WorldWideScience

Sample records for model index smi

  1. SMI Compatible Simulation Scheduler Design for Reuse of Model Complying with SMP Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hea Koo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Software reusability is one of key factors which impacts cost and schedule on a software development project. It is very crucial also in satellite simulator development since there are many commercial simulator models related to satellite and dynamics. If these models can be used in another simulator platform, great deal of confidence and cost/schedule reduction would be achieved. Simulation model portability (SMP is maintained by European Space Agency and many models compatible with SMP/simulation model interface (SMI are available. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI is developing hardware abstraction layer (HAL supported satellite simulator to verify on-board software of satellite. From above reasons, KARI wants to port these SMI compatible models to the HAL supported satellite simulator. To port these SMI compatible models to the HAL supported satellite simulator, simulation scheduler is preliminary designed according to the SMI standard.

  2. Factorial Structure and Preliminary Validation of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan G; Pietrabissa, Giada; Rossi, Alessandro; Seychell, Tahnee; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Munro, Calum; Nesci, Julian B; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED) in a disordered eating population. Method: 573 participants with disordered eating patterns as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) completed the 190-item adapted version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI). The new SMI-ED was developed by clinicians/researchers specializing in the treatment of eating disorders, through combining items from the original SMI with a set of additional questions specifically representative of the eating disorder population. Psychometric testing included Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Multivariate Analyses of Covariance (MANCOVA) was also run to test statistical differences between the EDE-Q subscales on the SMI-ED modes, while controlling for possible confounding variables. Results: Factorial analysis confirmed an acceptable 16-related-factors solution for the SMI-ED, thus providing preliminary evidence for the adequate validity of the new measure based on internal structure. Concurrent validity was also established through moderate to high correlations on the modes most relevant to eating disorders with EDE-Q subscales. This study represents the first step in creating a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring schema modes in eating disorders, and provides greater insight into the relevant schema modes within this population. Conclusion: This research represents an important preliminary step toward understanding and labeling the schema mode model for this clinical group. Findings from the psychometric evaluation of SMI-ED suggest that this is a useful tool which may further assist in the measurement and conceptualization of schema modes in this population.

  3. Factorial Structure and Preliminary Validation of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Simpson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED in a disordered eating population.Method: 573 participants with disordered eating patterns as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q completed the 190-item adapted version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI. The new SMI-ED was developed by clinicians/researchers specializing in the treatment of eating disorders, through combining items from the original SMI with a set of additional questions specifically representative of the eating disorder population. Psychometric testing included Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and internal consistency (Cronbach's α. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance (MANCOVA was also run to test statistical differences between the EDE-Q subscales on the SMI-ED modes, while controlling for possible confounding variables.Results: Factorial analysis confirmed an acceptable 16-related-factors solution for the SMI-ED, thus providing preliminary evidence for the adequate validity of the new measure based on internal structure. Concurrent validity was also established through moderate to high correlations on the modes most relevant to eating disorders with EDE-Q subscales. This study represents the first step in creating a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring schema modes in eating disorders, and provides greater insight into the relevant schema modes within this population.Conclusion: This research represents an important preliminary step toward understanding and labeling the schema mode model for this clinical group. Findings from the psychometric evaluation of SMI-ED suggest that this is a useful tool which may further assist in the measurement and conceptualization of schema modes in this population.

  4. Factorial Structure and Preliminary Validation of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan G.; Pietrabissa, Giada; Rossi, Alessandro; Seychell, Tahnee; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Munro, Calum; Nesci, Julian B.; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED) in a disordered eating population. Method: 573 participants with disordered eating patterns as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) completed the 190-item adapted version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI). The new SMI-ED was developed by clinicians/researchers specializing in the treatment of eating disorders, through combining items from the original SMI with a set of additional questions specifically representative of the eating disorder population. Psychometric testing included Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Multivariate Analyses of Covariance (MANCOVA) was also run to test statistical differences between the EDE-Q subscales on the SMI-ED modes, while controlling for possible confounding variables. Results: Factorial analysis confirmed an acceptable 16-related-factors solution for the SMI-ED, thus providing preliminary evidence for the adequate validity of the new measure based on internal structure. Concurrent validity was also established through moderate to high correlations on the modes most relevant to eating disorders with EDE-Q subscales. This study represents the first step in creating a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring schema modes in eating disorders, and provides greater insight into the relevant schema modes within this population. Conclusion: This research represents an important preliminary step toward understanding and labeling the schema mode model for this clinical group. Findings from the psychometric evaluation of SMI-ED suggest that this is a useful tool which may further assist in the measurement and conceptualization of schema modes in this population. PMID:29740379

  5. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  6. Phishing, SMiShing & Vishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Amanor, Priscilla Mateko

    2014-01-01

    -users for their knowledge, perceptions and behavior when confronted with phishing attack situations. The results show that men are more comfortable and trusting on the cyber-space and thus more susceptible to phishing attacks than women. The results also indicate that most users are either slightly aware or not at all...... is provided as a benchmark to end-users to guard against becoming cyber-victims. Of the most commonly used operating systems, the iOS was found to be the most susceptible to phishing attacks.......This study is an exploratory assessment of Phishing, SMiShing and Vishing attacks against mobile devices. It examines the implications of end-user behavior towards mitigating the risks posed by using mobile devices for online services and facilities. Phishing is that socially engineered attack...

  7. Modulation of microRNA activity by semi-microRNAs (smiRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePlante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by catalyzing the formation of 19 to 24-nucleotide (nt long microRNAs. Subsequently incorporated into Ago2 effector complexes, microRNAs are known to regulate messenger RNA (mRNA translation. Whether shorter RNA species derived from microRNAs exist and play a role in mRNA regulation remains unknown. Here, we report the serendipitous discovery of a 12-nt long RNA species corresponding to the 5’ region of the microRNA let-7, and tentatively termed semi-microRNA, or smiRNA. Using a smiRNA derived from the precursor of miR-223 as a model, we show that 12-nt long smiRNA species are devoid of any direct mRNA regulatory activity, as assessed in a reporter gene activity assay in transfected cultured human cells. However, smiR-223 was found to modulate the ability of the microRNA from which it derives to mediate translational repression or cleavage of reporter mRNAs. Our findings suggest that smiRNAs may be generated along the microRNA pathway and participate to the control of gene expression by regulating the activity of the related full-length mature microRNA in vivo.

  8. Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) evaluates the performance of the thermal protection systems required to provide long-term storage (up to 10 years)...

  9. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  10. Dynamic Modeling of CDS Index Tranche Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    This paper provides a Market Model which implies a dynamics for standardized CDS index tranche spreads, i.e. tranches which securitise CDS index series and dispose of predefined subordination. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling...... options on structured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the effects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke...... tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options with standard characteristics....

  11. Longitudinal Relationships between Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, and Community Functioning in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Nancy H.; Tarasenko, Melissa; Davidson, Charlie A.; Spaulding, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between neurocognition, theory of mind, and community functioning in a sample of 43 outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Relationships between baseline values and changes over time were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that: 1. Neurocognition and theory of mind were each associated with community functioning at baseline. 2. Community functioning improved over approximately 12 months of treatment. 3. Greater imp...

  12. Longitudinal Relationships between Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, and Community Functioning in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Nancy H.; Tarasenko, Melissa; Davidson, Charlie A.; Spaulding, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between neurocognition, theory of mind, and community functioning in a sample of 43 outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Relationships between baseline values and changes over time were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that: 1. Neurocognition and theory of mind were each associated with community functioning at baseline. 2. Community functioning improved over approximately 12 months of treatment. 3. Greater improvement in neurocognition over time predicted higher rates of improvement in community functioning. 4. Theory of mind did not predict change in community functioning after controlling for neurocognition. 5. The effect of change in neurocognition on community functioning did not depend on the effect of baseline neurocognition. This study provides empirical support that individuals with SMI may experience improvement in community functioning, especially when they also experience improvement in neurocognition. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23995035

  13. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  14. PREFACE: International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics 2008 (IW-SMI 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Statistical mechanical informatics (SMI) is an approach that applies physics to information science, in which many-body problems in information processing are tackled using statistical mechanics methods. In the last decade, the use of SMI has resulted in great advances in research into classical information processing, in particular, theories of information and communications, probabilistic inference and combinatorial optimization problems. It is expected that the success of SMI can be extended to quantum systems. The importance of many-body problems is also being recognized in quantum information theory (QIT), for which quantification of entanglement of bipartite systems has recently been almost completely established after considerable effort. SMI and QIT are sufficiently well developed that it is now appropriate to consider applying SMI to quantum systems and developing many-body theory in QIT. This combination of SMI and QIT is highly likely to contribute significantly to the development of both research fields. The International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics has been organized in response to this situation. This workshop, held at Sendai International Conference Center, Sendai, Japan, 14-17 September 2008, and sponsored by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas `Deepening and Expansion of Statistical Mechanical Informatics (DEX-SMI)' (Head investigator: Yoshiyuki Kabashima, Tokyo Institute of Technology) (Project http://dex-smi.sp.dis.titech.ac.jp/DEX-SMI), was intended to provide leading researchers with strong interdisciplinary interests in QIT and SMI with the opportunity to engage in intensive discussions. The aim of the workshop was to expand SMI to quantum systems and QIT research on quantum (entangled) many-body systems, to discuss possible future directions, and to offer researchers the opportunity to exchange ideas that may lead to joint research initiatives. We would like to thank the contributors of the workshop

  15. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  16. Transformation of Nitrate and Toluene in Groundwater by Sulfur Modified Iron(SMI-III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Hong, U.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In Korea, nitrate and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX) are frequently detected together as ground water contaminants. Therefore, a system simultaneously treating both nitrate (inorganic compound) and BTEX (organic compounds) is required to utilize groundwater as a water resource. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of Sulfur Modified Iron (SMI-III) in treating both nitrate and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Based on XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis, the SMI-III is mainly composed of Fe3O4, S, and Fe. A series of column tests were conducted at three different empty bed contact times (EBCTs) for each compound. During the experiments, removal efficiency for both nitrate and toluene were linearly correlated with EBCT, suggesting that SMI-III have an ability to transform both nitrate and toluene. The concentration of SO42- and oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) were also measured. After exposed to nitrate contaminated groundwater, the composition of SMI-III was changed to Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Fe, and Fe0.95S1.05. The trends of effluent sulfate concentrations were inversely correlated with effluent nitrate concentrations, while the trends of ORP values, having the minimum values of -480 mV, were highly correlated with effluent nitrate concentrations. XRD analysis before and after exposed to nitrate contaminated groundwater, sulfate production, and nitrite detection as a reductive transformation by-product of nitrate suggest that nitrate is reductively transformed by SMI-III. Interestingly, in the toluene experiments, the trends of ORP values were inversely correlated with effluent toluene concentrations, suggesting that probably degrade through oxidation reaction. Consequently, nitrate and toluene probably degrade through reduction and oxidation reaction, respectively and SMI-III could serve as both electron donor and acceptor.

  17. Development of the West Virginia University Small Microgravity Research Facility (WVU SMiRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kyle G.

    West Virginia University (WVU) has created the Small Microgravity Research Facility (SMiRF) drop tower through a WVU Research Corporation Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (PSCoR) grant on its campus to increase direct access to inexpensive and repeatable reduced gravity research. In short, a drop tower is a tall structure from which experimental payloads are dropped, in a controlled environment, and experience reduced gravity or microgravity (i.e. "weightlessness") during free fall. Currently, there are several methods for conducting scientific research in microgravity including drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets, suborbital flights, NanoSats, CubeSats, full-sized satellites, manned orbital flight, and the International Space Station (ISS). However, none of the aforementioned techniques is more inexpensive or has the capability of frequent experimentation repeatability as drop tower research. These advantages are conducive to a wide variety of experiments that can be inexpensively validated, and potentially accredited, through repeated, reliable research that permits frequent experiment modification and re-testing. Development of the WVU SMiRF, or any drop tower, must take a systems engineering approach that may include the detailed design of several main components, namely: the payload release system, the payload deceleration system, the payload lifting and transfer system, the drop tower structure, and the instrumentation and controls system, as well as a standardized drop tower payload frame for use by those researchers who cannot afford to spend money on a data acquisition system or frame. In addition to detailed technical development, a budgetary model by which development took place is also presented throughout, summarized, and detailed in an appendix. After design and construction of the WVU SMiRF was complete, initial calibration provided performance characteristics at various payload weights, and full-scale checkout via

  18. New model performance index for engineering design of control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Performance index includes a model representing linear control-system design specifications. Based on a geometric criterion for approximation of the model by the actual system, the index can be interpreted directly in terms of the desired system response model without actually having the model's time response.

  19. Forecasting Analysis of Shanghai Stock Index Based on ARIMA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenggang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction and analysis of the Shanghai Composite Index is conducive for investors to investing in the stock market, and providing investors with reference. This paper selects Shanghai Composite Index monthly closing price from Jan, 2005 to Oct, 2016 to construct ARIMA model. This paper carries on the forecast of the last three monthly closing price of Shanghai Stock Index that have occurred, and compared it with the actual value, which tests the accuracy and feasibility of the model in the short term Shanghai Stock Index forecast. At last, this paper uses the ARIMA model to forecast the Shanghai Composite Index closing price of the last two months in 2016.

  20. To Explore the Effect of Sub Consciousness on Sudden Moments of Inspiration (SMI) in the Sketching Process of Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Wang, Yecheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the occurrence of Sudden Moments of Inspiration (SMI) in the sketching process of industrial design through experiments to explain the effect of sub consciousness on SMI. There are a pre-experiment and a formal experiment. In the formal experiment, nine undergraduates majoring in industrial design with same…

  1. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  2. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  3. A CDO option market model on standardized CDS index tranches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    We provide a market model which implies a dynamic for standardized CDS index tranche spreads. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling emerging options on struc- tured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market...... in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the e ects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options...

  4. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  5. Impact of Direct Soil Moisture and Revised Soil Moisture Index Methods on Hydrologic Predictions in an Arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Jajarmizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is a physically based model that is used extensively to simulate hydrologic processes in a wide range of climates around the world. SWAT uses spatial hydrometeorological data to simulate runoff through the computation of a retention curve number. The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of two approaches used for the calculation of curve numbers in SWAT, that is, the Revised Soil Moisture Index (SMI, which is based on previous meteorological conditions, and the Soil Moisture Condition II (SMCII, which is based on soil features for the prediction of flow. The results showed that the sensitive parameters for the SMI method are land-use and land-cover features. However, for the SMCII method, the soil and the channel are the sensitive parameters. The performances of the SMI and SMCII methods were analyzed using various indices. We concluded that the fair performance of the SMI method in an arid region may be due to the inherent characteristics of the method since it relies mostly on previous meteorological conditions and does not account for the soil features of the catchment.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-winged blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Intelligent software systems and SMiRT: Potentials, actual results, expectations, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of recent development trends in the area of knowledge-based systems, hypermedia, neural networks and other similar technologies which are on the baseline of modern 'intelligent' software systems, applied in the areas relevant for SMiRT: power plant operation, design and analysis of structural components, materials, and many others. The paper highlights the historical background of these trends, as well as the methodologies and technologies which made such a development possible ('enabling methodologies/technologies'). Examples from several, SMiRT characteristic application areas are mentioned, in order to give an illustration what the deployment of an intelligent software system can mean in practice. Finally, a summary of these result is made and future perspectives indicated. (author)

  8. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  9. The meaning of work in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf Beigi, Mitra; Mohammadi Shahbolaghi, Farahnaz; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Haghgoo, Hojjat-Allah; Taherkhani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Work is the key component for most people in regard to financial, social and wellbeing matters. Employment is an important factor underpinning mental health disorders. However, unemployment remains an unsolved issue worldwide. Numerous studies have focused on employment outcomes in people with severe mental illness (SMI) but, only a few have explored their perspective on employment. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the meaning of work among clients with SMI in Iran. A qualitative research approach was used to conduct this research. Ten participants who were consumers of mental health services took part in this study. Data were analyzed by inductive content analysis approach. Four themes emerged from data including: acquiring identity, work as a drive, passing the time and financial independence. Meaning of work in studied people with SMI was probably similar to the general population. The different finding in this study refers to the dominancy of family relationships and spiritual believes which could cover some problems and in turn affect the meaning of work. Highlighting these meanings could direct mental health professionals to better planning for their clients have better understanding of their clients' work future and in turn provide more precise plan for them.

  10. Geospace environment modeling 2008--2009 challenge: Dst index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.M.; Glocer, A.; Welling, D.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wittberger, M.; Jordanova, V.K.; Yu, Y.; Zaharia, S.; Weigel, R.S.; Sazykin, S.; Boynton, R.; Wei, H.; Eccles, V.; Horton, W.; Mays, M.L.; Gannon, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the metrics-based results of the Dst index part of the 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge. The 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for four geomagnetic storm events and five different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical, climatological or physics-based models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of 30 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations, we use comparisons of 1 hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of 1 minute model data with the 1 minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geological Survey. The latter index can be used to calculate spectral variability of model outputs in comparison to the index. We find that model rankings vary widely by skill score used. None of the models consistently perform best for all events. We find that empirical models perform well in general. Magnetohydrodynamics-based models of the global magnetosphere with inner magnetosphere physics (ring current model) included and stand-alone ring current models with properly defined boundary conditions perform well and are able to match or surpass results from empirical models. Unlike in similar studies, the statistical models used in this study found their challenge in the weakest events rather than the strongest events.

  11. Mixture of Regression Models with Single-Index

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Sijia; Yao, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose a class of semiparametric mixture regression models with single-index. We argue that many recently proposed semiparametric/nonparametric mixture regression models can be considered special cases of the proposed model. However, unlike existing semiparametric mixture regression models, the new pro- posed model can easily incorporate multivariate predictors into the nonparametric components. Backfitting estimates and the corresponding algorithms have been proposed for...

  12. Variance Function Partially Linear Single-Index Models1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Heng; Liang, Hua; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We consider heteroscedastic regression models where the mean function is a partially linear single index model and the variance function depends upon a generalized partially linear single index model. We do not insist that the variance function depend only upon the mean function, as happens in the classical generalized partially linear single index model. We develop efficient and practical estimation methods for the variance function and for the mean function. Asymptotic theory for the parametric and nonparametric parts of the model is developed. Simulations illustrate the results. An empirical example involving ozone levels is used to further illustrate the results, and is shown to be a case where the variance function does not depend upon the mean function.

  13. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  14. A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    observed properties of variance swap dynamics and allows for jumps in volatility and returns. An affine specification using L´evy processes as building blocks leads to analytically tractable pricing formulas for options on variance swaps as well as efficient numerical methods for pricing of European......We propose and study a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index, allowing options on forward variance swaps and options on the underlying index to be priced consistently. Our model reproduces various empirically...... options on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options...

  15. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  16. Volatility in GARCH Models of Business Tendency Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dwi A. S.; Wage, Sutarman; Hartono, Ateng

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to obtain a model of business tendency index by considering volatility factor. Volatility factor detected by ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity). The ARCH checking was performed using the Lagrange multiplier test. The modeling is Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) are able to overcome volatility problems by incorporating past residual elements and residual variants.

  17. Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies--SMi's 13th Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    SMi's 13th Annual Meeting on Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies, held in London, included topics covering new trends in the generics field, the difficulties faced by companies in entering the generics market and recent developments in IP. This conference report highlights selected presentations on generics in India, protecting pharmaceutical products in China, changes in generics law and litigation in the US and Europe, challenges for market selection and entry for generics companies, the influence of changes in the healthcare market on the generics industry, supergenerics, and biosimilars.

  18. Stigma Related Avoidance in People Living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Sadat; Oakley, Linda Denise; Hitchcock, Mary E; Hall, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to synthesize primary evidence of the impact of internalized stigma on avoidance in adult community treatment patients living with SMI. A keyword database search of articles published through 2015 yielded 21 papers and a total of 4256 patients. Our analyses found that stigmatizing beliefs associated with avoidance are related to significant loss of self-esteem. Factors generally thought to reduce stigma internalized as self-stigmatizing beliefs, such as improved insight, increased self-awareness, and psycho-education to improve stigma coping skills, do not appear to improve self-esteem.

  19. Single-Index Additive Vector Autoregressive Time Series Models

    KAUST Repository

    LI, YEHUA; GENTON, MARC G.

    2009-01-01

    We study a new class of nonlinear autoregressive models for vector time series, where the current vector depends on single-indexes defined on the past lags and the effects of different lags have an additive form. A sufficient condition is provided

  20. Step-indexed Kripke models over recursive worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Reus, Bernhard; Schwinghammer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    worlds that are recursively defined in a category of metric spaces. In this paper, we broaden the scope of this technique from the original domain-theoretic setting to an elementary, operational one based on step indexing. The resulting method is widely applicable and leads to simple, succinct models...

  1. 3D Model Retrieval Based on Vector Quantisation Index Histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z M; Luo, H; Pan, J S

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique to retrieval 3D mesh models using vector quantisation index histograms. Firstly, points are sampled uniformly on mesh surface. Secondly, to a point five features representing global and local properties are extracted. Thus feature vectors of points are obtained. Third, we select several models from each class, and employ their feature vectors as a training set. After training using LBG algorithm, a public codebook is constructed. Next, codeword index histograms of the query model and those in database are computed. The last step is to compute the distance between histograms of the query and those of the models in database. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  3. Repeat Assessed Values Model for Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Manuela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an innovative methodology, named Repeat Appraised Price Model (RAV, useful for determining the price index numbers for real estate markets and the corresponding index numbers of hedonic prices of main real estate characteristics in the case of a lack of data. The methodological approach proposed in this paper aims to appraise the time series of price index numbers. It integrates the principles of the method of repeat sales with the peculiarities of the Hedonic Price Method, overcoming the problem of an almost total absence of repeat sales for the same property in a given time range; on the other hand, the technique aims to overcome the limitation of the repeat sales technique concerning the inability to take into account the characteristics of individual properties.

  4. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  5. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-01-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy. (paper)

  6. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI, the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, Z Index (ZIND, the Soil Moisture Index (SMI with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI, the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI, the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  7. Various forms of indexing HDMR for modelling multivariate classification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksu, Çağrı [Bahçeşehir University, Information Technologies Master Program, Beşiktaş, 34349 İstanbul (Turkey); Tunga, M. Alper [Bahçeşehir University, Software Engineering Department, Beşiktaş, 34349 İstanbul (Turkey)

    2014-12-10

    The Indexing HDMR method was recently developed for modelling multivariate interpolation problems. The method uses the Plain HDMR philosophy in partitioning the given multivariate data set into less variate data sets and then constructing an analytical structure through these partitioned data sets to represent the given multidimensional problem. Indexing HDMR makes HDMR be applicable to classification problems having real world data. Mostly, we do not know all possible class values in the domain of the given problem, that is, we have a non-orthogonal data structure. However, Plain HDMR needs an orthogonal data structure in the given problem to be modelled. In this sense, the main idea of this work is to offer various forms of Indexing HDMR to successfully model these real life classification problems. To test these different forms, several well-known multivariate classification problems given in UCI Machine Learning Repository were used and it was observed that the accuracy results lie between 80% and 95% which are very satisfactory.

  8. Proceedings of a workshop on fish habitat suitability index models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, James W.

    1984-01-01

    One of the habitat-based methodologies for impact assessment currently in use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980). HEP is based on the assumption that the quality of an area as wildlife habitat at a specified target year can be described by a single number, called a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI). An HSI of 1.0 represents optimum habitat: an HSI of 0.0 represents unsuitable habitat. The verbal or mathematical rules by which an HSI is assigned to an area are called an HSI model. A series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, described by Schamberger et al. (1982), have been published to assist users in applying HEP. HSI model building approaches are described in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1981). One type of HSI model described in detail requires the development of Suitability Index (SI) graphs for habitat variables believed to be important for the growth, survival, standing crop, or other measure of well-being for a species. Suitability indices range from 0 to 1.0, with 1.0 representing optimum conditions for the variable. When HSI models based on suitability indices are used, habitat variable values are measured, or estimated, and converted to SI's through the use of a Suitability Index graph for each variable. Individual SI's are aggregated into an HSI. Standard methods for testing this type of HSI model did not exist at the time the studies reported in this document were performed. A workshop was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, February 14-15, 1983, that brought together biologists experienced in the use, development, and testing of aquatic HSI models, in an effort to address the following objectives: (1) review the needs of HSI model users; (2) discuss and document the results of aquatic HSI model tests; and (3) provide recommendations for the future development, testing, modification, and use of HSI models. Individual presentations, group discussions, and group

  9. A refined index of model performance: a rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legates, David R.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Willmott et al. [Willmott CJ, Robeson SM, Matsuura K. 2012. A refined index of model performance. International Journal of Climatology, forthcoming. DOI:10.1002/joc.2419.] recently suggest a refined index of model performance (dr) that they purport to be superior to other methods. Their refined index ranges from − 1.0 to 1.0 to resemble a correlation coefficient, but it is merely a linear rescaling of our modified coefficient of efficiency (E1) over the positive portion of the domain of dr. We disagree with Willmott et al. (2012) that dr provides a better interpretation; rather, E1 is more easily interpreted such that a value of E1 = 1.0 indicates a perfect model (no errors) while E1 = 0.0 indicates a model that is no better than the baseline comparison (usually the observed mean). Negative values of E1 (and, for that matter, dr McCabe [Legates DR, McCabe GJ. 1999. Evaluating the use of “goodness-of-fit” measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Water Resources Research 35(1): 233-241.] and Schaefli and Gupta [Schaefli B, Gupta HV. 2007. Do Nash values have value? Hydrological Processes 21: 2075-2080. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6825.]. This important discussion focuses on the appropriate baseline comparison to use, and why the observed mean often may be an inadequate choice for model evaluation and development. 

  10. Single-Index Additive Vector Autoregressive Time Series Models

    KAUST Repository

    LI, YEHUA

    2009-09-01

    We study a new class of nonlinear autoregressive models for vector time series, where the current vector depends on single-indexes defined on the past lags and the effects of different lags have an additive form. A sufficient condition is provided for stationarity of such models. We also study estimation of the proposed model using P-splines, hypothesis testing, asymptotics, selection of the order of the autoregression and of the smoothing parameters and nonlinear forecasting. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate our model in various settings. We illustrate our methodology on a climate data set and show that our model provides more accurate yearly forecasts of the El Niño phenomenon, the unusual warming of water in the Pacific Ocean. © 2009 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Spanish form of the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Balaguer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the SMiLE (Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation). The SMiLE is a respondent-generated instrument: respondents are first asked to list three to seven areas, which provide meaning to their lives, and then to rate their current satisfaction with the listed areas, as well as the individual importance of each one. Indices of total weighting (IoW), total satisfaction (IoS), and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS) are calculated. Two hundred and fifty University students responded to the Spanish version of the SMiLE, as well as to instruments for measuring self-esteem, quality of life, depression, and anxiety. The Cronbach alphas (α = 0.61 for IoS and α = 0.41 for IoW) and test-retest correlations were comparable to those found in the initial validation of the instrument (IoS: r = 0.55; IoW: r = 0.61). The SMiLE showed positive correlations with self-esteem (r = 0.28, P life scale (r = 0.31, P depression (r = -0.23, P life.

  12. Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use in severe mental illness (SMI) patients: Potential changes in the phenomenology of psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Prevete, Elisabeth

    2017-05-01

    Literature is quite poor about the clinical effects of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and the long-term consequences of NPS use in psychiatric patients. Consequently, it is of the greatest interest to examine which effects NPS can exert in patients with previous severe mental illness (SMI), such as psychotic patients. The aim of this work was a comprehensive review about NPS use in patients with SMI. We searched Medline or PubMed for relevant English-language citations and reviews describing relationships between NPS use and mental disorders, as well as for the main groups of substances and associated psychiatric manifestations. All studies reporting single case or case series of patients were selected. The NPS use in patients with SMI is probably underestimated. The one existing systematic review considers only 14 studies, 12 of which are case reports. Most clinical results report acute symptom exacerbation of preexisting psychosis. Paranoid, mood, and aggression symptoms occur more frequently. NPS use could modify clinical features of SMI, but these conclusions cannot be generalizable. More evidence is needed to establish the causal and effective connection between NPS use and course of illness, type of psychiatric symptoms, and outcome of treatment in terms of adherence or response. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index and generalized impact factor: an improvement over existing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ash Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index, and generalized impact factor. We derive the bounds and inequalities relating these indexing parameters from their basic definitions and without assuming any continuous model to be followed by any of them. We verify the theorems using citation data for five Price Medalists. We observe that the lower bound for h-index given by Theorem 2, [formula: see text], g ≥ 1, comes out to be more accurate as compared to Schubert-Glanzel relation h is proportional to C(2/3)P(-1/3) for a proportionality constant of 1, where C is the number of citations and P is the number of papers referenced. Also, the values of h-index obtained using Theorem 2 outperform those obtained using Egghe-Liang-Rousseau power law model for the given citation data of Price Medalists. Further, we computed the values of upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3, g ≤ (h + e), where e denotes the value of e-index. We observe that the upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3 is reasonably tight for the given citation record of Price Medalists.

  14. Extreme value modelling of Ghana stock exchange index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Asare, Kwabena; Mettle, Felix Okoe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana stock exchange all-shares index (2000-2010) by applying the extreme value theory (EVT) to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before the EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model's goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the value at risk and expected shortfall risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model.

  15. A Price Index Model for Road Freight Transportation and Its Empirical analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhishuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of price index for road freight transportation (RFT is to reflect the changes of price in the road transport market. Firstly, a price index model for RFT based on the sample data from Alibaba logistics platform is built. This model is a three levels index system including total index, classification index and individual index and the Laspeyres method is applied to calculate these indices. Finally, an empirical analysis of the price index for RFT market in Zhejiang Province is performed. In order to demonstrate the correctness and validity of the exponential model, a comparative analysis with port throughput and PMI index is carried out.

  16. A multilateral modelling of Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the most dominant factors that influencing performance of soccer player and to predict group performance for soccer players. A total of 184 of youth soccer players from Malaysia sport school and six soccer academy encompasses as respondence of the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were computed to identify the most dominant factors whereas reducing the initial 26 parameters with recommended >0.5 of factor loading. Meanwhile, prediction of the soccer performance was predicted by regression model. CFA revealed that sit and reach, vertical jump, VO2max, age, weight, height, sitting height, calf circumference (cc), medial upper arm circumference (muac), maturation, bicep, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, 5M, 10M, and 20M speed were the most dominant factors. Further index analysis forming Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI) resulting by categorizing three groups namely, high, moderate, and low. The regression model for this study was significant set as p < 0.001 and R2 is 0.8222 which explained that the model contributed a total of 82% prediction ability to predict the whole set of the variables. The significant parameters in contributing prediction of YSPI are discussed. As a conclusion, the precision of the prediction models by integrating a multilateral factor reflecting for predicting potential soccer player and hopefully can create a competitive soccer games.

  17. Soil Quality Index Determination Models for Restinga Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, R. M.; Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Restinga Forest is a set of plant communities in mosaic, determined by the characteristics of their substrates as a result of depositional processes and ages. In this complex mosaic are the physiognomies of restinga forests of high-stage regeneration (high restinga) and middle stage of regeneration (low restinga), each with its plant characteristics that differentiate them. Located on the coastal plains of the Brazilian coast, suffering internal influences both the continental slopes, as well as from the sea. Its soils come from the Quaternary and are subject to constant deposition of sediments. The climate in the coastal type is tropical (Köppen). This work was conducted in four locations: (1) Anchieta Island, Ubatuba, (2) Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, Iguape, (3) Vila das Pedrinhas, Comprida Island; and (4) Cardoso Island, Cananeia. The soil samples were collect at a depths of 0 to 5, 0-10, 0-20, 20-40 and 40 to 60cm for the chemical and physical analysis. Were studied the additive and pondering additive models to evaluate soil quality. It was concluded: a) the comparative additive model produces quantitative results and the pondering additive model quantitative results; b) as the pondering additive model, the values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) for soils under forest of restinga are low and realistic, demonstrating the small plant biomass production potential of these soils, as well as their low resilience; c) the values of SQI similar to areas with and without restinga forest give quantitative demonstration of the restinga be considered as soil phase; d) restinga forest, probably, is maintained solely by the cycling of nutrients in a closed nutrient cycling; e) for the determination of IQS for soils under restinga vegetation the use of routine chemical analysis is adequate. Keywords: Model, restinga forest, Soil Quality Index (SQI).

  18. The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David

    2004-01-01

    A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold

  19. Scaling analysis and model estimation of solar corona index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Samujjwal; Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal Hossain; Ghosh, Koushik

    2018-04-01

    A monthly average solar green coronal index time series for the period from January 1939 to December 2008 collected from NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has been analysed in this paper in perspective of scaling analysis and modelling. Smoothed and de-noising have been done using suitable mother wavelet as a pre-requisite. The Finite Variance Scaling Method (FVSM), Higuchi method, rescaled range (R/S) and a generalized method have been applied to calculate the scaling exponents and fractal dimensions of the time series. Autocorrelation function (ACF) is used to find autoregressive (AR) process and Partial autocorrelation function (PACF) has been used to get the order of AR model. Finally a best fit model has been proposed using Yule-Walker Method with supporting results of goodness of fit and wavelet spectrum. The results reveal an anti-persistent, Short Range Dependent (SRD), self-similar property with signatures of non-causality, non-stationarity and nonlinearity in the data series. The model shows the best fit to the data under observation.

  20. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles…

  1. Modeling pedestrian gap crossing index under mixed traffic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed M; Zulkiple, Adnan; Al Bargi, Walid A; Khalifa, Nasradeen A; Daniel, Basil David

    2017-12-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade. This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results. From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing. The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  3. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  4. Quantification of age-related changes in the structure model type and trabecular thickness of human tibial cancellous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I

    2000-01-01

    Structure model type and trabecular thickness are important characteristics in describing cancellous bone architecture. It has been qualitatively observed that a radical change of trabeculae from plate-like to rod-like occurs in aging, bone remodeling, and osteoporosis. Thickness of trabeculae has...... traditionally been measured using model-based histomorphometric methods on two-dimensional (2-D) sections. However, no quantitative study has been published based on three-dimensional (3-D) methods on the age-related changes in structure model type and trabecular thickness for human peripheral (tibial......, structure model type and trabecular thickness were quantified by means of novel 3-D methods. Structure model type was assessed by calculating the structure model index (SMI). The SMI was quantified based on a differential analysis of the triangulated bone surface of a structure. This technique allows...

  5. A cautionary note on the use of information fit indexes in covariance structure modeling with means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.

    2004-01-01

    Information fit indexes such as Akaike Information Criterion, Consistent Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and the expected cross validation index can be valuable in assessing the relative fit of structural equation models that differ regarding restrictiveness. In cases

  6. Sensory-Motor Index is Useful Parameter in Electroneurographical Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Perić

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available It was performed electroneurographic (ENG studies with surface electrodes and examined nervus medianus (NM in 60 patients (38 females, average age of 50,28 years (X+/-SD=50,28+/-11, with clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and at least one border or discrete abnormal value of conventional electrophysiological tests. It was also examined 57 healthy individuals (33 females as control group, average age of 45,65 years (X+/-SD=45,65+/-9,68. The sensitivity and specificity of sensory-motor index (SMI, terminal latency index(TLI and residual latency (RL were calculated and compared. SMI is determinate by using following formula: distal distance (DD (in cm/distal motor latency (DML (in ms + sensory conduction velocity (SCV (in m/s/motor conduction velocity (MCV (in m/s of NM. SCV of NM was measured by antidromic technique in segment wrist-index finger and MCV of NM in forearm segment above wrist. SMI mean value of control group was 3,45 (X+/-SD=3,45+/-0,45 with lower limit of normal value 2,82 and in patients with CTS 2,13 (X+/-SD=2,13 +/-0,37. The sensitivity of SMI in patients with CTS was 98,51%. SMI is useful parameter in electroneurographical diagnosis of CTS and it's determination is easy and fast and specially important in cases with border or discrete abnormal values of other NM electrophysiological parameters, when SMI values can indicate incipient phase of CTS evolution. In rare cases (about 1% of CTS with selective NM motor axons affection, SMI may have normal value (false negative result, but DML is always prolonged in this cases. SMI is not dependent on age and DD values in patients with CTS and control subjects.

  7. Improvement of the design and generation of highly specific plant knockdown lines using primary synthetic microRNAs (pri-smiRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In plants, they typically show high complementarity to a single sequence motif within their target mRNAs and act by catalyzing specific mRNA cleavage and degradation. miRNAs are processed from much longer primary transcripts via precursor miRNAs containing fold-back structures. Leaving these secondary structures intact, miRNAs can be re-designed experimentally to target mRNAs of choice. Results We designed primary synthetic miRNAs (pri-smiRNAs on the basis of the primary transcript of the Arabidopsis MIR159A gene by replacing the original miR159a and the corresponding miR159a* with novel sequences, keeping the overall secondary structure as predicted by the program RNAfold. We used the program RNAhybrid to optimize smiRNA design and to screen the complete Arabidopsis transcriptome for potential off-targets. To improve the molecular cloning of the pri-smiRNA we inserted restriction sites in the original MIR159A primary transcript to easily accommodate the smiRNA/smiRNA* DNA fragment. As a proof-of-concept, we targeted the single gene encoding chalcone synthase (CHS in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate smiRNA(CHS expression and CHS mRNA cleavage in different transgenic lines. Phenotypic changes in these lines were observed for seed color and flavonol derivatives, and quantified with respect to anthocyanin content. We also tested the effect of mismatches and excess G:U base pairs on knockdown efficiency. Conclusions RNAhybrid-assisted design of smiRNAs and generation of pri-smiRNAs using a novel vector containing restriction sites greatly improves specificity and speed of the generation of stable knockdown lines for functional analyses in plants.

  8. View subspaces for indexing and retrieval of 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutagaci, Helin; Godil, Afzal; Sankur, Bülent; Yemez, Yücel

    2010-02-01

    View-based indexing schemes for 3D object retrieval are gaining popularity since they provide good retrieval results. These schemes are coherent with the theory that humans recognize objects based on their 2D appearances. The viewbased techniques also allow users to search with various queries such as binary images, range images and even 2D sketches. The previous view-based techniques use classical 2D shape descriptors such as Fourier invariants, Zernike moments, Scale Invariant Feature Transform-based local features and 2D Digital Fourier Transform coefficients. These methods describe each object independent of others. In this work, we explore data driven subspace models, such as Principal Component Analysis, Independent Component Analysis and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization to describe the shape information of the views. We treat the depth images obtained from various points of the view sphere as 2D intensity images and train a subspace to extract the inherent structure of the views within a database. We also show the benefit of categorizing shapes according to their eigenvalue spread. Both the shape categorization and data-driven feature set conjectures are tested on the PSB database and compared with the competitor view-based 3D shape retrieval algorithms.

  9. Enhanced index tracking modeling in portfolio optimization with mixed-integer programming z approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2014-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of portfolio management in stock market investment. Enhanced index tracking aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate excess return over the return achieved by the stock market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using mixed-integer programming model which adopts regression approach in order to generate higher portfolio mean return than stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of 24 component stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2012. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of mixed-integer programming model is able to generate higher mean return than FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index return with only selecting 30% out of the total stock market index components.

  10. A new enhanced index tracking model in portfolio optimization with sum weighted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Hoe, Lam Weng

    2017-04-01

    Index tracking is a portfolio management which aims to construct the optimal portfolio to achieve similar return with the benchmark index return at minimum tracking error without purchasing all the stocks that make up the index. Enhanced index tracking is an improved portfolio management which aims to generate higher portfolio return than the benchmark index return besides minimizing the tracking error. The objective of this paper is to propose a new enhanced index tracking model with sum weighted approach to improve the existing index tracking model for tracking the benchmark Technology Index in Malaysia. The optimal portfolio composition and performance of both models are determined and compared in terms of portfolio mean return, tracking error and information ratio. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of the proposed model is able to generate higher mean return than the benchmark index at minimum tracking error. Besides that, the proposed model is able to outperform the existing model in tracking the benchmark index. The significance of this study is to propose a new enhanced index tracking model with sum weighted apporach which contributes 67% improvement on the portfolio mean return as compared to the existing model.

  11. A Step-indexed Semantic Model of Types for the Call-by-Name Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Meurer, Benedikt

    2011-01-01

    Step-indexed semantic models of types were proposed as an alternative to purely syntactic safety proofs using subject-reduction. Building upon the work by Appel and others, we introduce a generalized step-indexed model for the call-by-name lambda calculus. We also show how to prove type safety of general recursion in our call-by-name model.

  12. Weighted-indexed semi-Markov models for modeling financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new stochastic model based on a generalization of semi-Markov chains for studying the high frequency price dynamics of traded stocks. We assume that the financial returns are described by a weighted-indexed semi-Markov chain model. We show, through Monte Carlo simulations, that the model is able to reproduce important stylized facts of financial time series such as the first-passage-time distributions and the persistence of volatility. The model is applied to data from the Italian and German stock markets from 1 January 2007 until the end of December 2010. (paper)

  13. DNA repair genes RAD52 and SRS2, a cell wall synthesis regulator gene SMI1, and the membrane sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 are important in efficient Agrobacterium-mediated yeast transformation with chromosomal T-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmine, Yuta; Satoh, Yukari; Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-04-02

    Plant pathogenic Agrobacterium strains can transfer T-DNA regions of their Ti plasmids to a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, including fungi, in vitro. In the recent decade, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a model host to reveal important host proteins for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Further investigation is required to understand the fundamental mechanism of AMT, including interaction at the cell surface, to expand the host range, and to develop new tools. In this study, we screened a yeast mutant library for low AMT mutant strains by advantage of a chromosome type T-DNA, which transfer is efficient and independent on integration into host chromosome. By the mutant screening, we identified four mutant strains (srs2Δ, rad52Δ, smi1Δ and erg28Δ), which showed considerably low AMT efficiency. Structural analysis of T-DNA product replicons in AMT colonies of mutants lacking each of the two DNA repair genes, SRS2 and RAD52, suggested that the genes act soon after T-DNA entry for modification of the chromosomal T-DNA to stably maintain them as linear replicons and to circularize certain T-DNA simultaneously. The cell wall synthesis regulator SMI1 might have a role in the cell surface interaction between the donor and recipient cells, but the smi1Δ mutant exhibited pleiotropic effect, i.e. low effector protein transport as well as low AMT for the chromosomal T-DNA, but relatively high AMT for integrative T-DNAs. The ergosterol synthesis regulator/enzyme-scaffold gene ERG28 probably contributes by sensing a congested environment, because growth of erg28Δ strain was unaffected by the presence of donor bacterial cells, while the growth of the wild-type and other mutant yeast strains was suppressed by their presence. RAD52 and the DNA helicase/anti-recombinase gene SRS2 are necessary to form and maintain artificial chromosomes through the AMT of chromosomal T-DNA. A sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 is important in the high

  14. Evaluation of CBCT digital models and traditional models using the Little's Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Chung How; Littlefield, Jay; Rainy, Neal; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Creed, Ben

    2010-05-01

    To determine if measurements obtained from digital models from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were comparable to the traditional method of digital study models by impressions. Digital models of 30 subjects were used. InVivoDental (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) software was used to analyze CBCT scans taken by a Galileos cone beam scanner (Sirona, Charlotte, NC) with a field of view of 15 x 15 x 15 cm(3) and a voxel resolution of 0.125 mm. OrthoCAD (Cadent, Fairview, NJ) software was used to analyze impression scans of patients at different stages of orthodontic treatment. Impressions were taken using alginate and were mailed to OrthoCAD for digital conversion. The scans were then electronically returned in digital format for analysis. The maxillary mean scores for the Little's Index were 9.65 mm for digital models and 8.87 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The mandibular mean scores for the Little's Index were 6.41 mm for digital models and 6.27 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The mean overjet measurements were 3.32 mm for digital models and 3.52 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The overbite measurements were 2.29 mm for digital models and 2.26 mm for InVivoDental models, respectively. The paired t-test showed no statistical significance between the differences in all measurements. CBCT digital models are as accurate as OrthoCAD digital models in making linear measurements for overjet, overbite, and crowding measurements.

