremely low during this current solar cycle, including years before and during the Van Allen Probes era. This study examines solar wind speed, the geomagnetic storm index (Dst), >2 MeV electrons at geostationary orbit, and 2 MeV electrons across various L shells measured by Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer in low Earth orbit (LEO) and by the Van Allen Probes/Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) in a geotransfer-like orbit; the latter measurements are normalized to LEO based on comparison with Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment/Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) measurements in LEO. The average ratio of REPTile/REPT varies in a systematic manner with L, 16% at L = 2.7, decreasing with L and reaching 0.7% at L = 4.7, and increasing again with L though with greater uncertainty. We show that there have been no 2 MeV electron enhancements inside L 2.6 since 2006, prior to which numerous penetrations of 2 MeV electrons into L periods of stronger solar wind conditions (in terms of high-speed solar wind, magnitude of interplanetary magnetic field, B, and a sustained southward Bz) and thus stronger geomagnetic activity. We conclude that results from the Van Allen Probes, which have been providing the finest measurements but in operation during a quiet solar activity period, may not be representative of radiation belt dynamics, particularly for the inner edge of the outer belt, during other solar cycle phases.

  17. Dynamical Predictability of Monthly Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.

    1981-12-01

    We have attempted to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. We have extended the concept of `classical' predictability, which primarily refers to the lack of predictability due mainly to the instabilities of synoptic-scale disturbances, to the predictability of time averages, which are determined by the predictability of low-frequency planetary waves. We have carded out 60-day integrations of a global general circulation model with nine different initial conditions but identical boundary conditions of sea surface temperature, snow, sea ice and soil moisture. Three of these initial conditions are the observed atmospheric conditions on 1 January of 1975, 1976 and 1977. The other six initial conditions are obtained by superimposing over the observed initial conditions a random perturbation comparable to the errors of observation. The root-mean-square (rms) error of random perturbations at all the grid points and all the model levels is 3 m s1 in u and v components of wind. The rms vector wind error between the observed initial conditions is >15 m s1.It is hypothesized that for a given averaging period, if the rms error among the time averages predicted from largely different initial conditions becomes comparable to the rms error among the time averages predicted from randomly perturbed initial conditions, the time averages are dynamically unpredictable. We have carried out the analysis of variance to compare the variability, among the three groups, due to largely different initial conditions, and within each group due to random perturbations.It is found that the variances among the first 30-day means, predicted from largely different initial conditions, are significantly different from the variances due to random perturbations in the initial conditions, whereas the variances among 30-day means for days 31-60 are not distinguishable from the variances due to random initial

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  19. The monthly sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ridpath, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In full colour throughout, the seventh edition of Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion's famous guide to the night sky is fully revised and updated for planet positions and forthcoming eclipses up to the end of the year 2011. The book contains a chapter on the main sights visible in each month of the year, and is an easy-to-use companion to the night sky. It will help you to identify prominent stars, constellations, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, to watch out for meteor showers, and to follow the movement of the four brightest planets. Most of the sights described are visible to the naked eye and

  20. Contribution of myelunated fibers from spinal L4, L5 and L6 nerves to the sciatic nerve and its main branches in the adult rat Contribución de fibras mielínicas provenientes de los nervios espinales lumbares L4, L5 y L6 al nervio ciático de rata adulta y sus ramas principales

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Robles; Marlen Arias; Miguel Baldovino; Jeanelle Ariza; José V. Montoya Guarín; John J. Sutachán; Hernán Hurtado

    2000-01-01

    The rat sciatic nerve is composed by the L4, L5 and L6 lumbar spinal nerves. However, the contribution in myelinated fibers originating from these nerves along this nervous trunk has not yet been defined. In the present study, the L4, L5 and L4-L5 spinal nerves were selectively transected. After one week the sciatic, tibial, sural and peroneal nerves were dissected. These samples were fixed and processed for optical microscopy, and both degenerated and normal myelinated fibers were counted in...

  1. Contribución de fibras mielínicas provenientes de los nervios espinales lumbares L4, L5 y L6 al nervio ciático de rata adulta y sus ramas principales Contribution of myelunated fibers from spinal L4, L5 and L6 nerves to the sciatic nerve and its main branches in the adult rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Hurtado; Juan D. Robles; Marlen Arias; Miguel Baldovino; Jeanelle Ariza; John J. Sutachán; José V. Montoya Guarín

    2000-01-01

    El nervio ciático de la rata está formado por los nervios espinales (ne) lumbares L4, L5 y L6. Sin embargo, aún no se ha definido el aporte en fibras mielínicas de estos nervios espinales a lo largo del tronco nervioso. En este estudio se transectaron selectivamente los NE L4, L5 y L4-L5. Luego de una semana se disecaron los nervios ciático, tibial, sural y peroneal. Estas muestras se fijaron y procesaron para microscopía óptica y a partir de cortes coloreados con azul de toluidina se contaro...

  2. KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) and KIR 3DL1 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Bunn, Paul A; Zhou, Caicun; Chan, Dan

    2016-12-13

    Nature killer (NK) cells are the immune system's first line of defense against both viral infections and tumors. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are associated with susceptibility to different types of cancers. We investigated KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) and KIR 3DL1 protein expression and their association with survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression of KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) (BC032422/ ADQ31987/ NP_002246/ NP_036446, ABCAM) and KIR 3DL1 (AA 1-444, ABCAM) protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 62 NSCLC patients. KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) and KIR 3DL1 were expressed both on NSCLC tumor cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Fourteen samples (22.6%) stained positive for KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) on the tumor cells, and 10 (16.1%) had positive expression on the TILs. Thirty-three samples (53.2%) stained positive for KIR 3DL1 on the tumor cells, and 31 (50.0%) had positive expression on the TILs. Patients with negative KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) expression on tumor cells or TILs had longer overall survival (OS) than patients who are KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) positive on tumor cells (40.70 weeks, 95% CI 24.76-56.65 vs. 7.10 weeks, 95% CI 0.00-19.38, P = 0.014) or TILs (40.70 weeks, 95% CI 24.05-57.35 vs. 3.90 weeks, 95% CI 0.00-9.17, P KIR 3DL1 on tumor cells (62.30 weeks, 95% CI 0.00-177.37 vs. 13.10 weeks, 95% CI 3.42-22.78, P KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) on TILs was correlated with OS (P = 0.032, Odds Ratio 2.628 95%CI 1.089-6.340). KIR 2D (L1, L3, L4, S4) and KIR 3DL1 expression was correlated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients.

  3. Pelvic nodal CTV from L4-L5 or aortic bifurcation? An audit of the patterns of regional failures in cervical cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavana; Bansal, Anshuma; Patel, Firuza; Gulia, Abhishek; Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, Suresh C

    2014-10-01

    To assess the patterns of recurrence in cervical cancer patients treated with pelvic nodal clinical target volume at L4-L5 junction instead of aortic bifurcation. Records of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemo-radiation were reviewed. Patients treated with standard pelvic fields (superior border of the field at L4/L5 junction), without any radiological evidence of regional lymphadenopathy (advanced cervical cancer. Radiotherapy fields need to be defined cautiously in patients with subcentimeter pelvic lymph nodes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  5. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  6. A shortened Barnes maze protocol reveals memory deficits at 4-months of age in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Attar

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests as memory loss, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia. Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have been instrumental in understanding the underlying pathological mechanism and in evaluation of potential therapies. The triple transgenic (3 × Tg mouse model of AD is unique because it recapitulates both pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease--amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The earliest cognitive deficits in this model have been shown at 6-m of age by most groups, necessitating aging of the mice to this age before initiating evaluation of the cognitive effects of therapies. To assess cognitive deficits in the 3 × Tg mice, originally we employed a typical Barnes maze protocol of 15 training trials, but found no significant deficits in aged mice. Therefore, we shortened the protocol to include only 5 training trials to increase difficulty. We found cognitive deficits using this protocol using mainly measures from the probe day, rather than the training trials. This also decreased the effort involved with data analysis. We compared 3 × Tg and wild-type mice at 4-m- and 15-m of age using both the original, long training, and the short training paradigms. We found that differences in learning between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th training trial. Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. Importantly, we detected cognitive dysfunction already at 4-m of age in 3 × Tg mice using the short Barnes-maze protocol. The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3 × Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies.

