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Sample records for model independent study

  1. A comparative study of independent particle model based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find that among these three independent particle model based methods, the ss-VSCF method provides most accurate results in the thermal averages followed by t-SCF and the v-VSCF is the least accurate. However, the ss-VSCF is found to be computationally very expensive for the large molecules. The t-SCF gives ...

  2. Techniques for studies of unbinned model independent CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas; Weisser, Constantin; Parkes, Chris; Gersabeck, Marco; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chen, Shanzhen [University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Charge-Parity (CP) violation is a known part of the Standard Model and has been observed and measured in both the B and K meson systems. The observed levels, however, are insufficient to explain the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, and so other sources need to be found. One area of current investigation is the D meson system, where predicted levels of CP violation are much lower than in the B and K meson systems. This means that more sensitive methods are required when searching for CP violation in this system. Several unbinned model independent methods have been proposed for this purpose, all of which need to be optimised and their sensitivities compared.

  3. A comparative study of independent particle model based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quartic potential energy surface (PES) in normal coor- dinates. Several studies have been done to test the reli- ... the single particle potential is optimized for each vibra- tional state and VSCF calculation is done for each ... electronic structure calculations as the second, third and fourth derivatives of the electronic potentital ...

  4. Study of nuclear bremsstrahlung in the model independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung cross section for the scattering of protons by 12 C near the 1.7-MeV resonance has been measured by the Bologna group and the Brooklyn group. In this study, we have included in our calculations the correction terms in the Feshbach-Yennie approximation and have extracted the time delay in the P- 12 C reaction from the data of the Brooklyn group. The + p process near the (1236) has been systematically studied by an experimental group at UCLA. Recently, Liou and Nutt reported a calculation using the soft-photon approximation and their results agree very well with experiment for coplanar events. We have extended their calculation to noncoplanar cases and have found that the soft-photon approximation of Liou and Nutt can describe the experimental data very well not only for coplanar cases but also for noncoplanar cases for most photon angles. In addition, we have also used the Feshbach-Yennie approximation to calculate the + p cross sections. This approximation always predicts a bump in the bremsstrahlung spectrum, although the bump may be small for some photon angles. In most cases, the predicted cross sections are in good agreement with the UCLA data. However, the data for some angles can only be described by the Feshbach-Yennie approximation, and the peak cross section is too large at some angles. We have applied the soft-photon approximation of Liou and Nutt to calculate the proton-proton bremsstrahlung (pp) cross section and have compared our results with the experimental data at 730, 157, 48 and 42 MeV. We have found that we can use the soft-photon approximation to calculate the R-type cross section without any difficulty, but we cannot use the same approximation to predict the H-type cross section without some ambiguity. We have also applied the Feshbach-Yennie approximation to the pp process at 730-MeV taking into account the principal and correction terms

  5. Published diagnostic models safely excluded colorectal cancer in an independent primary care validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Kok, Liselotte; Witteman, Ben J M; Goedhard, Jelle G; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Muris, Jean W M; de Wit, Niek J; Moons, Karel G M

    OBJECTIVE: To validate published diagnostic models for their ability to safely reduce unnecessary endoscopy referrals in primary care patients suspected of significant colorectal disease. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Following a systematic literature search, we independently validated the identified

  6. Results of the Independent Verification and Validation Study for the D2-Puff Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowers, J

    1999-01-01

    .... The independent verification and validation (IV&V) study of D2-Puff Version 2.0.6 focused on these accreditation requirements and the implicit requirement that the model provide safe-sided hazard estimates...

  7. Model-independent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Computing differences (diffs) and merging different versions is well-known for text files, but for models it is a very young field - especially patches for models are still matter of research. Text-based and model-based diffs have different starting points because the semantics of their structure...... is fundamentally different. This paper reports on our ongoing work on model-independent diffs, i.e. a diff that does not directly refer to the models it was created from. Based on that, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic diffs are merged to a new, generalized diff. One use...

  8. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    Computing differences (diffs) and merging different versions is wellknown for text files, but for models it is a very young field. Text-based and model-based diffs have different goals and different starting points, because the semantics of their structure is fundamentally different. Text files...... it was created from. We present concepts for model-independent diffs, how it can be created and used. In the end, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic differences are merged to a new, generalized diff – similar to a patch for text files. The advantage of such a generalized...

  9. Supervising Model of Independent Enterprise Group (Study of Community Development PT Badak NGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah Hermansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to arrange an empowerment model of enterprise group through the program of Community Development in order to be independent and ready to compete, which is begun from the empirical study of the success of Cipta Busana Cooperative.. This research uses the descriptive analysis by using a case study on one enterprise supervised by PT Badak NGL that is Koperasi Cipta Busana (Kocibu. Kocibu is chosen to be the object of research due to its success to achieve the target to be the independent supervised enterprise in the fourth year. The data analysis method used in this research is the explorative analysis. Based on the research, there are some results such as that Kocibu is one of the supervised Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of PT Badak NGL that could develop and be independent through several supporting programs. Some of key successes of Kocibu are as follows: a high commitment, a good leader, and intensive supervising programs. Besides, a good marketing system also contributes to the key of success. There are some aspects that naturally contribute to the Kocibu improvement and emerge naturally as follows: the leader figure and the high commitment from the stakeholders. While, the aspects emerged by design are: the supervising and training programs, the evaluation, the determination of rules, and the business targets. Hopefully, after this research has been conducted, the aspects appeared naturaly would be realized so early that the success of the public empowerment program will be able to increase. 

  10. Independent power producer parallel operation modeling in transient network simulations for interconnected distributed generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Fabricio A.M.; Camacho, Jose R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, School of Electrical Engineering, Rural Electricity and Alternative Sources Lab, PO Box 593, 38400.902 Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Chaves, Marcelo L.R.; Guimaraes, Geraldo C. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, School of Electrical Engineering, Power Systems Dynamics Group, PO Box: 593, 38400.902 Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    The main task in this paper is to present a performance analysis of a distribution network in the presence of an independent power producer (IP) synchronous generator with its speed governor and voltage regulator modeled using TACS -Transient Analysis of Control Systems, for distributed generation studies. Regulators were implemented through their transfer functions in the S domain. However, since ATP-EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Program) works in the time domain, a discretization is necessary to return the TACS output to time domain. It must be highlighted that this generator is driven by a steam turbine, and the whole system with regulators and the equivalent of the power authority system at the common coupling point (CCP) are modeled in the ''ATP-EMTP -Alternative Transients Program''. (author)

  11. Independent student study groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D; Hyde, Sarah J; Davy, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Teachers and students regulate learning to varying degrees in educational programmes in higher education. We present evidence that students in a student-centred medical programme self- and co-regulate their learning in independently formed study groups. We describe the perceived benefits of study groups and the effect of study group membership on student achievement. Years 1-2 of a 4-year, graduate-entry problem-based medical programme. We surveyed 233 year 2 students about features of their study groups and their study group membership in years 1-2. We compared study group membership with students' scores on a written summative assessment held at the end of their second year. For students who joined 1 study group, the length of time their group stayed together was positively related to achievement in the written summative assessment. There were no differences in summative assessment results between students who had been in a study group and students who had not been in a study group. Effective study groups are supportive, socially cohesive groups who generate mutual trust and loyalty, and self- and co-regulate their learning by giving and receiving explanations and summaries and motivating individual study. Teachers can support the formation of study groups by using small-group teaching/learning activities, providing clear learning outcomes and assessment criteria, minimising competition for grades and allocating room space.