  15. Systematic analysis of DEMETER-like DNA glycosylase genes shows lineage-specific Smi-miR7972 involved in SmDML1 regulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Li, Caili; Lu, Shanfa

    2018-05-08

    DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs. SmDML1, SmDML2 and SmDML4 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment of 5Aza-dC, a general DNA methylation inhibitor, suggesting involvement of SmDMLs in genome DNA methylation change. SmDML1 was predicted and experimentally validated to be target of Smi-miR7972. Computational analysis of forty whole genome sequences and almost all of RNA-seq data from Lamiids revealed that MIR7972s were only distributed in some plants of the three orders, including Lamiales, Solanales and Boraginales, and the number of MIR7972 genes varied among species. It suggests that MIR7972 genes underwent expansion and loss during the evolution of some Lamiids species. Phylogenetic analysis of MIR7972s showed closer evolutionary relationships between MIR7972s in Boraginales and Solanales in comparison with Lamiales. These results provide a valuable resource for elucidating DNA demethylation mechanism in S. miltiorrhiza.

  16. SMiRT 23. 14{sup th} international seminar on fire safety in nuclear power plants and installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewekamp, Marina (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Berg, Heinz-Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In the frame of the project 3614R01575 funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit, BMUB) the meanwhile fourteenth international seminar on ''Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and Installations'' has been conducted as P ost-Conference Seminar of the 23{sup rd} International Conference on Structural Mechanics In Reactor Technology (SMiRT 23) in Salford, United Kingdom in August 2015. The following seminar proceedings contain the entire twenty-one technical contributions to the two day s seminar with in total fifty-five participants from ten countries in Asia, Europe and America.

  17. Index-aware model order reduction : LTI DAEs in electric networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banagaaya, N.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ali, G.; Tischendorf, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Model order reduction (MOR) has been widely used in the electric networks but little has been done to reduce higher index differential algebraic equations (DAEs). The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Most methods first do an index reduction before reducing a

  18. A model of social influence on body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A; Ornstein, Joseph T

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of social influence on body weight. The model's assumptions are grounded in theory and evidence from physiology, social psychology, and behavioral science, and its outcomes are tested against longitudinal data from American youth. We discuss the implementation of the model, the insights it generates, and its implications for public health policy. By explicating a well-grounded dynamic mechanism, our analysis helps clarify important dependencies for both efforts to leverage social influence for obesity intervention and efforts to interpret clustering of BMI in networks. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  20. Model Complexity and Out-of-Sample Performance: Evidence from S&P 500 Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeck, Andreas; Rodrigues, Paulo; Seeger, Norman J.

    We apply a range of out-of-sample specification tests to more than forty competing stochastic volatility models to address how model complexity affects out-of-sample performance. Using daily S&P 500 index returns, model confidence set estimations provide strong evidence that the most important model

  1. Modeling of SBS Phase Conjugation in Multimode Step Index Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spring, Justin B

    2008-01-01

    ... limited, double-pass high-power amplifiers or coherent beam combination. Little modeling of such a fiber-based phase-conjugator has been done, making it difficult to make decisions about the right fiber to use...

  2. FUZZY RIPENING MANGO INDEX USING RGB COLOUR SENSOR MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Razak Mansor; Mahmod Othman; Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Khairul Adilah Ahmad; Tajul Rosli Razak

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the mango ripeness classification is determined manually by human graders according to a particular procedure. This method is inconsistent and subjective in nature because each grader has different techniques. Thus, it affects the quantity and quality of the mango fruit that can be marketed. In this project, a new model for classifying mango fruit is developed using the fuzzy logic RGB sensor colour model build in the MATLAB software. The grading system was programme...

  3. A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    to be priced consistently, while allowing for jumps in volatility and returns. An affine specification using Lévy processes as building blocks leads to analytically tractable pricing formulas for volatility derivatives, such as VIX options, as well as efficient numerical methods for pricing of European options...... on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options on S&P 500 across...

  4. A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    to be priced consistently, while allowing for jumps in volatility and returns. An affine specification using Lévy processes as building blocks leads to analytically tractable pricing formulas for volatility derivatives, such as VIX options, as well as efficient numerical methods for pricing of European options...... on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options on S&P 500 across...

  5. SME-SMI, professionals, territorial authorities: EDF in an open market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    On July 1, 2004, the opening of the electricity market to competition has crossed a new step. In France, more than 2.3 millions of customers - professionals, companies, and territorial authorities - can freely chose their power supplier, which represents 70% of the electricity market. In this open market, Electricite de France (EdF), the French electric utility, has promised to all its clients an optimum security of power supply prices by fixing its price offers with respect to the prices of regulated tariffs and by indexing them with respect to their future evolutions. This document presents the new rules of the electricity market and the different services offered by EdF. (J.S.)

  6. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Qiu

    Full Text Available In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA. We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately.

  7. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately.

  8. Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqin Xu; Xiaoqiao Geng; Yuanqiao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encount...

  9. Semiparametric Mixtures of Regressions with Single-index for Model Based Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Sijia; Yao, Weixin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose two classes of semiparametric mixture regression models with single-index for model based clustering. Unlike many semiparametric/nonparametric mixture regression models that can only be applied to low dimensional predictors, the new semiparametric models can easily incorporate high dimensional predictors into the nonparametric components. The proposed models are very general, and many of the recently proposed semiparametric/nonparametric mixture regression models a...

  10. Modeling of preventive maintenance changes influence upon flight safety indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.В. Гончаренко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  It is considered a simplified model of connection between the catastrophic events flow frequency and both preventive maintenance changes periodicity and diagnosis depth of aviation equipment. It is deduced specific formulas for computing the changes and diagnostics parameters influence upon the values of both the catastrophic events flow frequency and technical-economical control factor criterion of flight safety levels.

  11. ECONOMETRIC’S MODEL: THE DEPENDENCE OF PFTS INDEX FROM ECONOMICS RANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cherkashyna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of stock index is an indicator of market efficiency. We use the strong form of market efficiency, where prices reflect all available information, – both public and private. National index PFTS and main world indexes such as Dow Jones industrial, Standard & Poor’s 500, Nasdaq composite, Japan’s Nikkei index, Hong Kong’s Hang Seng index are very volatility. Last week all of the major U.S. stock indexes were in the red. Data dependence index PFTS from many exogenous and internal factors is analyzed in the article. The main exogenous factors are Dow Jones industrial, Nasdaq composite, growth rate of world GDP, price of gold, price of oil. The main internal factors are the exchange rate, the international investment position of Ukraine, the external debt of Ukraine. Index PFTS is malleable from the international investment position, the exchange rate and the price of gold. It is very difficult to forecast the dynamic of stock index. There is an approximation error. It is 6,82%. It is less than 10% and it is allowable. The econometric model makes it possible to predict the dynamics of the PFTS on the next years. But we must have in mind asymmetry of information and moral hazard.

  12. Somatic sensory cortex (SmI) of the prosimian primate Galago crassicaudatus: organization of mechanoreceptive input from the hand in relation to cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M; Welt, C

    1980-01-15

    Mechanoreceptive input from the hand to the somatic sensory cortex (SmI) of the prosimian primate Galago crassicaudatus was examined with microelectrode mapping methods. In anesthetized animals, low threshold cutaneous input from the hand projects to SmI cortex in a single, complete, somatotopically organized pattern. Within this single pattern, cells with receptive fields on the glabrous skin of the palm, digits and digit tips are located in the rostral half, and cells with RFs on the hairy skin of the dorsal hand and digits are located in the caudal half of the hand areas. The cutaneous hand area is coextensive with the densely granular architectonic region of SmI. Studies of single cells in this region of awake galagos reveal the same pattern of cutaneous input and, in addition, demonstrate the presence of cells responding to joint movement not detected in anesthetized animals. Cells responsive to joint movement are arranged in vertically oriented columns located adjacent to cutaneous columns with receptive fields on the same part of the hand. In anesthetized animals, cells rostral to the granular region, in an area typified by increasing numbers of pyramidal cells in layer V and decreasing numbers of granular cells in upper layers, respond to high threshold stimulation of large areas of the hand. The few cells isolated in this area in awake animals respond to either active or passive hand movements. In such animals, cells caudal to the granular region, in an area characterized as agranular and alaminar cortex, respond to either passive stimulation of single or multiple joints or to active hand movements. These results, together with similar findings in a related prosimian, Nycticebus coucang, emphasize the generality of a single cutaneous hand area in SmI of prosimian species. The demonstration of multiple hand areas corresponding to multiple cytoarchitectonic subdivisions in SmI of Old and New World simians illustrates the increased degree of SmI

  13. lactic acid production by Lactobacillus SMI8 using corn steep liquor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... terized by a greater resistance to high temperatures, ... Bacterial strain selection was based on the greatest .... The model predicted a maximal response of 41.38 g/L of lactic acid ... Using a mathematical model furnished the.

  14. Forecasting performance of smooth transition autoregressive (STAR model on travel and leisure stock index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman M. Umer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Travel and leisure recorded a consecutive robust growth and become among the fastest economic sectors in the world. Various forecasting models are proposed by researchers that serve as an early recommendation for investors and policy makers. Numerous studies proposed distinct forecasting models to predict the dynamics of this sector and provide early recommendation for investors and policy makers. In this paper, we compare the performance of smooth transition autoregressive (STAR and linear autoregressive (AR models using monthly returns of Turkey and FTSE travel and leisure index from April 1997 to August 2016. MSCI world index used as a proxy of the overall market. The result shows that nonlinear LSTAR model cannot improve the out-of-sample forecast of linear AR model. This finding demonstrates little to be gained from using LSTAR model in the prediction of travel and leisure stock index. Keywords: Nonlinear time-series, Out-of-sample forecasting, Smooth transition autoregressive, Travel and leisure

  15. Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.

  16. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.

    2017-08-01

    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  17. Use of Annual Phosphorus Loss Estimator (APLE) Model to Evaluate a Phosphorus Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellino, Nicole M; McGrath, Joshua M; Vadas, Peter A; Bolster, Carl H; Coale, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The Phosphorus (P) Index was developed to provide a relative ranking of agricultural fields according to their potential for P loss to surface water. Recent efforts have focused on updating and evaluating P Indices against measured or modeled P loss data to ensure agreement in magnitude and direction. Following a recently published method, we modified the Maryland P Site Index (MD-PSI) from a multiplicative to a component index structure and evaluated the MD-PSI outputs against P loss data estimated by the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model, a validated, field-scale, annual P loss model. We created a theoretical dataset of fields to represent Maryland conditions and scenarios and created an empirical dataset of soil samples and management characteristics from across the state. Through the evaluation process, we modified a number of variables within the MD-PSI and calculated weighting coefficients for each P loss component. We have demonstrated that our methods can be used to modify a P Index and increase correlation between P Index output and modeled P loss data. The methods presented here can be easily applied in other states where there is motivation to update an existing P Index. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Modeling and experimental verification of laser self-mixing interference phenomenon with the structure of two-external-cavity feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Yuwei; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2018-03-01

    A semiconductor laser employed with two-external-cavity feedback structure for laser self-mixing interference (SMI) phenomenon is investigated and analyzed. The SMI model with two directions based on F-P cavity is deduced, and numerical simulation and experimental verification were conducted. Experimental results show that the SMI with the structure of two-external-cavity feedback under weak light feedback is similar to the sum of two SMIs.

  19. Assimilation of Leaf Area Index and Soil Wetness Index into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, A. L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.

    2012-04-01

    The development of a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) dedicated to carbon and water cycles is considered as a key aspect for monitoring activities of terrestrial carbon fluxes. It allows the assimilation of biophysical products in order to reduce the bias between the model simulations and the observations and have a positive impact on carbon and water fluxes. This work shows the benefits of data assimilation of Earth observations for the monitoring of vegetation status and carbon fluxes, in the framework of the GEOLAND2 project, co-funded by the European Commission within the GMES initiative in FP7. In this study, the SURFEX modelling platform developed at Meteo-France is used for describing the continental vegetation state, surface fluxes and soil moisture. It consists of the land surface model ISBA-A-gs that simulates photosynthesis and plant growth. The vegetation biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) evolve dynamically in response to weather and climate conditions. The ECOCLIMAP database provides detailed information about the land cover at a resolution of 1 km. Over the France domain, the most present ecosystem types are grasslands (32%), C3 crop lands (24%), deciduous forest (20%), bare soil (11%), and C4 crop lands (8%).The model also includes a representation of the soil moisture stress with two different types of drought responses for herbaceous vegetation and forests. A version of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme is developed for the joint assimilation of satellite-derived surface soil moisture from ASCAT-25 km product, namely Soil Wetness Index (SWI-01) developed by TU-Wien, and remote sensing LAI product provided by GEOLAND2. The GEOLAND2 LAI product is derived from CYCLOPES V3.1 and MODIS collection 5 data. It is more consistent with an effective LAI for low LAI and close to the actual LAI for high values. The assimilation experiment was conducted across France at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The study period ranges from July 2007 to December

  20. Block Empirical Likelihood for Longitudinal Single-Index Varying-Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a single-index varying-coefficient model with application to longitudinal data. In order to accommodate the within-group correlation, we apply the block empirical likelihood procedure to longitudinal single-index varying-coefficient model, and prove a nonparametric version of Wilks’ theorem which can be used to construct the block empirical likelihood confidence region with asymptotically correct coverage probability for the parametric component. In comparison with normal approximations, the proposed method does not require a consistent estimator for the asymptotic covariance matrix, making it easier to conduct inference for the model's parametric component. Simulations demonstrate how the proposed method works.

  1. European Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement--SMi's 21st Annual Meeting (October 5-6, 2015--London, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, A; D'Souza, P

    2015-10-01

    Translating perceived market value for pharmaceutical products into a willingness to pay remains the key factor in ensuring market access and return on investment. How price is managed in the context of new market entrants or new approval settings can create complex challenges, and further complexity is added through diverse global reimbursement structures and the myriad of stakeholders involved at every step of value identification. SMi's 21st Annual Meeting on European Pricing and Reimbursement presented a program focused on the measures being taken by European healthcare systems as they seek to facilitate access to the latest treatments while delivering value for payers and patients. Supporting patient access to life-changing medicines is a challenge, and funders are responding in many different ways; however, while the pharma industry continues to focus its efforts on high cost drugs that treat diseases of the few, the disconnect will be not be resolved. The speakers and delegates at the annual meeting believe success is possible by focusing on value for patients, driven by provider experience, scale and learning. Instead of simply lowering costs, companies, providers and payers can more adequately contribute to the goals of funders as well as the treatment needs of patients. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. Index Option Pricing Models with Stochastic Volatility and Stochastic Interest Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, G.J.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper specifies a multivariate stochastic volatility (SV) model for the S&P500 index and spot interest rate processes. We first estimate the multivariate SV model via the efficient method of moments (EMM) technique based on observations of underlying state variables, and then investigate the

  3. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Su

    Full Text Available Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm. In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners.

  4. Detecting Growth Shape Misspecifications in Latent Growth Models: An Evaluation of Fit Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Walter L.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the likelihood ratio test and fit indexes for detection of misspecifications of growth shape in latent growth models through a simulation study and a graphical analysis. They found that the likelihood ratio test, MFI, and root mean square error of approximation performed best for detecting model misspecification…

  5. Leaf area index uncertainty estimates for model-data fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; D. Bryan Dail; D.Y. Hollinger

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of data uncertainties are required to integrate different observational data streams as model constraints using model-data fusion. We describe an approach with which random and systematic uncertainties in optical measurements of leaf area index [LAI] can be quantified. We use data from a measurement campaign at the spruce-dominated Howland Forest AmeriFlux...

  6. Modelling approach for the rainfall erosivity index in sub-humid urban areas in northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, I.; Abderrahmane Guenim, N.; Touaibia, B.

    2014-09-01

    This work presents an approach for storm water erosivity index modelling in the absence of measurement in an urban area, in a sub-humid climate. In torrential storms, floods, loaded with sediments, obstruct storm water drainage. With the aim of estimating the amount of sediment that can be deposited on a stretch of road, adjacent to the study area, the erosivity index is determined from a count of 744 rain showers recorded over a period of 19 years. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) of Wischmeier and Smith is applied, where only the index of erosivity is calculated; it is based on the intensity of the rain starting the process of erosion in the basin. Functional relations are required between this factor and the explanatory variables. A power type regression model is reached, making it possible to bring a decision-making aid in absences of measurements.

  7. Modelling approach for the rainfall erosivity index in sub-humid urban areas in northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Touaibia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach for storm water erosivity index modelling in the absence of measurement in an urban area, in a sub-humid climate. In torrential storms, floods, loaded with sediments, obstruct storm water drainage. With the aim of estimating the amount of sediment that can be deposited on a stretch of road, adjacent to the study area, the erosivity index is determined from a count of 744 rain showers recorded over a period of 19 years. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE of Wischmeier and Smith is applied, where only the index of erosivity is calculated; it is based on the intensity of the rain starting the process of erosion in the basin. Functional relations are required between this factor and the explanatory variables. A power type regression model is reached, making it possible to bring a decision-making aid in absences of measurements.

  8. Stochastic modeling of soundtrack for efficient segmentation and indexing of video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphade, Milind R.; Huang, Thomas S.

    1999-12-01

    Tools for efficient and intelligent management of digital content are essential for digital video data management. An extremely challenging research area in this context is that of multimedia analysis and understanding. The capabilities of audio analysis in particular for video data management are yet to be fully exploited. We present a novel scheme for indexing and segmentation of video by analyzing the audio track. This analysis is then applied to the segmentation and indexing of movies. We build models for some interesting events in the motion picture soundtrack. The models built include music, human speech and silence. We propose the use of hidden Markov models to model the dynamics of the soundtrack and detect audio-events. Using these models we segment and index the soundtrack. A practical problem in motion picture soundtracks is that the audio in the track is of a composite nature. This corresponds to the mixing of sounds from different sources. Speech in foreground and music in background are common examples. The coexistence of multiple individual audio sources forces us to model such events explicitly. Experiments reveal that explicit modeling gives better result than modeling individual audio events separately.

  9. Spatial modelling of population at risk and PM 2.5 exposure index: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, monitoring, spatial representation and development of associated risk indicators have been major problems undermining formulation of relevant policy on air quality. This study used ... to environmental health. Key Words: Population at risk, PM2.5; Spatial modeling, GIS, Exposure index, environmental health ...

  10. Use of remotely sensed precipitation and leaf area index in a distributed hydrological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Dybkjær, G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2002-01-01

    Remotely sensed precipitation from METEOSAT data and leaf area index (LAI) from NOAA AVHRR data is used as input data to the distributed hydrological modelling of three sub catchments (82.000 km(2)) in the Senegal River Basin. Further, root depths of annual vegetation are related to the temporal...

  11. Independent screening for single-index hazard rate models with ultrahigh dimensional features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    can be viewed as the natural survival equivalent of correlation screening. We state conditions under which the method admits the sure screening property within a class of single-index hazard rate models with ultrahigh dimensional features and describe the generally detrimental effect of censoring...

  12. Modelling of the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes for different orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, D; Marín, M J; Utrillas, M P; Tena, F; Martínez-Lozano, J A

    2012-02-01

    In this study, estimated data of the UV Index on vertical planes are presented for the latitude of Valencia, Spain. For that purpose, the UVER values have been generated on vertical planes by means of four different geometrical models a) isotropic, b) Perez, c) Gueymard, d) Muneer, based on values of the global horizontal UVER and the diffuse horizontal UVER, measured experimentally. The UVER values, obtained by any model, overestimate the experimental values for all orientations, with the exception of the Perez model for the East plane. The results show statistical values of the MAD parameter (Mean Absolute Deviation) between 10% and 25%, the Perez model being the one that obtained a lower MAD for all levels. As for the statistic RMSD parameter (Root Mean Square Deviation), the results show values between 17% and 32%, and again the Perez model provides the best results in all vertical planes. The difference between the estimated UV Index and the experimental UV Index, for vertical and 40° tilted planes, was also calculated. 40° is an angle close to the latitude of Burjassot, Valencia, (39.5°), which, according to various studies, is the optimum angle to capture maximum radiation on tilted planes. We conclude that the models provide a good estimate of the UV Index, as they coincide or differ in one unit compared to the experimental values in 99% of cases, and this is valid for all orientations. Finally, we examined the relation between the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes, both the experimental and estimated by the Perez model, and the experimental UV Index on a horizontal plane at 12 GMT. Based on the results, we can conclude that it is possible to estimate with a good approximation the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes in different directions on the basis of the experimental horizontal UVI value, thus justifying the interest of this study. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2012

  13. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  14. SITE INDEX MODELS FOR CALABRIAN PINE (PinusbrutiaTen. IN THASOS ISLAND, GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinusbrutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the Bailey and Clutter (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  15. Daily air quality index forecasting with hybrid models: A case in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Suling; Lian, Xiuyuan; Liu, Haixia; Hu, Jianming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Che, Jinxing

    2017-01-01

    Air quality is closely related to quality of life. Air pollution forecasting plays a vital role in air pollution warnings and controlling. However, it is difficult to attain accurate forecasts for air pollution indexes because the original data are non-stationary and chaotic. The existing forecasting methods, such as multiple linear models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector regression (SVR), cannot fully capture the information from series of pollution indexes. Therefore, new effective techniques need to be proposed to forecast air pollution indexes. The main purpose of this research is to develop effective forecasting models for regional air quality indexes (AQI) to address the problems above and enhance forecasting accuracy. Therefore, two hybrid models (EMD-SVR-Hybrid and EMD-IMFs-Hybrid) are proposed to forecast AQI data. The main steps of the EMD-SVR-Hybrid model are as follows: the data preprocessing technique EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is utilized to sift the original AQI data to obtain one group of smoother IMFs (intrinsic mode functions) and a noise series, where the IMFs contain the important information (level, fluctuations and others) from the original AQI series. LS-SVR is applied to forecast the sum of the IMFs, and then, S-ARIMA (seasonal ARIMA) is employed to forecast the residual sequence of LS-SVR. In addition, EMD-IMFs-Hybrid first separately forecasts the IMFs via statistical models and sums the forecasting results of the IMFs as EMD-IMFs. Then, S-ARIMA is employed to forecast the residuals of EMD-IMFs. To certify the proposed hybrid model, AQI data from June 2014 to August 2015 collected from Xingtai in China are utilized as a test case to investigate the empirical research. In terms of some of the forecasting assessment measures, the AQI forecasting results of Xingtai show that the two proposed hybrid models are superior to ARIMA, SVR, GRNN, EMD-GRNN, Wavelet-GRNN and Wavelet-SVR. Therefore, the

  16. Using Indexed and Synchronous Events to Model and Validate Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timed Transition Models (TTMs are event-based descriptions for modelling, specifying, and verifying discrete real-time systems. An event can be spontaneous, fair, or timed with specified bounds. TTMs have a textual syntax, an operational semantics, and an automated tool supporting linear-time temporal logic. We extend TTMs and its tool with two novel modelling features for writing high-level specifications: indexed events and synchronous events. Indexed events allow for concise description of behaviour common to a set of actors. The indexing construct allows us to select a specific actor and to specify a temporal property for that actor. We use indexed events to validate the requirements of a train control system. Synchronous events allow developers to decompose simultaneous state updates into actions of separate events. To specify the intended data flow among synchronized actions, we use primed variables to reference the post-state (i.e., one resulted from taking the synchronized actions. The TTM tool automatically infers the data flow from synchronous events, and reports errors on inconsistencies due to circular data flow. We use synchronous events to validate part of the requirements of a nuclear shutdown system. In both case studies, we show how the new notation facilitates the formal validation of system requirements, and use the TTM tool to verify safety, liveness, and real-time properties.

  17. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin; Wang, Huixia Judy; Liang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  18. Measurement and modelization of silica opal reflection properties: Optical determination of the silica index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Nga, Pham Thu; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    Self-assembled artificial opals (in particular silica opals) constitute a model system to study the optical properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal but is difficult to measure at the submicrometer scale and usually treated as a free parameter. Here, we propose a method to extract the silica index from the opal reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent methods based on infrared measurements. We show that this index gives a correct description of the opal reflection spectra, either by a band structure or by a Bragg approximation. In particular, we are able to provide explanations in quantitative agreement with the measurements for two features : the observation of a second reflection peak in specular direction, and the quasicollapse of the p-polarized main reflection peak at a typical angle of 54∘.

  19. The probability distribution model of air pollution index and its dominants in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Dhurafi, Nasr Ahmed; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Masseran, Nurulkamal; Zamzuri, Zamira Hasanah

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on the statistical modeling for the distributions of air pollution index (API) and its sub-indexes data observed at Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. Five pollutants or sub-indexes are measured including, carbon monoxide (CO); sulphur dioxide (SO2); nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and; particulate matter (PM10). Four probability distributions are considered, namely log-normal, exponential, Gamma and Weibull in search for the best fit distribution to the Malaysian air pollutants data. In order to determine the best distribution for describing the air pollutants data, five goodness-of-fit criteria's are applied. This will help in minimizing the uncertainty in pollution resource estimates and improving the assessment phase of planning. The conflict in criterion results for selecting the best distribution was overcome by using the weight of ranks method. We found that the Gamma distribution is the best distribution for the majority of air pollutants data in Kuala Lumpur.

  20. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin

    2017-11-03

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  1. Robust geographically weighted regression of modeling the Air Polluter Standard Index (APSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Budi; Yasin, Hasbi; Ispriyanti, Dwi; Hoyyi, Abdul

    2018-05-01

    The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model has been widely applied to many practical fields for exploring spatial heterogenity of a regression model. However, this method is inherently not robust to outliers. Outliers commonly exist in data sets and may lead to a distorted estimate of the underlying regression model. One of solution to handle the outliers in the regression model is to use the robust models. So this model was called Robust Geographically Weighted Regression (RGWR). This research aims to aid the government in the policy making process related to air pollution mitigation by developing a standard index model for air polluter (Air Polluter Standard Index - APSI) based on the RGWR approach. In this research, we also consider seven variables that are directly related to the air pollution level, which are the traffic velocity, the population density, the business center aspect, the air humidity, the wind velocity, the air temperature, and the area size of the urban forest. The best model is determined by the smallest AIC value. There are significance differences between Regression and RGWR in this case, but Basic GWR using the Gaussian kernel is the best model to modeling APSI because it has smallest AIC.

  2. Forecasting Construction Tender Price Index in Ghana using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogenous Variables Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kissi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prices of construction resources keep on fluctuating due to unstable economic situations that have been experienced over the years. Clients knowledge of their financial commitments toward their intended project remains the basis for their final decision. The use of construction tender price index provides a realistic estimate at the early stage of the project. Tender price index (TPI is influenced by various economic factors, hence there are several statistical techniques that have been employed in forecasting. Some of these include regression, time series, vector error correction among others. However, in recent times the integrated modelling approach is gaining popularity due to its ability to give powerful predictive accuracy. Thus, in line with this assumption, the aim of this study is to apply autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX in modelling TPI. The results showed that ARIMAX model has a better predictive ability than the use of the single approach. The study further confirms the earlier position of previous research of the need to use the integrated model technique in forecasting TPI. This model will assist practitioners to forecast the future values of tender price index. Although the study focuses on the Ghanaian economy, the findings can be broadly applicable to other developing countries which share similar economic characteristics.

  3. Matching-index-of-refraction of transparent 3D printing models for flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Seong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr

    2015-04-01

    Matching-index-of-refraction (MIR) has been used for obtaining high-quality flow visualization data for the fundamental nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches. By this method, distortions of the optical measurements such as PIV and LDV have been successfully minimized using various combinations of the model materials and the working fluids. This study investigated a novel 3D printing technology for manufacturing models and an oil-based working fluid for matching the refractive indices. Transparent test samples were fabricated by various rapid prototyping methods including selective layer sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), and vacuum casting. As a result, the SLA direct 3D printing was evaluated to be the most suitable for flow visualization considering manufacturability, transparency, and refractive index. In order to match the refractive indices of the 3D printing models, a working fluid was developed based on the mixture of herb essential oils, which exhibit high refractive index, high transparency, high density, low viscosity, low toxicity, and low price. The refractive index and viscosity of the working fluid range 1.453–1.555 and 2.37–6.94 cP, respectively. In order to validate the MIR method, a simple test using a twisted prism made by the SLA technique and the oil mixture (anise and light mineral oil) was conducted. The experimental results show that the MIR can be successfully achieved at the refractive index of 1.51, and the proposed MIR method is expected to be widely used for flow visualization studies and CFD validation for the nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches.

  4. Matching-index-of-refraction of transparent 3D printing models for flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Seong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Matching-index-of-refraction (MIR) has been used for obtaining high-quality flow visualization data for the fundamental nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches. By this method, distortions of the optical measurements such as PIV and LDV have been successfully minimized using various combinations of the model materials and the working fluids. This study investigated a novel 3D printing technology for manufacturing models and an oil-based working fluid for matching the refractive indices. Transparent test samples were fabricated by various rapid prototyping methods including selective layer sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), and vacuum casting. As a result, the SLA direct 3D printing was evaluated to be the most suitable for flow visualization considering manufacturability, transparency, and refractive index. In order to match the refractive indices of the 3D printing models, a working fluid was developed based on the mixture of herb essential oils, which exhibit high refractive index, high transparency, high density, low viscosity, low toxicity, and low price. The refractive index and viscosity of the working fluid range 1.453–1.555 and 2.37–6.94 cP, respectively. In order to validate the MIR method, a simple test using a twisted prism made by the SLA technique and the oil mixture (anise and light mineral oil) was conducted. The experimental results show that the MIR can be successfully achieved at the refractive index of 1.51, and the proposed MIR method is expected to be widely used for flow visualization studies and CFD validation for the nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches

  5. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K.; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Ghanshyam, C.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper

  6. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: prashantkumar@csio.res.in [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K. [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Thakur, Praveen Kumar [Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (ISRO), Dehradun 248001 (India); Ghanshyam, C. [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper.

  7. Model of Recommendation System for for Indexing and Retrieving the Learning Object based on Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lima Rocha Campos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multiagent system application model for indexing, retrieving and recommendation learning objects stored in different and heterogeneous repositories. The objects within these repositories are described by filled fields using different metadata standards. The searching mechanism covers several different learning object repositories and the same object can be described in these repositories by the use of different types of fields. Aiming to improve accuracy and coverage in terms of recovering a learning object and improve the signification of the results we propose an information retrieval model based on the multiagent system approach and an ontological model to describe the knowledge domain covered.

  8. Predictive model for the heat capacity of ionic liquids using the mass connectivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, Jose O.; Martinez, Gwendolyn; Rojas, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and accurate model to predict the heat capacity of ionic liquids is presented. The proposed model considers variables readily available for ionic liquids and that have important effect on heat capacity, according to the literature information. Additionally a recently defined structural parameter known as mass connectivity index is incorporated into the model. A set of 602 heat capacity data for 146 ionic liquids have been used in the study. The results were compared with experimental data and with values reported by other available estimation methods. Results show that the new simple correlation gives low deviations and can be used with confidence in thermodynamic and engineering calculations.

  9. Accuracy of topographic index models at identifying ephemeral gully trajectories on agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Hutchinson, Stacy L.

    2018-04-01

    Topographic index (TI) models have been widely used to predict trajectories and initiation points of ephemeral gullies (EGs) in agricultural landscapes. Prediction of EGs strongly relies on the selected value of critical TI threshold, and the accuracy depends on topographic features, agricultural management, and datasets of observed EGs. This study statistically evaluated the predictions by TI models in two paired watersheds in Central Kansas that had different levels of structural disturbances due to implemented conservation practices. Four TI models with sole dependency on topographic factors of slope, contributing area, and planform curvature were used in this study. The observed EGs were obtained by field reconnaissance and through the process of hydrological reconditioning of digital elevation models (DEMs). The Kernel Density Estimation analysis was used to evaluate TI distribution within a 10-m buffer of the observed EG trajectories. The EG occurrence within catchments was analyzed using kappa statistics of the error matrix approach, while the lengths of predicted EGs were compared with the observed dataset using the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) statistics. The TI frequency analysis produced bi-modal distribution of topographic indexes with the pixels within the EG trajectory having a higher peak. The graphs of kappa and NSE versus critical TI threshold showed similar profile for all four TI models and both watersheds with the maximum value representing the best comparison with the observed data. The Compound Topographic Index (CTI) model presented the overall best accuracy with NSE of 0.55 and kappa of 0.32. The statistics for the disturbed watershed showed higher best critical TI threshold values than for the undisturbed watershed. Structural conservation practices implemented in the disturbed watershed reduced ephemeral channels in headwater catchments, thus producing less variability in catchments with EGs. The variation in critical thresholds for all

  10. Arima and integrated arfima models for forecasting air pollution index in Shah Alam, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ying Siew; Lim, Ying Chin; Pauline, Mah Jin Wee

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the major issues that has been affecting human health, agricultural crops, forest species and ecosystems. Since 1980, Malaysia has had a series of haze episodes and the worst ever was reported in 1997. As a result, the government has established the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index (API) and Haze Action Plan, to improve the air quality. The API was introduced as an index system for classifying and reporting the ambient air quality in Malaysia. The API for a given period is calculated based on the sub-index value (sub-API) for all the five air pollutants, namely sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter below 10 micron size (PM 10 ). The forecast of air pollution can be used for air pollution assessment and management. It can serve as information and warning to the public in cases of high air pollution levels and for policy management of many different chemical compounds. Hence, the objective of this project is to fit and illustrate the use of time series models in forecasting the API in Shah Alam, Selangor. The data used in this study consists of 70 monthly observations of API (from March 1998 to December 2003) published in the Annual Reports of the Department of Environment, Selangor. The time series models that were being considered were the Integrated Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and the Integrated Long Memory Model (ARFIMA) models. The lowest MAE, RMSE and MAPE values were used as the model selection criteria. Between these two models considered, the integrated ARFIMA model appears to be the better model as it has the lowest MAPE value. However, the actual value of May 2003 falls outside the 95% forecast interval, probably due to emissions from mobile sources (i.e., motor vehicles), industrial emissions, burning of solid wastes and forest fires. (author)

  11. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Weighted Geometric Brownian Motion Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayo Willy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi is the main stock index of the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE. PSEi is computed using a weighted mean of the top 30 publicly traded companies in the Philippines, called component stocks. It provides a single value by which the performance of the Philippine stock market is measured. Unfortunately, these weights, which may vary for every trading day, are not disclosed by the PSE. In this paper, we propose a model of forecasting the PSEi by estimating the weights based on historical data and forecasting each component stock using Monte Carlo simulation based on a Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM assumption. The model performance is evaluated and its forecast compared is with the results using a direct GBM forecast of PSEi over different forecast periods. Results showed that the forecasts using WGBM will yield smaller error compared to direct GBM forecast of PSEi.

  12. Application of DOI index to analysis of selected examples of resistivity imaging models in Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazer Michał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of resistivity cross sections may be in many cases unreliable due to the presence of artifacts left by the inversion process. One way to avoid erroneous conclusions about geological structure is creation of Depth of Investigation (DOI index maps, which describe durability of prepared model with respect to variable parameters of inversion. To assess the usefulness of this interpretation methodology in resistivity imaging method over quaternary sediments, it has been used to one synthetic data set and three investigation sites. Two of the study areas were placed in the Upper Silesian Industrial District region: Bytom - Karb, Chorzów - Chorzow Stary; and one in the Southern Pomeranian Lake District across Piława River Valley. Basing on the available geological information the results show high utility of DOI index in analysis of received resistivity models, on which areas poorly constrained by data has been designated.

  13. Science dynamics and research production indicators, indexes, statistical laws and mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with methods to evaluate scientific productivity. In the book statistical methods, deterministic and stochastic models and numerous indexes are discussed that will help the reader to understand the nonlinear science dynamics and to be able to develop or construct systems for appropriate evaluation of research productivity and management of research groups and organizations. The dynamics of science structures and systems is complex, and the evaluation of research productivity requires a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and measures. The book has three parts. The first part is devoted to mathematical models describing the importance of science for economic growth and systems for the evaluation of research organizations of different size. The second part contains descriptions and discussions of numerous indexes for the evaluation of the productivity of researchers and groups of researchers of different size (up to the comparison of research productivities of research communiti...

  14. A note on the conditional density estimate in single functional index model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we consider estimation of the conditional density of a scalar response variable Y given a Hilbertian random variable X when the observations are linked with a single-index structure. We establish the pointwise and the uniform almost complete convergence (with the rate) of the kernel estimate of this model. As an application, we show how our result can be applied in the prediction problem via the conditional mode estimate. Finally, the estimation of the funct...

  15. Modeling and Forecasting the Implied Volatility of the WIG20 Index

    OpenAIRE

    Buszkowska-Khemissi, Eliza; Płuciennik, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    The implied volatility is one of the most important notions in the financial market. It informs about the volatility forecasted by the participans of the market. In this paper we calculate the daily implied volatility from options on the WIG20 index. First we test the long memory property of the time series obtained in such a way, and then we model and forcast it as ARFIMA process

  16. Determining the Best Arch/Garch Model and Comparing JKSE with Stock Index in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisya Ayu Effendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The slow movement of Indonesia economic growth in 2014 due to several factors, in internal factors; due to the high interest rates in Indonesia and external factors from the US which will raise the fed rate this year. However, JKSE shows a sharp increase trend from the beginning of 2014 until the second quarter of 2015 although it remains fluctuate but insignificant. The purpose of this research is to determine the best ARCH/ GARCH model in JKSE and stock index in developed countries (FTSE, Nasdaq and STI and then compare the JKSE with the stock index in developed countries (FTSE, Nasdaq and STI. The results obtained in this study is to determine the best model of ARCH / GARCH, it is obtained that JKSE is GARCH (1,2, while the FTSE obtains GARCH (2,2, NASDAQ produces the best model which is GARCH (1,1 and STI with GARCH (2,1, and the results of the comparison of JKSE with FTSE, NASDAQ and STI are that even though JKSE fluctuates with moderate levels but the trend shown upward trend. This is different with other stock indexes fluctuated highly and tends to have a downward trend.

  17. Comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia using skeletal muscle mass index and calf circumference applying the European consensus definition in elderly Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Lazarevich, Irina; Delgadillo Velazquez, Jaime; Acosta Dominguez, Patricia; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia using two indicators: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and calf circumference (CC) used in the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Mexican elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To define sarcopenia, the SMI was obtained using a cut-off value of 5.5 kg/m 2 , and the CC cut-off was 31 cm. For gait speed and handgrip strength, the cut-off values were 0.8 m/s and 20 kg, respectively. A total of 137 women (mean age 73.8 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.6% using SMI and 11.0% using CC (P = 0.009). Body mass index was associated with a lower probability of sarcopenia applying SMI or CC (OR 0.75, P = 0.002 for SMI and OR 0.71, P = 0.004 for CC). Sarcopenia evaluated either with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or CC was not associated with physical performance, such as five times chair stand test, timed up and go test and short physical performance battery. Additionally, SMI was not associated with physical performance, five times chair stand test (P = 0.775) and timed up-and-go test (P = 0.341). The prevalence of sarcopenia in active elderly women was low. A higher prevalence of sarcopenia was detected using SMI compared with CC. It is important to identify the best methods to assess skeletal muscle mass to obtain a reliable diagnosis of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 161-170. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  19. Modeling Travel Time Reliability of Road Network Considering Connected Vehicle Guidance Characteristics Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time reliability (TTR is one of the important indexes for effectively evaluating the performance of road network, and TTR can effectively be improved using the real-time traffic guidance information. Compared with traditional traffic guidance, connected vehicle (CV guidance can provide travelers with more timely and accurate travel information, which can further improve the travel efficiency of road network. Five CV characteristics indexes are selected as explanatory variables including the Congestion Level (CL, Penetration Rate (PR, Compliance Rate (CR, release Delay Time (DT, and Following Rate (FR. Based on the five explanatory variables, a TTR model is proposed using the multilogistic regression method, and the prediction accuracy and the impact of characteristics indexes on TTR are analyzed using a CV guidance scenario. The simulation results indicate that 80% of the RMSE is concentrated within the interval of 0 to 0.0412. The correlation analysis of characteristics indexes shows that the influence of CL, PR, CR, and DT on the TTR is significant. PR and CR have a positive effect on TTR, and the average improvement rate is about 77.03% and 73.20% with the increase of PR and CR, respectively, while CL and DT have a negative effect on TTR, and TTR decreases by 31.21% with the increase of DT from 0 to 180 s.

  20. Development of the statistical ARIMA model: an application for predicting the upcoming of MJO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Eddy; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Gede Nyoman Mindra Jaya, I.; Berliana Sipayung, Sinta; Rustiana, Shailla

    2017-10-01

    This study is mainly concerned in development one of the most important equatorial atmospheric phenomena that we call as the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) which having strong impacts to the extreme rainfall anomalies over the Indonesian Maritime Continent (IMC). In this study, we focused to the big floods over Jakarta and surrounded area that suspecting caused by the impacts of MJO. We concentrated to develop the MJO index using the statistical model that we call as Box-Jenkis (ARIMA) ini 1996, 2002, and 2007, respectively. They are the RMM (Real Multivariate MJO) index as represented by RMM1 and RMM2, respectively. There are some steps to develop that model, starting from identification of data, estimated, determined model, before finally we applied that model for investigation some big floods that occurred at Jakarta in 1996, 2002, and 2007 respectively. We found the best of estimated model for the RMM1 and RMM2 prediction is ARIMA (2,1,2). Detailed steps how that model can be extracted and applying to predict the rainfall anomalies over Jakarta for 3 to 6 months later is discussed at this paper.

  1. Towards Effective Network Intrusion Detection: A Hybrid Model Integrating Gini Index and GBDT with PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjie Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect computing systems from malicious attacks, network intrusion detection systems have become an important part in the security infrastructure. Recently, hybrid models that integrating several machine learning techniques have captured more attention of researchers. In this paper, a novel hybrid model was proposed with the purpose of detecting network intrusion effectively. In the proposed model, Gini index is used to select the optimal subset of features, the gradient boosted decision tree (GBDT algorithm is adopted to detect network attacks, and the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize the parameters of GBDT. The performance of the proposed model is experimentally evaluated in terms of accuracy, detection rate, precision, F1-score, and false alarm rate using the NSL-KDD dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed model is superior to the compared methods.

  2. Management Index Systems and Energy Efficiency Diagnosis Model for Power Plant: Cases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the energy efficiency of thermal power plant largely contributes to that of the industry. A thorough understanding of influencing factors, as well as the establishment of scientific and comprehensive diagnosis model, plays a key role in the operational efficiency and competitiveness for the thermal power plant. Referring to domestic and abroad researches towards energy efficiency management, based on Cloud model and data envelopment analysis (DEA model, a qualitative and quantitative index system and a comprehensive diagnostic model (CDM are construed. To testify rationality and usability of CDM, case studies of large-scaled Chinese thermal power plants have been conducted. In this case, CDM excavates such qualitative factors as technology, management, and so forth. The results shows that, compared with conventional model, which only considered production running parameters, the CDM bears better adaption to reality. It can provide entities with efficient instruments for energy efficiency diagnosis.

  3. The partial duration series method in regional index-flood modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1997-01-01

    A regional index-flood method based on the partial duration series model is introduced. The model comprises the assumptions of a Poisson-distributed number of threshold exceedances and generalized Pareto (GP) distributed peak magnitudes. The regional T-year event estimator is based on a regional...... estimator is superior to the at-site estimator even in extremely heterogenous regions, the performance of the regional estimator being relatively better in regions with a negative shape parameter. When the record length increases, the relative performance of the regional estimator decreases, but it is still...