  7. A Porcine Animal Model for Early Meniscal Degeneration - Analysis of Histology, Gene Expression and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Six Months after Resection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, Michael; Reisig, Gregor; Ströbel, Philipp; Dinter, Dietmar; Attenberger, Ulrike; Lipp, Peter; Schwarz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The menisci of the mammalian knee joint balance the incongruence between femoral condyle and tibial plateau and thus menisci absorb and distribute high loads. Degeneration processes of the menisci lead to pain syndromes in the knee joint. The origin of such degenerative processes on meniscal tissue is rarely understood and may be described best as an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. A standardized animal model of meniscal degeneration is needed for further studies. The aim of the current study was to develop a porcine animal model with early meniscal degeneration. Resection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) was performed on the left knee joints of eight Göttingen minipigs. A sham operation was carried out on the right knee joint. The grade of degeneration was determined 26 weeks after the operation using histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the expression of 14 genes which code for extracellular matrix proteins, catabolic matrix metalloproteinases and inflammation mediators were analyzed. Degenerative changes were detected by a histological analysis of the medial meniscus after ACLR. These changes were not detected by MRI. In terms of their gene expression profile, these degenerated medial menisci showed a significantly increased expression of COL1A1. This paper describes a new animal model for early secondary meniscal degeneration in the Göttingen minipig. Histopathological evidence of the degenerative changes could be described. This early degenerative changes could not be seen by NMR imaging.

  8. Telomeric NAP1L4 and OSBPL5 of the KCNQ1 cluster, and the DECORIN gene are not imprinted in human trophoblast stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Frost

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting of the largest known cluster, the Kcnq1/KCNQ1 domain on mChr7/hChr11, displays significant differences between mouse and man. Of the fourteen transcripts in this cluster, imprinting of six is ubiquitous in mice and humans, however, imprinted expression of the other eight transcripts is only found in the mouse placenta. The human orthologues of the latter eight transcripts are biallelically expressed, at least from the first trimester onwards. However, as early development is less divergent between species, placental specific imprinting may be present in very early gestation in both mice and humans.Human embryonic stem (hES cells can be differentiated to embryoid bodies and then to trophoblast stem (EB-TS cells. Using EB-TS cells as a model of post-implantation invading cytotrophoblast, we analysed allelic expression of two telomeric transcripts whose imprinting is placental specific in the mouse, as well as the ncRNA KCNQ1OT1, whose imprinted expression is ubiquitous in early human and mouse development. KCNQ1OT1 expression was monoallelic in all samples but OSBPL5 and NAP1L4 expression was biallelic in EB-TS cells, as well as undifferentiated hES cells and first trimester human fetal placenta. DCN on hChr12, another gene imprinted in the mouse placenta only, was also biallelically expressed in EB-TS cells. The germline maternal methylation imprint at the KvDMR was maintained in both undifferentiated hES cells and EB-TS cells.The question of placental specific imprinting in the human has not been answered fully. Using a model of human trophoblast very early in gestation we show a lack of imprinting of two telomeric genes in the KCNQ1 region and of DCN, whose imprinted expression is placental specific in mice, providing further evidence to suggest that humans do not exhibit placental specific imprinting. The maintenance of both differential methylation of the KvDMR and monoallelic expression of KCNQ1OT1 indicates that the

  9. Grade 2 Spondylolisthesis at L4-5 Treated by XLIF: Safety and Midterm Results in the “Worst Case Scenario”

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, W. B.; Lehmen, Jeffrey A.; Gerber, Edward J.; Rodgers, Jody A.

    2012-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis is one of the most common indications for spinal surgery. However, no one approach has been proven to be more effective in treating spondylolisthesis. Recent advances in minimally invasive spine technology have allowed for different approaches to be applied to this indication, notably extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF). The risk, however, of using XLIF in treating grade II spondylolisthesis is the ventral position of the lumbar plexus, particularly at L4-5. Objective. T...

  10. Accelerated L5-S1 Segment Degeneration after Spinal Fusion on and above L4-5 : Minimum 4-Year Follow-Up Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Chin, Dong Kyu; Cho, Yong Eun

    2009-02-01

    Many biomechanical and clinical studies on adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) have addressed cranial segment. No study has been conducted on caudal segment degeneration after upper segment multiple lumbar fusions. This is a retrospective investigation of the L5-S1 segment after spinal fusion at and above L4-5, which was undertaken to analyze the rate of caudal ASD at L5-S1 after spinal fusion on and above L4-5 and to determine that factors that might have influenced it. The authors included 67 patients with L4-5, L3-5, or L2-5 posterior fusions. Among these patients, 28 underwent L4-5 fusion, 23 L3-5, and 16 L2-5 fusions. Pre- and postoperative radiographs were analyzed to assess degenerative changes at L5-S1. Also, clinical results after fusion surgery were analyzed. Among the 67 patients, 3 had pseudoarthrosis, and 35 had no evidence of ASD, cranially and caudally. Thirteen patients (19.4%) showed caudal ASD, 23 (34.3%) cranial ASD, and 4 (6.0%) both cranial and caudal ASD. Correlation analysis for caudal ASD at L5-S1 showed that pre-existing L5-S1 degeneration was most strongly correlated. In addition, numbers of fusion segments and age were also found to be correlated. Clinical outcome was not correlated with caudal ASD at L5-S1. If caudal and cranial ASD are considered, the overall occurrence rate of ASD increases to 50%. The incidence rate of caudal ASD at L5-S1 was significantly lower than that of cranial ASD. Furthermore, the occurrence of caudal ASD was found to be significantly correlated with pre-existing disc degeneration.

  11. Radiological observation of the spondylolisthesis: The comparison between L4-L5 and L5-S1 spondylolisthesis in plain film and myelographic of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, K. S.; Jo, H. G.; Chung, M. C.; Choi, D. L.; Kim, K. J. [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Spondylolisthesis is displacement of one vertebra upon the other with bony defect of neural arch or elongation of the pars interarticularis. Radiological findings of 35 confirmed cases of spondylolisthesis on plain film and myelogram were reviewed. We also compared the size and contour of slipped vertebra, and myelographic findings between L4-L5 (12 cases) and L5-S1 (23 cases) listhesis. The results were as follows: 1. Average of posterior wedging index of the body, foreward displacement, narrowing of intervertebral disc space and the degenerative changes are more severe in L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. 2. Hyperplastic changes of slipped vertebra are more severe in L5-S1 listhesis. 3. Incidence of spina bifida is not co-related between L4-L5 and L5-SI listhesis. 4. Arthrosis of the intervertebral joint appears both below and above the level of L5-S1 listhesis, but rare in L4-L5 listhesis. 5. The L5 root seems to be the one most often affected in lumber spondylolisthesis on myelogram. 6. The diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation is less relable in patient with listhesis than in patients without listhesis.