  12. Environmental Sound Perception: Metadescription and Modeling Based on Independent Primary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McAdams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to transpose and extend to a set of environmental sounds the notion of sound descriptors usually used for musical sounds. Four separate primary studies dealing with interior car sounds, air-conditioning units, car horns, and closing car doors are considered collectively. The corpus formed by these initial stimuli is submitted to new experimental studies and analyses, both for revealing metacategories and for defining more precisely the limits of each of the resulting categories. In a second step, the new structure is modeled: common and specific dimensions within each category are derived from the initial results and new investigations of audio features are performed. Furthermore, an automatic classifier based on two audio descriptors and a multinomial logistic regression procedure is implemented and validated with the corpus.

  13. Model Independence in Downscaled Climate Projections: a Case Study in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, G. M. E.; Boyles, R.

    2016-12-01

    Downscaled climate projections are used to deduce how the climate will change in future decades at local and regional scales. It is important to use multiple models to characterize part of the future uncertainty given the impact on adaptation decision making. This is traditionally employed through an equally-weighted ensemble of multiple GCMs downscaled using one technique. Newer practices include several downscaling techniques in an effort to increase the ensemble's representation of future uncertainty. However, this practice may be adding statistically dependent models to the ensemble. Previous research has shown a dependence problem in the GCM ensemble in multiple generations, but has not been shown in the downscaled ensemble. In this case study, seven downscaled climate projections on the daily time scale are considered: CLAREnCE10, SERAP, BCCA (CMIP5 and CMIP3 versions), Hostetler, CCR, and MACA-LIVNEH. These data represent 83 ensemble members, 44 GCMs, and two generations of GCMs. Baseline periods are compared against the University of Idaho's METDATA gridded observation dataset. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering is applied to the correlated errors to determine dependent clusters. Redundant GCMs across different downscaling techniques show the most dependence, while smaller dependence signals are detected within downscaling datasets and across generations of GCMs. These results indicate that using additional downscaled projections to increase the ensemble size must be done with care to avoid redundant GCMs and the process of downscaling may increase the dependence of those downscaled GCMs. Climate model generation does not appear dissimilar enough to be treated as two separate statistical populations for ensemble building at the local and regional scales.

  14. Prediction models for the mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients: a systematic review and independent external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramspek, Chava L; Voskamp, Pauline Wm; van Ittersum, Frans J; Krediet, Raymond T; Dekker, Friedo W; van Diepen, Merel

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to identify existing models for predicting mortality in dialysis patients through a review and subsequently to externally validate these models in the same large independent patient cohort, in order to assess and compare their predictive capacities. A systematic review was performed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To account for missing data, multiple imputation was performed. The original prediction formulae were extracted from selected studies. The probability of death per model was calculated for each individual within the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD). The predictive performance of the models was assessed based on their discrimination and calibration. In total, 16 articles were included in the systematic review. External validation was performed in 1,943 dialysis patients from NECOSAD for a total of seven models. The models performed moderately to well in terms of discrimination, with C -statistics ranging from 0.710 (interquartile range 0.708-0.711) to 0.752 (interquartile range 0.750-0.753) for a time frame of 1 year. According to the calibration, most models overestimated the probability of death. Overall, the performance of the models was poorer in the external validation than in the original population, affirming the importance of external validation. Floege et al's models showed the highest predictive performance. The present study is a step forward in the use of a prediction model as a useful tool for nephrologists, using evidence-based medicine that

  15. Stochastic inverse modelling of hydraulic conductivity fields taking into account independent stochastic structures: A 3D case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Capilla, J. E.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryMajor factors affecting groundwater flow through fractured rocks include the geometry of each fracture, its properties and the fracture-network connectivity together with the porosity and conductivity of the rock matrix. When modelling fractured rocks this is translated into attaining a characterization of the hydraulic conductivity ( K) as adequately as possible, despite its high heterogeneity. This links with the main goal of this paper, which is to present an improvement of a stochastic inverse model, named as Gradual Conditioning (GC) method, to better characterise K in a fractured rock medium by considering different K stochastic structures, belonging to independent K statistical populations (SP) of fracture families and the rock matrix, each one with its own statistical properties. The new methodology is carried out by applying independent deformations to each SP during the conditioning process for constraining stochastic simulations to data. This allows that the statistical properties of each SPs tend to be preserved during the iterative optimization process. It is worthwhile mentioning that so far, no other stochastic inverse modelling technique, with the whole capabilities implemented in the GC method, is able to work with a domain covered by several different stochastic structures taking into account the independence of different populations. The GC method is based on a procedure that gradually changes an initial K field, which is conditioned only to K data, to approximate the reproduction of other types of information, i.e., piezometric head and solute concentration data. The approach is applied to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where, since the middle nineties, many experiments have been carried out to increase confidence in alternative radionuclide transport modelling approaches. Because the description of fracture locations and the distribution of hydrodynamic parameters within them are not accurate enough, we address the

  16. Prediction models for the mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients: a systematic review and independent external validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramspek CL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chava L Ramspek,1 Pauline WM Voskamp,1 Frans J van Ittersum,2 Raymond T Krediet,3 Friedo W Dekker,1 Merel van Diepen1 On behalf of the NECOSAD study group 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2Department of Nephrology, VU University Medical Center, 3Department of Nephrology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Objective: In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to identify existing models for predicting mortality in dialysis patients through a review and subsequently to externally validate these models in the same large independent patient cohort, in order to assess and compare their predictive capacities.Methods: A systematic review was performed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. To account for missing data, multiple imputation was performed. The original prediction formulae were extracted from selected studies. The probability of death per model was calculated for each individual within the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD. The predictive performance of the models was assessed based on their discrimination and calibration.Results: In total, 16 articles were included in the systematic review. External validation was performed in 1,943 dialysis patients from NECOSAD for a total of seven models. The models performed moderately to well in terms of discrimination, with C-statistics ranging from 0.710 (interquartile range 0.708–0.711 to 0.752 (interquartile range 0.750–0.753 for a time frame of 1 year. According to the calibration, most

  17. Development Parenting Model to Increase the Independence of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarty, Kustiah; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    This study examines parenting and the child's independence model. The research problem is whether there is a relationship between parenting and the child's independence. The purpose of research is to determine: firstly, the type of parenting in an effort to increase the independence of the child; and the relationship between parenting models and…

  18. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  19. Independent Component Analysis in Multimedia Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of multimedia and multimodal data becomes increasingly important with the digitalization of the world. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of independent component analysis and blind sources separation methods for modeling and understanding of multimedia data, which...