  4. Generalized least squares and empirical Bayes estimation in regional partial duration series index-flood modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1997-01-01

    parameters is inferred from regional data using generalized least squares (GLS) regression. Two different Bayesian T-year event estimators are introduced: a linear estimator that requires only some moments of the prior distributions to be specified and a parametric estimator that is based on specified......A regional estimation procedure that combines the index-flood concept with an empirical Bayes method for inferring regional information is introduced. The model is based on the partial duration series approach with generalized Pareto (GP) distributed exceedances. The prior information of the model...

  5. Fast and accurate modeling of nonlinear pulse propagation in graded-index multimode fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Matteo; Mas Arabi, Carlos; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    We develop a model for the description of nonlinear pulse propagation in multimode optical fibers with a parabolic refractive index profile. It consists of a 1+1D generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a periodic nonlinear coefficient, which can be solved in an extremely fast and efficient way. The model is able to quantitatively reproduce recently observed phenomena like geometric parametric instability and broadband dispersive wave emission. We envisage that our equation will represent a valuable tool for the study of spatiotemporal nonlinear dynamics in the growing field of multimode fiber optics.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Limiting Oxygen Index Apparatus for Film Type Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed three-dimensional numerical model is used to compute the flow pattern and the flame behavior of thin solid fuels in a rectangular column that resembles a standard Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI device. The model includes full Navier-Stokes equations for mixed buoyant-forced flow and finite rate combustion and pyrolysis reactions so that the sample LOI can be computed to study the effect of feeding flow rate, sample width and gravity levels. In addition to the above parameters, the sample location in the column and the column cross-sectional area are also investigated on their effect on the ambient air entrainment from the top.

  7. Modeling and Computing of Stock Index Forecasting Based on Neural Network and Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yonghui; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Weihui

    2014-01-01

    The stock index reflects the fluctuation of the stock market. For a long time, there have been a lot of researches on the forecast of stock index. However, the traditional method is limited to achieving an ideal precision in the dynamic market due to the influences of many factors such as the economic situation, policy changes, and emergency events. Therefore, the approach based on adaptive modeling and conditional probability transfer causes the new attention of researchers. This paper presents a new forecast method by the combination of improved back-propagation (BP) neural network and Markov chain, as well as its modeling and computing technology. This method includes initial forecasting by improved BP neural network, division of Markov state region, computing of the state transition probability matrix, and the prediction adjustment. Results of the empirical study show that this method can achieve high accuracy in the stock index prediction, and it could provide a good reference for the investment in stock market. PMID:24782659

  8. Using Simpson’s diversity index to examine multidimensional models of diversity in health professions education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; McLaughlin, Josetta S.; White, Carla Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study explored new models of diversity for health professions education that incorporate multiple attributes and examined differences in diversity based on urbanicity, geographic region, and institutional structure. Methods Simpson’s Diversity Index was used to develop race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices for health professions schools in the United States (N = 318). Sullivan’s extension was used to develop a composite diversity index that incorporated multiple individual attributes for each school. Pearson’s r was used to investigate correlations between continuous variables. ANOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare groups based on urbanicity, geographic region, and Basic Carnegie Classification. Results Mean (SD) for race, gender, and interprofessional  diversity indices were 0.36(0.17), 0.45(0.07), and 0.22(0.27) respectively. All correlations between the three indices were weak. The composite diversity index for this sample was 0.34(0.13). Significant differences in diversity were found between institutions based on urbanicity, Basic Carnegie Classification, and geographic region. Conclusions Multidimensional models provide support for expanding measures of diversity to include multiple characteristics and attributes. The approach demonstrated in this study enables institutions to complement and extend traditional measures of diversity as a means of providing evidence for decision-making and progress towards institutional initiatives. PMID:26724917

  9. Using Simpson's diversity index to examine multidimensional models of diversity in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; McLaughlin, Gerald W; McLaughlin, Josetta S; White, Carla Y

    2016-01-03

    This study explored new models of diversity for health professions education that incorporate multiple attributes and examined differences in diversity based on urbanicity, geographic region, and institutional structure. Simpson's Diversity Index was used to develop race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices for health professions schools in the United States (N = 318). Sullivan's extension was used to develop a composite diversity index that incorporated multiple individual attributes for each school. Pearson's r was used to investigate correlations between continuous variables. ANOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare groups based on urbanicity, geographic region, and Basic Carnegie Classification. Mean (SD) for race, gender, and interprofessional diversity indices were 0.36(0.17), 0.45(0.07), and 0.22(0.27) respectively. All correlations between the three indices were weak. The composite diversity index for this sample was 0.34(0.13). Significant differences in diversity were found between institutions based on urbanicity, Basic Carnegie Classification, and geographic region. Multidimensional models provide support for expanding measures of diversity to include multiple characteristics and attributes. The approach demonstrated in this study enables institutions to complement and extend traditional measures of diversity as a means of providing evidence for decision-making and progress towards institutional initiatives.

  10. Modeling and Computing of Stock Index Forecasting Based on Neural Network and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stock index reflects the fluctuation of the stock market. For a long time, there have been a lot of researches on the forecast of stock index. However, the traditional method is limited to achieving an ideal precision in the dynamic market due to the influences of many factors such as the economic situation, policy changes, and emergency events. Therefore, the approach based on adaptive modeling and conditional probability transfer causes the new attention of researchers. This paper presents a new forecast method by the combination of improved back-propagation (BP neural network and Markov chain, as well as its modeling and computing technology. This method includes initial forecasting by improved BP neural network, division of Markov state region, computing of the state transition probability matrix, and the prediction adjustment. Results of the empirical study show that this method can achieve high accuracy in the stock index prediction, and it could provide a good reference for the investment in stock market.

  11. Simulation on scattering features of biological tissue based on generated refractive-index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baoyong; Ding Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Important information on morphology of biological tissue can be deduced from elastic scattering spectra, and their analyses are based on the known refractive-index model of tissue. In this paper, a new numerical refractive-index model is put forward, and its scattering properties are intensively studied. Spectral decomposition [1] is a widely used method to generate random medium in geology, but it is never used in biology. Biological tissue is different from geology in the sense of random medium. Autocorrelation function describe almost all of features in geology, but biological tissue is not as random as geology, its structure is regular in the sense of fractal geometry [2] , and fractal dimension can be used to describe its regularity under random. Firstly scattering theories of this fractal media are reviewed. Secondly the detailed generation process of refractive-index is presented. Finally the scattering features are simulated in FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) Solutions software. From the simulation results, we find that autocorrelation length and fractal dimension controls scattering feature of biological tissue.

  12. Modifying Geometric-Optical Bidirectional Reflectance Model for Direct Inversion of Forest Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congrong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy leaf area index (LAI inversion based on remote sensing data is an important method to obtain LAI. Currently, the most widely-used model to achieve forest canopy structure parameters is the Li-Strahler geometric-optical bidirectional reflectance model, by considering the effect of crown shape and mutual shadowing, which is referred to as the GOMS model. However, it is difficult to retrieve LAI through the GOMS model directly because LAI is not a fundamental parameter of the model. In this study, a gap probability model was used to obtain the relationship between the canopy structure parameter nR2 and LAI. Thus, LAI was introduced into the GOMS model as an independent variable by replacing nR2 The modified GOMS (MGOMS model was validated by application to Dayekou in the Heihe River Basin of China. The LAI retrieved using the MGOMS model with optical multi-angle remote sensing data, high spatial resolution images and field-measured data was in good agreement with the field-measured LAI, with an R-square (R2 of 0.64, and an RMSE of 0.67. The results demonstrate that the MGOMS model obtained by replacing the canopy structure parameter nR2 of the GOMS model with LAI can be used to invert LAI directly and precisely.

  13. A theoretical model of the relationship between the h-index and other simple citation indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli-Barsotti, Lucio; Lando, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Of the existing theoretical formulas for the h -index, those recently suggested by Burrell (J Informetr 7:774-783, 2013b) and by Bertoli-Barsotti and Lando (J Informetr 9(4):762-776, 2015) have proved very effective in estimating the actual value of the h -index Hirsch (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16569-16572, 2005), at least at the level of the individual scientist. These approaches lead (or may lead) to two slightly different formulas, being based, respectively, on a "standard" and a "shifted" version of the geometric distribution. In this paper, we review the genesis of these two formulas-which we shall call the "basic" and "improved" Lambert- W formula for the h -index-and compare their effectiveness with that of a number of instances taken from the well-known Glänzel-Schubert class of models for the h -index (based, instead, on a Paretian model) by means of an empirical study. All the formulas considered in the comparison are "ready-to-use", i.e., functions of simple citation indicators such as: the total number of publications; the total number of citations; the total number of cited paper; the number of citations of the most cited paper. The empirical study is based on citation data obtained from two different sets of journals belonging to two different scientific fields: more specifically, 231 journals from the area of "Statistics and Mathematical Methods" and 100 journals from the area of "Economics, Econometrics and Finance", totaling almost 100,000 and 20,000 publications, respectively. The citation data refer to different publication/citation time windows, different types of "citable" documents, and alternative approaches to the analysis of the citation process ("prospective" and "retrospective"). We conclude that, especially in its improved version, the Lambert- W formula for the h -index provides a quite robust and effective ready-to-use rule that should be preferred to other known formulas if one's goal is (simply) to derive a reliable estimate of

  14. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.

  15. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... (CINE; min/MJ of NE). Furthermore, we studied the forage-to-concentrate substitution rate in this new NEI model. To calibrate the model on a diverse set of situations, we built a database of mean intake from 14 production experiments with a total of 986 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows......, and disturbance, across and within experiments on independent data from 19 experiments including 812 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows of different breeds fed 80 different diets ad libitum. The NEI model predicted NEI with an MSPE of 8% of observed, and across the 19 experiments the error central...

  16. Scalability of the muscular action in a parametric 3D model of the index finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L; Vergara, Margarita; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Giurintano, David J; Pérez-González, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A method for scaling the muscle action is proposed and used to achieve a 3D inverse dynamic model of the human finger with all its components scalable. This method is based on scaling the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in a Hill muscle model. Different anthropometric parameters and maximal grip force data have been measured and their correlations have been analyzed and used for scaling the PCSA of each muscle. A linear relationship between the normalized PCSA and the product of the length and breadth of the hand has been finally used for scaling, with a slope of 0.01315 cm(-2), with the length and breadth of the hand expressed in centimeters. The parametric muscle model has been included in a parametric finger model previously developed by the authors, and it has been validated reproducing the results of an experiment in which subjects from different population groups exerted maximal voluntary forces with their index finger in a controlled posture.

  17. Predicting Jakarta composite index using hybrid of fuzzy time series and support vector regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian Umbara, Rian; Tarwidi, Dede; Budi Setiawan, Erwin

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses the prediction of Jakarta Composite Index (JCI) in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The study is based on JCI historical data for 1286 days to predict the value of JCI one day ahead. This paper proposes predictions done in two stages., The first stage using Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) to predict values of ten technical indicators, and the second stage using Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict the value of JCI one day ahead, resulting in a hybrid prediction model FTS-SVR. The performance of this combined prediction model is compared with the performance of the single stage prediction model using SVR only. Ten technical indicators are used as input for each model.

  18. Validation of the What Matters Index: A brief, patient-reported index that guides care for chronic conditions and can substitute for computer-generated risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H; Ho, Lynn; Soloway, Laura; Moore, L Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Current health care delivery relies on complex, computer-generated risk models constructed from insurance claims and medical record data. However, these models produce inaccurate predictions of risk levels for individual patients, do not explicitly guide care, and undermine health management investments in many patients at lesser risk. Therefore, this study prospectively validates a concise patient-reported risk assessment that addresses these inadequacies of computer-generated risk models. Five measures with well-documented impacts on the use of health services are summed to create a "What Matters Index." These measures are: 1) insufficient confidence to self-manage health problems, 2) pain, 3) bothersome emotions, 4) polypharmacy, and 5) adverse medication effects. We compare the sensitivity and predictive values of this index with two representative risk models in a population of 8619 Medicaid recipients. The patient-reported "What Matters Index" and the conventional risk models are found to exhibit similar sensitivities and predictive values for subsequent hospital or emergency room use. The "What Matters Index" is also reliable: akin to its performance during development, for patients with index scores of 1, 2, and ≥3, the odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) for subsequent hospitalization within 1 year, relative to patients with a score of 0, are 1.3 (1.1-1.6), 2.0 (1.6-2.4), and 3.4 (2.9-4.0), respectively; for emergency room use, the corresponding odds ratios are 1.3 (1.1-1.4), 1.9 (1.6-2.1), and 2.9 (2.6-3.3). Similar findings were replicated among smaller populations of 1061 mostly older patients from nine private practices and 4428 Medicaid patients without chronic conditions. In contrast to complex computer-generated risk models, the brief patient-reported "What Matters Index" immediately and unambiguously identifies fundamental, remediable needs for each patient and more sensibly directs the delivery of services to patient categories based on

  19. Developing grey-box model to diagnose asphaltene stability in crude oils: Application of refractive index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zeinali Hasanvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation can cause serious problems in petroleum industry while diagnosing the asphaltene stability conditions in crude oil system is still a challenge and has been subject of many investigations. To monitor and diagnose asphaltene stability, high performance intelligent approaches based bio-inspired science like artificial neural network which have been optimized by various optimization techniques have been carried out. The main purpose of the implemented optimization algorithms is to decide high accurate interconnected weights of proposed neural network model. The proposed intelligent approaches are examined by using extensive experimental data reported in open literature. Moreover, to highlight robustness and precision of the addressed approaches, two different regression models have been developed and results obtained from the aforementioned intelligent models and regression approaches are compared with the corresponding refractive index data measured in laboratory. Based on the results, hybrid of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization have high performance and average relative absolute deviation between the model outputs and the relevant experimental data was found to be less than 0.2%. Routs from this work indicate that implication of HGAPSO-ANN in monitoring refractive index can lead to more reliable estimation of addressed issue which can lead to design of more reliable phase behavior simulation and further plans of oil production.

  20. Permafrost Favorability Index: Spatial Modeling in the French Alps Using a Rock Glacier Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marcer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we used the first rock glacier inventory for the entire French Alps to model spatial permafrost distribution in the region. Climatic and topographic data evaluated at the rock glacier locations were used as predictor variables in a Generalized Linear Model. Model performances are strong, suggesting that, in agreement with several previous studies, this methodology is able to model accurately rock glacier distribution. A methodology to estimate model uncertainties is proposed, revealing that the subjectivity in the interpretation of rock glacier activity and contours may substantially bias the model. The model highlights a North-South trend in the regional pattern of permafrost distribution which is attributed to the climatic influences of the Atlantic and Mediterranean climates. Further analysis suggest that lower amounts of precipitation in the early winter and a thinner snow cover, as typically found in the Mediterranean area, could contribute to the existence of permafrost at higher temperatures compared to the Northern Alps. A comparison with the Alpine Permafrost Index Map (APIM shows no major differences with our model, highlighting the very good predictive power of the APIM despite its tendency to slightly overestimate permafrost extension with respect to our database. The use of rock glaciers as indicators of permafrost existence despite their time response to climate change is discussed and an interpretation key is proposed in order to ensure the proper use of the model for research as well as for operational purposes.

  1. Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexander V; Dainty, Chris

    2007-08-01

    We propose a wide-field schematic eye model, which provides a more realistic description of the optical system of the eye in relation to its anatomical structure. The wide-field model incorporates a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which enables it to fulfill properties of two well-known schematic eye models, namely, Navarro's model for off-axis aberrations and Thibos's chromatic on-axis model (the Indiana eye). These two models are based on extensive experimental data, which makes the derived wide-field eye model also consistent with that data. A mathematical method to construct a GRIN lens with its iso-indicial contours following the optical surfaces of given asphericity is presented. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with three variants related to different age groups. The role of the GRIN structure in relation to the lens paradox is analyzed. The wide-field model with a GRIN lens can be used as a starting design for the eye inverse problem, i.e., reconstructing the optical structure of the eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. Anatomically more accurate age-dependent optical models of the eye could ultimately help an optical designer to improve wide-field retinal imaging.

  2. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  3. Weight management in a cohort of Irish inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI) using a modular behavioural programme. A preliminary service evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bushe, Chris J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gain is commonly observed during psychotropic treatments for chronic forms of severe mental illness and is most rapid during the early treatment phases. All formats of behavioural weight intervention programmes have suggested that weight gain can be prevented or reversed in some patients. There is no data on these programmes in acutely unwell inpatients whom may be the major beneficiaries. METHODS: A modular behavioural intervention programme (Solutions for Wellness) used in SMI outpatients since 2002 in Ireland has been adapted for inpatient use. Preliminary data is reported from 5 centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In 47 inpatients the mean weight change was +0.26 kg (SD 2.02) with a median change of 0 kg. Mean follow-up was 23.7 (SD 21.6) days, and median 14 days (range 6-98 days). There was no difference in mean weight change in those patients involved for > 35 days compared with < 35 days (+0.26 kg; 0.25 kg; p = 0.5). Weight loss or maintenance was seen in 70% of patients. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data are supportive of the concept that acutely unwell inpatients with SMI may engage with a behavioural weight programme. Weight change observed contrasts with the significant weight gain often seen in most subjects. Further clinical trials are warranted.

  4. Positive correlation between disease activity index and matrix metalloproteinases activity in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo de; Cunha, André Luiz da; Duarte, Amaury Caiafa; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; Aguiar, Jair Adriano Kopke de

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, comprising a broad spectrum of diseases those have in common chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, histological alterations and an increased activity levels of certain enzymes, such as, metalloproteinases. Evaluate a possible correlation of disease activity index with the severity of colonic mucosal damage and increased activity of metalloproteinases in a model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium for seven days in this group (n=10), whereas control group (n=16) received water. Effects were analyzed daily by disease activity index. In the seventh day, animals were euthanized and hematological measurements, histological changes (hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian Blue staining), myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were determined. Dextran sulfate sodium group showed elevated disease activity index and reduced hematological parameters. Induction of colitis caused tissue injury with loss of mucin and increased myeloperoxidase (Pcorrelation with the degree of histopathological changes after induction of colitis, and this result may be related mainly to the increased activity of MMP-9 and mieloperoxidase.

  5. [Identification of cutoff points for Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance index in adolescents: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira de; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Lima, Niedja Maria da Silva; Costa, Emília Chagas; Aquino, Nathalia Barbosa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2016-06-01

    To identify cutoff points of the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index established for adolescents and discuss their applicability for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in Brazilian adolescents. A systematic review was performed in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: "Adolescents", "insulin resistance" and "ROC curve". Original articles carried out with adolescents published between 2005 and 2015 in Portuguese, English or Spanish languages, which included the statistical analysis using ROC curve to determine the index cutoff (HOMA-IR) were included. A total of 184 articles were identified and after the study phases were applied, seven articles were selected for the review. All selected studies established their cutoffs using a ROC curve, with the lowest observed cutoff of 1.65 for girls and 1.95 for boys and the highest of 3.82 for girls and 5.22 for boys. Of the studies analyzed, one proposed external validity, recommending the use of the HOMA-IR cutoff >2.5 for both genders. The HOMA-IR index constitutes a reliable method for the detection of insulin resistance in adolescents, as long as it uses cutoffs that are more adequate for the reality of the study population, allowing early diagnosis of insulin resistance and enabling multidisciplinary interventions aiming at health promotion of this population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. An Integrated Risk Index Model Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic for Underground Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fayaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Available space in congested cities is getting scarce due to growing urbanization in the recent past. The utilization of underground space is considered as a solution to the limited space in smart cities. The numbers of underground facilities are growing day by day in the developing world. Typical underground facilities include the transit subway, parking lots, electric lines, water supply and sewer lines. The likelihood of the occurrence of accidents due to underground facilities is a random phenomenon. To avoid any accidental loss, a risk assessment method is required to conduct the continuous risk assessment and report any abnormality before it happens. In this paper, we have proposed a hierarchical fuzzy inference based model for under-ground risk assessment. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy inference architecture reduces the total number of rules from the rule base. Rule reduction is important because the curse of dimensionality damages the transparency and interpretation as it is very tough to understand and justify hundreds or thousands of fuzzy rules. The computation time also increases as rules increase. The proposed model takes 175 rules having eight input parameters to compute the risk index, and the conventional fuzzy logic requires 390,625 rules, having the same number of input parameters to compute risk index. Hence, the proposed model significantly reduces the curse of dimensionality. Rule design for fuzzy logic is also a tedious task. In this paper, we have also introduced new rule schemes, namely maximum rule-based and average rule-based; both schemes can be used interchangeably according to the logic needed for rule design. The experimental results show that the proposed method is a virtuous choice for risk index calculation where the numbers of variables are greater.

  7. Drought Forecasting with Vegetation Temperature Condition Index Using ARIMA Models in the Guanzhong Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper works on the agricultural drought forecasting in the Guanzhong Plain of China using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA models based on the time series of drought monitoring results of Vegetation Temperature Condition Index (VTCI. About 90 VTCI images derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data were selected to develop the ARIMA models from the erecting stage to the maturity stage of winter wheat (early March to late May in each year at a ten-day interval of the years from 2000 to 2009. We take the study area overlying on the administration map around the study area, and divide the study area into 17 parts where at least one weather station is located in each part. The pixels where the 17 weather stations are located are firstly chosen and studied for their fitting models, and then the best models for all pixels of the whole area are determined. According to the procedures for the models’ development, the selected best models for the 17 pixels are identified and the forecast is done with three steps. The forecasting results of the ARIMA models were compared with the monitoring ones. The results show that with reference to the categorized VTCI drought monitoring results, the categorized forecasting results of the ARIMA models are in good agreement with the monitoring ones. The categorized drought forecasting results of the ARIMA models are more severity in the northeast of the Plain in April 2009, which are in good agreements with the monitoring ones. The absolute errors of the AR(1 models are lower than the SARIMA models, both in the frequency distributions and in the statistic results. However, the ability of SARIMA models to detect the changes of the drought situation is better than the AR(1 models. These results indicate that the ARIMA models can better forecast the category and extent of droughts and can be applied to forecast droughts in the Plain.

  8. Assimilation of Soil Wetness Index and Leaf Area Index into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model: grassland case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barbu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the joint assimilation in a land surface model of a Soil Wetness Index (SWI product provided by an exponential filter together with Leaf Area Index (LAI is investigated. The data assimilation is evaluated with different setups using the SURFEX modeling platform, for a period of seven years (2001–2007, at the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France. The results obtained with a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter demonstrate the effectiveness of a joint data assimilation scheme when both SWI and Leaf Area Index are merged into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model. The assimilation of a retrieved Soil Wetness Index product presents several challenges that are investigated in this study. A significant improvement of around 13 % of the root-zone soil water content is obtained by assimilating dimensionless root-zone SWI data. For comparison, the assimilation of in situ surface soil moisture is considered as well. A lower impact on the root zone is noticed. Under specific conditions, the transfer of the information from the surface to the root zone was found not accurate. Also, our results indicate that the assimilation of in situ LAI data may correct a number of deficiencies in the model, such as low LAI values in the senescence phase by using a seasonal-dependent error definition for background and observations. In order to verify the specification of the errors for SWI and LAI products, a posteriori diagnostics are employed. This approach highlights the importance of the assimilation design on the quality of the analysis. The impact of data assimilation scheme on CO2 fluxes is also quantified by using measurements of net CO2 fluxes gathered at the SMOSREX site from 2005 to 2007. An improvement of about 5 % in terms of rms error is obtained.

  9. VALIDITY OF GARBER MODEL IN PREDICTING PAVEMENT CONDITION INDEX OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT IN KERBALA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Ewadh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavement Condition Index (PCI is one of the important basics in pavement maintenance management system (PMMS, and it is used to evaluate the current and future pavement condition. This importantance in decision making to limit the maintenance needs, types of treatment, and maintenance priority. The aim of this research is to estimate the PCI value for flexible pavement urban roads in the study area (kerbala city by using Garber et al. developed model. Based on previous researches, data are collected for variables that have a significant impact on pavement condition. Data for pavement age (AGE, average daily traffic (ADT, and structural number (SN were collected for 44 sections in the network roads. A field survey (destructive test (core test and laboratory test (Marshall Test were used to determine the capacity of structure layer of pavement (SN. The condition index (CI output from a developed model was compared with the PCI output of PAVER 6.5.7 by using statistical analysis test. The developed model overestimates value of CI rather than PCI estimated from PAVER 6.5.7 due to statistical test to a 95% degree of confidence, (R = 0.771 for 44 sections (arterial and collector.

  10. An Ionospheric Index Model based on Linear Regression and Neural Network Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshisaphungo, Mpho; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Bosco Habarulema, John

    2017-04-01

    The ionosphere is well known to reflect radio wave signals in the high frequency (HF) band due to the present of electron and ions within the region. To optimise the use of long distance HF communications, it is important to understand the drivers of ionospheric storms and accurately predict the propagation conditions especially during disturbed days. This paper presents the development of an ionospheric storm-time index over the South African region for the application of HF communication users. The model will result into a valuable tool to measure the complex ionospheric behaviour in an operational space weather monitoring and forecasting environment. The development of an ionospheric storm-time index is based on a single ionosonde station data over Grahamstown (33.3°S,26.5°E), South Africa. Critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) measurements for a period 1996-2014 were considered for this study. The model was developed based on linear regression and neural network approaches. In this talk validation results for low, medium and high solar activity periods will be discussed to demonstrate model's performance.

  11. The optical interface of a photonic crystal: Modeling an opal with a stratified effective index

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, Isabelle; Moufarej, Elias; Laliotis, Athanasios; Bloch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An artificial opal is a compact arrangement of transparent spheres, and is an archetype of a three-dimensional photonic crystal. Here, we describe the optics of an opal using a flexible model based upon a stratified medium whose (effective) index is governed by the opal density in a small planar slice of the opal. We take into account the effect of the substrate and assume a well- controlled number of layers, as it occurs for an opal fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. The calculation...

  12. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1...

  13. Constructing Quality Adjusted Price Indexes: a Comparison of Hedonic and Discrete Choice Models

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jonker

    2001-01-01

    The Boskin report (1996) concluded that the US consumer price index (CPI) overestimated the inflation by 1.1 percentage points. This was due to several measurement errors in the CPI. One of them is called quality change bias. In this paper two methods are compared which can be used to eliminate quality change bias, namely the hedonic method and a method based on the use of discrete choice models. The underlying micro-economic fundations of the two methods are compared as well as their empiric...

  14. Index of Effort: An Analytical Model for Evaluating and Re-Directing Student Recruitment Activities for a Local Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Albert J.

    This index of effort is proposed as a means by which those in charge of student recruitment activities at community colleges can be sure that their efforts are being directed toward all of the appropriate population. The index is an analytical model based on the concept of socio-economic profiles, using small area 1970 census data, and is the…

  15. Analisis Portofolio Optimal Saham Syariah Menggunakan Multi Index Models (Periode: 04 Januari 2010 – 1 Juli 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulat Arja’i

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The portfolio is a combination or aggregation of two or more individual stock and concern for investors is to form the optimum portfolio and one of the ways that can be used are Multi-Index Models (MIM. This Model is a development of the Single Index Models (SIM, if on a SIM only consider one factor that affects the value of the stock, then return at MIM considers more than one factor. This study discusses the optimal portfolio analysis using Multi-Index Models with a case study on the stock of the Sharia Jakarta Islamic Index (JII period 4 January 2010 – 1 July 2013 by using composite stock price index (IHSG, index Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA and index the Hang Seng Index as a factor in MIM. The results of this research were obtained that the optimum portfolio is a portfolio that was created based on the stocks that had the highest positive return value, i.e. UNVR 41,40%, SMGR 40.66%, KLBF 11.01, and LPKR 6,93% with a value of expected return portfolio amounted to 2.55% and risk of a portfolio of 0,29%.

  16. An empirical model of L-band scintillation S4 index constructed by using FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ping; Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Caton, Ronald; Chang, Loren C.; Yeh, Wen-Hao

    2017-09-01

    Modern society relies heavily on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology for applications such as satellite communication, navigation, and positioning on the ground and/or aviation in the troposphere/stratosphere. However, ionospheric scintillations can severely impact GNSS systems and their related applications. In this study, a global empirical ionospheric scintillation model is constructed with S4-index data obtained by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellites during 2007-2014 (hereafter referred to as the F3CGS4 model). This model describes the S4-index as a function of local time, day of year, dip-latitude, and solar activity using the index PF10.7. The model reproduces the F3/C S4-index observations well, and yields good agreement with ground-based reception of satellite signals. This confirms that the constructed model can be used to forecast global L-band scintillations on the ground and in the near surface atmosphere.

  17. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS). From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC) was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84). CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (ppairs signed rank test). These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  18. ECONOMETRIC’S MODEL: THE DEPENDENCE OF PFTS INDEX FROM ECONOMICS RANKS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Cherkashyna

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of stock index is an indicator of market efficiency. We use the strong form of market efficiency, where prices reflect all available information, – both public and private. National index PFTS and main world indexes such as Dow Jones industrial, Standard & Poor’s 500, Nasdaq composite, Japan’s Nikkei index, Hong Kong’s Hang Seng index are very volatility. Last week all of the major U.S. stock indexes were in the red. Data dependence index PFTS from many exogenous and internal factors...

  19. Markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis. A comparison of the homeostasis model assessment and triglyceride glucose index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Carallo, C; Scavelli, F B; De Franceschi, M S; Esposito, T; Tripolino, C; Gnasso, A

    2013-07-01

    The present investigation was designed to test the association between carotid atherosclerosis and two simple markers of insulin resistance, i.e. HOMA-Index and TyG-Index. The study was performed in two different cohorts. In the first cohort, 330 individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, waist and cigarette smoking were evaluated. HOMA-IR and TyG-Index were calculated as markers of prevalent hepatic and muscular insulin resistance respectively. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. The association between cardiovascular risk factors, markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. In the second cohort, limited to the evaluation of TyG-Index, 1432 subjects were studied. In the first cohort, TyG-Index was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a model including age, sex, diabetes, cigarette smoking and LDL cholesterol, while HOMA-IR was not. When components of metabolic syndrome were added to the model as dichotomous variables (absent/present), TyG-Index retained its predictive power. The same result was obtained when the metabolic syndrome was added to the model (absence/presence). The association between TyG-Index and carotid atherosclerosis was confirmed in the second cohort. The present findings suggest that TyG-Index is better associated with carotid atherosclerosis than HOMA-IR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Langevin modelling of high-frequency Hang-Seng index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei-Han

    2003-06-01

    Accurate statistical characterization of financial time series, such as compound stock indices, foreign currency exchange rates, etc., is fundamental to investment risk management, pricing of derivative products and financial decision making. Traditionally, such data were analyzed and modeled from a purely statistics point of view, with little concern on the specifics of financial markets. Increasingly, however, attention has been paid to the underlying economic forces and the collective behavior of investors. Here we summarize a novel approach to the statistical modeling of a major stock index (the Hang Seng index). Based on mathematical results previously derived in the fluid turbulence literature, we show that a Langevin equation with a variable noise amplitude correctly reproduces the ubiquitous fat tails in the probability distribution of intra-day price moves. The form of the Langevin equation suggests that, despite the extremely complex nature of financial concerns and investment strategies at the individual's level, there exist simple universal rules governing the high-frequency price move in a stock market.

  1. Statistical analysis of strait time index and a simple model for trend and trend reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze the daily closing prices of the Strait Time Index (STI) as well as the individual stocks traded in Singapore's stock market from 1988 to 2001. We find that the Hurst exponent is approximately 0.6 for both the STI and individual stocks, while the normal correlation functions show the random walk exponent of 0.5. We also investigate the conditional average of the price change in an interval of length T given the price change in the previous interval. We find strong correlations for price changes larger than a threshold value proportional to T; this indicates that there is no uniform crossover to Gaussian behavior. A simple model based on short-time trend and trend reversal is constructed. We show that the model exhibits statistical properties and market swings similar to those of the real market.

  2. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Yahampath

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  3. Validation studies on indexed sequential modeling for the Colorado River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, J.W.; Fontane, D.G.; Salas, J.D.; Ouarda, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a method called indexed sequential modeling (ISM) that has been developed by the Western Area Power Administration to estimate reliable levels of project dependable power capacity (PDC) and applied to several federal hydro systems in the Western U.S. The validity of ISM in relation to more commonly accepted stochastic modeling approaches is analyzed by applying it to the Colorado River Basin using the Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS) developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Performance of ISM is compared with results from input of stochastically generated data using the LAST Applied Stochastic Techniques Package. Results indicate that output generated from ISM synthetically generated sequences display an acceptable correspondence with results obtained from final convergent stochastically generated hydrology for the Colorado River Basin

  4. Robust Transmission of Speech LSFs Using Hidden Markov Model-Based Multiple Description Index Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondeau Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech coding techniques capable of generating encoded representations which are robust against channel losses play an important role in enabling reliable voice communication over packet networks and mobile wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple description index assignments (MDIAs for loss-tolerant transmission of line spectral frequency (LSF coefficients, typically generated by state-of-the-art speech coders. We propose a simulated annealing-based approach for optimizing MDIAs for Markov-model-based decoders which exploit inter- and intraframe correlations in LSF coefficients to reconstruct the quantized LSFs from coded bit streams corrupted by channel losses. Experimental results are presented which compare the performance of a number of novel LSF transmission schemes. These results clearly demonstrate that Markov-model-based decoders, when used in conjunction with optimized MDIA, can yield average spectral distortion much lower than that produced by methods such as interleaving/interpolation, commonly used to combat the packet losses.

  5. Color design model of high color rendering index white-light LED module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei; Hsieh, Hsin-Hsin; Hsieh, Kun-Yang

    2017-05-10

    The traditional white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is packaged with a single chip and a single phosphor but has a poor color rendering index (CRI). The next-generation package comprises two chips and a single phosphor, has a high CRI, and retains high luminous efficacy. This study employs two chips and two phosphors to improve the diode's color tunability with various proportions of two phosphors and various densities of phosphor in the silicone used. A color design model is established for color fine-tuning of the white-light LED module. The maximum difference between the measured and color-design-model simulated CIE 1931 color coordinates is approximately 0.0063 around a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2500 K. This study provides a rapid method to obtain the color fine-tuning of a white-light LED module with a high CRI and luminous efficacy.

  6. Constraining snowmelt in a temperature-index model using simulated snow densities

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Current snowmelt parameterisation schemes are largely untested in warmer maritime snowfields, where physical snow properties can differ substantially from the more common colder snow environments. Physical properties such as snow density influence the thermal properties of snow layers and are likely to be important for snowmelt rates. Existing methods for incorporating physical snow properties into temperature-index models (TIMs) require frequent snow density observations. These observations are often unavailable in less monitored snow environments. In this study, previous techniques for end-of-season snow density estimation (Bormann et al., 2013) were enhanced and used as a basis for generating daily snow density data from climate inputs. When evaluated against 2970 observations, the snow density model outperforms a regionalised density-time curve reducing biases from -0.027gcm-3 to -0.004gcm-3 (7%). The simulated daily densities were used at 13 sites in the warmer maritime snowfields of Australia to parameterise snowmelt estimation. With absolute snow water equivalent (SWE) errors between 100 and 136mm, the snow model performance was generally lower in the study region than that reported for colder snow environments, which may be attributed to high annual variability. Model performance was strongly dependent on both calibration and the adjustment for precipitation undercatch errors, which influenced model calibration parameters by 150-200%. Comparison of the density-based snowmelt algorithm against a typical temperature-index model revealed only minor differences between the two snowmelt schemes for estimation of SWE. However, when the model was evaluated against snow depths, the new scheme reduced errors by up to 50%, largely due to improved SWE to depth conversions. While this study demonstrates the use of simulated snow density in snowmelt parameterisation, the snow density model may also be of broad interest for snow depth to SWE conversion. Overall, the

  7. Trends of air pollution in Denmark - Normalised by a simple weather index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilsholm, S.; Rasmussen, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a part of the Traffic Pool projects on 'Traffic and Environments', 1995-99, financed by the Danish Ministry of Transport. The Traffic Pool projects included five different projects on 'Surveillance of the Air Quality', 'Atmospheric Modelling', 'Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling', 'Smog and ozone' and 'Greenhouse effects and Climate', [Rasmussen, 2000]. This work is a part of the project on 'Surveillance of the Air Quality' with the main objectives to make trend analysis of levels of air pollution from traffic in Denmark. Other participants were from the Road Directory mainly focusing on measurement of traffic and trend analysis of the air quality utilising a nordic model for the air pollution in street canyons called BLB (Beregningsmodel for Luftkvalitet i Byluftgader) [Vejdirektoratet 2000], National Environmental Research Institute (HERI) mainly focusing on. measurements of air pollution and trend analysis with the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) [DMU 2000], and the Copenhagen Environmental Protection Agency mainly focusing on measurements. In this study a more simple statistical model has been developed for trend analysis of the air quality. The model is filtering out the influence of the variations from year to year in the meteorological conditions on the air pollution levels. The weather factors found most important are wind speed, wind direction and mixing height. Measurements of CO, NO and NO 2 from three streets in Copenhagen have been used, these streets are Jagtvej, Bredgade and H. C. Andersen's Boulevard (HCAB). The years 1994-1996 were used for evaluation of the method and annual indexes of air pollution index dependent only on meteorological parameters, called WEATHIX, were calculated for the years 1990-1997 and used for normalisation of the observed air pollution trends. Meteorological data were taken from either the background stations at the H.C. Oersted - building situated close to one of the street stations or the synoptic

  8. Constraining snowmelt in a temperature-index model using simulated snow densities

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2014-09-01

    Current snowmelt parameterisation schemes are largely untested in warmer maritime snowfields, where physical snow properties can differ substantially from the more common colder snow environments. Physical properties such as snow density influence the thermal properties of snow layers and are likely to be important for snowmelt rates. Existing methods for incorporating physical snow properties into temperature-index models (TIMs) require frequent snow density observations. These observations are often unavailable in less monitored snow environments. In this study, previous techniques for end-of-season snow density estimation (Bormann et al., 2013) were enhanced and used as a basis for generating daily snow density data from climate inputs. When evaluated against 2970 observations, the snow density model outperforms a regionalised density-time curve reducing biases from -0.027gcm-3 to -0.004gcm-3 (7%). The simulated daily densities were used at 13 sites in the warmer maritime snowfields of Australia to parameterise snowmelt estimation. With absolute snow water equivalent (SWE) errors between 100 and 136mm, the snow model performance was generally lower in the study region than that reported for colder snow environments, which may be attributed to high annual variability. Model performance was strongly dependent on both calibration and the adjustment for precipitation undercatch errors, which influenced model calibration parameters by 150-200%. Comparison of the density-based snowmelt algorithm against a typical temperature-index model revealed only minor differences between the two snowmelt schemes for estimation of SWE. However, when the model was evaluated against snow depths, the new scheme reduced errors by up to 50%, largely due to improved SWE to depth conversions. While this study demonstrates the use of simulated snow density in snowmelt parameterisation, the snow density model may also be of broad interest for snow depth to SWE conversion. Overall, the

  9. Critique of the use of ICRP-29's 'Robustness Index' in evaluating uncertainties associated with radiological assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F O; Schwarz, G; Killough, G G [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-08-01

    Concern is expressed regarding the use of the robustness index, as proposed in ICRP 29, to characterise the uncertainties associated with a model's predictions. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation employing a model of the grass-cow-milk-infant pathway for /sup 131/I are used to elucidate the author's criticisms. It is recommended that the robustness index should be carefully examined to appraise its possible usefulness and potential dangers. Alternate methods for analysis of uncertainty are proposed.

  10. All-cause mortality among people with serious mental illness (SMI, substance use disorders, and depressive disorders in southeast London: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher mortality has been found for people with serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorder at all age groups. Our aim was to characterize vulnerable groups for excess mortality among people with SMI, substance use disorders, depressive episode, and recurrent depressive disorder. Methods A case register was developed at the South London and Maudsley National Health Services Foundation Trust (NHS SLAM, accessing full electronic clinical records on over 150,000 mental health service users as a well-defined cohort since 2006. The Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS system enabled searching and retrieval of anonymised information since 2008. Deaths were identified by regular national tracing returns after 2006. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were calculated for the period 2007 to 2009 using SLAM records for this period and the expected number of deaths from age-specific mortality statistics for the England and Wales population in 2008. Data were stratified by gender, ethnicity, and specific mental disorders. Results A total of 31,719 cases, aged 15 years old or more, active between 2007-2009 and with mental disorders of interest prior to 2009 were detected in the SLAM case register. SMRs were 2.15 (95% CI: 1.95-2.36 for all SMI with genders combined, 1.89 (1.64-2.17 for women and 2.47 (2.17-2.80 for men. In addition, highest mortality risk was found for substance use disorders (SMR = 4.17; 95% CI: 3.75-4.64. Age- and gender-standardised mortality ratios by ethnic group revealed huge fluctuations, and SMRs for all disorders diminished in strength with age. The main limitation was the setting of secondary mental health care provider in SLAM. Conclusions Substantially higher mortality persists in people with serious mental illness, substance use disorders and depressive disorders. Furthermore, mortality risk differs substantially with age, diagnosis, gender

  11. Asymmetric multi-fractality in the U.S. stock indices using index-based model of A-MFDFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minhyuk; Song, Jae Wook; Park, Ji Hwan; Chang, Woojin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ‘Index-based A-MFDFA’ model is proposed to assess the asymmetric multi-fractality. • The asymmetric multi-fractality in the U.S. stock indices are investigated using ‘Index-based’ and ‘Return-based’ A-MFDFA. • The asymmetric feature is more significantly identified by ‘Index-based’ model than ‘return-based’ model. • Source of multi-fractality and time-varying features are analyzed. - Abstract: We detect the asymmetric multi-fractality in the U.S. stock indices based on the asymmetric multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MFDFA). Instead using the conventional return-based approach, we propose the index-based model of A-MFDFA where the trend based on the evolution of stock index rather than stock price return plays a role for evaluating the asymmetric scaling behaviors. The results show that the multi-fractal behaviors of the U.S. stock indices are asymmetric and the index-based model detects the asymmetric multi-fractality better than return-based model. We also discuss the source of multi-fractality and its asymmetry and observe that the multi-fractal asymmetry in the U.S. stock indices has a time-varying feature where the degree of multi-fractality and asymmetry increase during the financial crisis.

  12. Simulation of leaf area index on site scale based on model data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    The world's grassland area is about 24 × 108hm2, accounting for about one-fifth of the global land area. It is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. And currently, it is the most affected area of human activity. A considerable portion of the global CO2 emissions are fixed by grassland, and the grassland carbon cycle plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (Li Bo, Yongshen Peng, Li Yao, China's Prairie, 1990). In recent years, the carbon cycle and its influencing factors of grassland ecosystems have become one of the hotspots in ecology, geology, botany and agronomy under the background of global change ( Mu Shaojie, 2014) . And the model is now as a popular and effective method of research. However, there are still some uncertainties in this approach. CEVSA ( Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil and Atmosphere) is a biogeochemical cycle model based on physiological and ecological processes to simulate plant-soil-atmosphere system energy exchange and water-carbon-nitrogen coupling cycles (Cao at al., 1998a; 1998b; Woodward et al., 1995). In this paper, the remote sensing observation data of leaf area index are integrated into the model, and the CEVSA model of site version is optimized by Markov chain-Monte Carlo method to achieve the purpose of increasing the accuracy of model results.

  13. Stochastic index model for intermittent regimes: from preliminary analysis to regionalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rianna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In small and medium-sized basins or in rivers characterized by intermittent discharges, with low or negligible/null observed values for long periods of the year, the correct representation of the discharge regime is important for issues related to water management and to define the amount and quality of water available for irrigation, domestic and recreational uses. In these cases, only one index as a statistical metric is often not enough; it is thus necessary to introduce Flow Duration Curves (FDC.

    The aim of this study is therefore to combine a stochastic index flow model capable of reproducing the FDC record period of a river, regardless of the persistence and seasonality of the series, with the theory of total probability in order to calculate how often a river is dry.