  12. Newly occurred L4 spondylolysis in the lumbar spine with pre-existence L5 spondylolysis among sports players: case reports and biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Sakai, Toshinori; Yasui, Natsuo; Kiapour, Ali; Biyani, Ashok; Ebraheim, Nabil; Goel, Vijay K

    2009-10-01

    Case series and a biomechanical study using a finite element (FE) analysis. To report three cases with multi-level spondylolysis and to understand the mechanism biomechanically. Multi-level spondylolysis is a very rare condition. There have been few reports in the literature on multi-level spondylolysis among sports players. We reviewed three cases of the condition, clinically. These patients were very active young sports players and had newly developed fresh L4 spondylolysis and pre-existing L5 terminal stage spondylolysis. Thus, we assumed that L5 spondylolysis may have increased the pars stress at the cranial adjacent levels, leading to newly developed spondylolysis at these levels. Biomechanically, we investigated pars stress at L4 with or without spondylolysis at L5 using the finite element technique. L4 pars stress decreased in the presence of L5 spondylolysis, which does not support our first hypothesis. It seems that multi-level spondylolysis may occur due to genetic and not biomechanical reasons.

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  14. Contribution of myelunated fibers from spinal L4, L5 and L6 nerves to the sciatic nerve and its main branches in the adult rat Contribución de fibras mielínicas provenientes de los nervios espinales lumbares L4, L5 y L6 al nervio ciático de rata adulta y sus ramas principales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Robles

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The rat sciatic nerve is composed by the L4, L5 and L6 lumbar spinal nerves. However, the contribution in myelinated fibers originating from these nerves along this nervous trunk has not yet been defined. In the present study, the L4, L5 and L4-L5 spinal nerves were selectively transected. After one week the sciatic, tibial, sural and peroneal nerves were dissected. These samples were fixed and processed for optical microscopy, and both degenerated and normal myelinated fibers were counted in toluidine blue-stained semi-thin sections. L4 contributed with myelinated fibers mainly to the peroneal nerve, and L5 to the sciatic, tibial and sural nerves. In general, the contribution of L6 was smaller and variable along the nervous trunk in comparison to the other two spinal branches. Our results give key information for further studies looking to correlate the contribution of spinal nerves making part of the sciatic nerve and its main branches with hind limb function. El nervio ciático de la rata está formado por los nervios espinales (ne lumbares L4, L5 y L6. Sin embargo, aún no se ha definido el aporte en fibras mielínicas de estos nervios espinales a lo largo del tronco nervioso. En este estudio se transectaron selectivamente los NE L4, L5 y L4-L5. Luego de una semana se disecaron los nervios ciático, tibial, sural y peroneal. Estas muestras se fijaron y procesaron para microscopía óptica y a partir de cortes coloreados con azul de toluidina se contaron las fibras mielínicas degeneradas y normales. L4 contribuyó con fibras mielínicas principalmente al nervio peroneal y L5 a los nervios ciático, tibial y sural. En general, el aporte de L6 fue menor y variable a lo largo del tronco nervioso comparado con las otras dos ramas espinales. Nuestros resultados brindan información valiosa para posteriores estudios que busquen correlacionar la contribución de los nervios espinales que componen el ciático y sus ramas principales con la funci

  15. Modelling Monthly Mental Sickness Cases Using Principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Descriptive Models of Monthly Officer Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    his zone, MOS and grade. Let us first take a brief look at the consistency issue, i.e. the comparison of annual rates produced earlier, call them Q...another time. 18 FIGURE 3 Cumulative Attrition Rates 0.16 . 0.14 - I --- modelo " 0.12 ...---- max. Ŕ.[ --- av1..... 0.1 - - ~ - --- -- 0.08- 0.06. 0...Rockville, MC 20854 8. Management Applications, Inc ...................................................................... 1 Dr. R. Butterworth 1530 N. Key Blvd., Suite 531 Arlington, VA 22209 34

  17. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  19. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  20. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  1. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Diodato, Nazzareno; Kostalova, Julia; Rousseva, Svetla; Banasik, Kazimierz; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha -1 h -1 ) compared to winter (87MJmmha -1 h -1 ). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R 2 values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be

  2. A 4-D climatology (1979–2009 of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon. We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products, TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth-Probe and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997, the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer, and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer. The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products. Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between

  3. Cost-Utility Analysis of Instrumented Fusion Versus Decompression Alone for Grade I L4-L5 Spondylolisthesis at 1-Year Follow-up: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Matthew D; Lubelski, Daniel; Abdullah, Kalil G; Whitmore, Robert G; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    Retrospective 1-year cost-utility analysis. To determine the cost-effectiveness of decompression with and without instrumented fusion for patients with grade I degenerative L4-L5 spondylolisthesis at 1-year follow-up. Despite its benefits to health outcomes, lumbar fusion is associated with substantial costs. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of instrumented fusion for grade I L4-L5 spondylolisthesis at 1-year follow-up. Four cohorts of 25 patients with grade I L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis were analyzed: cohort 1 (decompression), cohort 2 (decompression with instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF), cohort 3 (decompression with instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion), and cohort 4 (decompression with instrumented PLF and posterior lumbar interbody fusion/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion). One-year postoperative health outcomes were assessed based on Visual Analogue Scale, Pain Disability Questionnaire, and EuroQol 5 Dimensions questionnaires. Direct medical costs were estimated using Medicare national payment amounts and indirect costs were based on patient missed work days. Postoperative 1-year cost/utility ratios and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using a threshold of $100,000/QALY gained. Compared with preoperative health states, EuroQol 5 Dimensions QALY scores improved for all cohorts (Pspondylolisthesis. Decompression with fusion is not cost effective in a 1-year timeframe for these patients based on the threshold. Accordingly, although fusion is beneficial for improving health outcomes in patients with spondylolisthesis, it is not cost-effective when analyzing a 1-year timeframe based on the threshold. The durability of these results must be analyzed with longer term cost-utility analysis studies.

  4. Chronic lumbar epidural hematoma in a patient suffering with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L4-5 level: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Lee, Sang Ho; Lie, Wei Chiang; Park, Jee Young [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Chuk Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    Nontraumatic spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare condition and the exact cause of the hemorrhage in SEH had never been established. However, there have been a few recent reports on some types of the epidural hematoma with a detectable origin of hemorrhage. We encountered a case of chronic SEH in a patient who had spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, which is also a rare condition to be associated with SEH. We report here on the radiologic findings of a case of chronic epidural hematoma in a patient who had spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L4-5 level, and we include a review of the related literatures.

  5. SIMP J2154–1055: A NEW LOW-GRAVITY L4β BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE MEMBER OF THE ARGUS ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    We present SIMP J21543454–1055308, a new L4β brown dwarf identified in the SIMP survey that displays signs of low gravity in its near-infrared spectrum. Using BANYAN II, we show that it is a candidate member of the Argus association, albeit with a 21% probability that it is a contaminant from the field. Measurements of radial velocity and parallax will be needed to verify its membership. If it is a member of Argus (age 30-50 Myr), then this object would have a planetary mass of 10 ± 0.5 M {sub Jup}.

  6. Minimum fuel trajectories for a low-thrust power-limited mission to the moon and to Lagrange points L4 and L5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, John V.; Golan, Oded M.

    1990-01-01

    Minimum fuel trajectories from a low earth parking orbit to Lagrange points L4 or L5 and to the moon are obtained for a low-thrust limited-power spacecraft, with thrust acceleration levels of the order of 0.001 G. The procedure to find a trajectory to the libration point starts from an analytical description of a slightly elliptical spiral, given by Breakwell and Rauch. The earth moon trajectory is found by matching an earth spiral to a moon spiral on the sphere of influence. Earth oblateness effect is considered.

  7. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts...

  8. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  10. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other screen time before age 2. Play simple games together, such as puzzles and shape sorting. Use a transitional object to help with separation anxiety. Alternative Names Growth milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; Childhood growth milestones - 18 ...

  11. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  19. Celebration Time: Black History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Andrea Davis

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, more students, teachers, and librarians are aware of African-American History Month and try to give it greater attention. However, the author questions herself if people do really "celebrate" African-American History Month or is it just something folks feel obligated to do, so they "celebrate" by displaying a collection of books about…

  20. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  2. Applied technology section. Monthly report, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1994-04-20

    This is a monthly report giving the details on research currently being conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center. The following are areas of the research, engineering modeling and simulation, applied statistics, applied physics,experimental thermal hydraulics,and packaging and transportation.