  20. Model-independent Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Erik; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new data analysis method for obtaining transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and brightness variation across the stellar disk from transit observations. The new method is capable of recovering exoplanet atmosphere absorption spectra and stellar specific intensities without relying on theoretical models of stars and planets. We simultaneously fit both stellar specific intensity and planetary radius directly to transit light curves. This allows stellar models to be removed from the data analysis. Furthermore, we use a data quality weighted filtering technique to achieve an optimal trade-off between spectral resolution and reconstruction fidelity homogenizing the signal-to-noise ratio across the wavelength range. Such an approach is more efficient than conventional data binning onto a low-resolution wavelength grid. We demonstrate that our analysis is capable of reproducing results achieved by using an explicit quadratic limb-darkening equation and that the filtering technique helps eliminate spurious spectral features in regions with strong telluric absorption. The method is applied to the VLT FORS2 observations of the exoplanets GJ 1214 b and WASP-49 b, and our results are in agreement with previous studies. Comparisons between obtained stellar specific intensity and numerical models indicates that the method is capable of accurately reconstructing the specific intensity. The proposed method enables more robust characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres by separating derivation of planetary transmission and stellar specific intensity spectra (that is model-independent) from chemical and physical interpretation.

  1. User-independent diffusion tensor imaging analysis pipelines in a rat model presenting ventriculomegalia: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakpo, Luis; Pierre, Wyston C; Jin, Chen; Londono, Irène; Pouliot, Philippe; Lodygensky, Gregory A

    2017-11-01

    Automated analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data is an appealing way to process large datasets in an unbiased manner. However, automation can sometimes be linked to a lack of interpretability. Two whole-brain, automated and voxelwise methods exist: voxel-based analysis (VBA) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In VBA, the amount of smoothing has been shown to influence the results. TBSS is free of this step, but a projection procedure is introduced to correct for residual misalignments. This projection assigns the local highest fractional anisotropy (FA) value to the mean FA skeleton, which represents white matter tract centers. For both methods, the normalization procedure has a major impact. These issues are well documented in humans but, to our knowledge, not in rodents. In this study, we assessed the quality of three different registration algorithms (ANTs SyN, DTI-TK and FNIRT) using study-specific templates and their impact on automated analysis methods (VBA and TBSS) in a rat pup model of diffuse white matter injury presenting large unilateral deformations. VBA and TBSS results were stable and anatomically coherent across the three pipelines. For VBA, in regions around the large deformations, interpretability was limited because of the increased partial volume effect. With TBSS, two of the three pipelines found a significant decrease in axial diffusivity (AD) at the known injury site. These results demonstrate that automated voxelwise analyses can be used in an animal model with large deformations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Noninvasive Model Independent Noise Control with Adaptive Feedback Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control (ANC system is model dependent/independent if its controller transfer function is dependent/independent on initial estimates of path models in a sound field. Since parameters of path models in a sound field will change when boundary conditions of the sound field change, model-independent ANC systems (MIANC are able to tolerate variations of boundary conditions in sound fields and more reliable than model-dependent counterparts. A possible way to implement MIANC systems is online path modeling. Many such systems require invasive probing signals (persistent excitations to obtain accurate estimates of path models. In this study, a noninvasive MIANC system is proposed. It uses online path estimates to cancel feedback, recover reference signal, and optimize a stable controller in the minimum H2 norm sense, without any forms of persistent excitations. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the stable control performance of the proposed system.

  3. Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V

    2011-12-28

    Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation.

  4. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis....../Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from...... among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though...

  5. Across the Desk: Teaching Through Independent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdin, Lois; Worby, Diana

    1976-01-01

    Independent study is addressed as a creative and alternative mode of learning. Its unique advantages and strengths are examined along with its planning and structure, the student/instructor interaction, the use of learning resources, examples of disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches, the products of such study, and methods of evaluation.…

  6. Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detection experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered in the ...

  7. Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detection experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered in the ...

  8. Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detec- tion experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered ...

  9. A diagrammatic construction of formal E-independent model hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, V.

    1977-01-01

    A diagrammatic construction of formal E-independent model interaction (i.e., without second-quantization formalism) is suggested. The construction starts from the quasi-degenerate Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory, in the framework of which an E-dependent model Hamiltonian is simply constructed. Applying the ''E-removing'' procedure to this E-dependent model Hamiltonian, the E-independent formal model Hamiltonian either Hermitian or non-Hermitian can diagrammatically be easily derived. For the formal E-independent model Hamiltonian the separability theorem is proved, which can be profitably used for a rather ''formalistic ''construction of a many-body E-independent model Hamiltonian

  10. Model independent spin determination at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelhaeuser, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the year 2011, both the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have recorded around 5 inverse femtobarns of data at an energy of 7 TeV. There are only vague hints from the already analysed data towards new physics at the TeV scale. However, one knows that around this scale, new physics should show up so that theoretical issues of the standard model of particle physics can be cured. During the last decades, extensions to the standard model that are supposed to solve its problems have been constructed, and the corresponding phenomenology has been worked out. As soon as new physics is discovered, one has to deal with the problem of determining the nature of the underlying model. A first hint is of course given by the mass spectrum and quantum numbers such as electric and colour charges of the new particles. However, there are two popular model classes, supersymmetric models and extradimensional models, which can exhibit almost equal properties at the accessible energy range. Both introduce partners to the standard model particles with the same charges and thus one needs an extended discrimination method. From the origin of these partners arises a relevant difference: The partners constructed in extradimensional models have the same spin as their standard model partners while in Supersymmetry they differ by spin 1/2. These different spins have an impact on the phenomenology of the two models. For example, one can exploit the fact that the total cross sections are affected, but this requires a very good knowledge of the couplings and masses involved. Another approach uses angular distributions depending on the particle spins. A prevailing method based on this idea uses the invariant mass distribution of the visible particles in decay chains. One can relate these distributions to the spin of the particle mediating the decay since it reflects itself in the highest power of the invariant mass s ff of the adjacent particles. In this thesis we

  11. Model independent spin determination at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelhaeuser, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    By the end of the year 2011, both the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have recorded around 5 inverse femtobarns of data at an energy of 7 TeV. There are only vague hints from the already analysed data towards new physics at the TeV scale. However, one knows that around this scale, new physics should show up so that theoretical issues of the standard model of particle physics can be cured. During the last decades, extensions to the standard model that are supposed to solve its problems have been constructed, and the corresponding phenomenology has been worked out. As soon as new physics is discovered, one has to deal with the problem of determining the nature of the underlying model. A first hint is of course given by the mass spectrum and quantum numbers such as electric and colour charges of the new particles. However, there are two popular model classes, supersymmetric models and extradimensional models, which can exhibit almost equal properties at the accessible energy range. Both introduce partners to the standard model particles with the same charges and thus one needs an extended discrimination method. From the origin of these partners arises a relevant difference: The partners constructed in extradimensional models have the same spin as their standard model partners while in Supersymmetry they differ by spin 1/2. These different spins have an impact on the phenomenology of the two models. For example, one can exploit the fact that the total cross sections are affected, but this requires a very good knowledge of the couplings and masses involved. Another approach uses angular distributions depending on the particle spins. A prevailing method based on this idea uses the invariant mass distribution of the visible particles in decay chains. One can relate these distributions to the spin of the particle mediating the decay since it reflects itself in the highest power of the invariant mass s{sub ff} of the adjacent particles. In this thesis

  12. Model independent control of lightly damped noise/vibration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing

    2008-07-01

    Feedforward control is a popular strategy of active noise/vibration control. In well-damped noise/vibration systems, path transfer functions from actuators to sensors can be modeled by finite impulse response (FIR) filters with negligible errors. It is possible to implement noninvasive model independent feedforward control by a recently proposed method called orthogonal adaptation. In lightly damped noise/vibration systems, however, path transfer functions have infinite impulse responses (IIRs) that cause difficulties in design and implementation of broadband feedforward controllers. A major source of difficulties is model error if IIR path transfer functions are approximated by FIR filters. In general, active control performance deteriorates as model error increases. In this study, a new method is proposed to design and implement model independent feedforward controllers for broadband in lightly damped noise/vibration systems. It is shown analytically that the proposed method is able to drive the convergence of a noninvasive model independent feedforward controller to improve broadband control in lightly damped noise/vibration systems. The controller is optimized in the minimum H2 norm sense. Experiment results are presented to verify the analytical results.