    The paper draws from preliminary analyses, including a study to estimate the correlation between discharge indicators Q95, Q50 and Q1 (discharges exceeding 95%, 50% or 1% of the time, respectively and some fundamental characteristics of the basin, as well as to identify homogeneous regions in the target area through the study of several geo-morphological features and climatic conditions. The stochastic model was then applied in one of the homogeneous regions that includes intermittent rivers.

    Finally, the model was regionalized by means of regression analysis in order to calculate the FDC for ungauged basins; the reliability of this method was tested using jack-knife validation.

  14. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  15. Entropy maximization under the constraints on the generalized Gini index and its application in modeling income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi Tanak, A.; Mohtashami Borzadaran, G. R.; Ahmadi, J.

    2015-11-01

    In economics and social sciences, the inequality measures such as Gini index, Pietra index etc., are commonly used to measure the statistical dispersion. There is a generalization of Gini index which includes it as special case. In this paper, we use principle of maximum entropy to approximate the model of income distribution with a given mean and generalized Gini index. Many distributions have been used as descriptive models for the distribution of income. The most widely known of these models are the generalized beta of second kind and its subclass distributions. The obtained maximum entropy distributions are fitted to the US family total money income in 2009, 2011 and 2013 and their relative performances with respect to generalized beta of second kind family are compared.

  16. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  17. Childhood craniopharyngioma: greater hypothalamic involvement before surgery is associated with higher homeostasis model insulin resistance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivin, Christine; Busiah, Kanetee; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Recasens, Christophe; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Zerah, Michel; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Brauner, Raja

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity seems to be linked to the hypothalamic involvement in craniopharyngioma. We evaluated the pre-surgery relationship between the degree of this involvement on magnetic resonance imaging and insulin resistance, as evaluated by the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA). As insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and ghrelin may also be involved, we compared their plasma concentrations and their link to weight change. Methods 27 children with craniopharyngioma were classified as either grade 0 (n = 7, no hypothalamic involvement), grade 1 (n = 8, compression without involvement), or grade 2 (n = 12, severe involvement). Results Despite having similar body mass indexes (BMI), the grade 2 patients had higher glucose, insulin and HOMA before surgery than the grade 0 (P = 0.02, craniopharyngioma before surgery seems to determine the degree of insulin resistance, regardless of the BMI. The pre-surgery HOMA values were correlated with the post-surgery weight gain. This suggests that obesity should be prevented by reducing inn secretion in those cases with hypothalamic involvement. PMID:19341477

  18. Childhood craniopharyngioma: greater hypothalamic involvement before surgery is associated with higher homeostasis model insulin resistance index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainte-Rose Christian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity seems to be linked to the hypothalamic involvement in craniopharyngioma. We evaluated the pre-surgery relationship between the degree of this involvement on magnetic resonance imaging and insulin resistance, as evaluated by the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA. As insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R and ghrelin may also be involved, we compared their plasma concentrations and their link to weight change. Methods 27 children with craniopharyngioma were classified as either grade 0 (n = 7, no hypothalamic involvement, grade 1 (n = 8, compression without involvement, or grade 2 (n = 12, severe involvement. Results Despite having similar body mass indexes (BMI, the grade 2 patients had higher glucose, insulin and HOMA before surgery than the grade 0 (P = 0.02, The data for the whole population before and 6–18 months after surgery showed increases in BMI (P Conclusion The hypothalamic involvement by the craniopharyngioma before surgery seems to determine the degree of insulin resistance, regardless of the BMI. The pre-surgery HOMA values were correlated with the post-surgery weight gain. This suggests that obesity should be prevented by reducing inn secretion in those cases with hypothalamic involvement.

  19. Highly Chemoselective Reduction of Amides (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) to Alcohols using SmI2/Amine/H2O under Mild Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Highly chemoselective direct reduction of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides to alcohols using SmI2/amine/H2O is reported. The reaction proceeds with C–N bond cleavage in the carbinolamine intermediate, shows excellent functional group tolerance, and delivers the alcohol products in very high yields. The expected C–O cleavage products are not formed under the reaction conditions. The observed reactivity is opposite to the electrophilicity of polar carbonyl groups resulting from the nX → π*C=O (X = O, N) conjugation. Mechanistic studies suggest that coordination of Sm to the carbonyl and then to Lewis basic nitrogen in the tetrahedral intermediate facilitate electron transfer and control the selectivity of the C–N/C–O cleavage. Notably, the method provides direct access to acyl-type radicals from unactivated amides under mild electron transfer conditions. PMID:24460078

  20. The Gaussian copula model for the joint deficit index for droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, H.; Van den Bergh, J.

    2018-06-01

    The characterization of droughts and their impacts is very dependent on the time scale that is involved. In order to obtain an overall drought assessment, the cumulative effects of water deficits over different times need to be examined together. For example, the recently developed joint deficit index (JDI) is based on multivariate probabilities of precipitation over various time scales from 1- to 12-months, and was constructed from empirical copulas. In this paper, we examine the Gaussian copula model for the JDI. We model the covariance across the temporal scales with a two-parameter function that is commonly used in the specific context of spatial statistics or geostatistics. The validity of the covariance models is demonstrated with long-term precipitation series. Bootstrap experiments indicate that the Gaussian copula model has advantages over the empirical copula method in the context of drought severity assessment: (i) it is able to quantify droughts outside the range of the empirical copula, (ii) provides adequate drought quantification, and (iii) provides a better understanding of the uncertainty in the estimation.

  1. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  2. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Man Kung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. RESULTS: CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84. CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (p<0.001, p = 0.064, p = 0.021 respectively, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CONCLUSIONS: CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  3. MARKOWITZ MODEL DALAM PEMBENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO OPTIMAL (STUDI KASUS PADA JAKARTA ISLAMIC INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irni Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pemilihan portofolio optimal menggunakan model Markowitz. Penelitian ini menggunakan data time series dari tahun 2013 - 2018. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 29 saham yang terdapat dalam Jakarta Islamic Index tahun 2018. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 10 saham yang termasuk ke dalam portofolio optimal yaitu antara lain AKRA (3.4%, ADRO (3.3%, ICBP (4.7%, INCO (2.6%, MYRX (13.6%, PTPP (4.9%, PWON (11.3%, TPIA (1%, UNTR (15.7% dan UNVR (39.5%. Rata rata tingkat pengembalian portofolio adalah sebesar 1.22 % dan resiko portofolio adalah sebesar 0.0312, resiko tersebut di bawah resiko dari masing-masing saham individual pembentuk portofolio optimal.

  4. Polychotomization of continuous variables in regression models based on the overall C index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bax Leon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When developing multivariable regression models for diagnosis or prognosis, continuous independent variables can be categorized to make a prediction table instead of a prediction formula. Although many methods have been proposed to dichotomize prognostic variables, to date there has been no integrated method for polychotomization. The latter is necessary when dichotomization results in too much loss of information or when central values refer to normal states and more dispersed values refer to less preferable states, a situation that is not unusual in medical settings (e.g. body temperature, blood pressure. The goal of our study was to develop a theoretical and practical method for polychotomization. Methods We used the overall discrimination index C, introduced by Harrel, as a measure of the predictive ability of an independent regressor variable and derived a method for polychotomization mathematically. Since the naïve application of our method, like some existing methods, gives rise to positive bias, we developed a parametric method that minimizes this bias and assessed its performance by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Results The overall C is closely related to the area under the ROC curve and the produced di(polychotomized variable's predictive performance is comparable to the original continuous variable. The simulation shows that the parametric method is essentially unbiased for both the estimates of performance and the cutoff points. Application of our method to the predictor variables of a previous study on rhabdomyolysis shows that it can be used to make probability profile tables that are applicable to the diagnosis or prognosis of individual patient status. Conclusion We propose a polychotomization (including dichotomization method for independent continuous variables in regression models based on the overall discrimination index C and clarified its meaning mathematically. To avoid positive bias in

  5. Distribution and habitat suitability index model for the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai (Pisces: Siluriformes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Vélez-Espino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In conservation biology there is a basic need to determine habitat suitability and availability. Astroblepus ubidiai (Siluriforms, the only native fish in the highlands of Imbabura province in the Ecuadorian Andes, was abundant in the past in the Imbakucha watershed and adjacent drainages, but currently it is restricted to a few isolated refuges. Conservation actions are needed if this unique fish is to persist. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI for the species has been developed in order to aid management decisions. In this HIS model biomass density (B was selected as a better indicator of habitat quality than either abundance or density. A population well-being index (PI was constructed with the combination of B and an indicator of fish health (proportion of fish in the population with parasites and deformities. Based in other models of benthic fish the habitat variables current velocity, flow, depth, width, cover, invertebrate composition, vegetation type, terrestrial vegetation, land use, substrate, temperature, pH, TDS, oxygen, altitude, and slope were included in the analysis. An anthropogenic perturbation index (H and a fragment isolation index (FII were developed and included as habitat variables as well. The HSI model was applied to refuges and a sample of 15 aquatic bodies without fish populations within the study region. From the sampled sites without A. ubidiai 26.6% presented low quality, and the remaining 73.3% had medium quality according to the HSI estimated. Good quality habitat for dispersal, escape or translocations is rare in the region. The low HSIs estimated in some of the refuges suggests that current populations are not settled in the most favorable habitat but in the habitat least favorable to the agents of decline. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 623-638. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Astroblepus ubidiai (Siluriformes, el único pez nativo de las alturas de Imbabura, en los Andes Ecuatorianos, era un recurso abundante en el pasado

  6. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE BANDUNG CHANGES EXCELLENT POTENTIAL THROUGH INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL USING INDEX LE MASNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Sofia Yanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Input-Output Table is arranged to present an overview of the interrelationships and interdependence between units of activity (sector production in the whole economy. Therefore the input-output models are complete and comprehensive analytical tool. The usefulness of input-output tables is an analysis of the economic structure of the national/regional level which covers the structure of production and value-added (GDP of each sector. For the purposes of planning and evaluation of the outcomes of development that is comprehensive both national and smaller scale (district/city, a model for regional development planning approach can use the model input-output analysis. Analysis of Bandung Economic Structure did use Le Masne index, by comparing the coefficients of the technology in 2003 and 2008, of which nearly 50% change. The trade sector has grown very conspicuous than other areas, followed by the services of road transport and air transport services, the development priorities and investment Bandung should be directed to these areas, this is due to these areas can be thrust and be power attraction for the growth of other areas. The areas that experienced the highest decrease was Industrial Chemicals and Goods from Chemistry, followed by Oil and Refinery Industry Textile Industry Except For Garment.

  8. Drought Forecasting by SPI Index and ANFIS Model Using Fuzzy C-mean Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi Komasi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the interaction between environment and water cycle in the world and affects natural environment of an area when it persists for a longer period. So, developing a suitable index to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of drought plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems. In this article, firstly, the drought concept and drought indexes were introduced and then the fuzzy neural networks and fuzzy C-mean clustering were applied to forecast drought via standardized precipitation index (SPI. The results of this research indicate that the SPI index is more capable than the other indexes such as PDSI (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PAI (Palfai Aridity Index and etc. in drought forecasting process. Moreover, application of adaptive nero-fuzzy network accomplished by C-mean clustering has high efficiency in the drought forecasting.

  9. A Risk-Free Protection Index Model for Portfolio Selection with Entropy Constraint under an Uncertainty Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Gao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a risk-free protection index model for portfolio selection based on the uncertain theory. First, the returns of risk assets are assumed as uncertain variables and subject to reputable experts’ evaluations. Second, under this assumption, combining with the risk-free interest rate we define a risk-free protection index (RFPI, which can measure the protection degree when the loss of risk assets happens. Third, note that the proportion entropy serves as a complementary means to reduce the risk by the preset diversification requirement. We put forward a risk-free protection index model with an entropy constraint under an uncertainty framework by applying the RFPI, Huang’s risk index model (RIM, and mean-variance-entropy model (MVEM. Furthermore, to solve our portfolio model, an algorithm is given to estimate the uncertain expected return and standard deviation of different risk assets by applying the Delphi method. Finally, an example is provided to show that the risk-free protection index model performs better than the traditional MVEM and RIM.

  10. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A.; Oluremi, O. I. A.; Ekpo, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2 = 0.961, adjusted R 2 = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2 = 0.966; adjusted R 2 = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  11. Models for the prediction of the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils using their fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Borroto, Yisel; Piloto Rodriguez, Ramon; Goyos Perez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to obtain a physical-mathematical model that establishes a relationship between the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils and its composition of essential fatty acid. This model is based on experimental data obtained by the authors of the present work and an experimental data reported by different extracted authors of indexed databases. The adjustment of the coefficients of the model is based on the obtaining of residual minima in the capacity of prediction of the model. Starting from these results it is established a very useful tool for the determination of such an important parameter for the fuel diesel as it is the cetane index obtained from an analysis of chemical composition and not obtained from tests in engines banks, to save time and economic resources. (author)

  12. Response surface modeling of remifentanil-propofol interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijs, Diederik J F; Olofsen, Erik; Romberg, Raymonda R; Sarton, Elise; Ward, Denham; Engbers, Frank; Vuyk, Jaap; Mooren, Rene; Teppema, Luc J; Dahan, Albert

    2003-02-01

    Since propofol and remifentanil are frequently combined for monitored anesthesia care, we examined the influence of the separate and combined administration of these agents on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index in humans. The effect of steady-state concentrations of remifentanil and propofol was assessed in 22 healthy male volunteer subjects. For each subject, measurements were obtained from experiments using remifentanil alone, propofol alone, and remifentanil plus propofol (measured arterial blood concentration range: propofol studies, 0-2.6 microg/ml; remifentanil studies, 0-2.0 ng/ml). Respiratory experiments consisted of ventilatory responses to three to eight increases in end-tidal Pco2 (Petco2). Invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were monitored concurrently. The nature of interaction was assessed by response surface modeling using a population approach with NONMEM. Values are population estimate plus or minus standard error. A total of 94 responses were obtained at various drug combinations. When given separately, remifentanil and propofol depressed cardiorespiratory variables in a dose-dependent fashion (resting V(i) : 12.6 +/- 3.3% and 27.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; V(i) at fixed Petco of 55 mmHg: 44.3 +/- 3.9% and 57.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; blood pressure: 9.9 +/- 1.8% and 3.7 +/- 1.1% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively). When given in combination, their effect on respiration was synergistic (greatest synergy observed for resting V(i)). The effects of both drugs on heart rate and blood pressure were modest, with additive interactions when combined. Over the dose range studied, remifentanil had no effect on bispectral index even when combined with propofol (inert interaction). These data show dose-dependent effects on respiration at relatively low concentrations of

  13. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    OpenAIRE

    Hai An; Ling Zhou; Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new...

  14. A Step-Indexed Kripke Model of Hidden State via Recursive Properties on Recursively Defined Metric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinghammer, Jan; Birkedal, Lars; Støvring, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    ´eraud and Pottier’s type and capability system including both frame and anti-frame rules. The model is a possible worlds model based on the operational semantics and step-indexed heap relations, and the worlds are constructed as a recursively defined predicate on a recursively defined metric space. We also extend...

  15. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  16. Post-Movement Beta Activity in Sensorimotor Cortex Indexes Confidence in the Estimations from Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huiling; Wade, Cian; Brown, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Beta oscillations are a dominant feature of the sensorimotor system. A transient and prominent increase in beta oscillations is consistently observed across the sensorimotor cortical-basal ganglia network after cessation of voluntary movement: the post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS). Current theories about the function of the PMBS have been focused on either the closure of motor response or the processing of sensory afferance. Computational models of sensorimotor control have emphasized the importance of the integration between feedforward estimation and sensory feedback, and therefore the putative motor and sensory functions of beta oscillations may reciprocally interact with each other and in fact be indissociable. Here we show that the amplitude of sensorimotor PMBS is modulated by the history of visual feedback of task-relevant errors, and negatively correlated with the trial-to-trial exploratory adjustment in a sensorimotor adaptation task in young healthy human subjects. The PMBS also negatively correlated with the uncertainty associated with the feedforward estimation, which was recursively updated in light of new sensory feedback, as identified by a Bayesian learning model. These results reconcile the two opposing motor and sensory views of the function of PMBS, and suggest a unifying theory in which PMBS indexes the confidence in internal feedforward estimation in Bayesian sensorimotor integration. Its amplitude simultaneously reflects cortical sensory processing and signals the need for maintenance or adaptation of the motor output, and if necessary, exploration to identify an altered sensorimotor transformation. For optimal sensorimotor control, sensory feedback and feedforward estimation of a movement's sensory consequences should be weighted by the inverse of their corresponding uncertainties, which require recursive updating in a dynamic environment. We show that post-movement beta activity (13-30 Hz) over sensorimotor cortex in young healthy

  17. Confirmatory factory analysis of the Neck Disability Index in a general problematic neck population indicates a one-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Osborne, Jason W; Burkett, Brendan; Melloh, Markus

    2014-08-01

    The Neck Disability Index frequently is used to measure outcomes of the neck. The statistical rigor of the Neck Disability Index has been assessed with conflicting outcomes. To date, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Neck Disability Index has not been reported for a suitably large population study. Because the Neck Disability Index is not a condition-specific measure of neck function, initial Confirmatory Factor Analysis should consider problematic neck patients as a homogenous group. We sought to analyze the factor structure of the Neck Disability Index through Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a symptomatic, homogeneous, neck population, with respect to pooled populations and gender subgroups. This was a secondary analysis of pooled data. A total of 1,278 symptomatic neck patients (67.5% female, median age 41 years), 803 nonspecific and 475 with whiplash-associated disorder. The Neck Disability Index was used to measure outcomes. We analyzed pooled baseline data from six independent studies of patients with neck problems who completed Neck Disability Index questionnaires at baseline. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis was considered in three scenarios: the full sample and separate sexes. Models were compared empirically for best fit. Two-factor models have good psychometric properties across both the pooled and sex subgroups. However, according to these analyses, the one-factor solution is preferable from both a statistical perspective and parsimony. The two-factor model was close to significant for the male subgroup (pfactor structure when analyzed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a pooled, homogenous sample of neck problem patients. However, a two-factor model did approach significance for male subjects where questions separated into constructs of mental and physical function. Further investigations in different conditions, subgroup and sex-specific populations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai An

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new hybrid reliability index definition is presented based on the random–fuzzy–interval model. Furthermore, the calculation flowchart of the hybrid reliability index is presented and it is solved using the modified limit-step length iterative algorithm, which ensures convergence. And the validity of convergent algorithm for the hybrid reliability model is verified through the calculation examples in literature. In the end, a numerical example is demonstrated to show that the hybrid reliability index is applicable for the wear reliability assessment of mechanisms, where truncated random variables, fuzzy random variables, and interval variables coexist. The demonstration also shows the good convergence of the iterative algorithm proposed in this article.

  19. Coexistence of an unstirred chemostat model with B-D functional response by fixed point index theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-zhou Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with an unstirred chemostat model with the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. First, some prior estimates for positive solutions are proved by the maximum principle and the method of upper and lower solutions. Second, the calculation on the fixed point index of chemostat model is obtained by degree theory and the homotopy invariance theorem. Finally, some sufficient condition on the existence of positive steady-state solutions is established by fixed point index theory and bifurcation theory.

  20. Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Cescatti, A.; Dragoni, D.; Gash, J. H. C.; Gianelle, D.; Gioli, B.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Law, B. E.; Lund, M.; Marcolla, B.; van der Molen, M. K.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Richardson, A. D.; Roupsard, O.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global vegetation models require the photosynthetic parameters, maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcm), and quantum yield (α) to parameterize their plant functional types (PFTs). The purpose of this work is to determine how much the scaling of the parameters from leaf to ecosystem level through a seasonally varying leaf area index (LAI) explains the parameter variation within and between PFTs. Using Fluxnet data, we simulate a seasonally variable LAIF for a large range of sites, comparable to the LAIM derived from MODIS. There are discrepancies when LAIF reach zero levels and LAIM still provides a small positive value. We find that temperature is the most common constraint for LAIF in 55% of the simulations, while global radiation and vapor pressure deficit are the key constraints for 18% and 27% of the simulations, respectively, while large differences in this forcing still exist when looking at specific PFTs. Despite these differences, the annual photosynthesis simulations are comparable when using LAIF or LAIM (r2 = 0.89). We investigated further the seasonal variation of ecosystem-scale parameters derived with LAIF. Vcm has the largest seasonal variation. This holds for all vegetation types and climates. The parameter α is less variable. By including ecosystem-scale parameter seasonality we can explain a considerable part of the ecosystem-scale parameter variation between PFTs. The remaining unexplained leaf-scale PFT variation still needs further work, including elucidating the precise role of leaf and soil level nitrogen.

  1. Dynamic indoor thermal comfort model identification based on neural computing PMV index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, K S Mohamed; Jalal, M F Abdul; Homod, R Z; Eng, Y K

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on modelling and simulation of building dynamic thermal comfort control for non-linear HVAC system. Thermal comfort in general refers to temperature and also humidity. However in reality, temperature or humidity is just one of the factors affecting the thermal comfort but not the main measures. Besides, as HVAC control system has the characteristic of time delay, large inertia, and highly nonlinear behaviour, it is difficult to determine the thermal comfort sensation accurately if we use traditional Fanger's PMV index. Hence, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been introduced due to its ability to approximate any nonlinear mapping. Using ANN to train, we can get the input-output mapping of HVAC control system or in other word; we can propose a practical approach to identify thermal comfort of a building. Simulations were carried out to validate and verify the proposed method. Results show that the proposed ANN method can track down the desired thermal sensation for a specified condition space.

  2. Can human resources induce sustainability in business?: Modeling, testing and correlating HR index and company's business results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the authors analyze the impact of the composite human resource index on sustainable growth in a specific business sector in a transition country. Sustainability of country's economy is growingly relying on the knowledge economy which has been implemented in strategies of sustainable development throughout Europe. The knowledge economy is mostly based on human resources and the way they are organized and managed in the companies actively operating in competitive markets. In order to confirm importance of the human resources (HR index, results were tested by means of modeling, measuring and correlating the HR index with business results at micro level. The tests were conducted on the data from the survey in Serbian meat processing industry. The results were then compared with the results from the survey conducted in a financial industry. Moreover, a model was made that could be applicable in all countries that do not have available official statistic data on the level of investments in human resources. The focus was on determining the correlation direction, and hence creating a research model applicable in all business sectors. It has been found that a significant one-way correlation exists between business performance and increased HR index. In that way it has been confirmed that in Serbian economy that has recorded global decrease during transition, certain business sectors, and especially companies with high levels of investments in improving its HR index record above average and sustainable growth.

  3. Meaning in life in the Federal Republic of Germany: results of a representative survey with the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bausewein Claudia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The construct "meaning-in-life" (MiL has recently raised the interest of clinicians working in psycho-oncology and end-of-life care and has become a topic of scientific investigation. Difficulties regarding the measurement of MiL are related to the various theoretical and conceptual approaches and its inter-individual variability. Therefore the "Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation" (SMiLE, an individualized instrument for the assessment of MiL, was developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate MiL in a representative sample of the German population. Methods In the SMiLE, the respondents first indicate a minimum of three and maximum of seven areas which provide meaning to their life before rating their current level of importance and satisfaction of each area. Indices of total weighting (IoW, range 20–100, total satisfaction (IoS, range 0–100, and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS, range 0–100 are calculated. Results In July 2005, 1,004 Germans were randomly selected and interviewed (inclusion rate, 85.3%. 3,521 areas of MiL were listed and assigned to 13 a-posteriori categories. The mean IoS was 81.9 ± 15.1, the mean IoW was 84.6 ± 11.9, and the mean IoWS was 82.9 ± 14.8. In youth (16–19 y/o, "friends" were most important for MiL, in young adulthood (20–29 y/o "partnership", in middle adulthood (30–39 y/o "work", during retirement (60–69 y/o "health" and "altruism", and in advanced age (70 y/o and more "spirituality/religion" and "nature experience/animals". Conclusion This study is a first nationwide survey on individual MiL in a randomly selected, representative sample. The MiL areas of the age stages seem to correspond with Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

  4. Early Warning System in ASEAN Countries Using Capital Market Index Return: Modiied Markov Regime Switching Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asia's  inancial  crisis  in  July  1997  affects  currency,  capital  market,  and  real  market throughout  Asian  countries.  Countries  in  southeast  region  (ASEAN,  including  Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, are some of the countries where the crisis hit  the  most.  In  these  countries,  where  inancial  sectors  are  far  more  developed  than  real sectors  and  the  money  market  sectors,  most  of  the  economic  activities  are  conducted  in capital  market.  Movement  in  the  capital  market  could  be  a  proxy  to  describe  the  overall economic  situation  and  therefore  the  prediction  of  it  could  be  an  early  warning  system  of economic crises. This paper tries to investigate movement in ASEAN (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,  Singapore,  and  Thailand  capital  market  to  build  an  early  warning  system from inancial sectors perspective. This paper will be very beneicial for the government to anticipate the forthcoming crisis. The insight of this paper is from Hamilton (1990 model of regime switching process in which he divide the movement of currency into two regimes, describe the switching transition based on Markov process and creates different model for each regimes. Differ from Hamilton, our research focuses on index return instead of currency to  model  the  regime  switching.  This  research  aimed  to  ind  the  probability  of  crisis  in  the future by combining the probability of switching and the probability distribution function of each  regime.  Probability  of  switching  is  estimated  by  categorizing  the  movement  in  index return  into  two  regimes  (negative  return  in  regime  1  and  positive  return  in  regime  2  then measuring  the  proportion  of  switching  to  regime  1  in  t  given  regime

  5. A predictive model for pressure ulcer outcome: the Wound Healing Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Susan D; Barrett, Ryan S; Fife, Caroline E; Thomson, Brett

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information regarding the creation of a risk-stratification system to predict the likelihood of the healing of body and heel pressure ulcers (PrUs). This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Explain the need for a PrU risk stratification tool.2. Describe the purpose and methodology of the study.3. Delineate the results of the study and development of the Wound Healing Index. : To create a validated system to predict the healing likelihood of patients with body and heel pressure ulcers (PrUs), incorporating only patient- and wound-specific variables. The US Wound Registry data were examined retrospectively and assigned a clear outcome (healed, amputated, and so on). Significant variables were identified with bivariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression models were created based on significant factors (P wound clinics in 24 states : A total of 7973 body PrUs and 2350 heel PrUs were eligible for analysis. Not applicable : Healed PrU MAIN RESULTS:: Because of missing data elements, the logistic regression development model included 6640 body PrUs, of which 4300 healed (64.8%), and the 10% validation sample included 709 PrUs, of which 477 healed (67.3%). For heel PrUs, the logistic regression development model included 1909 heel PrUs, of which 1240 healed (65.0%), and the 10% validation sample included 203 PrUs, of which 133 healed (65.5%). Variables significantly predicting healing were PrU size, PrU age, number of concurrent wounds of any etiology, PrU Stage III or IV, evidence of bioburden/infection, patient age, being nonambulatory, having renal transplant, paralysis, malnutrition, and/or patient hospitalization for any reason. Body and heel PrU Wound Healing Indices are comprehensive, user-friendly, and validated predictive models for

  6. An Agent-Based Computational Model for China’s Stock Market and Stock Index Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Chuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an agent-based computational cross market model for Chinese equity market structure, which includes both stocks and CSI 300 index futures. In this model, we design several stocks and one index future to simulate this structure. This model allows heterogeneous investors to make investment decisions with restrictions including wealth, market trading mechanism, and risk management. Investors’ demands and order submissions are endogenously determined. Our model successfully reproduces several key features of the Chinese financial markets including spot-futures basis distribution, bid-ask spread distribution, volatility clustering, and long memory in absolute returns. Our model can be applied in cross market risk control, market mechanism design, and arbitrage strategies analysis.

  7. Generalizability of the Disease State Index Prediction Model for Identifying Patients Progressing from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, A.; Munoz-Ruiz, M.; Mattila, J.; Koikkalainen, J.; Tsolaki, M.; Mecocci, P.; Kloszewska, I.; Vellas, B.; Lovestone, S.; Visser, P.J.; Lotjonen, J.; Soininen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Disease State Index (DSI) prediction model measures the similarity of patient data to diagnosed stable and progressive mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases to identify patients who are progressing to Alzheimer's disease. Objectives: We evaluated how well the DSI generalizes across

  8. Modeling and design of a spiral-shaped Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensor for refractive index sensing of watery solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, M.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Dijkstra, Mindert; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The modeling and design of a spiral-shaped Mach-Zehnder Interferometric sensor (sMZI sensor) for refractive index sensing of watery solutions is presented. The goal of the running project is to realise a multi-sensing array by placing multiple sMZIs in series to form a sensing branch, and to place

  9. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  10. 2008 GEM Modeling Challenge: Metrics Study of the Dst Index in Physics-Based Magnetosphere and Ring Current Models and in Statistical and Analytic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Glocer, A.; Yu, Y.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Welling, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the metrics-based results of the Dst part of the 2008-2009 GEM Metrics Challenge are reported. The Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for 4 geomagnetic storm events and 5 different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical or climatological or physics-based (e.g. MHD) models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of over 25 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations we use comparisons of one-hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of one-minute model data with the one-minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS).

  11. A Path Walkability Assessment Index Model for Evaluating and Facilitating Retail Walking Using Decision-Tree-Making (DTM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keyvanfar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is the major contributor of ever-increasing CO2 and Greenhouse Gas emissions in cities. The ever-increasing hazardous emissions of transportation and energy consumption have persuaded transportation and urban planners to motivate people to non-motorized mode of travel, especially walking. Currently, there are several urban walkability assessment models; however, coping with a limited range of walkability assessment variables make these models not fully able to promote inclusive walkable urban neighborhoods. In this regard, this study develops the path walkability assessment (PWA index model which evaluates and analyzes path walkability in association with the pedestrian’s decision-tree-making (DTM. The model converts the pedestrian’s DTM qualitative data to quantifiable values. This model involves ninety-two (92 physical and environmental walkability assessment variables clustered into three layers of DTM (Layer 1: features; Layer 2: Criteria; and Layer 3: Sub-Criteria, and scoped to shopping and retail type of walking. The PWA model as a global decision support tool can be applied in any neighborhood in the world, and this study implements it at Taman Universiti neighborhood in Skudai, Malaysia. The PWA model has established the walkability score index which determines the grading rate of walkability accomplishment for each walkability variable of the under-survey neighborhood. Using the PWA grading index enables urban designers to manage properly the financial resource allocation for inspiring walkability in the targeted neighborhood.

  12. Differential models of twin correlations in skew for body-mass index (BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Duncan, Glen E; Dinescu, Diana; Turkheimer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI), like most human phenotypes, is substantially heritable. However, BMI is not normally distributed; the skew appears to be structural, and increases as a function of age. Moreover, twin correlations for BMI commonly violate the assumptions of the most common variety of the classical twin model, with the MZ twin correlation greater than twice the DZ correlation. This study aimed to decompose twin correlations for BMI using more general skew-t distributions. Same sex MZ and DZ twin pairs (N = 7,086) from the community-based Washington State Twin Registry were included. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to decompose twin correlations for BMI into multiple mixture distributions. LPA was performed using the default normal mixture distribution and the skew-t mixture distribution. Similar analyses were performed for height as a comparison. Our analyses are then replicated in an independent dataset. A two-class solution under the skew-t mixture distribution fits the BMI distribution for both genders. The first class consists of a relatively normally distributed, highly heritable BMI with a mean in the normal range. The second class is a positively skewed BMI in the overweight and obese range, with lower twin correlations. In contrast, height is normally distributed, highly heritable, and is well-fit by a single latent class. Results in the replication dataset were highly similar. Our findings suggest that two distinct processes underlie the skew of the BMI distribution. The contrast between height and weight is in accord with subjective psychological experience: both are under obvious genetic influence, but BMI is also subject to behavioral control, whereas height is not.

  13. Hourly cooling load forecasting using time-indexed ARX models with two-stage weighted least squares regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yin; Nazarian, Ehsan; Ko, Jeonghan; Rajurkar, Kamlakar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed hourly-indexed ARX models for robust cooling-load forecasting. • Proposed a two-stage weighted least-squares regression approach. • Considered the effect of outliers as well as trend of cooling load and weather patterns. • Included higher order terms and day type patterns in the forecasting models. • Demonstrated better accuracy compared with some ARX and ANN models. - Abstract: This paper presents a robust hourly cooling-load forecasting method based on time-indexed autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX) models, in which the coefficients are estimated through a two-stage weighted least squares regression. The prediction method includes a combination of two separate time-indexed ARX models to improve prediction accuracy of the cooling load over different forecasting periods. The two-stage weighted least-squares regression approach in this study is robust to outliers and suitable for fast and adaptive coefficient estimation. The proposed method is tested on a large-scale central cooling system in an academic institution. The numerical case studies show the proposed prediction method performs better than some ANN and ARX forecasting models for the given test data set

  14. The effects of internal refractive index variation in near-infrared optical tomography: a finite element modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Hamid; Brooksby, Ben; Vishwanath, Karthik; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2003-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) tomography is a technique used to measure light propagation through tissue and generate images of internal optical property distributions from boundary measurements. Most popular applications have concentrated on female breast imaging, neonatal and adult head imaging, as well as muscle and small animal studies. In most instances a highly scattering medium with a homogeneous refractive index is assumed throughout the imaging domain. Using these assumptions, it is possible to simplify the model to the diffusion approximation. However, biological tissue contains regions of varying optical absorption and scatter, as well as varying refractive index. In this work, we introduce an internal boundary constraint in the finite element method approach to modelling light propagation through tissue that accounts for regions of different refractive indices. We have compared the results to data from a Monte Carlo simulation and show that for a simple two-layered slab model of varying refractive index, the phase of the measured reflectance data is significantly altered by the variation in internal refractive index, whereas the amplitude data are affected only slightly

  15. Análise da confiabilidade e da correlação de dois índices de estimativa da maturação esquelética: índice carpal e índice vertebral Reliability and correlation analysis of two skeletal maturation evaluation indexes: hand-wrist index and cervical vertebrae index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Feres Damian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade e a correlação de dois índices de estimativa da maturação esquelética. METODOLOGIA: foi utilizada uma amostra de 210 radiografias carpais e telerradiografias laterais, de arquivo, de pacientes de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 7 e 18 anos. As radiografias carpais foram utilizadas na determinação do Índice de Maturação Carpal (IMC e as telerradiografias laterais na determinação do Índice de Maturação Vertebral (IMV. Cada grupo de radiografias foi examinado e reexaminado por 4 avaliadores, para analisar a confiabilidade de cada índice, e ainda foi realizada a comparação entre os estágios do IMC e do IMV, para avaliar a correlação entre os índices. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os 4 observadores nas avaliações do IMC e do IMV (pAIM: the aim of this study were to evaluate the reliability and correlation of two different skeletal maturation evaluation indexes. METHODS: two hundred and ten hand-wrist and cephalometric radiographs from files of patients with 7- 18 years old were used. The hand-wrist radiographs were used to determine the skeletal maturation index (SMI and the cephalometric radiographs to determine the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI. Four independent evaluators were asked to examine twice each radiography and to verify the reliability of each index. The stages of SMI and CVMI were compared to evaluate the relationship between them. RESULTS: the results were not statisticaly different among the four evaluators on SMI and CVMI indexes (p<0.00001. The correlation average to SMI was 95% for the first evaluation and 93.5% for the second evaluation. On the CVMI, the correlation average was 84% for the first evaluation and 74% for the second evaluation. The correlation intraoperator did not showed significant difference (p<0.00001 and the average for SMI was 93.5% and for

  16. PDW Index - A Simple Model for the Prediction of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Ali, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the accuracy of platelets, platelet morphological parameters, mean platelet volume(MPV) and platelet distribution width, (PDW) to diagnose advanced fibrosis. Study Design: Validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Malir, from Jun 2008 to Jun 2009. Patients and Methods: Simple laboratory tests, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) platelet count and platelet morphological parameters were measured in 91 chronic viral hepatitis patients. All patients had liver biopsy performed. A new index, PDW index was derived to detect the opposing effects of liver fibrosis on platelet count, MPV, and PDW. The predictive value of the index for advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) was assessed through descriptive statistics and area under the ROC curves. Results: Two cut-offs were chosen to qualify different stages of fibrosis. A value of > 8.00 predicted advanced fibrosis, F3-F4, with a specificity of 94% and positive predictive value of 78%. A value of < 6.00 ruled out advanced fibrosis with a negative predictive value of 93% and a sensitivity of 82%. The area under the ROC curve for advanced fibrosis was 0.840. PDW Index values outside of these cut-offs correctly classified 60% of patients. Conclusion: A simple index comprising platelet as only parameters have high diagnostic value for the advanced stages of fibrosis. (author)

  17. Pricing Options and Equity-Indexed Annuities in a Regime-switching Model by Trinomial Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lung Yuen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we summarize the main idea and results of Yuen and Yang (2009, 2010a, 2010b and provide some results on pricing of Parisian options under the Markov regime-switching model (MRSM. The MRSM allows the parameters of the market model depending on a Markovian process, and the model can reflect the information of the market environment which cannot be modeled solely by linear Gaussian process. However, when the parameters of the stock price model are not constant but governed by a Markovian process, the pricing of the options becomes complex. We present a fast and simple trinomial tree model to price options in MRSM. In recent years, the pricing of modern insurance products, such as Equity-Indexed annuity (EIA and variable annuities (VAs, has become a popular topic. We show here that our trinomial tree model can been used to price EIA with strong path dependent exotic options in the regime switching model.

  18. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ali Ewadh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity were used to find PCI. The filtering and outlier analysis was done by using a polynomial (fourth-degree constrained least squared for statistical process. These processes were done by (PAVER 6.5.7 software. The result of the prediction model of PCI shows that it is valid to be used in the prediction of the condition of pavement for the same family type

  19. Modelling shallow landslide susceptibility by means of a subsurface flow path connectivity index and estimates of soil depth spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Topographic index-based hydrological models have gained wide use to describe the hydrological control on the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides at the catchment scale. A common assumption in these models is that a spatially continuous water table occurs simultaneously across the catchment. However, during a rainfall event isolated patches of subsurface saturation form above an impeding layer and their hydrological connectivity is a necessary condition for lateral flow initiation at a point on the hillslope.

    Here, a new hydrological model is presented, which allows us to account for the concept of hydrological connectivity while keeping the simplicity of the topographic index approach. A dynamic topographic index is used to describe the transient lateral flow that is established at a hillslope element when the rainfall amount exceeds a threshold value allowing for (a development of a perched water table above an impeding layer, and (b hydrological connectivity between the hillslope element and its own upslope contributing area. A spatially variable soil depth is the main control of hydrological connectivity in the model. The hydrological model is coupled with the infinite slope stability model and with a scaling model for the rainfall frequency–duration relationship to determine the return period of the critical rainfall needed to cause instability on three catchments located in the Italian Alps, where a survey of soil depth spatial distribution is available. The model is compared with a quasi-dynamic model in which the dynamic nature of the hydrological connectivity is neglected. The results show a better performance of the new model in predicting observed shallow landslides, implying that soil depth spatial variability and connectivity bear a significant control on shallow landsliding.

  20. Response surface modeling of alfentanil-sevoflurane interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, A; Nieuwenhuijs, D; Olofsen, E; Sarton, E; Romberg, R; Teppema, L

    2001-06-01

    Respiratory depression is a serious side effect of anesthetics and opioids. The authors examined the influence of the combined administration of sevoflurane and alfentanil on ventilatory control, heart rate (HR), and Bispectral Index (BIS) in healthy volunteers. Step decreases in end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen from normoxia into hypoxia (approximately 50 mmHg) at constant end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (approximately 48 mmHg) were performed in nine male volunteers at various concentrations of alfentanil and sevoflurane, ranging from 0 to 50 ng/ml for alfentanil and from 0 to 0.4 end-tidal concentration (ET%) for sevoflurane, and with various combinations of alfentanil and sevoflurane. The alfentanil-sevoflurane interactions on normoxic resting (hypercapnic) ventilation (Vi), HR, hypoxic Vi, and HR responses and BIS were assessed by construction of response surfaces that related alfentanil and sevoflurane to effect using a population analysis. Concentration-effect relations were linear for alfentanil and sevoflurane. Synergistic interactions were observed for resting Vi and resting HR. Depression of Vi by 25% occurred at 38 +/- 11 ng/ml alfentanil (population mean +/- SE) and at 0.7 +/- 0.4 ET% sevoflurane. One possibility for 25% reduction when alfentanil and sevoflurane are combined is 13.4 ng/ml alfentanil plus 0.12 ET% sevoflurane. Additive interactions were observed for hypoxic Vi and HR responses and BIS. Depression of the hypoxic Vi response by 25% occurred at 16 +/- 1 ng/ml alfentanil and 0.14 +/- 0.05 ET% sevoflurane. The effect of sevoflurane on the BIS (25% reduction of BIS occurred at 0.45 +/- 0.08 ET%) was independent of the alfentanil concentration. Response surface modeling was used successfully to analyze the effect of interactions between two drugs on respiration. The combination of alfentanil and sevoflurane causes more depression of Vi and HR than does the summed effect of each drug administered separately. The effects of

  1. Using a phosphorus loss model to evaluate the Kentucky phosphorus index

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) has recently revised its 590 Nutrient Management Conservation Standard. As part of this revision, USDA-NRCS is requiring states to test the accuracy of their phosphorus (P) index using either measured P loss data or s...

  2. Using Fit Indexes to Select a Covariance Model for Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of fit indexes in selecting a covariance structure for longitudinal data. Data were simulated to follow a compound symmetry, first-order autoregressive, first-order moving average, or random-coefficients covariance structure. We examined the ability of the likelihood ratio test (LRT), root mean square error…

  3. A fuzzy model of a European index based on automatically extracted content information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milea, D.V.; Almeida, R.J.; Kaymak, U.; Frasincar, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we build on previous work related to predicting the MSCI EURO index based on content analysis of ECB statements. Our focus is on reducing the number of features employed for prediction through feature selection. For this purpose we rely on two methodologies: (stepwise) linear

  4. Improving the performance of temperature index snowmelt model of SWAT by using MODIS land surface temperature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Onishi, Takeo; Hiramatsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results of the widely used temperature index snowmelt model are greatly influenced by input air temperature data. Spatially sparse air temperature data remain the main factor inducing uncertainties and errors in that model, which limits its applications. Thus, to solve this problem, we created new air temperature data using linear regression relationships that can be formulated based on MODIS land surface temperature data. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model, which includes an improved temperature index snowmelt module, was chosen to test the newly created data. By evaluating simulation performance for daily snowmelt in three test basins of the Amur River, performance of the newly created data was assessed. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used for evaluation. The results indicate that MODIS land surface temperature data can be used as a new source for air temperature data creation. This will improve snow simulation using the temperature index model in an area with sparse air temperature observations.

  5. Theoretical Assumptions and Methodological Frames for a User-friendly Web Platform: the SMeJse Project (SMiLe – Slovenian as a Minority Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejka Grgič

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some theoretical and methodological issues related to the online portal SLOVENŠČINA KOT MANJŠINSKI JEZIK – SMeJse / SLOVENIAN AS A MINORITY LANGUAGE – SMiLe where existent tools, materials and information for the development of linguistic skills and abilities in Slovenian are collected. The platform was established by SLORI – Slovenski raziskovalni inštitut / Slovenian research institute of Trieste, Italy, and the Dijaški dom S. Kosovela / Slovenian student’s center of Trieste, Italy. The purpose of the portal is to stimulate different usages of the current Slovenian language in the Slovenian-Italian contact area, particularly in Italy, with the aim of assuring high communication proficiency in all kinds and varieties of the Slovenian language (the so called “equilingualism”, a balanced bilingualism and also the development of lects, still within the Slovenian linguistic continuum. Specific language policies are particularly successful for the development of linguistic skills which enable proficiency in the minority language, as well as equilingualism and balanced bilingualism among the speakers of the minority group. Such policies are based on the implementation of measures for an increased exposure to different language uses and on the creation of the need of language use in circles and situations where compensatory strategies are unsuitable. The portal is based on the newest linguistic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies concerning the Slovenian language in Italy, on the Slovenian-Italian language contact and on the acquisition of the minority language. An analysis of the status of the Slovenian language in Italy, its perception and its phenomena, as well as the overview of some language policies and methodological frames, has shown a gap between the existent tools and the needs of the community of speakers.