  3. The 1-year and 3-month prognostic utility of the AST/ALT ratio and model for end-stage liver disease score in patients with viral liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Edoardo; Botta, Federica; Testa, Emanuela; Romagnoli, Paola; Polegato, Simone; Malfatti, Federica; Fumagalli, Alessandra; Chiarbonello, Bruno; Risso, Domenico; Testa, Roberto

    2002-11-01

    The AST/ALT ratio has shown good diagnostic accuracy in patients with chronic viral liver disease. However, its prognostic utility has never been tested. Recently, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been proposed as a simple and effective tool to predict survival in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aims of this study were to assess the 3-month and 1-yr prognostic ability of the AST/ALT ratio in a series of patients with virus-related liver cirrhosis, and to evaluate the relationship between the AST/ALT ratio and the MELD score and to compare their prognostic ability. The AST/ALT ratios and MELD scores of 99 patients with liver cirrhosis of viral etiology (73 patients with hepatitis C virus and 26 with hepatitis B virus) who had been followed-up for at least 1 yr were retrospectively calculated and correlated with the patients' 3-month and 1-yr prognosis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the AST/ALT ratio and the MELD score cut-offs with the best sensitivity (SS) and specificity (SP) in discriminating between patients who survived and those who died. Univariate survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method using the cut-offs identified by means of receiver operating characteristic curves. AST/ALT ratios and MELD scores showed a significant correlation (r(s) = 0.503, p = 0.0001). In all, 8% and 30% of the patients had died after 3 months and 1 yr of follow-up, respectively. AST/ALT ratios and MELD scores were significantly higher among the patients who died during both 3-month and 1-yr follow-up. An AST/ALT ratio cut-off of 1.17 had 87% SS and 52% SP, whereas a MELD cut-off of 9 had 57% SS and 74% SP in discriminating between patients who survived and those who died after I yr. The combined assessment of the AST/ALT ratio and/or MELD score had 90% SS and 78% SP. Survival curves of the patients showed that both parameters clearly discriminated between patients who survived and those who died in the short term

  4. Herpes Zoster in a 3-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Malveiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herpes Zoster (HZ is rare in infancy and results from reactivation of varicella-zoster virus, latent in the dorsal root ganglia of sensory or cranial nerves after primary infection (chickenpox. Case Report: We describe the case of an healthy infant, three months old, without previous clinical symptoms of chickenpox, in spite of having contacted with the disease at two weeks of life. She was hospitalized for vesicular-papular rash involving unilaterally dermatomes L4 and L5 and was treated with acyclovir with good clinical outcome. Conclusion: The immaturity of the immune system and the interference of maternal antibodies contribute to the manifestation of HZ in the first year of life. In a previously healthy child it is not recommended the exclusion of underlying immunodeficiency or malignant disease.

  5. Annual statistical downscaling of precipitation and evaporation and monthly disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachindra, D. A.; Perera, B. J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Development of downscaling models for each calendar month using the data of predictors specifically selected for each calendar month may assists in better capturing the time-varying nature of the predictor-predictand relationships. Such approach will not allow the explicit modelling of the persistence of the predictand (e.g. lag-1 correlation). However, downscaling at an annual time step and subsequent disaggregation to monthly values can explicitly consider the modelling of the persistence of the predictand. This study investigated the potential of annual downscaling of a predictand and subsequent disaggregation of annual values to monthly values, in comparison to the potential of downscaling models separately developed for each calendar month. In the case study, annual and monthly downscaling models were developed for precipitation and evaporation at two stations located in Victoria, Australia. The output of the annual downscaling models was then disaggregated into monthly values using four different methods based on the method of fragments. It was found that the annual to monthly disaggregation methods and monthly downscaling models are able to reproduce the average of monthly observations with relatively higher accuracy in comparison to their ability in reproducing standard deviation, skewness and lag-1 serial correlation. Downscaling models separately developed for each calendar month were able to show relatively smaller root mean square errors for their time series indicating better overall agreement with observations in comparison to their counterpart annual to monthly disaggregation methods. Furthermore, it was found that not only the bias in the output of an annual downscaling model but also the presence of annual totals in the records of observations of a predictand that are very similar in magnitude, but having significantly different sets of fragments, can largely contribute to the poor performance of an annual to monthly disaggregation method.

  6. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Multi-month prescriptions, fast-track refills, and community ART groups: results from a process evaluation in Malawi on using differentiated models of care to achieve national HIV treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prust, Margaret L; Banda, Clement K; Nyirenda, Rose; Chimbwandira, Frank; Kalua, Thokozani; Jahn, Andreas; Eliya, Michael; Callahan, Katie; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Prescott, Marta R; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Tagar, Elya; Gunda, Andrews

    2017-07-21

    In order to facilitate scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi, innovative and pragmatic models have been developed to optimize the efficiency of HIV service delivery. In particular, three models of differentiated care have emerged for stable patients: adjusted appointment spacing through multi-month scripting (MMS); fast-track drug refills (FTRs) on alternating visits; and community ART groups (CAGs) where group members rotate in collecting medications at the facility for all members. This study aimed to assess the extent to which ART patients in Malawi are differentiated based on clinical stability and describe the characteristics and costs associated with the models of differentiated care offered. A mixed methods process evaluation was conducted from 30 purposefully selected ART facilities. Cross-sectional data for this evaluation was collected between February and May 2016. The following forms of data collection are reported here: structured surveys with 136 health care workers; reviews of 75,364 patient clinical records; 714 observations of visit time and flow; and 30 questionnaires on facility characteristics. Among ART patients, 77.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 74.1-80.6) were eligible for differentiated models of care based on criteria for clinical stability from national guidelines. Across all facilities, 69% of patients were receiving MMS. In facilities offering FTRs and CAGs, 67% and 6% of patients were enrolled in the models, respectively. However, eligibility criteria were used inconsistently: 72.9% (95% CI 66.3-78.6) of eligible patients and 42.3% (95% CI 33.1-52.0) ineligible patients received MMS. Results indicated that patient travel and time costs were reduced by 67%, and the unit costs of ART service delivery through the MMS, FTR and CAG models were similar, representing a reduction of approximately 10% in the annual unit cost of providing care to stable patients that receive no model. MMS is being implemented nationally and has

  10. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  12. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  13. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  14. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  16. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  18. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  19. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  20. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestberg, Sara, E-mail: sara.ostberg@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Toermaenen Persson, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.tormanen.persson@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Akusjaervi, Goeran, E-mail: goran.akusjarvi@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-25

    The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3 Prime splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a plasmid is localized at the nuclear margin of uninfected cells. During an infection L4-33K is relocalized to the periphery of E2A-72K containing viral replication centers. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the conserved carboxy-terminus of L4-33K, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of the protein to viral replication sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to the periphery of viral replication centers.

  2. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and...... events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be applied in different seasons of the year....... and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part...... to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive...

  3. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 3 hourly 1.0 x 1.0 degree Version 2.0 V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (hereafter, GLDAS-2) has two components: one forced entirely with the Princeton meteorological forcing data...

  4. GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 3 hourly 0.25 x 0.25 degree Version 2.0 V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (hereafter, GLDAS-2) has two components: one forced entirely with the Princeton meteorological forcing data...