  13. Development of independent generalized probabilistic models for regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashev, M.Kh.; Zinchenko, Yu.A.; Stefanishin, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of probabilistic models to be used in regulatory activities. Results from the development of independent generalized PSA-1 models for purposes of SNRIU risk-informed regulation are presented

  14. Model selection and comparison for independents sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve this me....... Through simulations, we demonstrate that the lp-BIC outperforms the asymptotic MAP criterion and other state of the art methods in terms of model selection, de-noising and prediction performance. The simulation code is available online.......In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve...... this method by considering the problem in a full Bayesian framework instead of the approximate formulation, on which the asymptotic MAP criterion is based. This leads to a new model selection and comparison method, the lp-BIC, whose computational complexity is of the same order as the asymptotic MAP criterion...

  15. Modelling Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Deus Ex Machina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Central bank independence represents the core element of assessing the complex relationship between government and central bank, having at background the fundamental issue of a free monetary policy decision-making process from the hands of the political circle. However, central bank independence is a multilevel concept within some social, economic and behavioral implications both for the central banks and for the society at whole. Central bank independence is needed in order to establish an autonomous central bank with a high degree of freedom in choosing its’ instruments, objectives, techniques and tactics. Moreover, a high degree of transparency for the public disclosure and monitoring of central bank operation and transaction is needed for the social barometer of the central bank. Consequently the central bank must have a high degree of accountability and responsibility vis - á - vis of the most democratic institution, i.e. Parliament. In this article it is presented a comprehensive study regarding the complex relationship between central bank independence and inflation by modeling these two monetary policy panacea, in order to make a fine tuning regarding the causal relationship established in a heterodox manner.

  16. The independent spreaders involved SIR Rumor model in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhen; Tang, Shaoting; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies of rumor or information diffusion process in complex networks show that in contrast to traditional comprehension, individuals who participate in rumor spreading within one network do not always get the rumor from their neighbors. They can obtain the rumor from different sources like online social networks and then publish it on their personal sites. In our paper, we discuss this phenomenon in complex networks by adopting the concept of independent spreaders. Rather than getting the rumor from neighbors, independent spreaders learn it from other channels. We further develop the classic "ignorant-spreaders-stiflers" or SIR model of rumor diffusion process in complex networks. A steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the final spectrum of the rumor spreading under various spreading rate, stifling rate, density of independent spreaders and average degree of the network. Results show that independent spreaders effectively enhance the rumor diffusion process, by delivering the rumor to regions far away from the current rumor infected regions. And though the rumor spreading process in SF networks is faster than that in ER networks, the final size of rumor spreading in ER networks is larger than that in SF networks.

  17. Bayesian Test of Significance for Conditional Independence: The Multinomial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Morais Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditional independence tests have received special attention lately in machine learning and computational intelligence related literature as an important indicator of the relationship among the variables used by their models. In the field of probabilistic graphical models, which includes Bayesian network models, conditional independence tests are especially important for the task of learning the probabilistic graphical model structure from data. In this paper, we propose the full Bayesian significance test for tests of conditional independence for discrete datasets. The full Bayesian significance test is a powerful Bayesian test for precise hypothesis, as an alternative to the frequentist’s significance tests (characterized by the calculation of the p-value.

  18. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  19. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S n , the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A n integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S 2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S 2 , which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b 1 } and {b 2 }, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b 1 }→∞, and/or {b 2 }→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A 1 vertex-model partition function

  20. The model-independent analysis for Higgs boson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-23

    independent search for the Higgs boson and also check if the 125 GeV particle is indeed the Standard .... est ai can be evaluated, having the other unconstrained model parameters treated as the nuisance parameters. The signal ...

  1. Comparative studies of atomic independent-particle potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, J.D.; Ganas, P.S.; Green, A.E.S.

    1979-01-01

    A number of atomic properties are compared in various independent-particle models for atoms. The models studied are the Hartree-Fock method, a variationally optimized potential model, a parametrized analytic form of the same model, parametrized analytic models constructed to fit atomic energy levels, the so-called Hartree-Fock-Slater model, and the Xα model. The physical properties compared are single-particle energy levels, total energies, and dipole polarizabilities. The extent to which the virial theorem is satisfied in the different models is also considered. The atoms Be, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and ions O v and Al iv hav been compared. The results show that the experimental properties can be well represented by several of the independent-particle models. Since it has been shown that the optimized potential models yield wavefunctions that are almost the same as Hartree-Fock wavefunctions, they provide a natural solution to the problem of extending the Hartree-Fock method to excited states

  2. Model-independent cosmological constraints from growth and expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Shafieloo, Arman; Kim, Hyungjin

    2018-02-01

    Reconstructing the expansion history of the Universe from type Ia supernovae data, we fit the growth rate measurements and put model-independent constraints on some key cosmological parameters, namely, Ωm, γ, and σ8. The constraints are consistent with those from the concordance model within the framework of general relativity, but the current quality of the data is not sufficient to rule out modified gravity models. Adding the condition that dark energy density should be positive at all redshifts, independently of its equation of state, further constrains the parameters and interestingly supports the concordance model.

  3. Regression mixture models : Does modeling the covariance between independent variables and latent classes improve the results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, A.E.; Vermunt, J.K.; Van Horn, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Regression mixture models are increasingly used as an exploratory approach to identify heterogeneity in the effects of a predictor on an outcome. In this simulation study, we tested the effects of violating an implicit assumption often made in these models; that is, independent variables in the

  4. Model-independent effects of Δ excitation in nucleon polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-independent effects of Δ(1232) excitation on nucleon polarizabilities are computed in a Lorentz-invariant fashion. We find a large effect of relative order (M Δ -M)/M in some of the spin polarizabilities, with the backward spin polarizability receiving the largest contribution. Similar subleading effects are found to be important in the fourth-order spin-independent polarizabilities α Eν , α E2 , β Mν , and β M2 . Combining our results with those for the model-independent effects of pion loops we obtain predictions for spin and fourth-order polarizabilities which compare favorably with the results of a recent dispersion-relation analysis of data

  5. Validation of elk resource selection models with spatially independent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscilla K. Coe; Bruce K. Johnson; Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Marty Vavra; Ryan M. Nielson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of how landscape features affect wildlife resource use is essential for informed management. Resource selection functions often are used to make and validate predictions about landscape use; however, resource selection functions are rarely validated with data from landscapes independent of those from which the models were built. This problem has severely...