  6. A Restoration Suitability Index Model for the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseres Pollack, Jennifer; Cleveland, Andrew; Palmer, Terence A.; Reisinger, Anthony S.; Montagna, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oyster reefs are one of the most threatened marine habitats on earth, with habitat loss resulting from water quality degradation, coastal development, destructive fishing practices, overfishing, and storm impacts. For successful and sustainable oyster reef restoration efforts, it is necessary to choose sites that support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Selection of suitable sites is critically important as it can greatly influence mortality factors and may largely determine the ultimate success of the restoration project. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides an effective methodology for identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration and removes much of the uncertainty involved in the sometimes trial and error selection process. This approach also provides an objective and quantitative tool for planning future oyster reef restoration efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a restoration suitability index model and reef quality index model to characterize locations based on their potential for successful reef restoration within the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. The restoration suitability index model focuses on salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and depth, while the reef quality index model focuses on abundance of live oysters, dead shell, and spat. Size-specific Perkinsus marinus infection levels were mapped to illustrate general disease trends. This application was effective in identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration, is flexible in its use, and provides a mechanism for considering alternative approaches. The end product is a practical decision-support tool that can be used by coastal resource managers to improve oyster restoration efforts. As oyster reef restoration activities continue at small and large-scales, site selection criteria are critical for assisting stakeholders and managers and for maximizing long-term sustainability of oyster resources. PMID:22792410

  7. [Application of occupational hazard risk index model in occupational health risk assessment in a decorative coating manufacturing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P L; Zhao, C X; Dong, Q Y; Hao, S B; Xu, P; Zhang, J; Li, J G

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To evaluate the occupational health risk of decorative coating manufacturing enterprises and to explore the applicability of occupational hazard risk index model in the health risk assessment, so as to provide basis for the health management of enterprises. Methods: A decorative coating manufacturing enterprise in Hebei Province was chosen as research object, following the types of occupational hazards and contact patterns, the occupational hazard risk index model was used to evaluate occupational health risk factors of occupational hazards in the key positions of the decorative coating manufacturing enterprise, and measured with workplace test results and occupational health examination. Results: The positions of oily painters, water-borne painters, filling workers and packers who contacted noise were moderate harm. And positions of color workers who contacted chromic acid salts, oily painters who contacted butyl acetate were mild harm. Other positions were harmless. The abnormal rate of contacting noise in physical examination results was 6.25%, and the abnormality was not checked by other risk factors. Conclusion: The occupational hazard risk index model can be used in the occupational health risk assessment of decorative coating manufacturing enterprises, and noise was the key harzard among occupational harzards in this enterprise.

  8. A Fuzzy Neural Network Based on Non-Euclidean Distance Clustering for Quality Index Model in Slashing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality index model in slashing process is difficult to build by reason of the outliers and noise data from original data. To the above problem, a fuzzy neural network based on non-Euclidean distance clustering is proposed in which the input space is partitioned into many local regions by the fuzzy clustering based on non-Euclidean distance so that the computation complexity is decreased, and fuzzy rule number is determined by validity function based on both the separation and the compactness among clusterings. Then, the premise parameters and consequent parameters are trained by hybrid learning algorithm. The parameters identification is realized; meanwhile the convergence condition of consequent parameters is obtained by Lyapunov function. Finally, the proposed method is applied to build the quality index model in slashing process in which the experimental data come from the actual slashing process. The experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy neural network for quality index model has lower computation complexity and faster convergence time, comparing with GP-FNN, BPNN, and RBFNN.

  9. Determining the refractive index of human hemoglobin solutions by Kramers-Kronig relations with an improved absorption model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gienger, Jonas; Groß, Hermann; Neukammer, Jörg; Bär, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The real part of the refractive index (RI) of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin is computed from their absorption spectra in the wavelength range $250\\,{\\rm nm} - 1100\\,{\\rm nm}$ using the Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations and the corresponding uncertainty analysis is provided. The strong ultraviolet (UV) and infrared absorbance of the water outside this spectral range were taken into account in a previous study employing KK relations. We improve these results by including the concentration dependence of the water absorbance as well as by modeling the deep UV absorbance of hemoglobin's peptide backbone. The two free parameters of the model for the deep UV absorbance are fixed by a global fit.

  10. A comparison of portfolio selection models via application on ISE 100 index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Emrah; Tatlidil, Hüseyin

    2013-10-01

    Markowitz Model, a classical approach to portfolio optimization problem, relies on two important assumptions: the expected return is multivariate normally distributed and the investor is risk averter. But this model has not been extensively used in finance. Empirical results show that it is very hard to solve large scale portfolio optimization problems with Mean-Variance (M-V)model. Alternative model, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) model which is proposed by Konno and Yamazaki [7] has been used to remove most of difficulties of Markowitz Mean-Variance model. MAD model don't need to assume that the probability of the rates of return is normally distributed and based on Linear Programming. Another alternative portfolio model is Mean-Lower Semi Absolute Deviation (M-LSAD), which is proposed by Speranza [3]. We will compare these models to determine which model gives more appropriate solution to investors.

  11. A water stress index based on water balance modelling for discrimination of grapevine quality and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Gaudin

    2014-01-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This water stress index is a valuable tool for explaining the variations in grape yield and quality among various locations and years because it reflects the vineyard water stress history in relation to rainfall regime and soil conditions. Improvement would come from the simulation of FTSW during winter, notably for soils of high Total Transpirable Soil Water. One potential application is the quantification of water stress change brought by irrigation in Mediterranean vineyards, and its relation to grapevine production.

  12. Regional income inequality model based on theil index decomposition and weighted variance coeficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, H. R.; Darnius, O.; Tambunan, W. N.

    2018-03-01

    Regional income inequality is an important issue in the study on economic development of a certain region. Rapid economic development may not in accordance with people’s per capita income. The method of measuring the regional income inequality has been suggested by many experts. This research used Theil index and weighted variance coefficient in order to measure the regional income inequality. Regional income decomposition which becomes the productivity of work force and their participation in regional income inequality, based on Theil index, can be presented in linear relation. When the economic assumption in j sector, sectoral income value, and the rate of work force are used, the work force productivity imbalance can be decomposed to become the component in sectors and in intra-sectors. Next, weighted variation coefficient is defined in the revenue and productivity of the work force. From the quadrate of the weighted variation coefficient result, it was found that decomposition of regional revenue imbalance could be analyzed by finding out how far each component contribute to regional imbalance which, in this research, was analyzed in nine sectors of economic business.

  13. Two-dimensional Model of Ciliwung River Flood in DKI Jakarta for Development of the Regional Flood Index Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Formánek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present a sophisticated method of developing supporting material for flood control implementation in DKI Jakarta. High flow rates in the Ciliwung River flowing through Jakarta regularly causes extensive flooding in the rainy season. The affected area comprises highly densely populated villages. For developing an efficient early warning system in view of decreasing the vulnerability of the locations a flood index map has to be available. This study analyses the development of a flood risk map of the inundation area based on a two-dimensional modeling using FESWMS. The reference event used for the model was the most recent significant flood in 2007. The resulting solution represents flood characteristics such as inundation area, inundation depth and flow velocity. Model verification was performed by confrontation of the results with survey data. The model solution was overlaid with a street map of Jakarta. Finally, alternatives for flood mitigation measures are discussed.

  14. QSAR models for describing the toxicological effects of ILs against Staphylococcus aureus based on norm indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wensi; Yan, Fangyou; Jia, Qingzhu; Xia, Shuqian; Wang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    The hazardous potential of ionic liquids (ILs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to their important role in many industrial fields as green agents. The mathematical model for the toxicological effects of ILs is useful for the risk assessment and design of environmentally benign ILs. The objective of this work is to develop QSAR models to describe the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ILs against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A total of 169 and 101 ILs with MICs and MBCs, respectively, are used to obtain multiple linear regression models based on matrix norm indexes. The norm indexes used in this work are proposed by our research group and they are first applied to estimate the antibacterial toxicity of these ILs against S. aureus. These two models precisely and reliably calculated the IL toxicities with a square of correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.919 and a standard error of estimate (SE) of 0.341 (in log unit of mM) for pMIC, and an R 2 of 0.913 and SE of 0.282 for pMBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids

  16. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids.

  17. Building and verifying a severity prediction model of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on BISAP, MEWS and routine test indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Yu-Xin; Ju, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    To discuss the value of the Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), serum Ca2+, similarly hereinafter, and red cell distribution width (RDW) for predicting the severity grade of acute pancreatitis and to develop and verify a more accurate scoring system to predict the severity of AP. In 302 patients with AP, we calculated BISAP and MEWS scores and conducted regression analyses on the relationships of BISAP scoring, RDW, MEWS, and serum Ca2+ with the severity of AP using single-factor logistics. The variables with statistical significance in the single-factor logistic regression were used in a multi-factor logistic regression model; forward stepwise regression was used to screen variables and build a multi-factor prediction model. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was constructed, and the significance of multi- and single-factor prediction models in predicting the severity of AP using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was evaluated. The internal validity of the model was verified through bootstrapping. Among 302 patients with AP, 209 had mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and 93 had severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). According to single-factor logistic regression analysis, we found that BISAP, MEWS and serum Ca2+ are prediction indexes of the severity of AP (P-value0.05). The multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that BISAP and serum Ca2+ are independent prediction indexes of AP severity (P-value0.05); BISAP is negatively related to serum Ca2+ (r=-0.330, P-valuemodel is as follows: ln()=7.306+1.151*BISAP-4.516*serum Ca2+. The predictive ability of each model for SAP follows the order of the combined BISAP and serum Ca2+ prediction model>Ca2+>BISAP. There is no statistical significance for the predictive ability of BISAP and serum Ca2+ (P-value>0.05); however, there is remarkable statistical significance for the predictive ability using the newly built prediction model as well as BISAP

  18. Winter wheat yield estimation of remote sensing research based on WOFOST crop model and leaf area index assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Gong, Adu; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingmei

    2017-04-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield predictive information are significant to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and ensure the security of national food. Remote sensing observation and crop growth simulation models are two new technologies, which have highly potential applications in crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting in recent years. However, both of them have limitations in mechanism or regional application respectively. Remote sensing information can not reveal crop growth and development, inner mechanism of yield formation and the affection of environmental meteorological conditions. Crop growth simulation models have difficulties in obtaining data and parameterization from single-point to regional application. In order to make good use of the advantages of these two technologies, the coupling technique of remote sensing information and crop growth simulation models has been studied. Filtering and optimizing model parameters are key to yield estimation by remote sensing and crop model based on regional crop assimilation. Winter wheat of GaoCheng was selected as the experiment object in this paper. And then the essential data was collected, such as biochemical data and farmland environmental data and meteorological data about several critical growing periods. Meanwhile, the image of environmental mitigation small satellite HJ-CCD was obtained. In this paper, research work and major conclusions are as follows. (1) Seven vegetation indexes were selected to retrieve LAI, and then linear regression model was built up between each of these indexes and the measured LAI. The result shows that the accuracy of EVI model was the highest (R2=0.964 at anthesis stage and R2=0.920 at filling stage). Thus, EVI as the most optimal vegetation index to predict LAI in this paper. (2) EFAST method was adopted in this paper to conduct the sensitive analysis to the 26 initial parameters of the WOFOST model and then a sensitivity index was constructed

  19. Three-index symmetric matter representations of SU(2) in F-theory from non-Tate form Weierstrass models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevers, Denis [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Taylor, Washington [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-29

    We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by “unHiggsing” a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G{sub 2}×SU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2){sup 3} models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass realization in the general form found by Morrison-Park, suggesting that a generalization of that form may be needed to incorporate models with arbitrary matter representations and gauge groups localized on singular divisors.

  20. Detecting small lung tumors in mouse models by refractive-index microradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chia-Chi; Hwu, Y. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu (China); Zhang, Guilin; Yue, Weisheng; Li, Yan; Xue, Hongjie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Ping; Sun, Jianqi; Xu, Lisa X. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Chang Hai; Chen, Nanyow; Lu, Chien Hung; Lee, Ting-Kuo [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China); Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Lu, Yen-Ta [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei City (China); Ching, Yu-Tai [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Computer Science, Hsinchu (China); Shih, T.F.; Yang, P.C. [National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Je, J.H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology Pohang, X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang CT, Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Refractive-index (phase-contrast) radiology was able to detect lung tumors less than 1 mm in live mice. Significant micromorphology differences were observed in the microradiographs between normal, inflamed, and lung cancer tissues. This was made possible by the high phase contrast and by the fast image taking that reduces the motion blur. The detection of cancer and inflammation areas by phase contrast microradiology and microtomography was validated by bioluminescence and histopathological analysis. The smallest tumor detected is less than 1 mm{sup 3} with accuracy better than 1 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 3}. This level of performance is currently suitable for animal studies, while further developments are required for clinical application. (orig.)

  1. Detecting small lung tumors in mouse models by refractive-index microradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Chia-Chi; Hwu, Y.; Zhang, Guilin; Yue, Weisheng; Li, Yan; Xue, Hongjie; Liu, Ping; Sun, Jianqi; Xu, Lisa X.; Wang, Chang Hai; Chen, Nanyow; Lu, Chien Hung; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Lu, Yen-Ta; Ching, Yu-Tai; Shih, T.F.; Yang, P.C.; Je, J.H.; Margaritondo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Refractive-index (phase-contrast) radiology was able to detect lung tumors less than 1 mm in live mice. Significant micromorphology differences were observed in the microradiographs between normal, inflamed, and lung cancer tissues. This was made possible by the high phase contrast and by the fast image taking that reduces the motion blur. The detection of cancer and inflammation areas by phase contrast microradiology and microtomography was validated by bioluminescence and histopathological analysis. The smallest tumor detected is less than 1 mm 3 with accuracy better than 1 x 10 -3 mm 3 . This level of performance is currently suitable for animal studies, while further developments are required for clinical application. (orig.)

  2. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in th...

  3. Fluorescence microscopy point spread function model accounting for aberrations due to refractive index variability within a specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sreya; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2015-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) point spread function (PSF) model for wide-field fluorescence microscopy, suitable for imaging samples with variable refractive index (RI) in multilayered media, is presented. This PSF model is a key component for accurate 3-D image restoration of thick biological samples, such as lung tissue. Microscope- and specimen-derived parameters are combined with a rigorous vectorial formulation to obtain a new PSF model that accounts for additional aberrations due to specimen RI variability. Experimental evaluation and verification of the PSF model was accomplished using images from 175-nm fluorescent beads in a controlled test sample. Fundamental experimental validation of the advantage of using improved PSFs in depth-variant restoration was accomplished by restoring experimental data from beads (6  μm in diameter) mounted in a sample with RI variation. In the investigated study, improvement in restoration accuracy in the range of 18 to 35% was observed when PSFs from the proposed model were used over restoration using PSFs from an existing model. The new PSF model was further validated by showing that its prediction compares to an experimental PSF (determined from 175-nm beads located below a thick rat lung slice) with a 42% improved accuracy over the current PSF model prediction.

  4. Three-Index Symmetric Matter Representations of SU(2) in F-Theory from Non-Tate Form Weierstrass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Klevers, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by "unHiggsing" a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G_2xSU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2)^3 models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass real...

  5. Habitat suitability index model of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka): A case study of Shandong Peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Jian; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Qixiang; Liu, Hongjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-15

    A habitat suitability index (HSI) model for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was established in the present study. Based on geographic information systems, the HSI model was used to identify potential sites around the Shandong Peninsula suitable for restoration of immature (25g) A. japonicus. Six habitat factors were used as input variables for the HSI model: sediment classification, water temperature, salinity, water depth, pH and dissolved oxygen. The weighting of each habitat factor was defined through the Delphi method. Sediment classification was the most important condition affecting the HSI of A. japonicus in the different study areas, while water temperature was the most important condition in different seasons. The HSI of Western Laizhou Bay was relatively low, meaning the site was not suitable for aquaculture-based restoration of A. japonicus. In contrast, Xiaoheishan Island, Rongcheng Bay and Qingdao were preferable sites, suitable as habitats for restoration efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analisis Saham Syariah Efisien dengan Pendekatan Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM pada Jakarta Islamic Index (JII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Hasan Quthbi

    2017-10-01

    Artikel ini bermaksud untuk menganalisis saham syariah yang tergolong efisien untuk keputusan investasi dengan menggunakan SCAPM (Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model. SCAPM adalah bentuk modifikasi dari CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model yang bertujuan agar kerangka model analisis masih dalam kerangka syariah. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dokumentasi dari data yang bersifat sekunder. Digunakan 13 sampel saham syariah pada penelitian ini dengan kriteria saham syariah yang konsisten masuk pada JII (Jakarta Islamic Index periode penelitian Desember 2013 hingga November 2016 dan memiliki pengembalian saham individual positif. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 9 saham syariah yang tergolong efisien dan 4 sisanya tidak efisien. Saham PT. Adaro Energy memiliki nilai RVAR terbesar yang berarti memiliki kinerja saham paling baik.

  7. Modeling of Yield Estimation for The Main Crops in Iran Based on Mechanization Index (hp ha-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abbasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural mechanization is a method for transiting from traditional agriculture towards industrial and sustainable one. Due to the limitation of natural resources and increasing population we need to have economical production of agricultural crops. For reaching this destination; agricultural mechanization has a remarkable role. So it is necessary to have an extensive view for mechanization, because with the help of mechanization the agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizer and even water and soil can effectively be managed for an economical and sustainable production. This study has been carried out in many provinces of Iran. The data of agricultural tractors and cereal combine harvesters were firstly gathered by means of questionnaire. The tractors were categorized in four power levels of less than 45, 45 to 80, 80 to 110, and more than 110 hp. In addition, it was also carried out for cereal combine harvesters; it was in three power levels, i.e. between 100 to 110, 110 to 155 and 155 to 210 horse-power in 3 ages, i.e. less than 13, between 13 to 20, and more than 20 years. Information regarding to cultivation areas, production volume, and yield of main crops gathered from statistics of Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture. Then agriculture mechanization level index (hp ha-1 in each province was calculated. Four main crops including irrigated and rain-fed wheat and irrigated and rain-fed barley, which met the required criteria to be used in the model, were statistically analyzed. Correlation analysis was carried out in order to get an effective model between yield of the four main crops in Iran and agriculture mechanization level index. Pearson correlation index showed that there is a direct and significant correlation between these variables. Subsequently, outliers were identified in order to get a model with necessary efficiency to predict the yield through mechanization level index, by scatter diagram and estimating regression lines in 1

  8. Perspectives in using a remotely sensed dryness index in distributed hydrological models at river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Asger; Sandholt, Inge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study a spatially distributed hydrological model, based on the MIKE SHE code, was constructed and validated for the 375 000 km2 Senegal River basin in West Africa. The model was constructed using spatial data on topography, soil types and vegetation characteristics together with time...

  9. Statistical modelling approach to derive quantitative nanowastes classification index; estimation of nanomaterials exposure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntaka, L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available . In this work, statistical inference approach specifically the non-parametric bootstrapping and linear model were applied. Data used to develop the model were sourced from the literature. 104 data points with information on aggregation, natural organic matter...

  10. Testing of technology readiness index model based on exploratory factor analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, AF; Napitupulu, D.; Jati, RK; Kadar, JA; Syafrullah, M.

    2018-04-01

    SMEs readiness in using ICT will determine the adoption of ICT in the future. This study aims to evaluate the model of technology readiness in order to apply the technology on SMEs. The model is tested to find if TRI model is relevant to measure ICT adoption, especially for SMEs in Indonesia. The research method used in this paper is survey to a group of SMEs in South Tangerang. The survey measures the readiness to adopt ICT based on four variables which is Optimism, Innovativeness, Discomfort, and Insecurity. Each variable contains several indicators to make sure the variable is measured thoroughly. The data collected through survey is analysed using factor analysis methodwith the help of SPSS software. The result of this study shows that TRI model gives more descendants on some indicators and variables. This result can be caused by SMEs owners’ knowledge is not homogeneous about either the technology that they are used, knowledge or the type of their business.

  11. Development of index based pavement performance models for pavement management system (PMS) of LADOTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report focuses on pavement performance and treatment models for Louisiana Department of : Transportation and Development (LADOTD) and is in continuation of Louisiana Transportation : Research Center (LTRC) Report No. 430 Development of Unifor...

  12. Coupling the WRF model with a temperature index model based on remote sensing for snowmelt simulations in a river basin in the Altay Mountains, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Shen, Y.; Wang, N.; Pan, X.; Zhang, W.; He, J.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt water is an important freshwater resource in the Altay Mountains in northwest China, and it is also crucial for local ecological system, economic and social sustainable development; however, warming climate and rapid spring snowmelt can cause floods that endanger both eco-environment and public and personal property and safety. This study simulates snowmelt in the Kayiertesi River catchment using a temperature-index model based on remote sensing coupled with high-resolution meteorological data obtained from NCEP reanalysis fields that were downscaled using Weather Research Forecasting model, then bias-corrected using a statistical downscaled model. Validation of the forcing data revealed that the high-resolution meteorological fields derived from downscaled NCEP reanalysis were reliable for driving the snowmelt model. Parameters of temperature-index model based on remote sensing were calibrated for spring 2014, and model performance was validated using MODIS snow cover and snow observations from spring 2012. The results show that the temperature-index model based on remote sensing performed well, with a simulation mean relative error of 6.7% and a Nash-Sutchliffe efficiency of 0.98 in spring 2012 in the river of Altay Mountains. Based on the reliable distributed snow water equivalent simulation, daily snowmelt runoff was calculated for spring 2012 in the basin. In the study catchment, spring snowmelt runoff accounts for 72% of spring runoff and 21% of annual runoff. Snowmelt is the main source of runoff for the catchment and should be managed and utilized effectively. The results provide a basis for snowmelt runoff predictions, so as to prevent snowmelt-induced floods, and also provide a generalizable approach that can be applied to other remote locations where high-density, long-term observational data is lacking.

  13. A new index for characterizing micro-bead motion in a flow induced by ciliary beating: Part II, modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bottier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the human respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the airways is constantly moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, expelling at the same time particles trapped in it. The efficiency of the cilia motion can experimentally be assessed by measuring the velocity of micro-beads traveling through the fluid surrounding the cilia. Here we present a mathematical model of the fluid flow and of the micro-beads motion. The coordinated movement of the ciliated edge is represented as a continuous envelope imposing a periodic moving velocity boundary condition on the surrounding fluid. Vanishing velocity and vanishing shear stress boundary conditions are applied to the fluid at a finite distance above the ciliated edge. The flow field is expanded in powers of the amplitude of the individual cilium movement. It is found that the continuous component of the horizontal velocity at the ciliated edge generates a 2D fluid velocity field with a parabolic profile in the vertical direction, in agreement with the experimental measurements. Conversely, we show than this model can be used to extract microscopic properties of the cilia motion by extrapolating the micro-bead velocity measurement at the ciliated edge. Finally, we derive from these measurements a scalar index providing a direct assessment of the cilia beating efficiency. This index can easily be measured in patients without any modification of the current clinical procedures.

  14. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  15. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  16. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  17. The Naïve Overfitting Index Selection (NOIS): A new method to optimize model complexity for hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Alby D.; Groen, Thomas A.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Willemen, Louise

    2017-11-01

    The growing number of narrow spectral bands in hyperspectral remote sensing improves the capacity to describe and predict biological processes in ecosystems. But it also poses a challenge to fit empirical models based on such high dimensional data, which often contain correlated and noisy predictors. As sample sizes, to train and validate empirical models, seem not to be increasing at the same rate, overfitting has become a serious concern. Overly complex models lead to overfitting by capturing more than the underlying relationship, and also through fitting random noise in the data. Many regression techniques claim to overcome these problems by using different strategies to constrain complexity, such as limiting the number of terms in the model, by creating latent variables or by shrinking parameter coefficients. This paper is proposing a new method, named Naïve Overfitting Index Selection (NOIS), which makes use of artificially generated spectra, to quantify the relative model overfitting and to select an optimal model complexity supported by the data. The robustness of this new method is assessed by comparing it to a traditional model selection based on cross-validation. The optimal model complexity is determined for seven different regression techniques, such as partial least squares regression, support vector machine, artificial neural network and tree-based regressions using five hyperspectral datasets. The NOIS method selects less complex models, which present accuracies similar to the cross-validation method. The NOIS method reduces the chance of overfitting, thereby avoiding models that present accurate predictions that are only valid for the data used, and too complex to make inferences about the underlying process.

  18. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...... possible without losing the essential character of the raw data. The model produces bio-demographically reasonable forecasts of mortality rates that preserve the sub-group rankings at all ages. It also satisfies reasonableness criteria related to the term structure of correlations across ages and over time...

  19. Estimating net ecosystem exchange of carbon using the normalized difference vegetation index and an ecosystem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Patyn, J.; Myneni, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation and prediction of changes in carbon dynamics at the ecosystem level is a key issue in studies of global change. An operational concept for the determination of carbon fluxes for the Belgian territory is the goal of the presented study. The approach is based on the integration of remotely sensed data into ecosystem models in order to evaluate photosynthetic assimilation and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Remote sensing can be developed as an operational tool to determine the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (feAR). A review of the methodological approach of mapping fPAR dynamics at the regional scale by means of NOAA11-A VHRR / 2 data for the year 1990 is given. The processing sequence from raw radiance values to fPAR is presented. An interesting aspect of incorporating remote sensing derived fPAR in ecosystem models is the potential for modeling actual as opposed to potential vegetation. Further work should prove whether the concepts presented and the assumptions made in this study are valid. (NEE). Complex ecosystem models with a highly predictive value for a specific ecosystem are generally not suitable for global or regional applications, since they require a substantial set of ancillary data becoming increasingly larger with increasing complexity of the model. The ideal model for our purpose is one that is simple enough to be used in global scale modeling, and which can be adapted for different ecosystems or vegetation types. The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) during the growing season determines in part net photosynthesis and phytomass production (Ruimy, 1995). Remotely measured red and near-infrared spectral reflectances can be used to estimate fPAR. Therefore, a possible approach is to estimate net photosynthesis, phytomass, and NEE from a combination of satellite data and an ecosystem model that includes carbon dynamics. It has to be stated that some parts of the work presented in this

  20. Improved Eddy-current Field Loss Model and Scaling Index for Magnets of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives detailed systematic researches on the mechanism and key factors of eddy-current losses in rotor magnets of high power-density permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSMs. Firstly, this paper establishes quantitative mathematic model of eddy-current losses for surface-mounted PMSM based on eddy current field model and Maxwell equations. Then, a scaling index is put forward to weigh the key factors relevant to the eddy-current losses in magnets. At the same time, the principles of eddy-current losses in prototype PMSM are analyzed by the finite element analysis (FEA software. The contents researched in the paper have practical reference values for design and reliability analysis of PMSMs.

  1. Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A.J.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Cescatti, A.; Molen, van der M.K.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Global vegetation models require the photosynthetic parameters, maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcm), and quantum yield (a) to parameterize their plant functional types (PFTs). The purpose of this work is to determine how much the scaling of the parameters from leaf to ecosystem level through a

  2. Modelling plant responses to elevated CO2: how important is leaf area index?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, F.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims The problem of increasing CO2 concentration [CO2] and associated climate change has [CO2] on plants. While variation in growth and productivity is generated much interest in modelling effects of closely related to the amount of intercepted radiation, largely determined by leaf

  3. Evolutionary stellar population synthesis with MILES : I. The base models and a new line index system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazdekis, A.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Cenarro, A. J.; Beasley, M. A.; Cardiel, N.; Gorgas, J.; Peletier, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    We present synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations (SSPs) covering the full optical spectral range at moderately high resolution [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) = 2.3Å]. These SEDs constitute our base models, as they combine

  4. Comparison of Bolton analysis and Little’s irregularity index on laser scanned three-dimensional digital study models with conventional study models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, H.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    Three-dimensional digital study models were introduced following advances in digital technology. This study was carried out to assess the reliability of digital study models scanned by a laser scanning device newly assembled. The aim of this study was to compare the digital study models and conventional models. Twelve sets of dental impressions were taken from patients with mild-to-moderate crowding. The impressions were taken twice, one with alginate and the other with polyvinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions were made into conventional models, and the polyvinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to produce digital models. The mesiodistal tooth width and Little’s irregularity index (LII) were measured manually with digital calipers on the conventional models and digitally on the digital study models. Bolton analysis was performed on each study models. Each method was carried out twice to check for intra-observer variability. The reproducibility (comparison of the methods) was assessed using independent-sample t-tests. The mesiodistal tooth width between conventional and digital models did not significantly differ (p > 0.05). Independent-sample t-tests did not identify statistically significant differences for Bolton analysis and LII (p = 0.603 for Bolton and p = 0894 for LII). The measurements of the digital study models are as accurate as those of the conventional models.

  5. A critical source area phosphorus index with topographic transport factors using high resolution LiDAR digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Murphy, Paul; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; Mellander, Per-Erik; Dunlop, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    A new phosphorus index (PI) tool is presented which aims to improve the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface waters. In a novel approach, the PI incorporates topographic indices rather than watercourse proximity as proxies for runoff risk, to account for the dominant control of topography on runoff-generating areas and P transport pathways. Runoff propensity and hydrological connectivity are modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Network Index (NI) respectively, utilising high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to capture the influence of micro-topographic features on runoff pathways. Additionally, the PI attempts to improve risk estimates of particulate P losses by incorporating an erosion factor that accounts for fine-scale topographic variability within fields. Erosion risk is modelled using the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which integrates DEM-derived upslope contributing area and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors. The PI was developed using field, sub-field and sub-catchment scale datasets of P source, mobilisation and transport factors, for four intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland representing different agri-environmental conditions. Datasets included soil test P concentrations, degree of P saturation, soil attributes, land use, artificial subsurface drainage locations, and 2 m resolution LiDAR DEMs resampled from 0.25 m resolution data. All factor datasets were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) and rasterised to 2 m resolution. For each factor, values were categorised and assigned relative risk scores which ranked P loss potential. Total risk scores were calculated for each grid cell using a component formulation, which summed the products of weighted factor risk scores for runoff and erosion pathways. Results showed that the new PI was able to predict

  6. Evaluating MJO Event Initiation and Decay in the Skeleton Model using an RMM-like Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    univariate zonal wind EOF analysis, the mean number of continuing events exceeds 437 observations, though the observed number falls within the 95...year simulation period using the truncated, 464 observed SSTs. Approximately two-thirds of the observed events fall within 20-100 days with a 465...Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF 745 model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales, Q. J. Roy. Meteor . Soc.. 134, 1337

  7. Spatially Distributed Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Leaf Area Index and Potential Evapotranspiration for Hydrologic Modeling in Wetland Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, A.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), a highly dynamic flux in wetland landscapes, regulates the accuracy of surface/sub-surface runoff simulation in a hydrologic model. Accordingly, considerable uncertainty in simulating ET-related processes remains, including our limited ability to incorporate realistic ground conditions, particularly those involved with complex land-atmosphere feedbacks, vegetation growth, and energy balances. Uncertainty persists despite using high resolution topography and/or detailed land use data. Thus, a good hydrologic model can produce right answers for wrong reasons. In this study, we develop an efficient approach for multi-variable assimilation of remotely sensed earth observations (EOs) into a hydrologic model and apply it in the 1700 km2 Pipestem Creek watershed in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA. Our goal is to employ EOs, specifically Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET), as surrogates for the aforementioned processes without overruling the model's built-in physical/semi-empirical process conceptualizations. To do this, we modified the source code of an already-improved version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for wetland hydrology (Evenson et al. 2016 HP 30(22):4168) to directly assimilate remotely-sensed LAI and PET (obtained from the 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gridded products, respectively) into each model Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU). Two configurations of the model, one with and one without EO assimilation, are calibrated against streamflow observations at the watershed outlet. Spatio-temporal changes in the HRU-level water balance, based on calibrated outputs, are evaluated using MODIS Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) as a reference. It is expected that the model configuration having remotely sensed LAI and PET, will simulate more realistic land-atmosphere feedbacks, vegetation growth and energy balance. As a result, this will decrease simulated

  8. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve-Based Prediction Model for Periodontal Disease Updated With the Calibrated Community Periodontal Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiu-Wen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Lai, Hongmin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of a prediction model for periodontal disease using the community periodontal index (CPI) has been undertaken by using an area under a receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve. How the uncalibrated CPI, as measured by general dentists trained by periodontists in a large epidemiologic study, and affects the performance in a prediction model, has not been researched yet. A two-stage design was conducted by first proposing a validation study to calibrate CPI between a senior periodontal specialist and trained general dentists who measured CPIs in the main study of a nationwide survey. A Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model was applied to estimate the non-updated and updated clinical weights used for building up risk scores. How the calibrated CPI affected performance of the updated prediction model was quantified by comparing AUROC curves between the original and updated models. Estimates regarding calibration of CPI obtained from the validation study were 66% and 85% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. After updating, clinical weights of each predictor were inflated, and the risk score for the highest risk category was elevated from 434 to 630. Such an update improved the AUROC performance of the two corresponding prediction models from 62.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.7% to 63.6%) for the non-updated model to 68.9% (95% CI: 68.0% to 69.6%) for the updated one, reaching a statistically significant difference (P prediction model was demonstrated for periodontal disease as measured by the calibrated CPI derived from a large epidemiologic survey.

  9. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pappalardo

    Full Text Available The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R, a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and

  10. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Matteo; Shachaf, Nir; Basile, Livia; Milardi, Danilo; Zeidan, Mouhammed; Raiyn, Jamal; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE) and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and increase the

  11. Comparison of vector autoregressive (VAR) and vector error correction models (VECM) for index of ASEAN stock price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharsono, Agus; Aziza, Auliya; Pramesti, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Capital markets can be an indicator of the development of a country's economy. The presence of capital markets also encourages investors to trade; therefore investors need information and knowledge of which shares are better. One way of making decisions for short-term investments is the need for modeling to forecast stock prices in the period to come. Issue of stock market-stock integration ASEAN is very important. The problem is that ASEAN does not have much time to implement one market in the economy, so it would be very interesting if there is evidence whether the capital market in the ASEAN region, especially the countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand deserve to be integrated or still segmented. Furthermore, it should also be known and proven What kind of integration is happening: what A capital market affects only the market Other capital, or a capital market only Influenced by other capital markets, or a Capital market as well as affecting as well Influenced by other capital markets in one ASEAN region. In this study, it will compare forecasting of Indonesian share price (IHSG) with neighboring countries (ASEAN) including developed and developing countries such as Malaysia (KLSE), Singapore (SGE), Thailand (SETI), Philippines (PSE) to find out which stock country the most superior and influential. These countries are the founders of ASEAN and share price index owners who have close relations with Indonesia in terms of trade, especially exports and imports. Stock price modeling in this research is using multivariate time series analysis that is VAR (Vector Autoregressive) and VECM (Vector Error Correction Modeling). VAR and VECM models not only predict more than one variable but also can see the interrelations between variables with each other. If the assumption of white noise is not met in the VAR modeling, then the cause can be assumed that there is an outlier. With this modeling will be able to know the pattern of relationship

  12. A Simulation Based Analysis of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Technique Using Motoneuron Pool and Surface Electromyogram Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Motor unit number index (MUNIX) measurement has recently achieved increasing attention as a tool to evaluate the progression of motoneuron diseases. In our current study, the sensitivity of the MUNIX technique to changes in motoneuron and muscle properties was explored by a simulation approach utilizing variations on published motoneuron pool and surface electromyogram (EMG) models. Our simulation results indicate that, when keeping motoneuron pool and muscle parameters unchanged and varying the input motor unit numbers to the model, then MUNIX estimates can appropriately characterize changes in motor unit numbers. Such MUNIX estimates are not sensitive to different motor unit recruitment and rate coding strategies used in the model. Furthermore, alterations in motor unit control properties do not have a significant effect on the MUNIX estimates. Neither adjustment of the motor unit recruitment range nor reduction of the motor unit firing rates jeopardizes the MUNIX estimates. The MUNIX estimates closely correlate with the maximum M wave amplitude. However, if we reduce the amplitude of each motor unit action potential rather than simply reduce motor unit number, then MUNIX estimates substantially underestimate the motor unit numbers in the muscle. These findings suggest that the current MUNIX definition is most suitable for motoneuron diseases that demonstrate secondary evidence of muscle fiber reinnervation. In this regard, when MUNIX is applied, it is of much importance to examine a parallel measurement of motor unit size index (MUSIX), defined as the ratio of the maximum M wave amplitude to the MUNIX. However, there are potential limitations in the application of the MUNIX methods in atrophied muscle, where it is unclear whether the atrophy is accompanied by loss of motor units or loss of muscle fiber size. PMID:22514208

  13. An assessment of some theoretical models used for the calculation of the refractive index of InXGa1-xAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical models used for the determination of the refractive index of InXGa1-XAs are reviewed and compared. Attention is drawn to some problems experienced with some of the models. Models also extended to the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Theoretical results in the mid-infrared region are then compared to previously published experimental results.

  14. Assessment of leaf carotenoids content with a new carotenoid index: Development and validation on experimental and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Dong, Yingying; Casa, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Leaf carotenoids content (LCar) is an important indicator of plant physiological status. Accurate estimation of LCar provides valuable insight into early detection of stress in vegetation. With spectroscopy techniques, a semi-empirical approach based on spectral indices was extensively used for carotenoids content estimation. However, established spectral indices for carotenoids that generally rely on limited measured data, might lack predictive accuracy for carotenoids estimation in various species and at different growth stages. In this study, we propose a new carotenoid index (CARI) for LCar assessment based on a large synthetic dataset simulated from the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5, and evaluate its capability with both simulated data from PROSPECT-5 and 4SAIL and extensive experimental datasets: the ANGERS dataset and experimental data acquired in field experiments in China in 2004. Results show that CARI was the index most linearly correlated with carotenoids content at the leaf level using a synthetic dataset (R2 = 0.943, RMSE = 1.196 μg/cm2), compared with published spectral indices. Cross-validation results with CARI using ANGERS data achieved quite an accurate estimation (R2 = 0.545, RMSE = 3.413 μg/cm2), though the RBRI performed as the best index (R2 = 0.727, RMSE = 2.640 μg/cm2). CARI also showed good accuracy (R2 = 0.639, RMSE = 1.520 μg/cm2) for LCar assessment with leaf level field survey data, though PRI performed better (R2 = 0.710, RMSE = 1.369 μg/cm2). Whereas RBRI, PRI and other assessed spectral indices showed a good performance for a given dataset, overall their estimation accuracy was not consistent across all datasets used in this study. Conversely CARI was more robust showing good results in all datasets. Further assessment of LCar with simulated and measured canopy reflectance data indicated that CARI might not be very sensitive to LCar changes at low leaf area index (LAI) value, and in these conditions soil moisture

  15. An international age- and gender-controlled model for the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivoletto, Giorgio; Glass, Clive; Anderson, Kim D; Galili, Tal; Benjamin, Yoav; Front, Lilach; Aidinoff, Elena; Bluvshtein, Vadim; Itzkovich, Malka; Aito, Sergio; Baroncini, Ilaria; Benito-Penalva, Jesùs; Castellano, Simona; Osman, Aheed; Silva, Pedro; Catz, Amiram

    2015-01-01

    Background. A quadratic formula of the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) has previously been published. This formula was based on a model of Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM95), the 95th percentile of the SCIM III values, which correspond with the American Spinal Injury Association Motor Scores (AMS) of SCI patients. Objective. To further develop the original formula. Setting. Spinal cord injury centers from 6 countries and the Statistical Laboratory, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Methods. SCIM95 of 661 SCI patients was modeled, using a quantile regression with or without adjustment for age and gender, to calculate SCI-ARMI values. SCI-ARMI gain during rehabilitation and its correlations were examined. Results. A new quadratic SCIM95 model was created. This resembled the previously published model, which yielded similar SCIM95 values in all the countries, after adjustment for age and gender. Without this adjustment, however, only 86% of the non-Israeli SCIM III observations were lower than those SCIM95 values (P .1). SCI-ARMI gain was positive (38.8 ± 22 points, P SCI-ARMI formula is valid for an international population after adjustment for age and gender. The new formula considers more factors that affect functional ability following SCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  17. Researches with the 'Fertexpert' model concerning the relationships between the efficiency indexes of the fertilizers usage in optimal economic rates and the agrochemical indexes of the soil and expected yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budoi, G.; Berca, M.; Borlan, Z.; Gavriluta, I.; Soare, M.; Danuso, F.; Bireescu, L.

    1999-01-01

    The 'Fertexpert' model allows undertaking researches concerning the variation of efficiency indexes for fertilizers usage in the case of many crops depending on the content of available soil nutrients (the values of soil agrochemical indexes - IA) and on the expected yield, R s , when fertilization are applied in optimal economic rates, DOE. The physical efficiency indexes calculated and researched are the following: the total physical yield increase, SFR (kg/ha), the specific average yield increase, SSp (kg/kg N, P 2 O 5 or K 2 O), the specific consumption of active substance (a.s.) from fertilizer, CSp (kg a.s./1 kg average yield increase). The economic efficiency indexes computed are: the total profit, in monetary units/ha, the specific profit, in monetary units/l monetary unit spent with fertilization, PSp, and in monetary units/kg a.s., PSpsa. The model also allows the study of DOE variation depending on R s and IA. Starting from the made calculations, there can be drown up specific graphics that can then be used in practice and for research purposes to. Refs. 6 (author)

  18. Pathway index models for construction of patient-specific risk profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Kevin H; Wang, Sijian; Bradley, William H; Rader, Janet S; Kendziorski, Christina

    2013-04-30

    Statistical methods for variable selection, prediction, and classification have proven extremely useful in moving personalized genomics medicine forward, in particular, leading to a number of genomic-based assays now in clinical use for predicting cancer recurrence. Although invaluable in individual cases, the information provided by these assays is limited. Most often, a patient is classified into one of very few groups (e.g., recur or not), limiting the potential for truly personalized treatment. Furthermore, although these assays provide information on which individuals are at most risk (e.g., those for which recurrence is predicted), they provide no information on the aberrant biological pathways that give rise to the increased risk. We have developed an approach to address these limitations. The approach models a time-to-event outcome as a function of known biological pathways, identifies important genomic aberrations, and provides pathway-based patient-specific assessments of risk. As we demonstrate in a study of ovarian cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas project, the patient-specific risk profiles are powerful and efficient characterizations useful in addressing a number of questions related to identifying informative patient subtypes and predicting survival. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  20. Biological stress reactivity as an index of the two polarities of the experience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaime R; Vivanco-Carlevari, Anastassia; Barrientos, Mauricio; Martínez, Claudio; Salazar, Luis A; Krause, Mariane

    2017-10-01

    The two-polarities model of personality argues that experience is organized around two axes: interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. Differential emphasis on one of these poles defines adaptive and pathological experiences, generating anaclitic or introjective tendencies. The anaclitic pattern, on one hand, has been conceptually related with an exaggerated emphasis on interpersonal relatedness. On the other hand, the introjective pattern has been connected to high levels of self-criticism. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiological basis for this relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that the anaclitic individual should have a higher biological reactivity to stress (BRS), measured by the cortisol concentration in saliva, in an interpersonal stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test). Contrary to what was expected, the results indicated that introjective participants presented a higher BSR than the anaclitic group. Interestingly, in contrast to their higher BSR, the introjective group reported a diminished subjective stress in relation to the average. In the anaclitic group, a tendency that goes in the opposite direction was found. Theoretical implications of these findings were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow index by integration of Nth-order linear model with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu; Li, Ting; Chen, Lei; Lin, Yu; Toborek, Michal; Yu, Guoqiang

    2014-05-01

    Conventional semi-infinite solution for extracting blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements may cause errors in estimation of BFI (αDB) in tissues with small volume and large curvature. We proposed an algorithm integrating Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in tissue for the extraction of αDB. The volume and geometry of the measured tissue were incorporated in the Monte Carlo simulation, which overcome the semi-infinite restrictions. The algorithm was tested using computer simulations on four tissue models with varied volumes/geometries and applied on an in vivo stroke model of mouse. Computer simulations shows that the high-order (N ≥ 5) linear algorithm was more accurate in extracting αDB (errors values of errors in extracting αDB were similar to those reconstructed from the noise-free DCS data. In addition, the errors in extracting the relative changes of αDB using both linear algorithm and semi-infinite solution were fairly small (errors < ±2.0%) and did not rely on the tissue volume/geometry. The experimental results from the in vivo stroke mice agreed with those in simulations, demonstrating the robustness of the linear algorithm. DCS with the high-order linear algorithm shows the potential for the inter-subject comparison and longitudinal monitoring of absolute BFI in a variety of tissues/organs with different volumes/geometries.