  5. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  6. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  7. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  8. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  9. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  11. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  12. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  13. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  15. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  17. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. [Urinary incontinence 6 months after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, Regina; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-08-17

    Urinary incontinence initiated before and right after delivery and persisting 3 months after delivery tends to become chronic. We intended to estimate the persistence of urinary incontinence 6 months postpartum and to analyse the different factors associated with it. Follow-up study 6 months after delivery of women presenting urinary incontinence symptoms in gestation or in the first 2 months of postpartum. The dependent variable was the persistence and the independent variables were grouped in obstetric and non-obstetric. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated with their confidence interval at 95% (IC 95%) in the bivariate analysis. The variables that showed an important risk of persistence of incontinence were used to perform a multivariate model of logistic regression. The persistence of incontinence 6 months after delivery was 21.4% (CI 95% 16-26.7). The risk of persistence increased with the Kristeller maneuver (OR 7.89, CI 95% 3.04-20.49), not weight recovery (OR 3.64, CI 95% 1.10-12.02), not practising pelvic floor muscle exercises in postpartum (OR 9.36, CI 95% 2.71-32.33), appearance of incontinence after delivery (OR 6.66, CI 95% 2.37-18.68) and the weight of the newborn>3.5 kg (OR 6.76, CI 95% 2.54-18.03), all of them explaining 58% of the variability of persistence. 21.4% of women with urinary incontinence caused by pregnancy/delivery will continue to have it 6 months postpartum. An important part of this persistence is associated with some factors easy to modify. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  1. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy

  2. Molecule of the Month -66 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month. Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar is with the Department of. Organic Chemistry, Indian. Institute of Science,. Banga1ore. (1). The challenging goal of making other substances with all the properties of diamond continues to be pursued, with some success. J Chandrasekhar.

  3. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  4. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  6. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet

  7. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  8. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  9. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  12. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  13. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  15. Monthly energy review, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  16. Monthly energy review, February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  17. Monthly energy review, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  18. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  19. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  20. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons

  1. Monthly energy review, December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes a market assessment of alternative-fuel vehicles in the Atlanta private fleet for 1994

  2. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  3. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  4. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  5. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  6. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  8. Forecast of frost days based on monthly temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Tarquis, A. M.; Corato, M. C.; Saa, A.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Although frost can cause considerable crop damage, and practices have been developed to mitigate forecasted frost, frost forecasting technologies have not changed for years. This paper reports on a new method based on successive application of two models to forecast the number of monthly frost days for several Community of Madrid (Spain) meteorological stations. The first is an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) stochastic model that forecasts minimum monthly absolute temperature (t{sub m}in) and average monthly minimum temperature ({mu}{sub t}) following Box and Jenkins methodology. The second model relates monthly temperatures (t{sub m}in, {mu}{sub t}) to the minimum daily temperature distribution during one month. Three ARIMA models were identified. They present the same seasonal behaviour (integrated moving average model) and different non-seasonal part: autoregressive model (Model 1), integrated moving average model (Model 2) and autoregressive and moving average model (Model 3). The results indicate that minimum daily temperature (t{sub d}min) for the meteorological stations studied followed a normal distribution each month with a very similar standard deviation through out the years. This standard deviation obtained for each station and each month could be used as a risk index for cold months. The application of Model 1 to predict minimum monthly temperatures produced the best frost days forecast. This procedure provides a tool for crop managers and crop insurance companies to assess the risk of frost frequency and intensity, so that they can take steps to mitigate frost damage and estimate the damage that frost would cause. (Author) 41 refs.

  9. Forecast of Frost Days Based on Monthly Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Tarquis, A. M.; Morató, M. C.; Saa-Requejo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although frost can cause considerable crop damage and mitigation practices against forecasted frost exist, frost forecasting technologies have not changed for many years. The paper reports a new method to forecast the monthly number of frost days (FD) for several meteorological stations at Community of Madrid (Spain) based on successive application of two models. The first one is a stochastic model, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), that forecasts monthly minimum absolute temperature (tmin) and monthly average of minimum temperature (tminav) following Box-Jenkins methodology. The second model relates these monthly temperatures to minimum daily temperature distribution during one month. Three ARIMA models were identified for the time series analyzed with a stational period correspondent to one year. They present the same stational behavior (moving average differenced model) and different non-stational part: autoregressive model (Model 1), moving average differenced model (Model 2) and autoregressive and moving average model (Model 3). At the same time, the results point out that minimum daily temperature (tdmin), for the meteorological stations studied, followed a normal distribution each month with a very similar standard deviation through years. This standard deviation obtained for each station and each month could be used as a risk index for cold months. The application of Model 1 to predict minimum monthly temperatures showed the best FD forecast. This procedure provides a tool for crop managers and crop insurance companies to asses the risk of frost frequency and intensity, so that they can take steps to mitigate against frost damage and estimated the damage that frost would cost. This research was supported by Comunidad de Madrid Research Project 076/92. The cooperation of the Spanish National Meteorological Institute and the Spanish Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentation (MAPA) is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Electric power monthly, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are given for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 6 figs., 57 tabs

  12. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  1. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels

  2. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  4. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  5. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-14

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  19. Best pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    The last sector of the Big Muon Wheels was brought to the cavern in the morning of September 20... ... installed on one of the Big Muon Wheels during the same afternoon... ... just in time to sqeeze lots of people in between two of the all-completed Big Muon Wheels on the 21st of September to celebrate the installation of the last sector. Installation of the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 on September 10. Some of the people involved in the construction and installation of the chambers on the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 celebrating its completion on September 20. After hearing that the rock band The Police played in Geneva last month, Muriel got inspired and decided to become a rock star, just like one of her favorites, Keith Richards from the Rolling Stones. Special accomplishment of the month: (top) Martina Hurwitz (#908) and Monica Dunford (680), both from the Chicago University group, completed the Lausanne Marathon on October 21 in 4h 4...

  20. Electric Power Monthly, June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The Electric Power Monthly contains information from three data sources: the Form EIA-759, 'Monthly Power Plant Report'; the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 423, 'Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants ; and the Form EIA-826, M onthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions'. The Form EIA-759 collects data from all operators of electric utility generating plants (except those having plants solely on standby), approximately 800 of the more than 3,200 electric utilities in the United States. To reduce the reporting burden for utilities, the FERC Form 423 and Form EIA-826 data are based on samples, which cover less than 100 percent of all central station generating utilities. The FERC Form 423 collects data from steam-electric power generating plants with a combined installed nameplate capacity of 50 megawatts or larger (approximately 230 electric utilities). The 50-megawatt threshold was established by FERC. The Form EIA-826 collects sales and revenue data in the residential, commercial, industrial, and other sectors of the economy. Other sales data collected include public street and highway lighting, other sales to public authorities, sales to railroads and railways, and interdepartmental sales. Respondents to the Form EIA-826 were statistically chosen and include approximately 225 privately and publicly owned electric utilities from a universe of more than 3,200 utilities. The sample selection for the Form EIA-826 is evaluated annually. Currently, the Form EIA-826 data account for approximately 83 percent

  1. [Interspinous spacers and disc herniation. Geomorphometric and clinical study of 71 cases treated by L4-L5 microdiscectomy associated to spacer placement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso Escario, José; Aso Vizán, Alberto; Martínez Quiñones, José Vicente; Consolini, Fabian; Martín Gallego, Álvaro; Arregui Calvo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    A controversial indication of interspinous spacers is their use as a complement to discectomy. At the present time, there is no solid clinical evidence of effectiveness of that association, which might result from variability in spacer positioning, restricting its correct biomechanical actions. In this study our goal was to identify and analyse the variability in the placement of an interspinous spacer, and to investigate its relationship with the clinical results. We performed a retrospective study on X-ray films from 71 patients suffering from disc herniation in L4-L5 who underwent surgery in our hospital, consisting of: microdiscectomy and biomed interspinous spacer implantation. The geomorphometric techniques used to analyse the data were procrustes superimposition and principal components analysis. We compared the clinical results (using the Herron and Turner scale), segmental lordosis and surgical distraction with the geomorphometric parameters. Significant morphological variability was found in the implant position showing cephalo-caudal translation and clockwise-counterclockwise rotations. This variability did not correlate with clinical results. A relationship with anatomical features (lordosis) and additional surgical distraction was identified. A different morphology of implant-segment configuration was identified in cases with recurrence of disc herniation. Geometric morphometrics allowed identifying high variability in the final placement of interspinous spacers. Nevertheless, it seems not to be related to the clinical outcome, depending rather on the degree of lordosis and distraction. Some differences in segment-implant morphology were identified in cases with recurrences. To assess the effectiveness of spacers, larger studies including morphological and clinical variables are required. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  8. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-02-24

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.