  6. Compositional models and conditional independence in evidence theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Radim; Vejnarová, Jiřina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 316-334 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Evidence theory * Conditional independence * multidimensional models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/jirousek-0370515.pdf

  7. Independence-Based Optimization of Epistemic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    imperfect information of their environment. It has been applied to settings that include diagnosis [8], and reasoning in game - like settings [15, 16, 32...represents the model as a concurrent pro- gram, in which each of the agents executes a protocol in the context of an environment. We provide a symbolic ...handled by the symbolic model checking algorithms. The paper presents experimental results that demonstrate that the condi- tional independence

  8. Hadron properties within the model of quasi-independent quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of families of rho, PSI and Y mesons and electromagnetic characteristics of baryons are calculated, based on the model of quasi-independent quarks and assuming the independence of the scalar interaction potential of quark quantum numbers (including ''flavour''). Mesons that are bounded states of the different mass quarks are treated by introducing the concept of ''averaged quarks''. The case is also considered when the interaction potential behaves, with respect to the Lorentz group, as the fourth vector component. Good agreement of the calculation with the experimental data is observed

  9. Lightweight Graphical Models for Selectivity Estimation Without Independence Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Deshpande, Amol; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    , propagated exponentially, can lead to severely sub-optimal plans. Modern optimizers typically maintain one-dimensional statistical summaries and make the attribute value independence and join uniformity assumptions for efficiently estimating selectivities. Therefore, selectivity estimation errors in today......’s optimizers are frequently caused by missed correlations between attributes. We present a selectivity estimation approach that does not make the independence assumptions. By carefully using concepts from the field of graphical models, we are able to factor the joint probability distribution of all...

  10. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  11. Asymptomatic Independence and Separability in Convariance Structure Models: Implications for Specification Error, Power, and Model Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D; Wenger, R N

    1993-10-01

    This article presents a didactic discussion on the role of asymptotically independent test statistics and separable hypotheses as they pertain to issues of specification error, power, and model modification in the covariance structure modeling framework. Specifically, it is shown that when restricting two parameter estimates on the basis of the multivariate Wald test, the condition of asymptotic independence is necessary but not sufficient for the univariate Wald test statistics to sum to the multivariate Wald test. Instead, what is required is mutual asymptotic independence (MAI) among the univariate tests. This result generalizes to sets of multivariate tests as well. When MA1 is lacking, hypotheses can exhibit transitive relationships. It is also shown that the pattern of zero and non-zero elements of the covariance matrix of the estimates are indicative of mutually asymptotically independent test statistics, separable and transitive hypotheses. The concepts of MAI, separability, and transitivity serve as an explanatory framework for how specification errors are propagated through systems of equations and how power analyses are differentially affected by specification errors of the same magnitude. A small population study supports the major findings of this article. The question of univariate versus multivariate sequential model modification is also addressed. We argue that multivariate sequential model modification strategies do not take into account the typical lack of MA1 thus inadvertently misleading substantive investigators. Instead, a prudent approach favors univariate sequential model modification.

  12. Data-Model Relationship in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapert Robert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text-independent speaker recognition systems such as those based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs do not include time sequence information (TSI within the model itself. The level of importance of TSI in speaker recognition is an interesting question and one addressed in this paper. Recent works has shown that the utilisation of higher-level information such as idiolect, pronunciation, and prosodics can be useful in reducing speaker recognition error rates. In accordance with these developments, the aim of this paper is to show that as more data becomes available, the basic GMM can be enhanced by utilising TSI, even in a text-independent mode. This paper presents experimental work incorporating TSI into the conventional GMM. The resulting system, known as the segmental mixture model (SMM, embeds dynamic time warping (DTW into a GMM framework. Results are presented on the 2000-speaker SpeechDat Welsh database which show improved speaker recognition performance with the SMM.

  13. Occam factors and model independent Bayesian learning of continuous distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Bialek, William

    2002-01-01

    Learning of a smooth but nonparametric probability density can be regularized using methods of quantum field theory. We implement a field theoretic prior numerically, test its efficacy, and show that the data and the phase space factors arising from the integration over the model space determine the free parameter of the theory ('smoothness scale') self-consistently. This persists even for distributions that are atypical in the prior and is a step towards a model independent theory for learning continuous distributions. Finally, we point out that a wrong parametrization of a model family may sometimes be advantageous for small data sets

  14. Online Statistical Modeling (Regression Analysis) for Independent Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made Tirta, I.; Anggraeni, Dian; Pandutama, Martinus

    2017-06-01

    Regression analysis (statistical analmodelling) are among statistical methods which are frequently needed in analyzing quantitative data, especially to model relationship between response and explanatory variables. Nowadays, statistical models have been developed into various directions to model various type and complex relationship of data. Rich varieties of advanced and recent statistical modelling are mostly available on open source software (one of them is R). However, these advanced statistical modelling, are not very friendly to novice R users, since they are based on programming script or command line interface. Our research aims to developed web interface (based on R and shiny), so that most recent and advanced statistical modelling are readily available, accessible and applicable on web. We have previously made interface in the form of e-tutorial for several modern and advanced statistical modelling on R especially for independent responses (including linear models/LM, generalized linier models/GLM, generalized additive model/GAM and generalized additive model for location scale and shape/GAMLSS). In this research we unified them in the form of data analysis, including model using Computer Intensive Statistics (Bootstrap and Markov Chain Monte Carlo/ MCMC). All are readily accessible on our online Virtual Statistics Laboratory. The web (interface) make the statistical modeling becomes easier to apply and easier to compare them in order to find the most appropriate model for the data.

  15. Model-independent confirmation of the $Z(4430)^-$ state

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The decay $B^0\\to \\psi(2S) K^+\\pi^-$ is analyzed using $\\rm 3~fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected with the LHCb detector. A model-independent description of the $\\psi(2S) \\pi$ mass spectrum is obtained, using as input the $K\\pi$ mass spectrum and angular distribution derived directly from data, without requiring a theoretical description of resonance shapes or their interference. The hypothesis that the $\\psi(2S)\\pi$ mass spectrum can be described in terms of $K\\pi$ reflections alone is rejected with more than 8$\\sigma$ significance. This provides confirmation, in a model-independent way, of the need for an additional resonant component in the mass region of the $Z(4430)^-$ exotic state.

  16. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  17. A Model of Independent Learning Applied to the Online Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warring, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This case study forms a foundation for understanding the drivers for successful online learning within a constructivist paradigm. It investigates whether Chinese international students completing a degree had achieved a level of independence necessary to succeed in this context. It found that these students had not achieved the independence…

  18. An independent verification and validation of the Future Theater Level Model conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III; Kruse, K.L.; Martellaro, A.J.; Packard, S.L.; Thomas, B. Jr.; Turley, V.K.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of independent verification and validation performed on a combat model in its design stage. The combat model is the Future Theater Level Model (FTLM), under development by The Joint Staff/J-8. J-8 has undertaken its development to provide an analysis tool that addresses the uncertainties of combat more directly than previous models and yields more rapid study results. The methodology adopted for this verification and validation consisted of document analyses. Included were detailed examination of the FTLM design documents (at all stages of development), the FTLM Mission Needs Statement, and selected documentation for other theater level combat models. These documents were compared to assess the FTLM as to its design stage, its purpose as an analytical combat model, and its capabilities as specified in the Mission Needs Statement. The conceptual design passed those tests. The recommendations included specific modifications as well as a recommendation for continued development. The methodology is significant because independent verification and validation have not been previously reported as being performed on a combat model in its design stage. The results are significant because The Joint Staff/J-8 will be using the recommendations from this study in determining whether to proceed with develop of the model.