  2. Simulating the Refractive Index Structure Constant ({C}_{n}^{2}) in the Surface Layer at Antarctica with a Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xuebin; Tian, Qiguo; Liu, Dong; Rao, Ruizhong; Zhu, Wenyue

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an approach wherein the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is coupled with the bulk aerodynamic method to estimate the surface layer refractive index structure constant (C n 2) above Taishan Station in Antarctica. First, we use the measured meteorological parameters to estimate C n 2 using the bulk aerodynamic method, and second, we use the WRF model output parameters to estimate C n 2 using the bulk aerodynamic method. Finally, the corresponding C n 2 values from the micro-thermometer are compared with the C n 2 values estimated using the WRF model coupled with the bulk aerodynamic method. We analyzed the statistical operators—the bias, root mean square error (RMSE), bias-corrected RMSE (σ), and correlation coefficient (R xy )—in a 20 day data set to assess how this approach performs. In addition, we employ contingency tables to investigate the estimation quality of this approach, which provides complementary key information with respect to the bias, RMSE, σ, and R xy . The quantitative results are encouraging and permit us to confirm the fine performance of this approach. The main conclusions of this study tell us that this approach provides a positive impact on optimizing the observing time in astronomical applications and provides complementary key information for potential astronomical sites.

  3. Assessing Green Development Efficiency of Municipalities and Provinces in China Integrating Models of Super-Efficiency DEA and Malmquist Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize economic and social green development, to pave a pathway towards China’s green regional development and develop effective scientific policy to assist in building green cities and countries, it is necessary to put forward a relatively accurate, scientific and concise green assessment method. The research uses the CCR (A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper & E. Rhodes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model to obtain the green development frontier surface based on 31 regions’ annual cross-section data from 2008–2012. Furthermore, in order to classify the regions whereby assessment values equal to 1 in the CCR model, we chose the Super-Efficiency DEA model for further sorting. Meanwhile, according to the five-year panel data, the green development efficiency changes of 31 regions can be manifested by the Malmquist index. Finally, the study assesses the reasons for regional differences; while analyzing and discussing the results may allude to a superior green development pathway for China.

  4. Natural radioactivity in building material in the European Union: robustness of the activity concentration index I and comparison with a room model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; D'Alessandro, M; Trevisi, R

    2012-09-01

    Using a wide database collected in the last 10 years, the authors have calculated the activity concentration index I for many building materials in the European Union. Suggested by a European technical guidance document, the index I has recently been adopted as a screening tool in the proposal for the new Euratom basic safety standards directive. The paper analyses the possible implications of the choice of different parameters for the computation of index I, i.e. background to be subtracted, dose criteria, etc. With the collected data an independent assessment of gamma doses was also made with an ISS room model, choosing reasonable hypotheses on the use of materials. The results of the two approaches, i.e. index I and a room model, were compared.

  5. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  6. Application of Temperature Index Model to Assess the Future Hydrological Regime of the Glacierized Catchments in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, R.; Kayastha, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Unavailability of hydro meteorological data in the Himalayan regions is challenging on understanding the flow regimes. Temperature index model is simple yet the powerful glacio-hydrological model to simulate the discharge in the glacierized basin. Modified Positive Degree Day (MPDD) Model Version 2.0 is a grid-ded based semi distributed model with baseflow module is a robust melt modelling tools to estimate the discharge. MPDD model uses temperature and precipitation as a forcing datasets to simulate the discharge and also to obtain the snowmelt, icemelt, rain and baseflow contribution on total discharge. In this study two glacierized, Marsyangdi and Langtang catchment were investigated for the future hydrological regimes. Marsyangdi encompasses an area of 4026.19 sq. km with 20% glaciated area, whereas Langtang catchment with area of 354.64 sq. km with 36% glaciated area is studied to examine for the future climatic scenarios. The model simulates discharge well for the observed period; (1992-1998) in Marsyangdi and from (2007-2013) in Langtang catchment. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) for the both catchment were above 0.75 with the volume difference less than - 8 %. The snow and ice melts contribution in Marsyangdi were 4.7% and 10.2% whereas in Langtang the contribution is 15.3% and 23.4%, respectively. Rain contribution ( 40%) is higher than the baseflow contribution in total discharge in both basins. The future river discharge is also predicted using the future climate data from the regional climate models (RCMs) of CORDEX South Asia experiments for the medium stabilization scenario RCP4.5 and very high radiative forcing scenario RCP8.5 after bias correction. The projected future discharge of both catchment shows slightly increase in both scenarios with increase of snow and ice melt contribution on discharge. The result generated from the model can be utilized to understand the future hydrological regimes of the glacierized catchment also the impact of

  7. Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Sweatt, Andrew J; Aymami, Marie C; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Selej, Mona; Lu, HongQuan; Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Schnittger, Ingela; McConnell, Michael V; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T; Haddad, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ 2 , 62.2; P right heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. On the influence of debris in glacier melt modelling: a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, Marco; Mabillard, Johan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The increase of rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and of englacial melt-out material has led to an increase of the debris cover extent on Alpine glaciers. In recent years, distributed debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancing/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya. Some of the input data such as wind or temperature are also of difficult extrapolation from station measurements. Due to their lower data requirement, empirical models have been used in glacier melt modelling. However, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of debris thickness on melt. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The empirical parameters (temperature factor, shortwave radiation factor, and lag factor accounting for the energy transfer through the debris layer) are optimized at the point scale for several debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter has been validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. The new model is developed on Miage Glacier, Italy, a debris cover glacier in which the ablation area is mantled in near-continuous layer of rock. Subsequently, its transferability is tested on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, where debris is thinner and its extension has been seen to expand in the last decades. The results show that the performance of the new debris temperature-index model (DETI) in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale

  9. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  10. Proliferation index: a continuous model to predict prognosis in patients with tumours of the Ewing's sarcoma family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Brownhill

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of proliferation index (PI and apoptotic index (AI, caspase-8, -9 and -10 expression have been investigated in primary Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT. Proliferating cells, detected by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, were identified in 91% (91/100 of tumours with a median PI of 14 (range 0-87. Apoptotic cells, identified using the TUNEL assay, were detected in 96% (76/79 of ESFT; the median AI was 3 (range 0-33. Caspase-8 protein expression was negative (0 in 14% (11/79, low (1 in 33% (26/79, medium (2 in 38% (30/79 and high (3 in 15% (12/79 of tumours, caspase-9 expression was low (1 in 66% (39/59 and high (3 in 34% (20/59, and caspase-10 protein was low (1 in 37% (23/62 and negative (0 in 63% (39/62 of primary ESFT. There was no apparent relationship between caspase-8, -9 and -10 expression, PI and AI. PI was predictive of relapse-free survival (RFS; p = 0.011 and overall survival (OS; p = <0.001 in a continuous model, whereas AI did not predict outcome. Patients with tumours expressing low levels of caspase-9 protein had a trend towards a worse RFS than patients with tumours expressing higher levels of caspase-9 protein (p = 0.054, log rank test, although expression of caspases-8, -9 and/or -10 did not significantly predict RFS or OS. In a multivariate analysis model that included tumour site, tumour volume, the presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, PI and AI, PI independently predicts OS (p = 0.003. Consistent with previous publications, patients with pelvic tumours had a significantly worse OS than patients with tumours at other sites (p = 0.028; patients with a pelvic tumour and a PI≥20 had a 6 fold-increased risk of death. These studies advocate the evaluation of PI in a risk model of outcome for patients with ESFT.

  11. Development of the Digital Arthritis Index, a Novel Metric to Measure Disease Parameters in a Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad spectrum of anti-arthritic drugs currently on the market, there is a constant demand to develop improved therapeutic agents. Efficient compound screening and rapid evaluation of treatment efficacy in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can accelerate the development of clinical candidates. Compound screening by evaluation of disease phenotypes in animal models facilitates preclinical research by enhancing understanding of human pathophysiology; however, there is still a continuous need to improve methods for evaluating disease. Current clinical assessment methods are challenged by the subjective nature of scoring-based methods, time-consuming longitudinal experiments, and the requirement for better functional readouts with relevance to human disease. To address these needs, we developed a low-touch, digital platform for phenotyping preclinical rodent models of disease. As a proof-of-concept, we utilized the rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of RA and developed the Digital Arthritis Index (DAI, an objective and automated behavioral metric that does not require human-animal interaction during the measurement and calculation of disease parameters. The DAI detected the development of arthritis similar to standard in vivo methods, including ankle joint measurements and arthritis scores, as well as demonstrated a positive correlation to ankle joint histopathology. The DAI also determined responses to multiple standard-of-care (SOC treatments and nine repurposed compounds predicted by the SMarTRTM Engine to have varying degrees of impact on RA. The disease profiles generated by the DAI complemented those generated by standard methods. The DAI is a highly reproducible and automated approach that can be used in-conjunction with standard methods for detecting RA disease progression and conducting phenotypic drug screens.

  12. Power industry restructuring and eco-efficiency changes: A new slacks-based model in Malmquist–Luenberger Index measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, Behrouz; Munisamy, Susila; Emrouznejad, Ali; Shadman, Foroogh

    2014-01-01

    Measuring variations in efficiency and its extension, eco-efficiency, during a restructuring period in different industries has always been a point of interest for regulators and policy makers. This paper assesses the impacts of restructuring of procurement in the Iranian power industry on the performance of power plants. We introduce a new slacks-based model for Malmquist–Luenberger (ML) Index measurement and apply it to the power plants to calculate the efficiency, eco-efficiency, and technological changes over the 8-year period (2003–2010) of restructuring in the power industry. The results reveal that although the restructuring had different effects on the individual power plants, the overall growth in the eco-efficiency of the sector was mainly due to advances in pure technology. We also assess the correlation between efficiency and eco-efficiency of the power plants, which indicates a close relationship between these two steps, thus lending support to the incorporation of environmental factors in efficiency analysis. - Highlights: • We introduce a new slack-based model incorporating bad outputs to measure eco-efficiency. • Eco-efficiency change of power plants is measured over a restructuring period. • A success to enhance the eco-efficiency is revealed. • A close relationship between efficiency and eco-efficiency is shown

  13. Leaf Area Index Estimation in Vineyards from Uav Hyperspectral Data, 2d Image Mosaics and 3d Canopy Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Stentoumis, Ch.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-08-01

    The indirect estimation of leaf area index (LAI) in large spatial scales is crucial for several environmental and agricultural applications. To this end, in this paper, we compare and evaluate LAI estimation in vineyards from different UAV imaging datasets. In particular, canopy levels were estimated from i.e., (i) hyperspectral data, (ii) 2D RGB orthophotomosaics and (iii) 3D crop surface models. The computed canopy levels have been used to establish relationships with the measured LAI (ground truth) from several vines in Nemea, Greece. The overall evaluation indicated that the estimated canopy levels were correlated (r2 > 73%) with the in-situ, ground truth LAI measurements. As expected the lowest correlations were derived from the calculated greenness levels from the 2D RGB orthomosaics. The highest correlation rates were established with the hyperspectral canopy greenness and the 3D canopy surface models. For the later the accurate detection of canopy, soil and other materials in between the vine rows is required. All approaches tend to overestimate LAI in cases with sparse, weak, unhealthy plants and canopy.

  14. Combining first-principles and data modeling for the accurate prediction of the refractive index of organic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Mohammad Atif Faiz; Cheng, Chong; Hachmann, Johannes

    2018-06-01

    Organic materials with a high index of refraction (RI) are attracting considerable interest due to their potential application in optic and optoelectronic devices. However, most of these applications require an RI value of 1.7 or larger, while typical carbon-based polymers only exhibit values in the range of 1.3-1.5. This paper introduces an efficient computational protocol for the accurate prediction of RI values in polymers to facilitate in silico studies that can guide the discovery and design of next-generation high-RI materials. Our protocol is based on the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and is parametrized by the polarizability and number density values of a given candidate compound. In the proposed scheme, we compute the former using first-principles electronic structure theory and the latter using an approximation based on van der Waals volumes. The critical parameter in the number density approximation is the packing fraction of the bulk polymer, for which we have devised a machine learning model. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed RI protocol by testing its predictions against the experimentally known RI values of 112 optical polymers. Our approach to combine first-principles and data modeling emerges as both a successful and a highly economical path to determining the RI values for a wide range of organic polymers.

  15. Structural Damage Detection using Frequency Response Function Index and Surrogate Model Based on Optimized Extreme Learning Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghiasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing surrogate models based on artificial intelligence methods for detecting structural damages has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades. In this study, a new kernel based on Littlewood-Paley Wavelet (LPW is proposed for Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm to improve the accuracy of detecting multiple damages in structural systems.  ELM is used as metamodel (surrogate model of exact finite element analysis of structures in order to efficiently reduce the computational cost through updating process. In the proposed two-step method, first a damage index, based on Frequency Response Function (FRF of the structure, is used to identify the location of damages. In the second step, the severity of damages in identified elements is detected using ELM. In order to evaluate the efficacy of ELM, the results obtained from the proposed kernel were compared with other kernels proposed for ELM as well as Least Square Support Vector Machine algorithm. The solved numerical problems indicated that ELM algorithm accuracy in detecting structural damages is increased drastically in case of using LPW kernel.

  16. Self-esteem, diet self-efficacy, body mass index, and eating disorders: modeling effects in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jessica F; Frazier, Leslie D; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin A

    2016-09-01

    Disordered eating patterns, particularly binge eating, are prevalent in Hispanic samples, yet the biopsychosocial risk factors remain understudied in minority populations. The relationship between diet self-efficacy and bulimic symptoms has been established in non-Hispanic white samples but not yet in Hispanics. This study sought to identify the direct role of diet self-efficacy on eating disorder risk and symptomology in a multicultural Hispanic sample, and to investigate the potential indirect relations among diet self-efficacy, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), and eating disorder risk and symptomology in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. The present study surveyed 1339 college students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Participants completed four standardized scales to assess acculturation, diet self-efficacy, global self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomology and risk. Self-reported height and weight were used for BMI calculations, and the data were analyzed in a robust maximum-likelihood structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings highlighted diet self-efficacy as a predictor of eating disorder risk and symptomology. Diet self-efficacy partially explained the covariation between self-esteem and eating disorder risk and symptomology, and between BMI and eating disorder risk and symptomology for the entire sample. Diet self-efficacy emerged as an important construct to consider in developing eating disorder prevention and treatment models.

  17. Implementation of Extended Statistical Entropy Analysis to the Effluent Quality Index of the Benchmarking Simulation Model No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja P. Sobańtka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended statistical entropy analysis (eSEA is used to assess the nitrogen (N removal performance of the wastewater treatment (WWT simulation software, the Benchmarking Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM No. 2 . Six simulations with three different types of wastewater are carried out, which vary in the dissolved oxygen concentration (O2,diss. during the aerobic treatment. N2O emissions generated during denitrification are included in the model. The N-removal performance is expressed as reduction in statistical entropy, ΔH, compared to the hypothetical reference situation of direct discharge of the wastewater into the river. The parameters chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD and suspended solids (SS are analogously expressed in terms of reduction of COD, BOD, and SS, compared to a direct discharge of the wastewater to the river (ΔEQrest. The cleaning performance is expressed as ΔEQnew, the weighted average of ΔH and ΔEQrest. The results show that ΔEQnew is a more comprehensive indicator of the cleaning performance because, in contrast to the traditional effluent quality index (EQ, it considers the characteristics of the wastewater, includes all N-compounds and their distribution in the effluent, the off-gas, and the sludge. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that realistically expectable N2O emissions have only a moderate impact on ΔEQnew.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

  19. A Multi-Model Approach Using Statistical Index and Information Criteria to Evaluate the Adequacy of the Model Geometry in a Fissured Carbonate Aquifer (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giacopetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model related to a mountain aquifer that is characterized by a lack of data of hydrogeological parameters and boundary conditions, which were based on a single available observational dataset used for calibration, was studied using numerical models. For the first time, a preliminary spatial-temporal analysis has been applied to the study area in order to evaluate the real extension of the aquifer studied. The analysis was based on four models that were characterized by an increasing degree of complexity using a minimum of two zones and a maximum of five zones, which consequently increased the number of adjustable parameters from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 22, calibrated using the parameter estimation code PEST. Statistical index and information criteria were calculated for each model, which showed comparable results; the information criteria indicated that the model with the low number of adjustable parameters was the optimal model. A comparison of the simulated and observed spring hydrographs showed a good shape correspondence but a general overestimation of the discharge, which indicated a good fit with the rainfall time series and a probably incorrect extension of the aquifer structure: the recharge contributes more than half of the total outflow at the springs but is not able to completely feed the springs.

  20. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  1. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  2. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  3. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  4. Developing Models to Predict the Number of Fire Hotspots from an Accumulated Fuel Dryness Index by Vegetation Type and Region in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Vega-Nieva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the linkage between accumulated fuel dryness and temporal fire occurrence risk is key for improving decision-making in forest fire management, especially under growing conditions of vegetation stress associated with climate change. This study addresses the development of models to predict the number of 10-day observed Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS active fire hotspots—expressed as a Fire Hotspot Density index (FHD—from an Accumulated Fuel Dryness Index (AcFDI, for 17 main vegetation types and regions in Mexico, for the period 2011–2015. The AcFDI was calculated by applying vegetation-specific thresholds for fire occurrence to a satellite-based fuel dryness index (FDI, which was developed after the structure of the Fire Potential Index (FPI. Linear and non-linear models were tested for the prediction of FHD from FDI and AcFDI. Non-linear quantile regression models gave the best results for predicting FHD using AcFDI, together with auto-regression from previously observed hotspot density values. The predictions of 10-day observed FHD values were reasonably good with R2 values of 0.5 to 0.7 suggesting the potential to be used as an operational tool for predicting the expected number of fire hotspots by vegetation type and region in Mexico. The presented modeling strategy could be replicated for any fire danger index in any region, based on information from MODIS or other remote sensors.

  5. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  6. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  7. A method for matching the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a blood analog for flow visualization in hydraulic cardiovascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T; Biadillah, Y; Mongrain, R; Brunette, J; Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F

    2004-08-01

    In this work, we propose a simple method to simultaneously match the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a circulating blood analog in hydraulic models for optical flow measurement techniques (PIV, PMFV, LDA, and LIF). The method is based on the determination of the volumetric proportions and temperature at which two transparent miscible liquids should be mixed to reproduce the targeted fluid characteristics. The temperature dependence models are a linear relation for the refractive index and an Arrhenius relation for the dynamic viscosity of each liquid. Then the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is represented with a Grunberg-Nissan model of type 1. Experimental tests for acrylic and blood viscosity were found to be in very good agreement with the targeted values (measured refractive index of 1.486 and kinematic viscosity of 3.454 milli-m2/s with targeted values of 1.47 and 3.300 milli-m2/s).

  8. A fuzzy-based model to implement the global safety buildings index assessment for agri-food buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barreca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest EU policies focus on the issue of food safety with a view to ensuring adequate and standard quality levels for the food produced and/or consumed within the EC. To that purpose, the environment where agricultural products are manufactured and processed plays a crucial role in achieving food hygiene. As a consequence, it is of the outmost importance to adopt proper building solutions which meet health and hygiene requirements as well as to use suitable tools to measure the levels achieved. Similarly, it is necessary to verify and evaluate the level of workers’ safety and welfare in their working environment. Workers’ safety has not only an ethical and social value but also an economic implication, since possible accidents or environmental stressors are the major causes of the lower efficiency and productivity of workers. Therefore, it is fundamental to design suitable models of analysis that allow assessing buildings as a whole, taking into account both health and hygiene safety as well as workers’ safety and welfare. Hence, this paper proposes an assessment model that, based on an established study protocol and on the application of a fuzzy logic procedure, allows assessing the global safety level of an agri-food building by means of a global safety buildings index. The model here presented is original since it uses fuzzy logic to evaluate the performances of both the technical and environmental systems of an agri-food building in terms of health and hygiene safety of the manufacturing process as well as of workers’ health and safety. The result of the assessment is expressed through a triangular fuzzy membership function which allows carrying out comparative analyses of different buildings. A specific procedure was developed to apply the model to a case study which tested its operational simplicity and the validity of its results. The proposed model allows obtaining a synthetic and global value of the building performance of

  9. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in this study, while data analysis was carried out with variance based structural equation modeling (SEM which is also known as Partial Least Square (PLS model, and Kruskall Wallis nonparametric test. Perceived quality, perceived value and customer expectation as were significantly influencing the customer satisfaction construct in the structural model. This study also concluded that there is different level of overall customer satisfaction on the three levels of customer’s SES

  10. The potential for using a P loss model to improve the accuracy of the Kentucky phosphorus index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phosphorus (P) Index is an assessment tool developed to identify fields which are most vulnerable to P loss by accounting for the major source and transport factors controlling P movement in the environment. The Kentucky P Index was developed over 10 years ago and since its inception; a signific...

  11. Joint leaf chlorophyll content and leaf area index retrieval from Landsat data using a regularized model inversion system (REGFLEC)

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-01-19

    Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) represent key biophysical and biochemical controls on water, energy and carbon exchange processes in the terrestrial biosphere. In combination, LAI and Chll provide critical information on vegetation density, vitality and photosynthetic potentials. However, simultaneous retrieval of LAI and Chll from space observations is extremely challenging. Regularization strategies are required to increase the robustness and accuracy of retrieved properties and enable more reliable separation of soil, leaf and canopy parameters. To address these challenges, the REGularized canopy reFLECtance model (REGFLEC) inversion system was refined to incorporate enhanced techniques for exploiting ancillary LAI and temporal information derived from multiple satellite scenes. In this current analysis, REGFLEC is applied to a time-series of Landsat data.A novel aspect of the REGFLEC approach is the fact that no site-specific data are required to calibrate the model, which may be run in a largely automated fashion using information extracted entirely from image-based and other widely available datasets. Validation results, based upon in-situ LAI and Chll observations collected over maize and soybean fields in central Nebraska for the period 2001-2005, demonstrate Chll retrieval with a relative root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) on the order of 19% (RMSD=8.42μgcm-2). While Chll retrievals were clearly influenced by the version of the leaf optical properties model used (PROSPECT), the application of spatio-temporal regularization constraints was shown to be critical for estimating Chll with sufficient accuracy. REGFLEC also reproduced the dynamics of in-situ measured LAI well (r2 =0.85), but estimates were biased low, particularly over maize (LAI was underestimated by ~36 %). This disparity may be attributed to differences between effective and true LAI caused by significant foliage clumping not being properly accounted for in the canopy

  12. Measurement and decomposition of energy efficiency of Northeast China-based on super efficiency DEA model and Malmquist index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Liu, Yan; Wei, Xiaoxue; Li, Yifan; Zheng, Mengchen; Li, Yudong; Cheng, Chaochao; Wu, Yumei; Liu, Zhaonan; Yu, Yuanbo

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, environment problem has become the international hot issue. Experts and scholars pay more and more attention to the energy efficiency. Unlike most studies, which analyze the changes of TFEE in inter-provincial or regional cities, TFEE is calculated with the ratio of target energy value and actual energy input based on data in cities of prefecture levels, which would be more accurate. Many researches regard TFP as TFEE to do analysis from the provincial perspective. This paper is intended to calculate more reliably by super efficiency DEA, observe the changes of TFEE, and analyze its relation with TFP, and it proves that TFP is not equal to TFEE. Additionally, the internal influences of the TFEE are obtained via the Malmquist index decomposition. The external influences of the TFFE are analyzed afterward based on the Tobit models. Analysis results demonstrate that Heilongjiang has the highest TFEE followed by Jilin, and Liaoning has the lowest TFEE. Eventually, some policy suggestions are proposed for the influences of energy efficiency and study results.

  13. A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

  14. An integrated modeling approach to estimating Gunnison Sage-Grouse population dynamics: combining index and demographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Phillips, Michael L.; Doherty, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of population dynamics for rare and declining species is often limited to data that are sparse and/or of poor quality. Frequently, the best data available for rare bird species are based on large-scale, population count data. These data are commonly based on sampling methods that lack consistent sampling effort, do not account for detectability, and are complicated by observer bias. For some species, short-term studies of demographic rates have been conducted as well, but the data from such studies are typically analyzed separately. To utilize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of these two data types, we developed a novel Bayesian integrated model that links population count data and population demographic data through population growth rate (λ) for Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus). The long-term population index data available for Gunnison sage-grouse are annual (years 1953–2012) male lek counts. An intensive demographic study was also conducted from years 2005 to 2010. We were able to reduce the variability in expected population growth rates across time, while correcting for potential small sample size bias in the demographic data. We found the population of Gunnison sage-grouse to be variable and slightly declining over the past 16 years.

  15. Optimization of DRASTIC method by artificial neural network, nitrate vulnerability index, and composite DRASTIC models to assess groundwater vulnerability for unconfined aquifer of Shiraz Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghapour, Mohammad Ali; Fadaei Nobandegani, Amir; Talebbeydokhti, Nasser; Bagherzadeh, Somayeh; Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Chitsazan, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Extensive human activities and unplanned land uses have put groundwater resources of Shiraz plain at a high risk of nitrate pollution, causing several environmental and human health issues. To address these issues, water resources managers utilize groundwater vulnerability assessment and determination of protection. This study aimed to prepare the vulnerability maps of Shiraz aquifer by using Composite DRASTIC index, Nitrate Vulnerability index, and artificial neural network and also to compare their efficiency. The parameters of the indexes that were employed in this study are: depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity, and land use. These parameters were rated, weighted, and integrated using GIS, and then, used to develop the risk maps of Shiraz aquifer. The results indicated that the southeastern part of the aquifer was at the highest potential risk. Given the distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations from the wells in the underlying aquifer, the artificial neural network model offered greater accuracy compared to the other two indexes. The study concluded that the artificial neural network model is an effective model to improve the DRASTIC index and provides a confident estimate of the pollution risk. As intensive agricultural activities are the dominant land use and water table is shallow in the vulnerable zones, optimized irrigation techniques and a lower rate of fertilizers are suggested. The findings of our study could be used as a scientific basis in future for sustainable groundwater management in Shiraz plain.

  16. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  17. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model – a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armaș

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model. Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  18. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model) - a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Gavriş, A.

    2013-06-01

    In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model) and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model). Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  19. Determination of the complex refractive index segments of turbid sample with multispectral spatially modulated structured light and models approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitav, Omri; Shaul, Oren; Abookasis, David

    2017-09-01

    Spectral data enabling the derivation of a biological tissue sample's complex refractive index (CRI) can provide a range of valuable information in the clinical and research contexts. Specifically, changes in the CRI reflect alterations in tissue morphology and chemical composition, enabling its use as an optical marker during diagnosis and treatment. In the present work, we report a method for estimating the real and imaginary parts of the CRI of a biological sample using Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations in the spatial frequency domain. In this method, phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns at single high spatial frequency are serially projected onto the sample surface at different near-infrared wavelengths while a camera mounted normal to the sample surface acquires the reflected diffuse light. In the offline analysis pipeline, recorded images at each wavelength are converted to spatial phase maps using KK analysis and are then calibrated against phase-models derived from diffusion approximation. The amplitude of the reflected light, together with phase data, is then introduced into Fresnel equations to resolve both real and imaginary segments of the CRI at each wavelength. The technique was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms with known optical parameters and in mouse models of ischemic injury and heat stress. Experimental data obtained indicate variations in the CRI among brain tissue suffering from injury. CRI fluctuations correlated with alterations in the scattering and absorption coefficients of the injured tissue are demonstrated. This technique for deriving dynamic changes in the CRI of tissue may be further developed as a clinical diagnostic tool and for biomedical research applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the estimation of the spectral CRI of a mouse head following injury obtained in the spatial frequency domain.

  20. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  1. Methodology proposal for the development of Tillage Models - (Part II) Indexes of physical-mechanic characterization of the soil and development of a tillage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano Osorno Fernando; Castillo Herran, Bernardo

    1999-01-01

    A proposal was presented for the elaboration of tillage models that allows making decisions on systems of soil preparation (including the option of zero tillage) starting with measurements of the condition of these. After following a plan of sampling of diverse physical-mechanics parameters of the soil and of a statistical process of correlation, they were chosen as representative variables: the apparent density, the cone index, the content of humidity and the cohesion (torsion box, proves in situ); not only such parameters are very related to each other, but rather they also make possible to estimate other variables of interest like the total porosity appropriately, the macro-porosity, the hydraulic conductivity and in general the soil resistance, which makes viable to choose methods of removal of the soil in function of the initial state of the same one. In the proven case it could verify the possibility to establish systems of tillage reduction

  2. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  3. The social media index: measuring the impact of emergency medicine and critical care websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; pimpact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; pimpact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool.

  4. Minimally invasive prediction of ScvO2 in high-risk surgery : The introduction of a model Index of Oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Harm-Jan S.; Vos, Jaap Jan; Scheeren, Thomas; van Beest, Paul

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the trilateral relationship between cardiac index (CI), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and subsequently develop a model to predict ScvO2 on minimal invasive manner in patients undergoing major

  5. An improved water budget for the El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico, as determined by the Water Supply Stress Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen; Steven McNulty; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger; Jason Christian; Decheng Zhou; Kai Duan; Keren J. Cepero-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the forest water budget is fundamental to making science-based forest management decisions. This study aimed at developing an improved water budget for the El Yunque National Forest (ENF) in Puerto Rico, one of the wettest forests in the United States. We modified an existing monthly scale water balance model, Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), to reflect...

  6. Wine grape cultivar influence on the performance of models that predict the lower threshold canopy temperature of a water stress index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calculation of a thermal based Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) requires an estimate of canopy temperature under non-water stressed conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different wine grape cultivars on the performance of models that predict canopy temperature non...

  7. Simulating the effects of site index variation within loblolly pine plantations using an individual tree growth and yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Site index is the most common metric of site productivity in loblolly pine plantations. Generally applied as a constant for a particular stand, it provides an overall measure of a site’s ability to grow trees. It is well known, however, that even the most uniform stands can have considerable variation in site index due to soil factors that influence microsite,...

  8. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  9. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  10. Effective leaf area index retrieving from terrestrial point cloud data: coupling computational geometry application and Gaussian mixture model clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Tamura, M.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important structural parameters of forestry studies which manifests the ability of the green vegetation interacted with the solar illumination. Classic understanding about LAI is to consider the green canopy as integration of horizontal leaf layers. Since multi-angle remote sensing technique developed, LAI obliged to be deliberated according to the observation geometry. Effective LAI could formulate the leaf-light interaction virtually and precisely. To retrieve the LAI/effective LAI from remotely sensed data therefore becomes a challenge during the past decades. Laser scanning technique can provide accurate surface echoed coordinates with densely scanned intervals. To utilize the density based statistical algorithm for analyzing the voluminous amount of the 3-D points data is one of the subjects of the laser scanning applications. Computational geometry also provides some mature applications for point cloud data (PCD) processing and analysing. In this paper, authors investigated the feasibility of a new application for retrieving the effective LAI of an isolated broad leaf tree. Simplified curvature was calculated for each point in order to remove those non-photosynthetic tissues. Then PCD were discretized into voxel, and clustered by using Gaussian mixture model. Subsequently the area of each cluster was calculated by employing the computational geometry applications. In order to validate our application, we chose an indoor plant to estimate the leaf area, the correlation coefficient between calculation and measurement was 98.28 %. We finally calculated the effective LAI of the tree with 6 × 6 assumed observation directions.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 913 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2018), Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi ... Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh: An optimal ... Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue, New flood risk index in tropical ...

  12. Study the Soil Quality Changes Indicators Using Nemoro and Integrated Quality Index Models in Some Khuzestan’s Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aspects of the physical, chemical and biological are considered. Land degradation for soil quality, or improve soil quality assessment is important.This study was conducted to evaluate soil quality indicators using quantitative models in some lands of Khuzestan province (Iran.Such studies, which are carried out to create a balance between the biological production and the maintenance and improvement of land resource quality, provide a framework for land degradation control and also for identification of sustainable management. Such studies, which are carried out to create a balance between the biological production and the maintenance and improvement of land resource quality, provide a framework for land degradation control and also for identification of sustainable management. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crop management and cultivation on soil quality, Select several Khuzestan region and Samples were taken from the surrounding cultivated land. Physiochemical characteristics of soil samples from a depth of0-30 cm such as soil texture, bulk density (Db, mean weight diameter of wet aggregates (MWD, relative field capacity (RFC, air capacity (FA,plant available water capacity (AWC, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, organic carbon (OC,electrical conductivity (EC, pH, soluble cations (Mg, Ca, Na,sodium absorption ratio (SAR, exchange sodium percent (ESP and cation exchange capacity were determined (CEC. The soil quality was evaluated by integrated quality index (IQI and Nemero quality index (NQI in two data sets of soil properties including MDS and TDS. In these models, a set of characteristics that affect the quality of the soil in the form of a mathematical model incorporating and to propose a numerical quantity this number serve as general indicator of soil quality, Reflect the characteristics of the target. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was significant correlation between

  13. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  14. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Nan, Ding; Yang, Yang; Yongjie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  15. Binary classification of dyslipidemia from the waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index: a comparison of linear, logistic, and CART models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to improve upon previously published statistical modeling strategies for binary classification of dyslipidemia for general population screening purposes based on the waist-to-hip circumference ratio and body mass index anthropometric measurements. Methods Study subjects were participants in WHO-MONICA population-based surveys conducted in two Swiss regions. Outcome variables were based on the total serum cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. The other potential predictor variables were gender, age, current cigarette smoking, and hypertension. The models investigated were: (i linear regression; (ii logistic classification; (iii regression trees; (iv classification trees (iii and iv are collectively known as "CART". Binary classification performance of the region-specific models was externally validated by classifying the subjects from the other region. Results Waist-to-hip circumference ratio and body mass index remained modest predictors of dyslipidemia. Correct classification rates for all models were 60–80%, with marked gender differences. Gender-specific models provided only small gains in classification. The external validations provided assurance about the stability of the models. Conclusions There were no striking differences between either the algebraic (i, ii vs. non-algebraic (iii, iv, or the regression (i, iii vs. classification (ii, iv modeling approaches. Anticipated advantages of the CART vs. simple additive linear and logistic models were less than expected in this particular application with a relatively small set of predictor variables. CART models may be more useful when considering main effects and interactions between larger sets of predictor variables.

  16. Index analysis and human health risk model application for evaluating ambient air-heavy metal contamination in Chemical Valley Sarnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawoyin, Richard; Schweitzer, Linda; Zhang, Kuangyuan; Okareh, Oladapo; Slates, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health. The distribution, and human health impact assessment of trace element concentrations in PM fractions were examined. Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Cr (VI), Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn were determined in the PM size-segregated samples collected from the CVS area between 2014 and 2017. The results showed relatively high concentration of PM air quality guidelines. Pb concentration (143.03 ± 46.87ηg/m 3 ) was 3.6 times higher than the air quality standards of NAAQS. Cr (VI) showed moderate to considerable contamination ( C f =4) in the CVS while Cr (VI), Pb, and Ni had enrichment factor E f < 3 (minimal), signifying contributions from anthropogenic activities. Pollution load index (P Li ) value observed was 1.4 indicating human health risk from the PM, especially for the children in the area. The deposition fluxes (DΦ) showed that PM-bound metals could potentially bypass the head airways and cause damages to the tracheobronchial tree, increasing the human health risks of nephroblastomasis development. The main route of entry for the heavy metal bound PM in humans were observed as through ingestion and inhalation. The highest total excess cancer risks observed for children (6.7×10 -4 ) and adult (1.0×10 -4 ) indicating potential cancer effects. The Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) increased from Pb < Ni < Cd < Cr (VI) < As. Overall, children are more likely to develop carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health

  17. Optimal Portfolio Selection in Ex Ante Stock Price Bubble and Furthermore Bubble Burst Scenario from Dhaka Stock Exchange with Relevance to Sharpe’s Single Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Bin Kamal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at constructing an optimal portfolio by applying Sharpe’s single index model of capital asset pricing in different scenarios, one is ex ante stock price bubble scenario and stock price bubble and bubble burst is second scenario. Here we considered beginning of year 2010 as rise of stock price bubble in Dhaka Stock Exchange. Hence period from 2005 -2009 is considered as ex ante stock price bubble period. Using DSI (All share price index in Dhaka Stock Exchange as market index and considering daily indices for the March 2005 to December 2009 period, the proposed method formulates a unique cut off point (cut off rate of return and selects stocks having excess of their expected return over risk-free rate of return surpassing this cut-off point. Here, risk free rate considered to be 8.5% per annum (Treasury bill rate in 2009. Percentage of an investment in each of the selected stocks is then decided on the basis of respective weights assigned to each stock depending on respective ‘β’ value, stock movement variance representing unsystematic risk, return on stock and risk free return vis-à-vis the cut off rate of return. Interestingly, most of the stocks selected turned out to be bank stocks. Again we went for single index model applied to same stocks those made to the optimum portfolio in ex ante stock price bubble scenario considering data for the period of January 2010 to June 2012. We found that all stocks failed to make the pass Single Index Model criteria i.e. excess return over beta must be higher than the risk free rate. Here for the period of 2010 to 2012, the risk free rate considered to be 11.5 % per annum (Treasury bill rate during 2012.

  18. A step-indexed Kripke model of hidden state via recursive properties on recursively defined metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Schwinghammer, Jan; Støvring, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    for Chargu´eraud and Pottier’s type and capability system including frame and anti-frame rules, based on the operational semantics and step-indexed heap relations. The worlds are constructed as a recursively defined predicate on a recursively defined metric space, which provides a considerably simpler...

  19. Joint Leaf chlorophyll and leaf area index retrieval from Landsat data using a regularized model inversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content represent key biophysical and biochemical controls on water, energy and carbon exchange processes in the terrestrial biosphere. In combination, LAI and leaf Chl content provide critical information on vegetation density, vitality and photosynt...

  20. A neural network Dst index model driven by input time histories of the solar wind–magnetosphere interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Revallo, M.; Valach, F.; Hejda, Pavel; Bochníček, Josef

    110-111, April (2014), s. 9-14 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : solar wind * magnetosphere * geomagnetic storm * Dst index * artificial neural network Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2014

  1. Leaf area index estimation with MODIS reflectance time series and model inversion during full rotations of Eucalyptus plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, Le G.; Marsden, C.; Verhoef, W.; Ponzoni, F.J.; Seen, Lo D.; Bégué, A.; Stape, J.L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of fast-growing Eucalyptus plantations is highly dynamic both seasonally and inter-annually, and is spatially variable depending on pedo-climatic conditions. LAI is very important in determining the carbon and water balance of a stand, but is difficult to measure during a

  2. A simple model for yield prediction of rice based on vegetation index derived from satellite and AMeDAS data during ripening period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Y.; Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to show a simple model for rice yield predicting by using a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from satellite and meteorological data. In a field experiment, the relationship between the vegetation index and radiation absorbed by the rice canopy was investigated from transplanting to maturity. Their correlation held. This result revealed that the vegetation index could be used as a measure of absorptance of solar radiation by rice canopy. NDVI multiplied by solar radiation (SR) every day was accumulated (Σ(SR·NDVI)) from the field experiment. Σ(SR·NDVI) was plotted against above ground dry matter. It was obvious that they had a strong relationship. Rice yield largely depends on solar radiation and air temperature during the ripening period. Air temperature affects dry matter production. Relationships between Y SR -1 (Y: rice yield, SR: solar radiation) and mean air temperature were investigated from meteorological data and statistical data on rice yield. There was an optimum air temperature, 21.3°C, for ripening. When it was near 21.3°C in the ripening period, the rice yield was higher. We proposed a simple model for yield prediction of rice based on these results. The model is composed with SR·NDVI and the optimum air temperature. Vegetation index was derived from 3 years, LANDSAT TM data in Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui and Nagano prefectures at heading. The meteorological data was used from AMeDAS data. The model was described as follows: Y = 0.728 SR·NDVI−2.04(T−21.3) 2 + 282 (r 2 = 0.65, n = 43) where Y is rice yield (kg 10a -1 ), SR is solar radiation (MJ m -2 ) during the ripening period (from 10 days before heading to 30 days after heading), T is mean air temperature (°C) during the ripening period. RMSE was 33.7kg 10a -1 . The model revealed good precision. (author)

  3. A better way of representing stem area index in two-big-leaf models: the application and impact on canopy integration of leaf nitrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Butler, E. E.; Wythers, K. R.; Kattge, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Atkin, O. K.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Reich, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better estimate the carbon budget of the globe, accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in earth system models is critical. When upscaling leaf level photosynthesis to the canopy, climate models uses different big-leaf schemes. About half of the state-of-the-art earth system models use a "two-big-leaf" scheme that partitions canopies into direct and diffusively illuminated fractions to reduce high bias of GPP simulated by one-big-leaf models. Some two-big-leaf models, such as ACME (identical in this respect to CLM 4.5) add leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI) together when calculating canopy radiation transfer. This treatment, however, will result in higher fraction of sunlit leaves. It will also lead to an artificial overestimation of canopy nitrogen content. Here we introduce a new algorithm of simulating SAI in a two-big-leaf model. The new algorithm reduced the sunlit leave fraction of the canopy and conserved the nitrogen content from leaf to canopy level. The lower fraction of sunlit leaves reduced global GPP especially in tropical area. Compared to the default model, for the past 100 years (1909-2009), the averaged global annual GPP is lowered by 4.11 PgC year-1 using this new algorithm.

  4. Application of Generalized Student’s T-Distribution In Modeling The Distribution of Empirical Return Rates on Selected Stock Exchange Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purczyńskiz Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of the so called generalized Student’s t-distribution in modeling the distribution of empirical return rates on selected Warsaw stock exchange indexes. It deals with distribution parameters by means of the method of logarithmic moments, the maximum likelihood method and the method of moments. Generalized Student’s t-distribution ensures better fitting to empirical data than the classical Student’s t-distribution.

  5. Efficiency evaluation of China's investment in Africa under the background of constructing "Silk Road Economic Belt": Application of DEA model and Malmquist index method

    OpenAIRE

    Ze, Tian; Yumei, Fan; Chao, Liu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, with implementation and propulsion of the strategic planning "One Belt and One Road" of China, quality and efficiency of China's foreign direct investment have increasingly become a focused issue. This paper utilizes the DEA model and Malmquist index method to select the data of China's investment in 20 countries of Africa and conducts the empirical research on dynamic evaluation of efficiency of China's direct investment in Africa. The result shows that the general efficienc...