  9. Echogenicity as a surrogate for bioresorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold degradation: analysis at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- 18, 24-, 30-, 36- and 42-month follow-up in a porcine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. Campos (Carlos); Y. Ishibashi (Yuki); J. Eggermont (Jeroen); T. Nakatani (Tomoya); Y.-K. Cho (Yun-Kyeong); J. Dijkstra (Jouke); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); A. Sheehy (Alexander); J. Lane (Jennifer); M. Kamberi (Marika); R. Rapoza (Richard); L. Perkins (Laura); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study is to validate intravascular quantitative echogenicity as a surrogate for molecular weight assessment of poly-l-lactide-acid (PLLA) bioresorbable scaffold (Absorb BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California). We analyzed at 9 time points (from 1- to 42-month

  10. Rule Optimization monthly reservoir operation Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Garcia, Maria Clemencia; Santacruz Salazar, Santiago; Ramirez Callejas, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study a model was designed for the optimization of the rule for monthly operation of the Salvajina dam (Colombia) based in the technology) of dynamic programming. The model maximizes the benefits for electric power generation, ensuring at the same time flood regulation in winter and pollution relief during the summer. For the optimization of the rule of operation, it was necessary to define the levels and volumes of reserve and holding required for the control of flood zones in the Cauca river and to provide an effluent minimal flow and assure a daily flow at the Juanchito station (located 141 km downstream from the dam) of the Cauca river, 90 % of the time during the most critical summer periods.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  20. The new 2.5L L4 gasoline engine for LEXUS IS300h. The renewed engine series for FR hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Fumihisa; Mashiki, Zenichiro; Yamanari, Kenji [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    To ensure future sustainable mobility, vehicles have to face crucial problems such as energy security, global warming and air quality. To address these problems, TOYOTA introduced in 1997 the TOYOTA Hybrid System (THS) and has continuously improved its technology, globally contributing to the environmental improvement by its expansion into many markets in the world. TOYOTA presented the renewed 4 Cylinder Engine Series for FF vehicles at this symposium last year. This year, Toyota presents the result of its continuous development for FR Hybrid Vehicles, especially for D and E segment vehicles. Toyota not only improved thermal efficiency and reduced CO{sub 2} but also achieved high power output. In 2012, TOYOTA launched 3.5L V6 engine for LEXUS-GS (2GR-FXE engine), as first engine of this new engine series. In 2013, TOYOTA will launch 2.5L-L4 engine for LEXUS-IS (2AR-FSE engine), as the leading engine of this series. Toyota developed these new engines, aiming at leadership with regard to fuel economy, clean exhaust gas and high reliability. Toyota carried out modifications, taking into account usage of Hybrid System. With targeting highest levels of environmental performance, Toyota improved the vehicle driving performances like acceleration response by the combination of enhanced engine power output and newly developed Hybrid System. One of the biggest feature of this series is new generation D-4S system, including two injectors (for Direct injection and Port injection) for each cylinder, high fuel pressure (greater than 18MPa) and high fuel flow rate. The new generation D-4S system helps achieving high performance and good thermal efficiency. Furthermore, Toyota added on Cooled EGR system to 2AR-FSE engine, contributing to lower the fuel consumption, especially in highway driving. The very low friction technology and the well proven Atkinson Cycle are also key features of this engine series. Thanks to the above features, the new engine series achieves high

  1. Fitting monthly Peninsula Malaysian rainfall using Tweedie distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, R. M.; Hasan, M. M.; Zubairi, Y. Z.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the Tweedie distribution was used to fit the monthly rainfall data from 24 monitoring stations of Peninsula Malaysia for the period from January, 2008 to April, 2015. The aim of the study is to determine whether the distributions within the Tweedie family fit well the monthly Malaysian rainfall data. Within the Tweedie family, the gamma distribution is generally used for fitting the rainfall totals, however the Poisson-gamma distribution is more useful to describe two important features of rainfall pattern, which are the occurrences (dry months) and the amount (wet months). First, the appropriate distribution of the monthly rainfall was identified within the Tweedie family for each station. Then, the Tweedie Generalised Linear Model (GLM) with no explanatory variable was used to model the monthly rainfall data. Graphical representation was used to assess model appropriateness. The QQ plots of quantile residuals show that the Tweedie models fit the monthly rainfall data better for majority of the stations in the west coast and mid land than those in the east coast of Peninsula. This significant finding suggests that the best fitted distribution depends on the geographical location of the monitoring station. In this paper, a simple model is developed for generating synthetic rainfall data for use in various areas, including agriculture and irrigation. We have showed that the data that were simulated using the Tweedie distribution have fairly similar frequency histogram to that of the actual data. Both the mean number of rainfall events and mean amount of rain for a month were estimated simultaneously for the case that the Poisson gamma distribution fits the data reasonably well. Thus, this work complements previous studies that fit the rainfall amount and the occurrence of rainfall events separately, each to a different distribution.

  2. Trends for monthly changes in days open in Holsteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pszczola, M.J.; Aguilar, I.; Misztal, I.

    2009-01-01

    A reaction norm approach was used to estimate trends for days open (DO) with a model that indirectly accounted for heat stress. Data included 3.4 million first-parity records of DO of US Holsteins. A fixed effect model included herd-year, month of calving within region (MOC), age class, and

  3. Life-Space Mobility Change Predicts 6-Month Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard E; Sawyer, Patricia; Williams, Courtney P; Lo, Alexander X; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Allman, Richard M; Brown, Cynthia J

    2017-04-01

    To examine 6-month change in life-space mobility as a predictor of subsequent 6-month mortality in community-dwelling older adults. Prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling older adults from five Alabama counties in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging. A random sample of 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries, stratified according to sex, race, and rural or urban residence, recruited between November 1999 and February 2001, followed by a telephone interview every 6 months for the subsequent 8.5 years. Mortality data were determined from informant contacts and confirmed using the National Death Index and Social Security Death Index. Life-space was measured at each interview using the UAB Life-Space Assessment, a validated instrument for assessing community mobility. Eleven thousand eight hundred seventeen 6-month life-space change scores were calculated over 8.5 years of follow-up. Generalized linear mixed models were used to test predictors of mortality at subsequent 6-month intervals. Three hundred fifty-four deaths occurred within 6 months of two sequential life-space assessments. Controlling for age, sex, race, rural or urban residence, and comorbidity, life-space score and life-space decline over the preceding 6-month interval predicted mortality. A 10-point decrease in life-space resulted in a 72% increase in odds of dying over the subsequent 6 months (odds ratio = 1.723, P space score at the beginning of a 6-month interval and change in life-space over 6 months were each associated with significant differences in subsequent 6-month mortality. Life-space assessment may assist clinicians in identifying older adults at risk of short-term mortality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Child’s Development: 2 Years (24 Months) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child’s Development: 2 Years (24 Months) Print en español El ...

  5. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 15–18 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 Your toddler is ... Stages Back to top Explore more from Your Child's Development: Age-Based Tips From Birth to 36 Months ...