  19. Model Independent Analysis of Beam Centroid Dynamics in Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2003-04-21

    Fundamental issues in Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM)-based beam dynamics observations are studied in this dissertation. The major topic is the Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of beam centroid dynamics. Conventional beam dynamics analysis requires a certain machine model, which itself of ten needs to be refined by beam measurements. Instead of using any particular machine model, MIA relies on a statistical analysis of the vast amount of BPM data that often can be collected non-invasively during normal machine operation. There are two major parts in MIA. One is noise reduction and degrees-of-freedom analysis using a singular value decomposition of a BPM-data matrix, which constitutes a principal component analysis of BPM data. The other is a physical base decomposition of the BPM-data matrix based on the time structure of pulse-by-pulse beam and/or machine parameters. The combination of these two methods allows one to break the resolution limit set by individual BPMs and observe beam dynamics at more accurate levels. A physical base decomposition is particularly useful for understanding various beam dynamics issues. MIA improves observation and analysis of beam dynamics and thus leads to better understanding and control of beams in both linacs and rings. The statistical nature of MIA makes it potentially useful in other fields. Another important topic discussed in this dissertation is the measurement of a nonlinear Poincare section (one-turn) map in circular accelerators. The beam dynamics in a ring is intrinsically nonlinear. In fact, nonlinearities are a major factor that limits stability and influences the dynamics of halos. The Poincare section map plays a basic role in characterizing and analyzing such a periodic nonlinear system. Although many kinds of nonlinear beam dynamics experiments have been conducted, no direct measurement of a nonlinear map has been reported for a ring in normal operation mode. This dissertation analyzes various issues concerning map

  20. Model Independent Analysis of Beam Centroid Dynamics in Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental issues in Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM)-based beam dynamics observations are studied in this dissertation. The major topic is the Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of beam centroid dynamics. Conventional beam dynamics analysis requires a certain machine model, which itself of ten needs to be refined by beam measurements. Instead of using any particular machine model, MIA relies on a statistical analysis of the vast amount of BPM data that often can be collected non-invasively during normal machine operation. There are two major parts in MIA. One is noise reduction and degrees-of-freedom analysis using a singular value decomposition of a BPM-data matrix, which constitutes a principal component analysis of BPM data. The other is a physical base decomposition of the BPM-data matrix based on the time structure of pulse-by-pulse beam and/or machine parameters. The combination of these two methods allows one to break the resolution limit set by individual BPMs and observe beam dynamics at more accurate levels. A physical base decomposition is particularly useful for understanding various beam dynamics issues. MIA improves observation and analysis of beam dynamics and thus leads to better understanding and control of beams in both linacs and rings. The statistical nature of MIA makes it potentially useful in other fields. Another important topic discussed in this dissertation is the measurement of a nonlinear Poincare section (one-turn) map in circular accelerators. The beam dynamics in a ring is intrinsically nonlinear. In fact, nonlinearities are a major factor that limits stability and influences the dynamics of halos. The Poincare section map plays a basic role in characterizing and analyzing such a periodic nonlinear system. Although many kinds of nonlinear beam dynamics experiments have been conducted, no direct measurement of a nonlinear map has been reported for a ring in normal operation mode. This dissertation analyzes various issues concerning map

  1. Empowerment of Mustaḥiq Zakat Model Towards Business Independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zakat has not been utilized intensively for the empowerment of mustaḥiq (zakat beneficiaries in the form of productive economic business. The objective of the research was to analyze the level of mustaḥiqs’ business independency; to analyze dominant factors that influenced mustaḥiqs’ business independency, and to formulate an appropriate strategy to develop the mustaḥiqs’ business independency. The research has been carried out on 254 mustaḥiqs in Bogor Regency (66 mustaḥiqs engaged in vegetable production at Cibungbulang District, 85 mustaḥiqs in skewer business at Tenjolaya District, and 103 mustaḥiqs in shoe business at Taman Sari District. A census sampling, data collection through a questionnaire, an in-depth interview and observation were carried out in 2013. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically, using structural equation model (SEM. The results of the research showed that: (1 the strategy of mustaḥiq empowerment could be carried out through strengthening the intrinsic motivation, training technical aspects, assisting business capital and assistance. Empowerment can be conducted synergically by the government (arrangement, service, and counseling, private sectors/State Owned Business (BUMN, higher education and community.

  2. Text-Independent Speaker Identification Using the Histogram Transform Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Yu, Hong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic method for the task of text-independent speaker identification (SI). In order to capture the dynamic information during SI, we design a super-MFCCs features by cascading three neighboring Mel-frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) frames together....... These super-MFCC vectors are utilized for probabilistic model training such that the speaker’s characteristics can be sufficiently captured. The probability density function (PDF) of the aforementioned super-MFCCs features is estimated by the recently proposed histogram transform (HT) method. To recedes...

  3. Model independent explorations of Majorana neutrino mass origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James Phearl, Jr.

    The recent observation of nonzero neutrino mass is the first concrete indication of physics beyond the Standard Model. Their properties, unique among the other fermions, leads naturally to the idea of a Majorana neutrino mass term. Despite the strong theoretical prejudice toward this concept, it must be tested experimentally. This is indeed possible in the context of next generation experiments. Unfortunately, the scale of neutrino mass generation may be too large to explore directly, but useful information may still be extracted from independent experimental channels. Here I survey various model independent probes of Majorana neutrino mass origins. A brief introduction to the concepts relevant to the analysis is followed by a discussion of the physical ranges of neutrino mass and mixing parameters within the context of standard and non-standard interactions. Armed with this, I move on to systematically analyze the properties of radiatively generated neutrino masses induced by nonrenormalizable lepton number violating effective operators of mass dimensions five through eleven. By fitting these to the observed light mass scale, I extract predictions for neutrino mixing as well as neutrinoless double beta decay, rare meson/tau decays and collider phenomenology. I find that many such models are already constrained by current data and many more will be probed in the near future. I then move on demonstrate the utility of a low scale see saw mechanism via a viable 3+2+1 sterile neutrino model that satisfies all oscillation data as well as solves problems associated with supernova kicks and heavy element nucleosynthesis. From this I extract predictions for tritium and neutrinoless double beta decay searches. This is supplemented throughout by descriptions of practical limitations in addition to suggestions for future work.

  4. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  5. A finite element model for independent wire rope core with double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to model and analyse independent wire rope core accurately (IWRC). In this paper, ... Although considerable research studies have been carried out about the analytical solutions of IWRCs by Costello & Sinha ... straight strand as being the main component for modelling IWRC and more complex wire ropes by using IWRC.