  6. Confirmatory factor analysis of the neck disability index in a whiplash population indicates a one-factor model is viable

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Charles P.; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.; Barr, Sebastian; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Osborne, Jason W.; Melloh, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neck disability index (NDI) as a 10-item patient reported outcome (PRO) measure is the most commonly used whiplash associated disorders (WAD) assessment tool. However, statistical rigor and factor structure are not definitive. To date, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has not examined whether the factor structure generalizes across different groups (e.g., WAD versus non-WAD). This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the NDI in these population groups.

  7. Fast-food consumption and child body mass index in China: Application of an endogenous switching regression model

    OpenAIRE

    Akpalu, Wisdom; Zhang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The rapid economic growth experienced within the past two decades in China highly correlates with childhood overweightness. The epidemic has become an issue of grave concern. A principal factor considered to be responsible for the epidemic in the literature is unhealthy food intake, such as fast-food consumption. This paper has found a positive impact of fast-food consumption on children's body mass index. In addition to our finding of different characteristics between children who eat fast f...

  8. The Shape and Term Structure of the Index Option Smirk: Why Multifactor Stochastic Volatility Models Work so Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven; Jacobs, Kris

    variation in the smirk, the model also provides more flexible modeling of the volatility term structure. Our empirical results indicate that the model improves on the benchmark Heston model by 24% in-sample and 23% out-of-sample. The better fit results from improvements in the modeling of the term structure...... dimension as well as the moneyness dimension....

  9. Feasibility Study for an Air Force Environmental Model and Data Exchange. Volume 4. Appendix G. Model Review and Index-Air Multimedia and Other Models, Plus Data Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    8217 ,".: , :.:: .. :.:.> ’,:,’ ;’ . i:i,-- -- ’ ..4.-,._ _ -. ._.. " .. ..-... .-. -. -= _-. Model acronym: SANGRE Model name: Nonlinear Thermal Creep of Geological...release rates, depositon and settling velocities, scaveng- ing rates, and decay constants; arrays of meat animals, dairy cattle , crop areas, and...multihit and one-hit dies- response functions applied to animal response data derived trom lifetime feeding studies. Document citations: Rai, K., and

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 100 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2010), A simple note on some empirical stochastic process ... poverty index with when the parameter is strictly between 0 and 1, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 2 (2015), Bilinear regression model with Kronecker and ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  12. A coupled melt-freeze temperature index approach in a one-layer model to predict bulk volumetric liquid water content dynamics in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water in snow rules runoff dynamics and wet snow avalanches release. Moreover, it affects snow viscosity and snow albedo. As a result, measuring and modeling liquid water dynamics in snow have important implications for many scientific applications. However, measurements are usually challenging, while modeling is difficult due to an overlap of mechanical, thermal and hydraulic processes. Here, we evaluate the use of a simple one-layer one-dimensional model to predict hourly time-series of bulk volumetric liquid water content in seasonal snow. The model considers both a simple temperature-index approach (melt only) and a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach that is able to reconstruct melt-freeze dynamics. Performance of this approach is evaluated at three sites in Japan. These sites (Nagaoka, Shinjo and Sapporo) present multi-year time-series of snow and meteorological data, vertical profiles of snow physical properties and snow melt lysimeters data. These data-sets are an interesting opportunity to test this application in different climatic conditions, as sites span a wide latitudinal range and are subjected to different snow conditions during the season. When melt-freeze dynamics are included in the model, results show that median absolute differences between observations and predictions of bulk volumetric liquid water content are consistently lower than 1 vol%. Moreover, the model is able to predict an observed dry condition of the snowpack in 80% of observed cases at a non-calibration site, where parameters from calibration sites are transferred. Overall, the analysis show that a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach may be a valid solution to predict average wetness conditions of a snow cover at local scale.

  13. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during pre-monsoon season: A case study based on sat- ellite data and regional climate model. 269. Anand R ... Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using. Resourcesat-1 .... Impact of additional surface observation network on short range .... 795. Sahu P. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City.

  14. Robustness and sensitivities of central U.S. summer convection in the super-parameterized CAM: Multi-model intercomparison with a new regional EOF index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    2013-06-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) can bring up to 60% of summer rainfall to the central United States but are not simulated by most global climate models. In this study, a new empirical orthogonal function based index is developed to isolate the MCS activity, similar to that developed by Wheeler and Hendon (2004) for the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The index is applied to compactly compare three conventional- and super-parameterized (SP) versions (3.0, 3.5, and 5.0) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results show that nocturnal, eastward propagating convection is a robust effect of super-parameterization but is sensitive to its specific implementation. MCS composites based on the index show that in SP-CAM3.5, convective MCS anomalies are unrealistically large scale and concentrated, while surface precipitation is too weak. These aspects of the MCS signal are improved in the latest version (SP-CAM5.0), which uses high-order microphysics.

  15. An autostratigraphic view of the long-term dynamics of delta distributary channels: A new step forward with the grade index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, H.; Muto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Autostratigraphy is the stratigraphy that is generated by large-scale, deterministic autogenic processes of depositional systems, based on the full recognition of non-equilibrium behavior in response to steady external forcing. Recent experimental studies to explore the effects of basin water depth on the dynamics of distributary channels have brought a new geometrical scheme, here referred to as the grade index model, which is expected to make a significant step forward for development of the autostratigraphy of river deltas. Grade index (0 ≤ Gindex ≤1) is a dimensionless number that describes how close the alluvial river is to a graded state and is given as the ratio of subaerial allocation of the supplied sediment to both subaerial and subaqueous allocation of the sediment, in the form of a function of dimensionless basin water depth (h*). The grade index model for a particular geometrical setting suggests that as h* increase toward +∞, all of dimensionless magnitudes of delta progradation rate (Rpro*), alluvial aggradation rate (Ragg*), channel migration rate (Rmig*), avulsion frequency decrease toward 0, and all of dimensionless timescales of channel shifting (τs*), recurrence of channels (τr*), channel avulsion (τA*) increase toward +∞, and also that Rpro* = Ragg* = Rmig* = fA* = (τs*)-1 = (τr*)-1 = (τA* )-1 = Gindex. This grade index model, despite its simple structure, offers deep insight into the rationale of shoreline autoretreat, a typical large-scale, deterministic autogenic process that is realized by non-equilibrium response to steady base level rise. A simple geometrical modeling leads to a finding that Ppro* = (1 - Ab*) Gindex, where Ab* is a dimensionless form of the bottom surface of the deltaic deposit (Ab) given by dividing Ab with the square of autostratigraphic length scale (Λ). As the delta grows with base level rise, Ab progressively increases and then inevitably meets an event that Ab* exceeds 1 (i.e. Ab exceeds Λ2). We also

  16. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presence of different types of clouds. 249. Alkaline ... 19. Antarctica. Influence of climatic teleconnections on the temporal ... coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. 41 ... On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (elec- trode layer) ...

  17. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  18. Statistical modeling of complex health outcomes and air pollution data: Application of air quality health indexing for asthma risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Weerasinghe

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion:  This study demonstrated the importance of complex statistical model use and the consequences of lack of such modelling that accounted for data structures in public health risk assessments.

  19. Black-Litterman model on non-normal stock return (Case study four banks at LQ-45 stock index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrivandi, Rizki; Noviyanti, Lienda; Setyanto, Gatot Riwi

    2017-03-01

    The formation of the optimal portfolio is a method that can help investors to minimize risks and optimize profitability. One model for the optimal portfolio is a Black-Litterman (BL) model. BL model can incorporate an element of historical data and the views of investors to form a new prediction about the return of the portfolio as a basis for preparing the asset weighting models. BL model has two fundamental problems, the assumption of normality and estimation parameters on the market Bayesian prior framework that does not from a normal distribution. This study provides an alternative solution where the modelling of the BL model stock returns and investor views from non-normal distribution.

  20. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to climate change in the 10 CMIP5 models. 395. Chemical. Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish ... Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India ... due to solid earth tides. 603. Investigation ...

  1. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropic cosmological models and gener- alized scalar tensor theory. 669. Chander Subhash. Magnetic behaviour of nano-particles of. Fe2 9Zn0 1O4. 617. Chandrasekharan Shailesh. Connections between quantum chromody- namics and condensed matter physics. 901. Chattopadhyay A K. Superiority of Bessel ...

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    granulite belt, India: structural and petrochemical evidences attesting to their relict nature. 337. Earth systems. Earth support systems: Threatened? Why? What can we do? 269. Earthquake source. Earthquake source model using strong motion dis- placement as response of finite elastic media. 9. Eastern Dharwar Craton.

  3. Structure, microstructure and microhardness of rapidly solidified Smy(FexNi1-x)4Sb12 (x = 0.45, 0.50, 0.70, 1) thermoelectric compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, C.; Castellero, A.; Baricco, M.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Carlini, R.

    2018-05-01

    Skutterudites are interesting compounds for thermoelectric applications. The main drawback in the synthesis of skutterudites by solidification of the melt is the occurrence of two peritectic reactions requiring long annealing times to form a single phase. Aim of this work is to investigate an alternative route for synthesis, based on rapid solidification by planar flow casting. The effect of cooling rate on phases formation and composition, as well as on structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of the filled Smy(FexNi1-x)4Sb12 (x = 0.45, 0.50, 0.70, 1) skutterudites was studied. Conversely to slowly cooled ingots, rapidly quenched ribbons show skutterudite as the main phase, suggesting that deep undercooling of the liquid prevents the nucleation of high temperature phases, such as (Fe,Ni)Sb and (Fe,Ni)Sb2. In as-quenched samples, a slightly out of equilibrium Sm content is revealed, which does not alter the position of the p/n boundary; nevertheless, it exerts an influence on crystallographic properties, such as the cell parameter and the shape of the Sb4 rings in the structure. As-quenched ribbons show a fine microstructure of the skutterudite phase (grain size of 2-20 μm), which only moderately coarsens after annealing at 873 K for 4 days. Vickers microhardness values (350-400 HV) of the skutterudite phase in as-quenched ribbons are affected by the presence of softer phases (i.e. Sb), which are homogeneously and finely dispersed within the sample. The skutterudite hardens after annealing as a consequence of a moderate grain growth, which limits the matrix effect due to the presence of additional phases.

  4. Development of a 3D finite element acoustic model to predict the sound reduction index of stud based double-leaf walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, A.; Wang, C. J.; Yahiaoui, K.; Mynors, D. J.; Morgan, T.; Nguyen, V. B.; English, M.

    2014-11-01

    Building standards incorporating quantitative acoustical criteria to ensure adequate sound insulation are now being implemented. Engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically efficient double-wall structures. Accordingly, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation of double-leaf wall structures are needed. This paper presents the development of a numerical tool that can predict the frequency dependent sound reduction index R of stud based double-leaf walls at one-third-octave band frequency range. A fully vibro-acoustic 3D model consisting of two rooms partitioned using a double-leaf wall, considering the structure and acoustic fluid coupling incorporating the existing fluid and structural solvers are presented. The validity of the finite element (FE) model is assessed by comparison with experimental test results carried out in a certified laboratory. Accurate representation of the structural damping matrix to effectively predict the R values are studied. The possibilities of minimising the simulation time using a frequency dependent mesh model was also investigated. The FEA model presented in this work is capable of predicting the weighted sound reduction index Rw along with A-weighted pink noise C and A-weighted urban noise Ctr within an error of 1 dB. The model developed can also be used to analyse the acoustically induced frequency dependent geometrical behaviour of the double-leaf wall components to optimise them for best acoustic performance. The FE modelling procedure reported in this paper can be extended to other building components undergoing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) to evaluate their acoustic insulation.

  5. Accuracy test for link prediction in terms of similarity index: The case of WS and BA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Min-Woo; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2015-07-01

    Link prediction is a technique that uses the topological information in a given network to infer the missing links in it. Since past research on link prediction has primarily focused on enhancing performance for given empirical systems, negligible attention has been devoted to link prediction with regard to network models. In this paper, we thus apply link prediction to two network models: The Watts-Strogatz (WS) model and Barabási-Albert (BA) model. We attempt to gain a better understanding of the relation between accuracy and each network parameter (mean degree, the number of nodes and the rewiring probability in the WS model) through network models. Six similarity indices are used, with precision and area under the ROC curve (AUC) value as the accuracy metrics. We observe a positive correlation between mean degree and accuracy, and size independence of the AUC value.

  6. Geospatial distribution modeling and determining suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation purpose using geospatial methods and water quality index (WQI) in Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidey, Amanuel

    2018-06-01

    Determining suitability and vulnerability of groundwater quality for irrigation use is a key alarm and first aid for careful management of groundwater resources to diminish the impacts on irrigation. This study was conducted to determine the overall suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation use and to generate their spatial distribution maps in Elala catchment, Northern Ethiopia. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected to analyze and map the water quality variables. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, titration and calculation methods were used for laboratory groundwater quality analysis. Arc GIS, geospatial analysis tools, semivariogram model types and interpolation methods were used to generate geospatial distribution maps. Twelve and eight water quality variables were used to produce weighted overlay and irrigation water quality index models, respectively. Root-mean-square error, mean square error, absolute square error, mean error, root-mean-square standardized error, measured values versus predicted values were used for cross-validation. The overall weighted overlay model result showed that 146 km2 areas are highly suitable, 135 km2 moderately suitable and 60 km2 area unsuitable for irrigation use. The result of irrigation water quality index confirms 10.26% with no restriction, 23.08% with low restriction, 20.51% with moderate restriction, 15.38% with high restriction and 30.76% with the severe restriction for irrigation use. GIS and irrigation water quality index are better methods for irrigation water resources management to achieve a full yield irrigation production to improve food security and to sustain it for a long period, to avoid the possibility of increasing environmental problems for the future generation.

  7. Use of structure-activity landscape index curves and curve integrals to evaluate the performance of multiple machine learning prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeDonne Norman C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard approaches to address the performance of predictive models that used common statistical measurements for the entire data set provide an overview of the average performance of the models across the entire predictive space, but give little insight into applicability of the model across the prediction space. Guha and Van Drie recently proposed the use of structure-activity landscape index (SALI curves via the SALI curve integral (SCI as a means to map the predictive power of computational models within the predictive space. This approach evaluates model performance by assessing the accuracy of pairwise predictions, comparing compound pairs in a manner similar to that done by medicinal chemists. Results The SALI approach was used to evaluate the performance of continuous prediction models for MDR1-MDCK in vitro efflux potential. Efflux models were built with ADMET Predictor neural net, support vector machine, kernel partial least squares, and multiple linear regression engines, as well as SIMCA-P+ partial least squares, and random forest from Pipeline Pilot as implemented by AstraZeneca, using molecular descriptors from SimulationsPlus and AstraZeneca. Conclusion The results indicate that the choice of training sets used to build the prediction models is of great importance in the resulting model quality and that the SCI values calculated for these models were very similar to their Kendall τ values, leading to our suggestion of an approach to use this SALI/SCI paradigm to evaluate predictive model performance that will allow more informed decisions regarding model utility. The use of SALI graphs and curves provides an additional level of quality assessment for predictive models.

  8. Use of structure-activity landscape index curves and curve integrals to evaluate the performance of multiple machine learning prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledonne, Norman C; Rissolo, Kevin; Bulgarelli, James; Tini, Leonard

    2011-02-07

    Standard approaches to address the performance of predictive models that used common statistical measurements for the entire data set provide an overview of the average performance of the models across the entire predictive space, but give little insight into applicability of the model across the prediction space. Guha and Van Drie recently proposed the use of structure-activity landscape index (SALI) curves via the SALI curve integral (SCI) as a means to map the predictive power of computational models within the predictive space. This approach evaluates model performance by assessing the accuracy of pairwise predictions, comparing compound pairs in a manner similar to that done by medicinal chemists. The SALI approach was used to evaluate the performance of continuous prediction models for MDR1-MDCK in vitro efflux potential. Efflux models were built with ADMET Predictor neural net, support vector machine, kernel partial least squares, and multiple linear regression engines, as well as SIMCA-P+ partial least squares, and random forest from Pipeline Pilot as implemented by AstraZeneca, using molecular descriptors from SimulationsPlus and AstraZeneca. The results indicate that the choice of training sets used to build the prediction models is of great importance in the resulting model quality and that the SCI values calculated for these models were very similar to their Kendall τ values, leading to our suggestion of an approach to use this SALI/SCI paradigm to evaluate predictive model performance that will allow more informed decisions regarding model utility. The use of SALI graphs and curves provides an additional level of quality assessment for predictive models.

  9. Scintillation index and performance analysis of wireless optical links over non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence based on generalized atmospheric spectral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu

    2011-09-26

    Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Run-time calibration of simulation models by integrating remote sensing estimates of leaf area index and canopy nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic simulations models may enable for farmers the evaluation of crop and soil management strategies, or may trigger crop and soil management strategies if they are used as warning systems, e.g. for drought risks and for nutrients shortage. Predictions by simulation models may differ from field

  11. An analysis of the control hierarchy modelling of the CMS detector control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwong, Y.L.; Groote, J.F.; Willemse, T.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The high level Detector Control System (DCS) of the CMS experiment is modelled using Finite State Machines (FSM), which cover the control application behaviours of all the sub-detectors and support services. The Joint Controls Project (JCOP) at CERN has chosen the SMI++ framework for this purpose.

  12. Using Haines Index coupled with fire weather model predicted from high resolution LAM forecasts to asses wildfire extreme behaviour in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Francesco; Baptiste Filippi, Jean; Simeoni, Albert; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Haines Index (HI) was developed by USDA Forest Service to measure the atmosphere's contribution to the growth potential of a wildfire. The Haines Index combines two atmospheric factors that are known to have an effect on wildfires: Stability and Dryness. As operational tools, HI proved its ability to predict plume dominated high intensity wildfires. However, since HI does not take into account the fuel continuity, composition and moisture conditions and the effects of wind and topography on fire behaviour, its use as forecasting tool should be carefully considered. In this work we propose the use of HI, predicted from HR Limited Area Model forecasts, coupled with a Fire Weather model (i.e., RISICO system) fully operational in Italy since 2003. RISICO is based on dynamic models able to represent in space and in time the effects that environment and vegetal physiology have on fuels and, in turn, on the potential behaviour of wildfires. The system automatically acquires from remote databases a thorough data-set of input information both of in situ and spatial nature. Meteorological observations, radar data, Limited Area Model weather forecasts, EO data, and fuel data are managed by a Unified Interface able to process a wide set of different data. Specific semi-physical models are used in the system to simulate the dynamics of the fuels (load and moisture contents of dead and live fuel) and the potential fire behaviour (rate of spread and linear intensity). A preliminary validation of this approach will be provided with reference to Sardinia and Corsica Islands, two major islands of the Mediterranean See frequently affected by extreme plume dominated wildfires. A time series of about 3000 wildfires burnt in Sardinia and Corsica in 2007 and 2008 will be used to evaluate the capability of HI coupled with the outputs of the Fire Weather model to forecast the actual risk in time and in space.

  13. Integrated Monitoring and Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Leakage Risk Using Remote Sensing, Ground-Based Monitoring, Atmospheric Models and Risk-Indexing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, E. A.; Pickles, W. L.; Gouveia, F. J.; Bogen, K. T.; Rau, G. H.; Friedmann, J.

    2006-12-01

    estimating its associated risk, spatially and temporally. This requires integration of subsurface, surface and atmospheric data and models. To date, we have developed techniques to map risk based on predicted atmospheric plumes and GIS/MT (meteorologic- topographic) risk-indexing tools. This methodology was derived from study of large CO2 releases from an abandoned well penetrating a natural CO2 reservoir at Crystal Geyser, Utah. This integrated approach will provide a powerful tool to screen for high-risk zones at proposed sequestration sites, to design and optimize surface networks for site monitoring and/or to guide setting science-based regulatory compliance requirements for monitoring sequestration sites, as well as to target critical areas for first responders should a catastrophic-release event occur. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. A wide-angle gradient index optical model of the crystalline lens and eye of the octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, W S; Sands, P J

    1999-08-01

    Cephalopods and fish have had no common ancestor since the Cambrian, and their eyes are a classic example of convergent evolution. The octopus has no cornea, and immerson renders the trout cornea optically ineffective. As a result, the nearly spherical lens is responsible for all refraction in these eyes. In spite of the fact that the octopus lens consists of two joined parts, while the trout lens consists of one part, we show here that their optical properties are very similar. An index gradient bends rays within these lenses, adding power and correcting spherical aberration. High spherical symmetry in both lenses strongly reduces other monochromatic aberrations and yields a wide field of vision, advantageous in attack and evasion. The octopus Mattheissen's ratio, 2.83, an inverse measure of light-gathering power, lies above the trout value of 2.38 but within the range of values reported for fish. Strong uncorrected longitudinal chromatic aberration is nearly identical in both animals as a result of similar lens protein optical properties, and will limit resolution. We discuss how animal lifestyle requirements and lens material properties influence the design of these eyes.

  15. Applying a water quality index model to assess the water quality of the major rivers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Ram Krishna; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Masago, Yoshifumi; Luo, Pingping; Toyozumi-Kojima, Asako; Jalilov, Shokhrukh-Mirzo

    2017-08-01

    Human activities during recent decades have led to increased degradation of the river water environment in South Asia. This degradation has led to concerns for the populations of the major cities of Nepal, including those of the Kathmandu Valley. The deterioration of the rivers in the valley is directly linked to the prevalence of poor sanitary conditions, as well as the presence of industries that discharge their effluents into the river. This study aims to investigate the water quality aspect for the aquatic ecosystems and recreation of the major rivers in the Kathmandu Valley using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment water quality index (CCME WQI). Ten physicochemical parameters were used to determine the CCME WQI at 20 different sampling locations. Analysis of the data indicated that the water quality in rural areas ranges from excellent to good, whereas in denser settlements and core urban areas, the water quality is poor. The study results are expected to provide policy-makers with valuable information related to the use of river water by local people in the study area.

  16. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN ASSURANCE, RELEVANCE, INTEREST, ASSESSMENT, SATISFACTION DENGAN STRATEGI ACTIVE LEARNING TIPE INDEX CARD MATCH TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIK SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frasticha Frasticha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemecahan masalah merupakan kegiatan matematika yang sulit baik dalam mempelajari maupun mengajarkannya, sehingga diperlukan adanya suatu model pembelajaran yang dapat memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah siswa. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang dapat digunakan yaitu model pembelajaran ARIAS dengan strategi active learning tipe ICM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1 model pembelajaran ARIAS dengan strategi active learning tipe ICM berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematik siswa SMA; (2 Sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran matematika menggunakan model pembelajaran ARIAS dengan strategi active learning tipe ICM. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI IPA 1 dengan jumlah 38 siswa sebagai kelas kontrol dan XI IPA 2 dengan jumlah 39 siswa sebagai kelas eksperimen di SMAN 19 Kabupaten Tangerang pada tahun ajaran 2015-2016. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian eksperimen dengan adalah desain kuasi eksperimen dengan bentuk Nonequivalent Control Group serta Cluster Sampling sebagai teknik pengambilan sampel. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan SPSS Statistics Version 22. Hasil penelitian :(1 model pembelajaran ARIAS dengan strategi active learning tipe ICM berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematik siswa SMA dan memberikan pengaruh yang positif; (2 sikap siswa positif terhadap model pembelajaran ARIAS dengan strategi active learning tipe ICM. Kata Kunci: Assurance Relevance Interest Assessment Satisfaction, Index Card Match, Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah

  17. Solar Load Inputs for USARIEM Thermal Strain Models and the Solar Radiation-Sensitive Components of the WBGT Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew, William

    2001-01-01

    This report describes processes we have implemented to use global pyranometer-based estimates of mean radiant temperature as the common solar load input for the Scenario model, the USARIEM heat strain...

  18. Sensitivity study of land biosphere CO2 exchange through an atmospheric tracer transport model using satellite-derived vegetation index data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, W.; Heimann, M.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a simple, globally uniform model of CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere by coupling the model with a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model using observed winds, and checking results against observed concentrations of CO 2 at various monitoring sites. CO 2 fluxes are derived from observed greenness using satellite-derived Global Vegetation Index data, combined with observations of temperature, radiation, and precipitation. We explore a range of CO 2 flux formulations together with some modifications of the modelled atmospheric transport. We find that while some formulations can be excluded, it cannot be decided whether or not to make CO 2 uptake and release dependent on water stress. It appears that the seasonality of net CO 2 fluxes in the tropics, which would be expected to be driven by water availability, is small and is therefore not visible in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO 2 . The latter is dominated largely by northern temperate and boreal vegetation, where seasonality is mostly temperature determined. We find some evidence that there is still considerable CO 2 release from soils during northern-hemisphere winter. An exponential air temperature dependence of soil release with a Q 10 of 1.5 is found to be most appropriate, with no cutoff at low freezing temperatures. This result is independent of the year from which observed winds were taken. This is remarkable insofar as year-to-year changes in modelled CO 2 concentrations caused by changes in the wind data clearly outweigh those caused by year-to-year variability in the climate and vegetation index data. (orig.)

  19. Modelling fire frequency and area burned across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    We develop fire occurrence and burned area models in peninsular Spain, an area of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of burned area. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of area burned and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal annual pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal annual cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-annual fire frequencies. Total area burned also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed annual burned area time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the burned area models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness

  20. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilig, Dorothea; Doellinger, Felix; Poellinger, Alexander; Schreiter, Vera; Neumann, Konrad; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2017-01-01

    The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition. The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI) when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change. The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL) minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P =0.008). The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P =0.009). Subgroup analysis suggests that the impact of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is of greater importance in patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema than in patients with lower lobe predominant emphysema. This study reveals the most appropriate ways of calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.

  1. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Nian; Wang, Cun-Hui; Ni, Hong; Wang, Heng

    2017-12-05

    China began to implement the national medical and health system and public hospital reforms in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Anhui Province is one of the four pilot provinces, and the medical reform measures received wide attention nationwide. The effectiveness of the above reform needs to get attention. This study aimed to master the efficiency and productivity of county-level public hospitals based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and Malmquist index in Anhui, China, and then provide improvement measures for the future hospital development. We chose 12 country-level hospitals based on geographical distribution and the economic development level in Anhui Province. Relevant data that were collected in the field and then sorted were provided by the administrative departments of the hospitals. DEA models were used to calculate the dynamic efficiency and Malmquist index factors for the 12 institutions. During 2010-2015, the overall average relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals was 0.926, and the number of hospitals achieved an effective DEA for each year from 2010 to 2015 was 4, 6, 7, 7, 6, and 8, respectively, as measured using DEA. During this same period, the average overall production efficiency was 0.983, and the total productivity factor had declined. The overall production efficiency of five hospitals was >1, and the rest are productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  2. Modeling the Severity of Drinking Consequences in First-Year College Women: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hagman, Brett T.; Graff, Fiona S.; Noel, Nora E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the latent continuum of alcohol-related negative consequences among first-year college women using methods from item response theory and classical test theory. Method: Participants (N = 315) were college women in their freshman year who reported consuming any alcohol in the past 90 days and who completed assessments of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Results: Item response theory analyses showed poor model fit for five items identified in the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Two-parameter item response theory logistic models were applied to the remaining 18 items to examine estimates of item difficulty (i.e., severity) and discrimination parameters. The item difficulty parameters ranged from 0.591 to 2.031, and the discrimination parameters ranged from 0.321 to 2.371. Classical test theory analyses indicated that the omission of the five misfit items did not significantly alter the psychometric properties of the construct. Conclusions: Findings suggest that those consequences that had greater severity and discrimination parameters may be used as screening items to identify female problem drinkers at risk for an alcohol use disorder. PMID:22051212

  3. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  4. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  5. Accuracy assessment of a net radiation and temperature index snowmelt model using ground observations of snow water equivalent in an alpine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Bales, R. C.; Dozier, J.

    2003-04-01

    In this study, an accumulated net radiation / accumulated degree-day index snowmelt model was coupled with remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA) data to simulate snow cover depletion and reconstruct maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) in the 19.1-km2 Tokopah Basin of the Sierra Nevada, California. Simple net radiation snowmelt models are attractive for operational snowmelt runoff forecasts as they are computationally inexpensive and have low input requirements relative to physically based energy balance models. The objective of this research was to assess the accuracy of a simple net radiation snowmelt model in a topographically heterogeneous alpine environment. Previous applications of net radiation / temperature index snowmelt models have not been evaluated in alpine terrain with intensive field observations of SWE. Solar radiation data from two meteorological stations were distributed using the topographic radiation model TOPORAD. Relative humidity and temperature data were distributed based on the lapse rate calculated between three meteorological stations within the basin. Fractional SCA data from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (5 acquisitions) and the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) (2 acquisitions) were used to derive daily SCA using a linear regression between acquisition dates. Grain size data from AVIRIS (4 acquisitions) were used to infer snow surface albedo and interpolated linearly with time to derive daily albedo values. Modeled daily snowmelt rates for each 30-m pixel were scaled by the SCA and integrated over the snowmelt season to obtain estimates of maximum SWE accumulation. Snow surveys consisting of an average of 335 depth measurements and 53 density measurements during April, May and June, 1997 were interpolated using a regression tree / co-krig model, with independent variables of average incoming solar radiation, elevation, slope and maximum upwind slope. The basin was clustered into 7 elevation / average

  6. Evaluating and Quantifying the Climate-Driven Interannual Variability in Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) at Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanwei; Collatz, George James; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of surface reflected solar radiation contain informationabout variability in the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation. Understanding thecauses of variability is important for models that use these data to drive land surface fluxesor for benchmarking prognostic vegetation models. Here we evaluated the interannualvariability in the new 30.5-year long global satellite-derived surface reflectance index data,Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies normalized difference vegetation index(GIMMS NDVI3g). Pearsons correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression analyseswere applied to quantify the NDVI interannual variability driven by climate anomalies, andto evaluate the effects of potential interference (snow, aerosols and clouds) on the NDVIsignal. We found ecologically plausible strong controls on NDVI variability by antecedent precipitation and current monthly temperature with distinct spatial patterns. Precipitation correlations were strongest for temperate to tropical water limited herbaceous systemswhere in some regions and seasons 40 of the NDVI variance could be explained byprecipitation anomalies. Temperature correlations were strongest in northern mid- to-high-latitudes in the spring and early summer where up to 70 of the NDVI variance was explained by temperature anomalies. We find that, in western and central North America,winter-spring precipitation determines early summer growth while more recent precipitation controls NDVI variability in late summer. In contrast, current or prior wetseason precipitation anomalies were correlated with all months of NDVI in sub-tropical herbaceous vegetation. Snow, aerosols and clouds as well as unexplained phenomena still account for part of the NDVI variance despite corrections. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that GIMMS NDVI3g represents real responses of vegetation to climate variability that are useful for global models.

  7. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  8. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theilig D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Theilig,1 Felix Doellinger,1 Alexander Poellinger,1 Vera Schreiter,1 Konrad Neumann,2 Ralf-Harto Hubner31Department of Radiology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Biometrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Pneumology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyBackground: The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition.Purpose: The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change.Results: The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P=0.008. The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P=0.009. Subgroup

  9. Land-use regression with long-term satellite-based greenness index and culture-specific sources to model PM2.5 spatial-temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Pan, Wen-Chi; Zeng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Mu-Jean; Guo, Yue Leon; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-05-01

    This study utilized a long-term satellite-based vegetation index, and considered culture-specific emission sources (temples and Chinese restaurants) with Land-use Regression (LUR) modelling to estimate the spatial-temporal variability of PM 2.5 using data from Taipei metropolis, which exhibits typical Asian city characteristics. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations from 2006 to 2012 of 17 air quality monitoring stations established by Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan were used for model development. PM 2.5 measurements from 2013 were used for external data verification. Monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images coupled with buffer analysis were used to assess the spatial-temporal variations of greenness surrounding the monitoring sites. The distribution of temples and Chinese restaurants were included to represent the emission contributions from incense and joss money burning, and gas cooking, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficient and stepwise regression were used for LUR model development, and 10-fold cross-validation and external data verification were applied to verify the model reliability. The results showed a strongly negative correlation (r: -0.71 to -0.77) between NDVI and PM 2.5 while temples (r: 0.52 to 0.66) and Chinese restaurants (r: 0.31 to 0.44) were positively correlated to PM 2.5 concentrations. With the adjusted model R 2 of 0.89, a cross-validated adj-R 2 of 0.90, and external validated R 2 of 0.83, the high explanatory power of the resultant model was confirmed. Moreover, the averaged NDVI within a 1750 m circular buffer (p < 0.01), the number of Chinese restaurants within a 1750 m buffer (p < 0.01), and the number of temples within a 750 m buffer (p = 0.06) were selected as important predictors during the stepwise selection procedures. According to the partial R 2 , NDVI explained 66% of PM 2.5 variation and was the dominant variable in the developed model. We suggest future studies

  10. Predicting long-term streamflow variability in moist eucalypt forests using forest growth models and a sapwood area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskierniak, D.; Kuczera, G.; Benyon, R.

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in surface hydrology involves predicting streamflow in ungauged catchments with heterogeneous vegetation and spatiotemporally varying evapotranspiration (ET) rates. We present a top-down approach for quantifying the influence of broad-scale changes in forest structure on ET and hence streamflow. Across three catchments between 18 and 100 km2 in size and with regenerating Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis forest, we demonstrate how variation in ET can be mapped in space and over time using LiDAR data and commonly available forest inventory data. The model scales plot-level sapwood area (SA) to the catchment-level using basal area (BA) and tree stocking density (N) estimates in forest growth models. The SA estimates over a 69 year regeneration period are used in a relationship between SA and vegetation induced streamflow loss (L) to predict annual streamflow (Q) with annual rainfall (P) estimates. Without calibrating P, BA, N, SA, and L to Q data, we predict annual Q with R2 between 0.68 and 0.75 and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between 0.44 and 0.48. To remove bias, the model was extended to allow for runoff carry-over into the following year as well as minor correction to rainfall bias, which produced R2 values between 0.72 and 0.79, and NSE between 0.70 and 0.79. The model under-predicts streamflow during drought periods as it lacks representation of ecohydrological processes that reduce L with either reduced growth rates or rainfall interception during drought. Refining the relationship between sapwood thickness and forest inventory variables is likely to further improve results.

  11. The 2010 Russian Drought Impact on Satellite Measurements of Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence: Insights from Modeling and Comparisons with the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Joiner, J.; Tucker, C.; Berry, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Walker, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine satellite-based measurements of chlorophyll solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) over the region impacted by the Russian drought and heat wave of 2010. Like the popular Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that has been used for decades to measure photosynthetic capacity, SIF measurements are sensitive to the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (fPAR). However, in addition, SIF is sensitive to the fluorescence yield that is related to the photosynthetic yield. Both SIF and NDVI from satellite data show drought-related declines early in the growing season in 2010 as compared to other years between 2007 and 2013 for areas dominated by crops and grasslands. This suggests an early manifestation of the dry conditions on fPAR. We also simulated SIF using a global land surface model driven by observation-based meteorological fields. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the drought and heat impacts on SIF in terms of the timing and spatial extents of anomalies, but there are some differences between modeled and observed SIF. The model may potentially be improved through data assimilation or parameter estimation using satellite observations of SIF (as well as NDVI). The model simulations also offer the opportunity to examine separately the different components of the SIF signal and relationships with Gross Primary Productivity (GPP).

  12. A novel hybrid model for air quality index forecasting based on two-phase decomposition technique and modified extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deyun; Wei, Shuai; Luo, Hongyuan; Yue, Chenqiang; Grunder, Olivier

    2017-02-15

    The randomness, non-stationarity and irregularity of air quality index (AQI) series bring the difficulty of AQI forecasting. To enhance forecast accuracy, a novel hybrid forecasting model combining two-phase decomposition technique and extreme learning machine (ELM) optimized by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed for AQI forecasting in this paper. In phase I, the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is utilized to decompose the AQI series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with different frequencies; in phase II, in order to further handle the high frequency IMFs which will increase the forecast difficulty, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is employed to decompose the high frequency IMFs into a number of variational modes (VMs). Then, the ELM model optimized by DE algorithm is applied to forecast all the IMFs and VMs. Finally, the forecast value of each high frequency IMF is obtained through adding up the forecast results of all corresponding VMs, and the forecast series of AQI is obtained by aggregating the forecast results of all IMFs. To verify and validate the proposed model, two daily AQI series from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 collected from Beijing and Shanghai located in China are taken as the test cases to conduct the empirical study. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model based on two-phase decomposition technique is remarkably superior to all other considered models for its higher forecast accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  14. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  15. Global scale variability of the mineral dust long-wave refractive index: a new dataset of in situ measurements for climate modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Balkanski, Yves; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Journet, Emilie; Nowak, Sophie; Caquineau, Sandrine; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Saeed, Thuraya; Piketh, Stuart; Seibert, David; Williams, Earle; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge because of the scarcity of information on the complex refractive index of dust from different source regions. In particular, little is known about the variability of the refractive index as a function of the dust mineralogical composition, which depends on the specific emission source, and its size distribution, which is modified during transport. As a consequence, to date, climate models and remote sensing retrievals generally use a spatially invariant and time-constant value for the dust LW refractive index. In this paper, the variability of the mineral dust LW refractive index as a function of its mineralogical composition and size distribution is explored by in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Mineral dust aerosols were generated from 19 natural soils from 8 regions: northern Africa, the Sahel, eastern Africa and the Middle East, eastern Asia, North and South America, southern Africa, and Australia. Soil samples were selected from a total of 137 available samples in order to represent the diversity of sources from arid and semi-arid areas worldwide and to account for the heterogeneity of the soil composition at the global scale. Aerosol samples generated from soils were re-suspended in the chamber, where their LW extinction spectra (3-15 µm), size distribution, and mineralogical composition were measured. The generated aerosol exhibits a realistic size distribution and mineralogy, including both the sub- and super-micron fractions, and represents in typical atmospheric proportions the main LW-active minerals, such as clays, quartz, and calcite. The complex refractive index of the aerosol is obtained by an optical inversion based upon the measured extinction spectrum and size distribution. Results from the present study show that the imaginary LW refractive index (k) of dust varies greatly both in magnitude and spectral shape from sample to sample, reflecting the

  16. PEER ASSESSMENT RATING (PAR INDEX CALCULATION ON 2D DENTAL MODEL IMAGE FOR OVER JET, OPEN BITE, AND TEETH SEGMENTATION ON OCCLUSION SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malocclusion is a clinical symptom, in which the teeth of maxilla and mandible are not located at the proper location. If malocclusion left untreated, it can lead to complications in the digestive system, headache, and periodontal disease disorders. Malocclusion problems involving abnormalities of teeth, bones, and muscles around the jaw are obligation of orthodontic specialists to treat them. The treatments can be varying based on the type of malocclusion, including tooth extraction and tooth braces. To know certain degree of malocclusion experienced by the patient, an assessment method called Peer Assessment Rating (PAR Index is usually used by the specialist. To help the works of orthodontic specialists in Indonesia, a new automated calculation system based on 2D image of tooth model for PAR Index is being developed. In this paper, the calculation system for over-jet, open-bite, and teeth segmentation is developed. The result of the developed system is then compared with manual assessment done by orthodontic specialist, in order to verify the accuracy of the system.

  17. APPLICATION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL INDEX CARD MATCH TYPE IN IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING RESULTS ON COMPOSITION AND COMPOSITION FUNCTIONS OF FUNCTIONS INVERS IN MAN 1 MATARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrir Syahrir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of student response in learning mathematics caused by passive of student in process of learning progress so that student consider mathematics subject is difficult subject to be understood. The research is Classroom Action Research (PTK using 2 cycles, then the purpose of this research is how the implementation of cooperative learning type of index card match in improving student learning outcomes on the subject matter of composition function and inverse function in MAN 1 Mataram. While the results of the analysis in the study showed that there is in cycle I obtained classical completeness 78.79% with the average score of student learning outcomes 69.78 and the average value of student learning responses with the category Enough, then in cycle II shows that classical thoroughness 87 , 89% with mean score of student learning result 78,94 and average value of student learning response with good category. So it can be concluded that the implementation of Model Cooperative Learning Type Index Card Match can improve student learning outcomes on the subject matter of composition function and inverse function.

  18. Fast food, other food choices and body mass index in teenagers in the United Kingdom (ALSPAC): a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L K; Edwards, K L; Cade, J E; Clarke, G P

    2011-10-01

    To assess the association between the consumption of fast food (FF) and body mass index (BMI) of teenagers in a large UK birth cohort. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was chosen to allow direct statistical testing of a theoretical model. SEM is a combination of confirmatory factor and path analysis, which allows for the inclusion of latent (unmeasured) variables. This approach was used to build two models: the effect of FF outlet visits and food choices and the effect of FF exposure on consumption and BMI. A total of 3620 participants had data for height and weight from the age 13 clinic and the frequency of FF outlet visits, and so were included in these analyses. This SEM model of food choices showed that increased frequency of eating at FF outlets is positively associated with higher consumption of unhealthy foods (β=0.29, Pfoods (β=-1.02, Pfoods and were more likely to have higher BMISDS than those teenagers who did not eat frequently at FF restaurants. Teenagers who were exposed to more takeaway foods at home ate more frequently at FF restaurants and eating at FF restaurants was also associated with lower intakes of vegetables and raw fruit in this cohort.

  19. Modelling lecturer performance index of private university in Tulungagung by using survival analysis with multivariate adaptive regression spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, M.; Prastyo, D. D.

    2018-03-01

    Survival analysis performs relationship between independent variables and survival time as dependent variable. In fact, not all survival data can be recorded completely by any reasons. In such situation, the data is called censored data. Moreover, several model for survival analysis requires assumptions. One of the approaches in survival analysis is nonparametric that gives more relax assumption. In this research, the nonparametric approach that is employed is Multivariate Regression Adaptive Spline (MARS). This study is aimed to measure the performance of private university’s lecturer. The survival time in this study is duration needed by lecturer to obtain their professional certificate. The results show that research activities is a significant factor along with developing courses material, good publication in international or national journal, and activities in research collaboration.

  20. Stock market index prediction using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komo, Darmadi; Chang, Chein-I.; Ko, Hanseok

    1994-03-01

    A neural network approach to stock market index prediction is presented. Actual data of the Wall Street Journal's Dow Jones Industrial Index has been used for a benchmark in our experiments where Radial Basis Function based neural networks have been designed to model these indices over the period from January 1988 to Dec 1992. A notable success has been achieved with the proposed model producing over 90% prediction accuracies observed based on monthly Dow Jones Industrial Index predictions. The model has also captured both moderate and heavy index fluctuations. The experiments conducted in this study demonstrated that the Radial Basis Function neural network represents an excellent candidate to predict stock market index.