  6. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  7. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR COMPILING THE ILO UNEMPLOYMENT WITH MONTHLY PERIODICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PISICĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for deriving the monthly unemployment statistics directly from the quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS results by econometric modeling meets the requirements of insuring the information on short-term needed for employment policies, aiming to achieve the objectives of Europe 2020. Estimated monthly data series according to the methodology allow assessment of short-term trends in unemployment measured according to the criteria of the International Labour Organisation (ILO in terms of comparability with European statistics.

  8. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  9. Echogenicity as a surrogate for bioresorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold degradation: analysis at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- 18, 24-, 30-, 36- and 42-month follow-up in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; Ishibashi, Yuki; Eggermont, Jeroen; Nakatani, Shimpei; Cho, Yun Kyeong; Dijkstra, Jouke; Reiber, Johan H C; Sheehy, Alexander; Lane, Jennifer; Kamberi, Marika; Rapoza, Richard; Perkins, Laura; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to validate intravascular quantitative echogenicity as a surrogate for molecular weight assessment of poly-l-lactide-acid (PLLA) bioresorbable scaffold (Absorb BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California). We analyzed at 9 time points (from 1- to 42-month follow-up) a population of 40 pigs that received 97 Absorb scaffolds. The treated regions were analyzed by echogenicity using adventitia as reference, and were categorized as more (hyperechogenic or upperechogenic) or less bright (hypoechogenic) than the reference. The volumes of echogenicity categories were correlated with the measurements of molecular weight (Mw) by gel permeation chromatography. Scaffold struts appeared as high echogenic structures. The quantification of grey level intensity in the scaffold-vessel compartment had strong correlation with the scaffold Mw: hyperechogenicity (correlation coefficient = 0.75; P polymers scaffolds.

  10. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Monthly progress reports and final report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1995-04-01

    The objective of Task 7.lD was to (1) establish a collaborative US-USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. At early times following an accident, the direct contamination of pasture and food stuffs, particularly leafy vegetation and grain, can be of great importance. This situation has been modeled extensively. However, models employed then to predict the deposition, retention and transport of radionuclides in terrestrial environments employed concepts and data bases that were more than a decade old. The extent to which these models have been tested with independent data sets was limited. The data gathered in the former-USSR (and elsewhere throughout the Northern Hemisphere) offered a unique opportunity to test model predictions of wet and dry deposition, agricultural foodchain bioaccumulation, and short- and long-term retention, redistribution, and resuspension of radionuclides from a variety of natural and artificial surfaces. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.lD into a multinational effort to evaluate models and data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  11. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Monthly progress reports and final report, October--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of Task 7.lD was to (1) establish a collaborative US-USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. At early times following an accident, the direct contamination of pasture and food stuffs, particularly leafy vegetation and grain, can be of great importance. This situation has been modeled extensively. However, models employed then to predict the deposition, retention and transport of radionuclides in terrestrial environments employed concepts and data bases that were more than a decade old. The extent to which these models have been tested with independent data sets was limited. The data gathered in the former-USSR (and elsewhere throughout the Northern Hemisphere) offered a unique opportunity to test model predictions of wet and dry deposition, agricultural foodchain bioaccumulation, and short- and long-term retention, redistribution, and resuspension of radionuclides from a variety of natural and artificial surfaces. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.lD into a multinational effort to evaluate models and data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains

  12. Linkage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and the Texas Water Availability Model to simulate the effects of brush management on monthly storage of Canyon Lake, south-central Texas, 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, developed and applied an approach to create a linkage between the published upper Guadalupe River Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) brush-management (ashe juniper [Juniperus ashei]) model and the full authorization version Guadalupe River Water Availability Model (WAM). The SWAT model was published by the USGS, and the Guadalupe River WAM is available from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The upper Guadalupe River watershed is a substantial component of the Guadalupe River WAM. This report serves in part as documentation of a proof of concept on the feasibility of linking these two water-resources planning models for the purpose of simulating possible increases in water storage in Canyon Lake as a result of different brush-management scenarios.

  13. Monthly paleostreamflow reconstruction from annual tree-ring chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, J. H.; Rosenberg, D. E.; DeRose, R. J.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2018-02-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions are increasingly used to characterize annual climate variability prior to the instrumental record, to improve estimates of climate extremes, and to provide a baseline for climate-change projections. To date, paleoclimate records have seen limited engineering use to estimate hydrologic risks because water systems models and managers usually require streamflow input at the monthly scale. This study explores the hypothesis that monthly streamflows can be adequately modeled by statistically decomposing annual flow reconstructions. To test this hypothesis, a multiple linear regression model for monthly streamflow reconstruction is presented that expands the set of predictors to include annual streamflow reconstructions, reconstructions of global circulation, and potential differences among regional tree-ring chronologies related to tree species and geographic location. This approach is used to reconstruct 600 years of monthly streamflows at two sites on the Bear and Logan rivers in northern Utah. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies remain above zero (0.26-0.60) for all months except April and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) are 0.94 and 0.88 for the Bear and Logan rivers, respectively, confirming that the model can adequately reproduce monthly flows during the reference period (10/1942 to 9/2015). Incorporating a flexible transition between the previous and concurrent annual reconstructed flows was the most important factor for model skill. Expanding the model to include global climate indices and regional tree-ring chronologies produced smaller, but still significant improvements in model fit. The model presented here is the only approach currently available to reconstruct monthly streamflows directly from tree-ring chronologies and climate reconstructions, rather than using resampling of the observed record. With reasonable estimates of monthly flow that extend back in time many centuries, water managers can challenge systems models with a

  14. Pyrazole complexes of rhenium. Synthesis and crystal structure of trans-[Re(O)(OMe)L4]Br2 · L · 4H2O (L - 3,5-dimethylpyrazole)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, M.N.; Fedorova, N.Eh.; Fedorov, V.E.; Virovets, A.V.; Nun'es, P.

    2002-01-01

    The first rhenium (V) mononuclear complex featuring composition [Re(O)(OMe)L 4 ]Br 2 (L = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole), which is resistant to hydrolysis in neutral aqueous solution, along with its molecular adduct of the composition [Re(O)(OMe)L 4 ]Br 2 · L · 4H 2 O were synthesized. The reaction products were characterized by the methods of elementary analysis, absorption spectroscopy in visible, UV and IR ranges, mass spectrometry. Besides, the adduct structure was studied by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis. It was ascertained that the adduct is crystallized in tetragonal crystal system with unit cell parameters as follows: a = 14.912 (3), c = 17.108 (4) A, sp. gr. I4/m, Z = 4. In the complex molecule linear grouping Re(O)(OMe)] 2+ (Re-O-C angle being equal to 180 deg) is coordinated by four L ligand molecules [ru

  15. FATHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS AT 3 MONTHS AND 24 MONTHS: CONTRIBUTIONS TO CHILDREN'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AT 24 MONTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Vaheshta; Perry, Emily; Domoney, Jill; Iles, Jane; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rowbotham, Natasha E L; Stein, Alan; Murray, Lynne; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2017-05-01

    The quality of father-child interactions has become a focus of increasing research in the field of child development. We examined the potential contribution of father-child interactions at both 3 months and 24 months to children's cognitive development at 24 months. Observational measures of father-child interactions at 3 and 24 months were used to assess the quality of fathers' parenting (n = 192). At 24 months, the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (N. Bayley, ) measured cognitive functioning. The association between interactions and cognitive development was examined using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for paternal age, education and depression, infant age, and maternal sensitivity. Children whose fathers displayed more withdrawn and depressive behaviors in father-infant interactions at 3 months scored lower on the MDI at 24 months. At 24 months, children whose fathers were more engaged and sensitive as well as those whose fathers were less controlling in their interactions scored higher on the MDI. These findings were independent of the effects of maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that father-child interactions, even from a very young age (i.e., 3 months) may influence children's cognitive development. They highlight the potential significance of interventions to promote positive parenting by fathers and policies that encourage fathers to spend more time with their young children. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Stuburo stabilizavimo pratimų poveikis lėtiniam juosmeninės stuburo dalies skausmui. L4- L5 segmento dauginio bei skersinio pilvo raumenų skersmuo

    OpenAIRE

    Supragonaitė, Ramunė

    2006-01-01

    Key words: lumbar stabilization exercise, multifidus muscle size, low back pain. Low back pain is one of the most common conditions in mankind. Therefore, it is needed an exact diagnostic and the most effective problem solving method. There is an evidence of dysfunction in deep lower back and abdominal muscles in low back pain patients. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to define the influence of lumbar stabilization exercise for chronic low back pain, and to examine L4- L5 multifidus...