  6. Model independent bounds on magnetic moments of Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Gorchtein, Mikhail; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Vogel, Petr; Wang, Peng

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the implications of neutrino masses for the magnitude of neutrino magnetic moments. By considering electroweak radiative corrections to the neutrino mass, we derive model-independent naturalness upper bounds on neutrino magnetic moments, μ ν , generated by physics above the electroweak scale. For Dirac neutrinos, the bound is several orders of magnitude more stringent than present experimental limits. However, for Majorana neutrinos the magnetic moment contribution to the mass is Yukawa suppressed. The bounds we derive for magnetic moments of Majorana neutrinos are weaker than present experimental limits if μ ν is generated by new physics at ∼1 TeV, and surpass current experimental sensitivity only for new physics scales >10-100 TeV. The discovery of a neutrino magnetic moment near present limits would thus signify that neutrinos are Majorana particles

  7. Cosmic homogeneity: a spectroscopic and model-independent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R. S.; Carvalho, G. C.; Bengaly, C. A. P., Jr.; Carvalho, J. C.; Bernui, A.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Maartens, R.

    2018-03-01

    Cosmology relies on the Cosmological Principle, i.e. the hypothesis that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. This implies in particular that the counts of galaxies should approach a homogeneous scaling with volume at sufficiently large scales. Testing homogeneity is crucial to obtain a correct interpretation of the physical assumptions underlying the current cosmic acceleration and structure formation of the Universe. In this letter, we use the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to make the first spectroscopic and model-independent measurements of the angular homogeneity scale θh. Applying four statistical estimators, we show that the angular distribution of galaxies in the range 0.46 Universe in the past. These results are in agreement with the foundations of the standard cosmological paradigm.

  8. Model Independent Search For New Physics At The Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudalakis, Georgios [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles can not be the final theory. There are theoretical reasons to expect the appearance of new physics, possibly at the energy scale of few TeV. Several possible theories of new physics have been proposed, each with unknown probability to be confirmed. Instead of arbitrarily choosing to examine one of those theories, this thesis is about searching for any sign of new physics in a model-independent way. This search is performed at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The Standard Model prediction is implemented in all final states simultaneously, and an array of statistical probes is employed to search for significant discrepancies between data and prediction. The probes are sensitive to overall population discrepancies, shape disagreements in distributions of kinematic quantities of final particles, excesses of events of large total transverse momentum, and local excesses of data expected from resonances due to new massive particles. The result of this search, first in 1 fb-1 and then in 2 fb-1, is null, namely no considerable evidence of new physics was found.

  9. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  10. Revisiting a model-independent dark energy reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    In this work we offer new insights into the model-independent dark energy reconstruction method developed by Daly and Djorgovski (Astrophys. J. 597:9, 2003; Astrophys. J. 612:652, 2004; Astrophys. J. 677:1, 2008). Our results, using updated SNeIa and GRBs, allow to highlight some of the intrinsic weaknesses of the method. Conclusions on the main dark energy features as drawn from this method are intimately related to the features of the samples themselves, particularly for GRBs, which are poor performers in this context and cannot be used for cosmological purposes, that is, the state of the art does not allow to regard them on the same quality basis as SNeIa. We find there is a considerable sensitivity to some parameters (window width, overlap, selection criteria) affecting the results. Then, we try to establish what the current redshift range is for which one can make solid predictions on dark energy evolution. Finally, we strengthen the former view that this model is modest in the sense it provides only a picture of the global trend and has to be managed very carefully. But, on the other hand, we believe it offers an interesting complement to other approaches, given that it works on minimal assumptions. (orig.)

  11. A domain-independent descriptive design model and its application to structured reflection on design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Hammer, D.K.; Kroes, P.A.; van Aken, Joan Ernst; van Aken, J.E.; Dorst, C.H.; Bax, M.F.T.; Basten, T

    2006-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that to be domain independent, the

  12. Modelling the role of the design context in the design process: a domain-independent approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Kroes, P.; Basten, T; Durling, D.; Shackleton, J.

    2002-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that, to be domain independent, the

  13. 38 CFR 21.128 - Independent study course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... college by mail, telephone, personally, or class attendance. (d) School responsibility. The university or college: (1) Evaluates the course in semester or quarter hours or the equivalent; and (2) Prescribes a... pursue a course by independent study under the following conditions: (a) College level. The course is...

  14. 38 CFR 21.4267 - Approval of independent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in absentia) necessary for the preparation of the student's— (i) Master's thesis, (ii) Doctoral... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Administration of Educational Assistance Programs Courses § 21.4267 Approval of independent study. (a) Overview. Except as provided in §§ 21.4252(g), 21.7120(d...

  15. Model independent analysis of Λ baryon polarizations in Λb→Λl+l- decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Oezpineci, A.; Savci, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model independent analysis of Λ baryon polarizations in the Λ b →Λl + l - decay. The sensitivity of the averaged Λ polarizations to the new Wilson coefficients is studied. It is observed that there exist certain regions of the new Wilson coefficients where the branching ratio coincides with the standard model prediction, while the Λ baryon polarizations deviate from the standard model results remarkably

  16. Final model independent result of DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy, IHEP, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-12-15

    The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton x yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles (i.e. adding a further 0.17 ton x yr exposure) are presented. The DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 data give evidence for the presence of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl) target, at 7.5{sigma} C.L. Including also the first generation DAMA/NaI experiment (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton x yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles), the C.L. is 9.3{sigma} and the modulation amplitude of the single-hit events in the (2-6) keV energy interval is: (0.0112{+-}0.0012) cpd/kg/keV; the measured phase is (144{+-}7) days and the measured period is (0.998{+-}0.002) yr, values well in agreement with those expected for DM particles. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. (orig.)

  17. Model-independent Constraints on Cosmic Curvature and Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Jian; Wei, Jun-Jie; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xia, Jun-Qing; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose to estimate the spatial curvature of the universe and the cosmic opacity in a model-independent way with expansion rate measurements, H(z), and type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). On the one hand, using a nonparametric smoothing method Gaussian process, we reconstruct a function H(z) from opacity-free expansion rate measurements. Then, we integrate the H(z) to obtain distance modulus μ H, which is dependent on the cosmic curvature. On the other hand, distances of SNe Ia can be determined by their photometric observations and thus are opacity-dependent. In our analysis, by confronting distance moduli μ H with those obtained from SNe Ia, we achieve estimations for both the spatial curvature and the cosmic opacity without any assumptions for the cosmological model. Here, it should be noted that light curve fitting parameters, accounting for the distance estimation of SNe Ia, are determined in a global fit together with the cosmic opacity and spatial curvature to get rid of the dependence of these parameters on cosmology. In addition, we also investigate whether the inclusion of different priors for the present expansion rate (H 0: global estimation, 67.74 ± 0.46 km s-1 Mpc-1, and local measurement, 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1) exert influence on the reconstructed H(z) and the following estimations of the spatial curvature and cosmic opacity. Results show that, in general, a spatially flat and transparent universe is preferred by the observations. Moreover, it is suggested that priors for H 0 matter a lot. Finally, we find that there is a strong degeneracy between the curvature and the opacity.