  1. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  2. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  3. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  4. 4-1BB Aptamer-Based Immunomodulation Enhances the Therapeutic Index of Radiation Therapy in Murine Tumor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaduce, Ana Paula; Brenneman, Randall; Schrand, Brett; Pollack, Alan; Gilboa, Eli; Ishkanian, Adrian, E-mail: aishkanian@med.miami.edu

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To report a novel strategy using oligonucleotide aptamers to 4-1BB as an alternate method for costimulation, and show that combinatorial therapy with radiation improves the therapeutic ratio over equivalent monoclonal antibodies. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) tumors were established (approximately 100 mm{sup 3}), and a radiation therapy (RT) dose/fractionation schedule that optimally synergizes with 4-1BB monoclonal antibody (mAb) was identified. Comparable tumor control and animal survival was observed when either 4-1BB antibody or aptamer were combined with RT using models of breast cancer and melanoma (4T1 and B16-F10). Off-target CD8{sup +} T-cell toxicity was evaluated by quantification of CD8{sup +} T cells in livers and spleens of treated animals. Results: When combined with 4-1BB mAb, significant differences in tumor control were observed by varying RT dose and fractionation schedules. Optimal synergy between RT and 4-1BB mAb was observed at 5 Gy × 6. Testing 4-1BB mAb and aptamer independently using the optimal RT (5 Gy × 6 for 4T1/Balb/c and 12 Gy × 1 for B16/C57BL6J mouse models) revealed equivalent tumor control using 4-1BB aptamer and 4-1BB mAb. 4-1BB mAb, but not 4-1BB aptamer-treated animals, exhibited increased lymphocytic liver infiltrates and increased splenic and liver CD8{sup +} T cells. Conclusions: Radiation therapy synergizes with 4-1BB mAb, and this effect is dependent on RT dose and fractionation. Tumor control by 4-1BB aptamer is equivalent to 4-1BB mAb when combined with optimal RT dose, without eliciting off-target liver and spleen CD8{sup +} expansion. 4-1BB aptamer-based costimulation affords a comparable and less toxic strategy to augment RT-mediated tumor control.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) modelling as an exploratory tool for assessing passability of riverine migratory challenge zones for fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Chelminski, Michael; Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed two-dimensional computational fluid hydraulics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) models to identify and qualitatively assess potential zones of shallow water depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five major anadromous fish species in a 2.63-km reach of the main stem Penobscot River, Maine, as a result of a dam removal downstream of the reach. Suitability parameters were based on distribution of fish lengths and body depths and transformed to cruising, maximum sustained and sprint swimming speeds. Zones of potential depth and velocity challenges were calculated based on the hydraulic models; ability of fish to pass a challenge zone was based on the percent of river channel that the contiguous zone spanned and its maximum along-current length. Three river flows (low: 99.1 m3 sec-1; normal: 344.9 m3 sec-1; and high: 792.9 m3 sec-1) were modelled to simulate existing hydraulic conditions and hydraulic conditions simulating removal of a dam at the downstream boundary of the reach. Potential depth challenge zones were nonexistent for all low-flow simulations of existing conditions for deeper-bodied fishes. Increasing flows for existing conditions and removal of the dam under all flow conditions increased the number and size of potential velocity challenge zones, with the effects of zones being more pronounced for smaller species. The two-dimensional CFD-HSI model has utility in demonstrating gross effects of flow and hydraulic alteration, but may not be as precise a predictive tool as a three-dimensional model. Passability of the potential challenge zones cannot be precisely quantified for two-dimensional or three-dimensional models due to untested assumptions and incomplete data on fish swimming performance and behaviours.

  6. Impact of Skeletal Muscle Mass Index, Intramuscular Adipose Tissue Content, and Visceral to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Area Ratio on Early Mortality of Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Kaido, Toshimi; Okumura, Shinya; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Shirai, Hisaya; Yagi, Shintaro; Kamo, Naoko; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle depletion has been shown to be an independent risk factor for poor survival in various diseases. However, in surgery, the significance of other body components including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue remains unclear. This retrospective study included 250 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) between January 2008 and April 2015. Using preoperative plain computed tomography imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR), respectively. The cutoff values of these parameters were determined for men and women separately using the data of 657 healthy donors for LDLT between 2005 and 2016. Impact of these parameters on outcomes after LDLT was analyzed. VSR was significantly correlated with patient age (P = 0.041), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (P mass index (P normal group. On multivariate analysis, low SMI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.367, P = 0.002), high IMAC (HR, 2.096, P = 0.004), and high VSR (HR, 2.213, P = 0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for death after LDLT. Preoperative visceral adiposity, as well as low muscularity, was closely involved with posttransplant mortality.

  7. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  8. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  9. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  10. A study on the abundance of quartz in thermal coals of India and its relation to abrasion index: Development of predictive model for abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandopadhyay, A.K. [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research Digwadih Campus, P.O.-FRI, Dhanbad-828108, Jharkhand (India)

    2010-10-01

    The quartz content of each of the 61 thermal coals used in power stations in India has been determined using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. It has been observed that quartz is abundant in the thermal coals and its proportion varies from 5 to 20% by wt. The abrasion index (AI), a measure of abrasion caused by coals, has been determined for each coal according to the procedure laid down in Indian Standard IS: 9949-1986. The data generated on abrasion together with ash and quartz percentages of the coals studied have been subjected to regression and correlation analysis. Positive correlations have been found between AI and quartz content and between AI and ash yield, but the correlation between AI and ash (A) and quartz (Q) percentages has been observed to be the most significant (R{sup 2} = 0.86). The linear regression model AI = 1.00A + 1.35Q thus developed has the ability to predict AI of the thermal coals within {+-} 10 mg/kg at 95.5% confidence level. Results of application of the model to predicting abrasion of a limited number of foreign coals with different origins have been found to be encouraging. Integration of other variables like the size and the shape of the abrading particles along with other physical properties of coal, like the bulk density and the grindability, with the model, in addition to the variables already considered, has been suggested for improved prediction. (author)

  11. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-07

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness.

  12. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  13. Determination of Fertility Rating (FR in the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine Plantations in the Southeastern United States Based on Site Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is an important component of forest ecosystems, yet evaluating soil fertility remains one of the least understood aspects of forest science. We hypothesized that the fertility rating (FR used in the model 3-PG could be predicted from site index (SI for loblolly pine in the southeastern US and then developed a method to predict FR from SI to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that FR values derived from SI when used in 3-PG explain 89% of the variation in loblolly pine yield. The USDA SSURGO dataset contains SI values for loblolly pine for the major soil series in most of the counties in the southeastern US. The potential of using SI from SSURGO data to predict regional productivity of loblolly pine was assessed by comparing SI values from SSURGO with field inventory data in the study sites. When the 3-PG model was used with FR values derived using SI values from SSURGO database to predict loblolly pine productivity across the broader regions, the model provided realistic outputs of loblolly pine productivity. The results of this study show that FR values can be estimated from SI and used in 3-PG to predict loblolly pine productivity in the southeastern US.

  14. A free-knot spline modeling framework for piecewise linear logistic regression in complex samples with body mass index and mortality as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling nonlinearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping. Unlike other nonlinear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and the complex multi-stage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic nonlinear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and nonlinearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions.

  15. Zero-Inflated Models for Identifying Relationships Between Body Mass Index and Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tianyi; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhao, Yanfang; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Yibin; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; He, Jia

    2016-07-01

    That obesity leads to gastroesophageal reflux is a widespread notion. However, scientific evidence for this association is limited, with no rigorous epidemiological approach conducted to address this question. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a large population-representative sample from China. We performed a cross-sectional study in an age- and gender-stratified random sample of the population of five central regions in China. Participants aged 18-80 years completed a general information questionnaire and a Chinese version of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire. The zero-inflated Poisson regression model estimated the relationship between body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Overall, 16,091 (89.4 %) of the 18,000 eligible participants responded. 638 (3.97 %) and 1738 (10.81 %) experienced at least weekly heartburn and weekly acid regurgitation, respectively. After adjusting for potential risk factors in the zero-inflated part, the frequency [odds ratio (OR) 0.66, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.50-0.86, p = 0.002] and severity (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.50-088, p = 0.004) of heartburn in obese participants were statistically significant compared to those in normal participants. In the Poisson part, the frequency of acid regurgitation, overweight (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.01-1.21, p = 0.038) and obesity (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.04-1.37, p = 0.013) were statistically significant. BMI was strongly and positively related to the frequency and severity of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Additionally, gender exerted strong specific effects on the relationship between BMI and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. The severity and frequency of heartburn were positively correlated with obesity. This relationship was presented distinct in male participants only.

  16. Development of a mathematical-statistical model for the analysis of sediments redox potential: An environmental pollution index; Sviluppo di un modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi del potenziale redox dei sedimenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, G; Rizzo, V [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A; Picci, M [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata

    1996-07-01

    This work refers different depth redox potential measurement as well as a statistical analysis in Venice lagoon sediments. A mathematical model that links redox potential and detection depth has been carried out. From this model an inversion gradient has been determined. This parameter may been considered as different lagoon areas pollution index.

  17. The development of a non-linear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) to model climate-water clarity relationships: reconstructing a historical water clarity index for the coastal waters of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron C.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin; Pirhalla, Douglas E.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Shein, Karsten

    2017-10-01

    The coastal waters of the southeastern USA contain important protected habitats and natural resources that are vulnerable to climate variability and singular weather events. Water clarity, strongly affected by atmospheric events, is linked to substantial environmental impacts throughout the region. To assess this relationship over the long-term, this study uses an artificial neural network-based time series modeling technique known as non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models) to explore the relationship between climate and a water clarity index (KDI) in this area and to reconstruct this index over a 66-year period. Results show that synoptic-scale circulation patterns, weather types, and precipitation all play roles in impacting water clarity to varying degrees in each region of the larger domain. In particular, turbid water is associated with transitional weather and cyclonic circulation in much of the study region. Overall, NARX model performance also varies—regionally, seasonally and interannually—with wintertime estimates of KDI along the West Florida Shelf correlating to the actual KDI at r > 0.70. Periods of extreme (high) KDI in this area coincide with notable El Niño events. An upward trend in extreme KDI events from 1948 to 2013 is also present across much of the Florida Gulf coast.

  18. Estimating the surface layer refractive index structure constant over snow and sea ice using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with a mesoscale atmospheric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Honghua; Tian, Qiguo; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong; Li, Xuebin

    2016-09-05

    Since systematic direct measurements of refractive index structure constant ( Cn2) for many climates and seasons are not available, an indirect approach is developed in which Cn2 is estimated from the mesoscale atmospheric model outputs. In previous work, we have presented an approach that a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model called Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory which can be used to estimate surface layer Cn2 over the ocean. Here this paper is focused on surface layer Cn2 over snow and sea ice, which is the extending of estimating surface layer Cn2 utilizing WRF model for ground-based optical application requirements. This powerful approach is validated against the corresponding 9-day Cn2 data from a field campaign of the 30th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We employ several statistical operators to assess how this approach performs. Besides, we present an independent analysis of this approach performance using the contingency tables. Such a method permits us to provide supplementary key information with respect to statistical operators. These methods make our analysis more robust and permit us to confirm the excellent performances of this approach. The reasonably good agreement in trend and magnitude is found between estimated values and measurements overall, and the estimated Cn2 values are even better than the ones obtained by this approach over the ocean surface layer. The encouraging performance of this approach has a concrete practical implementation of ground-based optical applications over snow and sea ice.

  19. Comparison between frailty index of deficit accumulation and phenotypic model to predict risk of falls: data from the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women (GLOW Hamilton cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Li

    Full Text Available To compare the predictive accuracy of the frailty index (FI of deficit accumulation and the phenotypic frailty (PF model in predicting risks of future falls, fractures and death in women aged ≥55 years.Based on the data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW 3-year Hamilton cohort (n = 3,985, we compared the predictive accuracy of the FI and PF in risks of falls, fractures and death using three strategies: (1 investigated the relationship with adverse health outcomes by increasing per one-fifth (i.e., 20% of the FI and PF; (2 trichotomized the FI based on the overlap in the density distribution of the FI by the three groups (robust, pre-frail and frail which were defined by the PF; (3 categorized the women according to a predicted probability function of falls during the third year of follow-up predicted by the FI. Logistic regression models were used for falls and death, while survival analyses were conducted for fractures.The FI and PF agreed with each other at a good level of consensus (correlation coefficients ≥ 0.56 in all the three strategies. Both the FI and PF approaches predicted adverse health outcomes significantly. The FI quantified the risks of future falls, fractures and death more precisely than the PF. Both the FI and PF discriminated risks of adverse outcomes in multivariable models with acceptable and comparable area under the curve (AUCs for falls (AUCs ≥ 0.68 and death (AUCs ≥ 0.79, and c-indices for fractures (c-indices ≥ 0.69 respectively.The FI is comparable with the PF in predicting risks of adverse health outcomes. These findings may indicate the flexibility in the choice of frailty model for the elderly in the population-based settings.

  20. Comparison between frailty index of deficit accumulation and phenotypic model to predict risk of falls: data from the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women (GLOW) Hamilton cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Thabane, Lehana; Ioannidis, George; Kennedy, Courtney; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of the frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation and the phenotypic frailty (PF) model in predicting risks of future falls, fractures and death in women aged ≥55 years. Based on the data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) 3-year Hamilton cohort (n = 3,985), we compared the predictive accuracy of the FI and PF in risks of falls, fractures and death using three strategies: (1) investigated the relationship with adverse health outcomes by increasing per one-fifth (i.e., 20%) of the FI and PF; (2) trichotomized the FI based on the overlap in the density distribution of the FI by the three groups (robust, pre-frail and frail) which were defined by the PF; (3) categorized the women according to a predicted probability function of falls during the third year of follow-up predicted by the FI. Logistic regression models were used for falls and death, while survival analyses were conducted for fractures. The FI and PF agreed with each other at a good level of consensus (correlation coefficients ≥ 0.56) in all the three strategies. Both the FI and PF approaches predicted adverse health outcomes significantly. The FI quantified the risks of future falls, fractures and death more precisely than the PF. Both the FI and PF discriminated risks of adverse outcomes in multivariable models with acceptable and comparable area under the curve (AUCs) for falls (AUCs ≥ 0.68) and death (AUCs ≥ 0.79), and c-indices for fractures (c-indices ≥ 0.69) respectively. The FI is comparable with the PF in predicting risks of adverse health outcomes. These findings may indicate the flexibility in the choice of frailty model for the elderly in the population-based settings.

  1. The Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) applied in a study of stellar orbits in barred galaxies potential models using the LP-VIcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caritá, Lucas Antonio; Rodrigues, Irapuan; Puerari, Ivânio; Schiavo, Luiz Eduardo Camargo Aranha

    2018-04-01

    The Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) is a mathematical tool, not yet conventional, for chaos detection in the phase space of Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems. The SALI values has temporal behaviors very specific to ordered or chaotic motions, what makes the distinction between order and chaos easily observable in these systems. In this paper, this method will be applied to the stability study of stellar orbits immersed in gravitational potential of barred galaxies, since the motion of a test particle in a rotating barred galaxy model is given by a Hamiltonian function. Extracting four parameter sets from the Manos and Athanassoula (2011) work and elaborating a different initial conditions set for each case, we were able to introduce another point of view of their stability study for two degrees of freedom. We have also introduced two new extreme models that corroborates with the conclusions that more axisymmetric bars create an environment with less chaos and that more massive bars create an environment with more chaos. Separate studies were carried out for prograde and retrograde orbits that showed that the retrograde orbits seem more conducive to chaos. To perform all the orbits integrations we used the LP-VIcode program.

  2. Integrating ASCAT surface soil moisture and GEOV1 leaf area index into the SURFEX modelling platform: a land data assimilation application over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barbu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The land monitoring service of the European Copernicus programme has developed a set of satellite-based biogeophysical products, including surface soil moisture (SSM and leaf area index (LAI. This study investigates the impact of joint assimilation of remotely sensed SSM derived from Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT backscatter data and the Copernicus Global Land GEOV1 satellite-based LAI product into the the vegetation growth version of the Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs land surface model within the the externalised surface model (SURFEX modelling platform of Météo-France. The ASCAT data were bias corrected with respect to the model climatology by using a seasonal-based CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function matching technique. A multivariate multi-scale land data assimilation system (LDAS based on the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used for monitoring the soil moisture, terrestrial vegetation, surface carbon and energy fluxes across the domain of France at a spatial resolution of 8 km. Each model grid box is divided into a number of land covers, each having its own set of prognostic variables. The filter algorithm is designed to provide a distinct analysis for each land cover while using one observation per grid box. The updated values are aggregated by computing a weighted average. In this study, it is demonstrated that the assimilation scheme works effectively within the ISBA-A-gs model over a four-year period (2008–2011. The EKF is able to extract useful information from the data signal at the grid scale and distribute the root-zone soil moisture and LAI increments throughout the mosaic structure of the model. The impact of the assimilation on the vegetation phenology and on the water and carbon fluxes varies from one season to another. The spring drought of 2011 is an interesting case study of the potential of the assimilation to improve drought monitoring. A comparison between simulated and in situ soil

  3. Evaluation of the most suitable threshold value for modelling snow glacier melt through T- index approach: the case study of Forni Glacier (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Antonella; Maugeri, Maurizio; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Glacier melt occurs whenever the surface temperature is null (273.15 K) and the net energy budget is positive. These conditions can be assessed by analyzing meteorological and energy data acquired by a supraglacial Automatic Weather Station (AWS). In the case this latter is not present at the glacier surface the assessment of actual melting conditions and the evaluation of melt amount is difficult and degree-day (also named T-index) models are applied. These approaches require the choice of a correct temperature threshold. In fact, melt does not necessarily occur at daily air temperatures higher than 273.15 K, since it is determined by the energy budget which in turn is only indirectly affected by air temperature. This is the case of the late spring period when ablation processes start at the glacier surface thus progressively reducing snow thickness. In this study, to detect the most indicative air temperature threshold witnessing melt conditions in the April-June period, we analyzed air temperature data recorded from 2006 to 2012 by a supraglacial AWS (at 2631 m a.s.l.) on the ablation tongue of the Forni Glacier (Italy), and by a weather station located nearby the studied glacier (at Bormio, 1225 m a.s.l.). Moreover we evaluated the glacier energy budget (which gives the actual melt, Senese et al., 2012) and the snow water equivalent values during this time-frame. Then the ablation amount was estimated both from the surface energy balance (MEB from supraglacial AWS data) and from degree-day method (MT-INDEX, in this latter case applying the mean tropospheric lapse rate to temperature data acquired at Bormio changing the air temperature threshold) and the results were compared. We found that the mean tropospheric lapse rate permits a good and reliable reconstruction of daily glacier air temperature conditions and the major uncertainty in the computation of snow melt from degree-day models is driven by the choice of an appropriate air temperature threshold. Then

  4. Modelling the interactions between Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fish-burgers: use of the lag-exponential model and of a combined interaction index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, B; Bevilacqua, A; Mastromatteo, M; Sinigaglia, M; Corbo, M R

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine the interactions between Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in coculture studies on fish-burgers packed in air and under different modified atmospheres (30 : 40 : 30 O(2) : CO(2) : N(2), 5 : 95 O(2) : CO(2) and 50 : 50 O(2) : CO(2)), throughout the storage at 8 degrees C. The lag-exponential model was applied to describe the microbial growth. To give a quantitative measure of the occurring microbial interactions, two simple parameters were developed: the combined interaction index (CII) and the partial interaction index (PII). Under air, the interaction was significant (P exponential growth phase (CII, 1.72), whereas under the modified atmospheres, the interactions were highly significant (P exponential and in the stationary phase (CII ranged from 0.33 to 1.18). PII values for E. coli O157:H7 were lower than those calculated for Ps. putida. The interactions occurring into the system affected both E. coli O157:H7 and pseudomonads subpopulations. The packaging atmosphere resulted in a key element. The article provides some useful information on the interactions occurring between E. coli O157:H7 and Ps. putida on fish-burgers. The proposed index describes successfully the competitive growth of both micro-organisms, giving also a quantitative measure of a qualitative phenomenon.

  5. Adjusting tidal volume to stress index in an open lung condition optimizes ventilation and prevents overdistension in an experimental model of lung injury and reduced chest wall compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Gutierrez, Andrea; Tusman, Gerardo; Carbonell, Jose; García, Marisa; Piqueras, Laura; Compañ, Desamparados; Flores, Susanie; Soro, Marina; Llombart, Alicia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-13

    The stress index (SI), a parameter derived from the shape of the pressure-time curve, can identify injurious mechanical ventilation. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting tidal volume (VT) to a non-injurious SI in an open lung condition avoids hypoventilation while preventing overdistension in an experimental model of combined lung injury and low chest-wall compliance (Ccw). Lung injury was induced by repeated lung lavages using warm saline solution, and Ccw was reduced by controlled intra-abdominal air-insufflation in 22 anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated pigs. After injury animals were recruited and submitted to a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration trial to find the PEEP level resulting in maximum compliance. During a subsequent four hours of mechanical ventilation, VT was adjusted to keep a plateau pressure (Pplat) of 30 cmH2O (Pplat-group, n = 11) or to a SI between 0.95 and 1.05 (SI-group, n = 11). Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain a 'normal' PaCO2 (35 to 65 mmHg). SI, lung mechanics, arterial-blood gases haemodynamics pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology were analyzed. In addition Computed Tomography (CT) data were acquired at end expiration and end inspiration in six animals. PaCO2 was significantly higher in the Pplat-group (82 versus 53 mmHg, P = 0.01), with a resulting lower pH (7.19 versus 7.34, P = 0.01). We observed significant differences in VT (7.3 versus 5.4 mlKg(-1), P = 0.002) and Pplat values (30 versus 35 cmH2O, P = 0.001) between the Pplat-group and SI-group respectively. SI (1.03 versus 0.99, P = 0.42) and end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PTP) (17 versus 18 cmH2O, P = 0.42) were similar in the Pplat- and SI-groups respectively, without differences in overinflated lung areas at end- inspiration in both groups. Cytokines and histopathology showed no differences. Setting tidal volume to a non-injurious stress index in an open lung condition improves

  6. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  7. Exploring spatial change and gravity center movement for ecosystem services value using a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and gravity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingbin; Chen, Youqi; Tang, Huajun; Yao, Yanmin; Yang, Peng; Chen, Zhongxin

    2011-04-01

    Spatially explicit ecosystem services valuation and change is a newly developing area of research in the field of ecology. Using the Beijing region as a study area, the authors have developed a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and implemented this to quantify and spatially differentiate ecosystem services value at 1-km grid resolution. A gravity model was developed to trace spatial change in the total ecosystem services value of the Beijing study area from a holistic point of view. Study results show that the total value of ecosystem services for the study area decreased by 19.75% during the period 1996-2006 (3,226.2739 US$×10(6) in 1996, 2,589.0321 US$×10(6) in 2006). However, 27.63% of the total area of the Beijing study area increased in ecosystem services value. Spatial differences in ecosystem services values for both 1996 and 2006 are very clear. The center of gravity of total ecosystem services value for the study area moved 32.28 km northwestward over the 10 years due to intensive human intervention taking place in southeast Beijing. The authors suggest that policy-makers should pay greater attention to ecological protection under conditions of rapid socio-economic development and increase the area of green belt in the southeastern part of Beijing.

  8. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  9. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  10. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  11. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  12. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  13. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  14. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.

    2018-02-01

    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  15. Pricing of temperature index insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Mohd Imran Che Taib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study pricing of weather insurance contracts based on temperature indices. Three different pricing methods are analysed: the classical burn approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. We take the data from Malaysia as our empirical case. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the burn and index pricing approaches on one hand, and the temperature modelling method on the other. The latter approach is pricing the insurance contract using a seasonal autoregressive time series model for daily temperature variations, and thus provides a precise probabilistic model for the fine structure of temperature evolution. We complement our pricing analysis by an investigation of the profit/loss distribution from the contract, in the perspective of both the insured and the insurer.

  16. Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Leaf Area Index into the Community Land Model with Explicit Carbon and Nitrogen Components using Data Assimilation Research Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, X.; Fu, C.; Yang, Z. L.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    Information of the spatial and temporal patterns of leaf area index (LAI) is crucial to understand the exchanges of momentum, carbon, energy, and water between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere, while both in-situ observation and model simulation usually show distinct deficiency in terms of LAI coverage and value. Land data assimilation, combined with observation and simulation together, is a promising way to provide variable estimation. The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) developed and maintained by the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) provides a powerful tool to facilitate the combination of assimilation algorithms, models, and real (as well as synthetic) observations to better understanding of all three. Here we systematically investigated the effects of data assimilation on improving LAI simulation based on NCAR Community Land Model with the prognostic carbon-nitrogen option (CLM4CN) linked with DART using the deterministic Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter (EAKF). Random 40-member atmospheric forcing was used to drive the CLM4CN with or without LAI assimilation. The Global Land Surface Satellite LAI data (GLASS LAI) LAI is assimilated into the CLM4CN at a frequency of 8 days, and LAI (and leaf carbon / nitrogen) are adjusted at each time step. The results show that assimilating remotely sensed LAI into the CLM4CN is an effective method for improving model performance. In detail, the CLM4-CN simulated LAI systematically overestimates global LAI, especially in low latitude with the largest bias of 5 m2/m2. While if updating both LAI and leaf carbon and leaf nitrogen simultaneously during assimilation, the analyzed LAI can be corrected, especially in low latitude regions with the bias controlled around ±1 m2/m2. Analyzed LAI could also represent the seasonal variation except for the Southern Temperate (23°S-90°S). The obviously improved regions located in the center of Africa, Amazon, the South of Eurasia, the northeast of

  17. Prognostic model based on nailfold capillaroscopy for identifying Raynaud's phenomenon patients at high risk for the development of a scleroderma spectrum disorder: PRINCE (prognostic index for nailfold capillaroscopic examination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Boracchi, Patrizia; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Lubatti, Chiara; Meani, Laura; Zahalkova, Lenka; Zeni, Silvana; Fantini, Flavio

    2008-07-01

    To construct a prognostic index based on nailfold capillaroscopic examinations that is capable of predicting the 5-year transition from isolated Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) to RP secondary to scleroderma spectrum disorders (SSDs). The study involved 104 consecutive adult patients with a clinical history of isolated RP, and the index was externally validated in another cohort of 100 patients with the same characteristics. Both groups were followed up for 1-8 years. Six variables were examined because of their potential prognostic relevance (branching, enlarged and giant loops, capillary disorganization, microhemorrhages, and the number of capillaries). The only factors that played a significant prognostic role were the presence of giant loops (hazard ratio [HR] 2.64, P = 0.008) and microhemorrhages (HR 2.33, P = 0.01), and the number of capillaries (analyzed as a continuous variable). The adjusted prognostic role of these factors was evaluated by means of multivariate regression analysis, and the results were used to construct an algorithm-based prognostic index. The model was internally and externally validated. Our prognostic capillaroscopic index identifies RP patients in whom the risk of developing SSDs is high. This model is a weighted combination of different capillaroscopy parameters that allows physicians to stratify RP patients easily, using a relatively simple diagram to deduce the prognosis. Our results suggest that this index could be used in clinical practice, and its further inclusion in prospective studies will undoubtedly help in exploring its potential in predicting treatment response.

  18. A Systematic Methodology for Uncertainty Analysis of Group Contribution Based and Atom Connectivity Index Based Models for Estimation of Properties of Pure Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    , entropy of vaporization, surface tension, viscosity, flash point, auto ignition temperature, Hansen solubility parameters, Hildebrand solubility parameter, aqueous solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient, compressibility factor, molar volume, molar refraction, refractive index and lethal...

  19. Thermal maturity and burial history modelling of shale is enhanced by use of Arrhenius time-temperature index and memetic optimizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal maturity indices and modelling based on Arrhenius-equation reaction kinetics have played an important role in oil and gas exploration and provided petroleum generation insight for many kerogen-rich source rocks. Debate continues concerning how best to integrate the Arrhenius equation and which activation energies (E and frequency factors (A values to apply. A case is made for the strong theoretical basis and practical advantages of the time-temperature index (∑TTIARR method, first published in 1998, using a single, carefully selected E-A set (E = 218 kJ/mol (52.1 kcal/mol; A = 5.45E+26/my from the well-established A-E trend for published kerogen kinetics. An updated correlation between ∑TTIARR and vitrinite reflectance (Ro is provided in which the ∑TTIARR scale spans some 18 orders of magnitude. The method is readily calculated in spreadsheets and can be further enhanced by visual basic for application code to provide optimization. Optimization is useful for identifying possible geothermal gradients and erosion intervals covering multiple burial intervals that can match calculated thermal maturities with measured Ro data. A memetic optimizer with firefly and dynamic local search memes is described that flexibly conducts exploration and exploitation of the feasible, multi-dimensional, thermal history solution space to find high-performing solutions to complex burial and thermal histories. A complex deep burial history example, with several periods of uplift and erosion and fluctuating heat flow is used to demonstrate what can be achieved with the memetic optimizer. By carefully layering in constraints to the models specific insights to episodes in their thermal history can be exposed, leading to better characterization of the timing of petroleum generation. The objective function found to be most effective for this type of optimization is the mean square error (MSE of multiple burial intervals for the difference between

  20. An enhanced approach for the use of satellite-derived leaf area index values in dry deposition modeling in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mervyn; Cho, Sunny; Spink, David; Pauls, Ron; Desilets, Michael; Shen, Yan; Bajwa, Kanwardeep; Person, Reid

    2016-12-15

    In the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) of Northern Alberta, the dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds represents a major fraction of total (wet plus dry) deposition due to oil sands emissions. The leaf area index (LAI) is a critical parameter that affects the dry deposition of these gaseous and particulate compounds to the surrounding boreal forest canopy. For this study, LAI values based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite imagery were obtained and compared to ground-based measurements, and two limitations with the satellite data were identified. The satellite LAI data firstly represents one-sided LAI values that do not account for the enhanced LAI associated with needle leaf geometry, and secondly, underestimates LAI in winter-time northern latitude regions. An approach for adjusting satellite LAI values for different boreal forest cover types, as a function of time of year, was developed to produce more representative LAI values that can be used by air quality sulphur and nitrogen deposition models. The application of the approach increases the AOSR average LAI for January from 0.19 to 1.40, which represents an increase of 637%. Based on the application of the CALMET/CALPUFF model system, this increases the predicted regional average dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds for January by factors of 1.40 to 1.30, respectively. The corresponding AOSR average LAI for July increased from 2.8 to 4.0, which represents an increase of 43%. This increases the predicted regional average dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds for July by factors of 1.28 to 1.22, respectively. These findings reinforce the importance of the LAI metric for predicting the dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds. While satellite data can provide enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, adjustments are identified to overcome associated limitations. This work is considered to have application for other deposition model studies where

  1. A MODEL FOR THE CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY INDEX WITH EDDINGTON RATIO IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that there is a positive correlation between the Eddington ratio λ and hard X-ray index Γ for λ ∼> 0.01, and there is an anti-correlation between λ and Γ for λ ∼ bol /L Edd ). In this work, we theoretically investigate the correlation between Γ and λ within the framework of a disk-corona model. We improve the model by taking into account all cooling processes, including synchrotron and self-Compton radiations in the corona, Comptonization of the soft photons from the underlying accretion disk, and the bremsstrahlung radiations. Presuming that the coronal flow above the disk can reach up to the 0.1 Eddington rate at the outer region, we calculate the structure of the two-phase accretion flows and the emergent spectra for accretion rates from 0.003 to 0.1. We find that at accretion rates larger than bsim0.01 Eddington rate, a fraction of coronal gas condenses into the disk and an inner disk can be sustained by condensation. In this case, the X-ray emission is dominated by the scattering of the soft photon from the underlying disk in the corona. The emission from the inner disk and corona can produce the positive correlation between λ and Γ. While at accretion rates lower than bsim0.01 Eddington accretion rate, the inner disk vanishes completely by evaporation, and the accretion is dominated by advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which the X-ray emission is produced by the Comptonization of the synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons of ADAF itself. The emission from ADAFs can produce the anti-correlation between λ and Γ. We show that our model can roughly explain the observed evolution of Γ 3-25keV with L 0.5-25keV /L Edd for the black hole X-ray transient H1743–322 in the decay of 2003 from the thermal-dominated state to low/hard state.

  2. Land use change and conversion effects on ground water quality trends: An integration of land change modeler in GIS and a new Ground Water Quality Index developed by fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtarian, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Margherita, Ferrante; Gea, Oliveri Conti; Mortezazadeh, Shima

    2018-04-01

    This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed. The correlation analysis indicated that increase in the urban land use area and conversion of bare to the residential/industrial land uses, had a relation with water quality decrease. Integration of LCM and GWQI can accurately and logically provide a numerical analysis of the possible impact of land use change and conversion, as one of the influencing factors, on the groundwater quality. Hence, the methodology could be used in urban development planning and management in macro level. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The impact of body mass index (BMI variation on mortality of incident elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis: a joint model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Gianotti Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Data on impact of high body mass index (BMI on mortality of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD, especially among elderly, are inconsistent. Objective: To evaluate impact of BMI on cohort of incident elderly PD patients over time. Methods: Prospective multicenter cohort study (December / 2004-October/2007 with 674 patients. Socio-demographic and clinical data evaluated with patients followed until death, transfer to hemodialysis (HD, recovery of renal function, loss of follow-up or transplant. Patients were divided into incident on renal replacement therapy (RRT for PD (PD first: 230 and transferred from hemodialysis (HD first: 444. Analysis was performed comparing these two groups using chi-square or Kruskal Wallis. Similar analysis was used to compare patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD vs. continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Data were compared between patients according to BMI by ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis or chi-square. For analysis of survival, Kaplan Meier method was used and to adjust confounding variables, Cox regression proportional hazard. Joint model for longitudinal and time-dependent data was conducted, assessing impact that a longitudinal variable displays on time of survival. Results: Malnourished patients (76.79 ± 7.53 years were older (p < 0.0001 with higher percentage of death (44.6%, p = 0.001; diabetes mellitus showed high prevalence in obese patients (68%, p < 0.0001; higher blood pressure levels (p = 0.002 were present in obese and overweight patients. Conclusions: Increased BMI variation over time proved to be a protective factor, with a decrease of about 1% in risk of death for every BMI unit earned.

  4. Longitudinal associations between body mass index, physical activity, and healthy dietary behaviors in adults: A parallel latent growth curve modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and healthy dietary behaviors (HDB are two well-documented lifestyle factors influencing body mass index (BMI. This study examined 7-year longitudinal associations between changes in PA, HDB, and BMI among adults using a parallel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM.We used prospective cohort data collected by a private company (SimplyWell LLC, Omaha, NE, USA implementing a workplace health screening program. Data from a total of 2,579 adults who provided valid BMI, PA, and HDB information for at least 5 out of 7 follow-up years from the time they entered the program were analyzed. PA and HDB were subjectively measured during an annual online health survey. Height and weight measured during an annual onsite health screening were used to calculate BMI (kg·m2. The parallel LGCMs stratified by gender and baseline weight status (normal: BMI30 were fitted to examine the longitudinal associations of changes in PA and HDB with change in BMI over years.On average, BMI gradually increased over years, at rates ranging from 0.06 to 0.20 kg·m2·year, with larger increases observed among those of normal baseline weight status across genders. The increases in PA and HDB were independently associated with a smaller increase in BMI for obese males (b = -1.70 and -1.98, respectively, and overweight females (b = -1.85 and -2.46, respectively and obese females (b = -2.78 and -3.08, respectively. However, no significant associations of baseline PA and HDB with changes in BMI were observed.Our study suggests that gradual increases in PA and HDB are independently associated with smaller increases in BMI in overweight and obese adults, but not in normal weight individuals. Further study is warranted to address factors that check increases in BMI in normal weight adults.

  5. [Effect of oxidative stress-associated damage to the lung tissue caused by different body mass index in the rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Zhang, X J; Zhao, J H; Xu, J Y

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the influence of different diets on serum protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the activities of Trx and TrxR, and to explore the effect of damage to the lung tissue and the underlying mechanisms of different body mass index caused by different diets in the rat models . Method: Healthy clean male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, emaciation group and fat group, which were raised by different diets for 6 months.Then the rats were sacrificed and the serum and lung tissue were prepared. The levels of 4-HNE, Trx and TrxR in peripheral blood were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of Trx and TrxR were measured by chemical methods. Results: Compared with the normal group, the lung tissue had more apparent emphysema in the emaciation and the fat groups under light microscope, and more inflammatory cell infiltration in alveolar septum was observed in the fat group.The levels of 4-HNE in the fat group[(24.7±8.7)mg/L]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(15.4±4.7)mg/L, P 0.05)in the levels of 4-HNE between the emaciation and the normal groups. The levels of TrxR in the emaciation group[(7.7±1.4)μg/ml]was significantly higher than that in the normal and the fat groups[(6.2±1.1), (4.9±1.4)μg/ml, all P 0.05). The activity of Trx in the emaciation group[(32.4±8.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(19.6±3.3)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]and the fat group[(11.3±7.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 , all P 0.05). Conclusion: Both high BMI and low BMI can affect the oxidative stress of the body, resulting in increased oxidants and decreased antioxidants, and can cause damage to the lung tissue in the rat models.

  6. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture modelling: associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Koning

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential heterogeneity in the development of BMI during childhood by identifying distinct subpopulations characterized by distinct developmental trajectories. Using Latent Class Growth (Mixture Modelling (LCGMM techniques we aimed to identify BMI trajectories in childhood and to examine associations between these distinct trajectories and dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors. Methods This longitudinal study explored BMI standard deviation score (SDS trajectories in a sample of 613 children from 4 to 12 years of age. In 2006, 2009 and 2012 information on children’s health related behaviors was obtained by parental questionnaires, and children’s height and weight were measured. Associations with behaviors were investigated with logistic regression models. Results We identified two BMI SDS trajectories; a decreasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 416; 68 % and an increasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 197; 32 %. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory consisted of more participants of lower socio-economic status (SES and of non-western ethnicity. Maternal overweight status was associated with being in the increasing BMI SDS trajectory at both baseline and follow-up six years later (2006: Odds Ratio (OR, 2.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.9 to 4.3; 2012 OR, 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2 to 2.6. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory was associated with the following behaviors; drinking sugared drinks > 3 glasses per day, participation in organized sports  2 h per day, though participation in organized sports at follow-up was the only significant result. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors at a young age, and

  7. Use of Drought Index and Crop Modelling for Drought Impacts Analysis on Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Loss in Bandung District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, E.; Impron; Perdinan

    2017-03-01

    Drought impacts on crop yield loss depend on drought magnitude and duration and on plant genotype at every plant growth stages when droughts occur. This research aims to assess the difference calculation results of 2 drought index methods and to study the maize yield loss variability impacted by drought magnitude and duration during maize growth stages in Bandung district, province of West Java, Indonesia. Droughts were quantified by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at 1- to 3-month lags for the January1986-December 2015 period data. Maize yield responses to droughts were simulated by AquaCrop for the January 1986-May 2016 period of growing season. The analysis showed that the SPI and SPEI methods provided similar results in quantifying drought event. Droughts during maize reproductive stages caused the highest maize yield loss.

  8. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  9. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  10. Markers of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Lipid Accumulation Are Moderately Associated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment Index of Insulin Resistance in Obese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samjoo, Imtiaz A.; Safdar, Adeel; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Glover, Alexander W.; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Santana, Jose; Little, Jonathan P.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Raha, Sandeep; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes), IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide) in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR) prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density), increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r = −0.34; P = 0.051) and IMF mitochondrial density (r = −0.29; P = 0.096), IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r = −0.30; P = 0.086), and COXII (r = −0.32; P = 0.095) and COXIV protein abundance (r = −0.35; P = 0.052); while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r = 0.28; P = 0.119) and SS IMCL density (r = 0.25; P = 0.152). Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have

  11. Markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and lipid accumulation are moderately associated with the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance in obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A Samjoo

    Full Text Available Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes, IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS and intermyofibrillar (IMF regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density, increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r = -0.34; P = 0.051 and IMF mitochondrial density (r = -0.29; P = 0.096, IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r = -0.30; P = 0.086, and COXII (r = -0.32; P = 0.095 and COXIV protein abundance (r = -0.35; P = 0.052; while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r = 0.28; P = 0.119 and SS IMCL density (r = 0.25; P = 0.152. Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have been

  12. Lesion size affects diagnostic performance of IOTA logistic regression models, IOTA simple rules and risk of malignancy index in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Legge, A; Testa, A C; Ameye, L; Van Calster, B; Lissoni, A A; Leone, F P G; Savelli, L; Franchi, D; Czekierdowski, A; Trio, D; Van Holsbeke, C; Ferrazzi, E; Scambia, G; Timmerman, D; Valentin, L

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal masses of different size using: subjective assessment, two International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) logistic regression models (LR1 and LR2), the IOTA simple rules and the risk of malignancy index (RMI). We used a multicenter IOTA database of 2445 patients with at least one adnexal mass, i.e. the database previously used to prospectively validate the diagnostic performance of LR1 and LR2. The masses were categorized into three subgroups according to their largest diameter: small tumors (diameter IOTA simple rules and the RMI were applied to each of the three groups. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+, LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) were used to describe diagnostic performance. A moving window technique was applied to estimate the effect of tumor size as a continuous variable on the AUC. The reference standard was the histological diagnosis of the surgically removed adnexal mass. The frequency of invasive malignancy was 10% in small tumors, 19% in medium-sized tumors and 40% in large tumors; 11% of the large tumors were borderline tumors vs 3% and 4%, respectively, of the small and medium-sized tumors. The type of benign histology also differed among the three subgroups. For all methods, sensitivity with regard to malignancy was lowest in small tumors (56-84% vs 67-93% in medium-sized tumors and 74-95% in large tumors) while specificity was lowest in large tumors (60-87%vs 83-95% in medium-sized tumors and 83-96% in small tumors ). The DOR and the AUC value were highest in medium-sized tumors and the AUC was largest in tumors with a largest diameter of 7-11 cm. Tumor size affects the performance of subjective assessment, LR1 and LR2, the IOTA simple rules and the RMI in discriminating correctly between benign and malignant adnexal masses. The likely explanation, at least in part, is

  13. MULTI-TEMPORAL CROP SURFACE MODELS COMBINED WITH THE RGB VEGETATION INDEX FROM UAV-BASED IMAGES FOR FORAGE MONITORING IN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Possoch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition. Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass

  14. Multi-Temporal Crop Surface Models Combined with the RGB Vegetation Index from Uav-Based Images for Forage Monitoring in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoch, M.; Bieker, S.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bolten, A.; Schellberg, J.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs) were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition). Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI) was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based) and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs) were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon) with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass. There is a

  15. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture) modelling : associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Maaike; Hoekstra, Trynke; de Jong, Elske; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Renders, Carry M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI) at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential

  16. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  17. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  18. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  19. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  20. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  1. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  2. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...... it to be an important alternative to PC....

  3. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  4. Scala Mobile, salari e prezzi in un modello di equilibrio di lungo periodo. (Full wage indexation, salaries and prices in a model of long-run equilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICCOLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo lavoro vengono esaminati gli effetti a lungo termine di piena indicizzazione dei salari ai prezzi in un sistema economico . In particolare , l'autore dimostra che la piena indicizzazione dei salari , mentre amplifica i fenomeni inflazionistici , non influenza il livello o tasso di crescita dei salari reali .Viene proposto  un meccanismo alternativo con effetti inflazionistici molto più piccoli ..In this paper the long-term effects of full wage indexation to prices in an economic system are examined. In particular, the author shows that full wage indexation, while amplifying the inflationary phenomena, does not affect the level or growth rate of real wages. An alternative mechanism with much smaller inflationary effects is then proposed.JEL: E31

  5. Evaluation of Surface Water Quality by Using GIS and a Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) Model in a Coal Mining Area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Twenty eight surface water samples were collected from fourteen sites of the West Bokaro coalfield, India. The concentration of Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Se, Al, Cr, Ba, and Fe were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of seasonal fluctuations and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. Metal concentrations were higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. The Zn, Ni, Mn, As, Se, Al, Ba, Cu, and Cr concentrations did not exceed the desirable limits for drinking water in either season. However, at many sites, concentrations of Fe were above the desirable limit of the WHO (2006) and Indian drinking water standard (BIS 2003) in both seasons. The water that contained higher concentrations of Fe would require treatment before domestic use.

  6. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  7. Development of a measure of sense of community for individuals with serious mental illness residing in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret

    2009-03-03

    The psychological sense of community is one of the most commonly investigated constructs in community psychology. Sense of community may be particularly important for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) because they often face societal barriers to participation in community living, including stigma and discrimination. To date, no published studies have investigated the psychometric qualities of sense of community measures among individuals with SMI. The current study tested a series of confirmatory factor analyses using the Brief Sense of Community Index (BSCI, Long & Perkins, 2003) in a sample of 416 persons with SMI living in community settings to suggest a model of sense of community for individuals with SMI and other disabilities. The resulting scale, the Brief Sense of Community Index- Disability (BSCI-D), demonstrated good model fit and construct validity. Implications are discussed for how this scale may be used in research investigating community integration and adaptive functioning in community settings.

  8. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  9. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  15. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.