  17. Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration at the L3-4 level after fusion surgery at the L4-5 level: evaluation of the risk factors and 10-year incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yeon; Park, Jin Hoon; Seong, Han Yu; Lee, Young-Seok; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Rhim, Seung Chul; Roh, Sung Woo

    2015-11-01

    There have been few studies on revision surgery for clinically symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (CASD). We aimed to find the incidence of revision surgery due to CASD and to analyze the factors that affected CASD at the L3-4 level after L4-5 or L4-5-S1 level fusion surgery over a long-term follow-up period. Between January 2001 and October 2009, fusion surgeries were performed on 401 patients with spondylolisthesis at the L4-5 or L4-5-S1 level; 378 patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. We assessed CASD-free survival using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We also analyzed factors affecting the development of CASD, including sex, age, pelvic incidence, overall lordosis, segmental lordosis, lamina inclination angle, facet tropism, and the extent of disc and facet degeneration. Isthmic spondylolisthesis treated using total laminectomy or degenerative spondylolisthesis treated using subtotal laminectomy and interbody fusion (IBF) or posterolateral fusion (PLF) were also included in the risk factor analysis. The difference in disc height before and after initial surgery was also analyzed, as was inclusion of the sacrum in the fusion level. Fusion extension surgery was performed on 33 of these patients due to CASD at the L3-4 level during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated 3-, 5-, and 10-year disease-free survival rates of 99.20, 96.71, and 76.93 %. Statistically significant factors affecting CASD included old age, low overall lordosis, low segmental lordosis, progression of facet degeneration, total laminectomy-treated isthmic spondylolisthesis, and PLF-alone rather than IBF alone or IBF + PLF. We determined six significant factors affecting CASD development. Among these risk factors, facet degeneration, isthmic-type spondylolisthesis, and the type of fusion show higher hazard ratios and seem to be clinically more relevant than the other three factors (age, overall lordosis, and segmental lordosis).

  18. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  19. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  20. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  1. EPA Monthly Key Performance Indicator Dashboards 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each month, the Web Analytics Program posts updated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards that correspond to three Web performance goals: content consumption, content discovery, and audience engagement.

  2. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-17

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of May, 1958. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are discussed.

  3. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-27

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of May, 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  4. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  5. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  6. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-09

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of July 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  7. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  8. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  9. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  10. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  11. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  12. Outcomes of ≤6-month versus 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Pedro A.; Massera, Daniele; Mathew, Verghese; Bangalore, Sripal; Christia, Panagiota; Perez, Irving; Wan, Ningxin; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Briceno, David F.; Bortnick, Anna E.; Garcia, Mario J.; Lucariello, Richard; Menegus, Mark; Pyo, Robert; Wiley, Jose; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The benefit of ≤6-month compared with 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) placement remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis and meta-regression of ≤6-month versus 12-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI with DES placement. Methods: We conducted electronic database searches of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DAPT durations after DES placement. For studies with longer follow-up, outcomes at 12 months were identified. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed with the Mantel–Haenszel method. Fixed-effect models were used; if heterogeneity (I2) > 40 was identified, effects were obtained with random models. Results: Nine RCTs were included with total n = 19,224 patients. No significant differences were observed between ≤6-month compared with 12-month DAPT in all-cause mortality (OR 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69–1.11), cardiovascular (CV) mortality (OR 0.89; 95% CI: 0.66–1.21), non-CV mortality (OR 0.85; 95% 0.58–1.24), myocardial infarction (OR 1.10; 95% CI: 0.89–1.37), stroke (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.67–1.42), stent thrombosis (ST) (OR 1.37; 95% CI: 0.89–2.10), and target vessel revascularization (OR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.77–1.18). No significant difference in major bleeding (OR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.49–1.05) was observed, though the all-bleeding event rate was significantly lower in the ≤6-month DAPT group (OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59–0.96). In the meta-regression analysis, a significant association between bleeding events and non-CV mortality with 12-month DAPT was found, as well as between ST and mortality in addition to MI with ≤6-month DAPT. Conclusion: DAPT for ≤6 months is associated with similar mortality and ischemic outcomes but less bleeding events compared with 12-month DAPT after PCI with DES. PMID:28033306

  13. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Monthly Bulletin of Statistics presents statistics for more than 200 countries and territories of the world. It contains monthly and/or annual and quarterly data on a variety of subjects, including population, prices, employment and earnings, energy, manufacturing, transport, construction, international merchandise trade and finance

  14. Hanford Works monthly report, July 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-08-15

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of July 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  15. Hanford Works monthly report, August 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-09-24

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of August 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  16. Hanford Works monthly report, December 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-01-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of December 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  17. Hanford Works monthly report, August 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-09-18

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of August 1950. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  18. Hanford Works monthly report, December 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-01-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of December 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  19. Hanford Works monthly report, January 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-02-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of January 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  20. Hanford Works monthly report, May 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-06-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of May 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  1. Hanford Works monthly report, June 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-07-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of June 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  2. Hanford Works monthly report, September 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-10-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of September 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  3. Hanford Works monthly report, October 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-11-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of October 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  4. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-04-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  5. Hanford Works monthly report, April 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-05-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  6. Hanford Works monthly report, June 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-07-20

    This is a progress report of the production on the Hanford Reservation for the month of June 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  7. 78 FR 853 - National Mentoring Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... 8922 of December 31, 2012 National Mentoring Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... mission to serve others. During National Mentoring Month, we pay special tribute to the men and women who... help young people see the strength within themselves. We created the Corporate Mentoring Challenge...

  8. 75 FR 81083 - National Mentoring Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... National Mentoring Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Across our.... During National Mentoring Month, we honor these important individuals who unlock the potential and... responsible, caring adult can make in a child's life. Effective mentoring programs can result in better school...

  9. 77 FR 207 - National Mentoring Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Vol. 77 Tuesday, No. 1 January 3, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8768--National Mentoring... National Mentoring Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day... Nation's youth for a bright future. During National Mentoring Month, we celebrate the contributions of...

  10. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 12–15 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 9, 2016 This is a ... who she is. Downloads 12–15 Months: Your Child’s Development PDF 418 KB Read more about: Ages and ...

  11. 30-36 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 30–36 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 Older toddlers are ... go?” Then you two can switch. Downloads Your Child's Development: 30–36 Months PDF 373 KB Read more ...

  12. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1949-04-19

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1949. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month. (MB)

  13. Hanford Works monthly report, April 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-05-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  14. 76 FR 6303 - American Heart Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Vol. 76 Thursday, No. 23 February 3, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8625--American Heart Month, 2011 Proclamation 8626--National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011..., exercising regularly, avoiding tobacco, and moderating alcohol intake can reduce these risks. Each of us can...

  15. Hanford Works monthly report, May 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-06-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of May 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  16. Hanford Works monthly report, July 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-08-24

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of July 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  17. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-04-18

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  18. Hanford Works monthly report, February 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-03-20

    This is a progress report of the production on the Hanford Reservation for the month of February 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  19. Hanford works monthly report, September 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-10-19

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of September 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  20. Hanford Works monthly report, November 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-12-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of November 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.