  18. Estimating myocardial perfusion from dynamic contrast-enhanced CMR with a model-independent deconvolution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadrmas Dan J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Model-independent analysis with B-spline regularization has been used to quantify myocardial blood flow (perfusion in dynamic contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR studies. However, the model-independent approach has not been extensively evaluated to determine how the contrast-to-noise ratio between blood and tissue enhancement affects estimates of myocardial perfusion and the degree to which the regularization is dependent on the noise in the measured enhancement data. We investigated these questions with a model-independent analysis method that uses iterative minimization and a temporal smoothness regularizer. Perfusion estimates using this method were compared to results from dynamic 13N-ammonia PET. Results An iterative model-independent analysis method was developed and tested to estimate regional and pixelwise myocardial perfusion in five normal subjects imaged with a saturation recovery turboFLASH sequence at 3 T CMR. Estimates of myocardial perfusion using model-independent analysis are dependent on the choice of the regularization weight parameter, which increases nonlinearly to handle large decreases in the contrast-to-noise ratio of the measured tissue enhancement data. Quantitative perfusion estimates in five subjects imaged with 3 T CMR were 1.1 ± 0.8 ml/min/g at rest and 3.1 ± 1.7 ml/min/g at adenosine stress. The perfusion estimates correlated with dynamic 13N-ammonia PET (y = 0.90x + 0.24, r = 0.85 and were similar to results from other validated CMR studies. Conclusion This work shows that a model-independent analysis method that uses iterative minimization and temporal regularization can be used to quantify myocardial perfusion with dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion CMR. Results from this method are robust to choices in the regularization weight parameter over relatively large ranges in the contrast-to-noise ratio of the tissue enhancement data.

  19. Radiative corrections for semileptonic decays of hyperons: the 'model independent' part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.; Szegoe, K.; Margaritis, T.

    1984-04-01

    The 'model independent' part of the order α radiative correction due to virtual photon exchanges and inner bremsstrahlung is studied for semileptonic decays of hyperons. Numerical results of high accuracy are given for the relative correction to the branching ratio, the electron energy spectrum and the (Esub(e),Esub(f)) Dalitz distribution in the case of four different decays. (author)

  20. A study on the independence of egocentric and allocentric neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Nergiz; Mödden, Claudia; Brumund, Tanja; Eling, Paul; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2017-11-01

    Currently there seems to be consensus that visuospatial neglect may involve egocentric and allocentric symptoms. However, the relation between the two is still discussed and models have been proposed based on the high correlation between allocentric and egocentric neglect symptoms. To analyze the relation between these two kinds of symptoms we developed a new paradigm. In contrast to previous paradigms, we varied the extension of the search field and we added centered reference targets to evaluate egocentric effects independent from allocentric effects. Patients with exclusively left-sided neglect (n = 15) and left-sided visual field deficit (VFD) (n = 9) were included. Right brain damaged patients (n = 15) and a healthy control (n = 15) acted as control groups. The results revealed egocentric inattention in VFD patients. Neglect patients suffered from egocentric and allocentric neglect, but we found no interaction between both kinds of impairments in the sense of a monotonous additive or multiplicative increase going from right to left in terms of egocentric and allocentric coordinates. On the contrary, at the outmost left allocentric and egocentric positions, the number of omissions did not increase, unlike in outmost right and centered positions. In conclusion, our experiment shows that egocentric and allocentric neglect can be clearly dissociated in neglect patients and do not interact. Inclusion of neglect patients with a VFD may lead to an artificial interaction between egocentric and allocentric symptoms and this may explain the differences with results of previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic disease and independence in old age: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses case study methodology to examine the issue of long-term care of the elderly in the United Kingdom, including where that care should take place. The report will examine the difficulties inherent in maintaining independent living for the elderly (in particular the danger and cost of falls). The case study presented is that of an elderly female patient who had suffered from chronic rheumatoid arthritis for over 10 years. She was admitted to hospital several times from December 2003 to January 2004. The discussion of her case is set in the context of the sociology of ageing; long-term care of the elderly and the UK National Service Frameworks, of which standard six relates to falls in the elderly. The report will also consider the problems in deciding whether it is necessary to terminate independent living for an individual

  2. Modeling Alzheimer Disease Through Functional Independence and Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bernini, Sara; Picascia, Marta; Malinverni, Paola; Sinforiani, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional impairment in Alzheimer Disease (AD) at the earliest stages of the disease is not well characterized. This study aimed at investigating such relationships along AD evolution by means of the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD). Consecutive pairs of AD outpatients and their primary informal caregivers were enrolled. Patients were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and neuropsychological tests. A clinician completed the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale to stage dementia severity and interviewed the caregivers to complete the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess behavioral disturbances and the DAD to evaluate patients' functional competence. A total of 158 dyads were enrolled; the Mini Mental State Examination score was used to stratify patients into 4 groups (>24; 20 to 23.9; 10 to 19.9; <10) that were compared. The statistical analysis revealed that all the cognitive domains were positively related to functional independence, but only logical and executive functions seemed to predict autonomy. An intergroup comparison did not show significant differences in the DAD subscales measuring initiation, planning and organization, and performance. The role of education emerged, confirming the relevance of cognitive reserve. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, the detection of early functional changes may drive the definition of trials on prevention or intervention for dementia.

  3. Response errors explain the failure of independent-channels models of perception of temporal order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A García-Pérez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Independent-channels models of perception of temporal order (also referred to as threshold models or perceptual latency models have been ruled out because two formal properties of these models (monotonicity and parallelism are not borne out by data from ternary tasks in which observers must judge whether stimulus A was presented before, after, or simultaneously with stimulus B. These models generally assume that observed responses are authentic indicators of unobservable judgments, but blinks, lapses of attention, or errors in pressing the response keys (maybe, but not only, motivated by time pressure when reaction times are being recorded may make observers misreport their judgments or simply guess a response. We present an extension of independent-channels models that considers response errors and we show that the model produces psychometric functions that do not satisfy monotonicity and parallelism. The model is illustrated by fitting it to data from a published study in which the ternary task was used. The fitted functions describe very accurately the absence of monotonicity and parallelism shown by the data. These characteristics of empirical data are thus consistent with independent-channels models when response errors are taken into consideration. The implications of these results for the analysis and interpretation of temporal-order judgment data are discussed.

  4. Response errors explain the failure of independent-channels models of perception of temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Independent-channels models of perception of temporal order (also referred to as threshold models or perceptual latency models) have been ruled out because two formal properties of these models (monotonicity and parallelism) are not borne out by data from ternary tasks in which observers must judge whether stimulus A was presented before, after, or simultaneously with stimulus B. These models generally assume that observed responses are authentic indicators of unobservable judgments, but blinks, lapses of attention, or errors in pressing the response keys (maybe, but not only, motivated by time pressure when reaction times are being recorded) may make observers misreport their judgments or simply guess a response. We present an extension of independent-channels models that considers response errors and we show that the model produces psychometric functions that do not satisfy monotonicity and parallelism. The model is illustrated by fitting it to data from a published study in which the ternary task was used. The fitted functions describe very accurately the absence of monotonicity and parallelism shown by the data. These characteristics of empirical data are thus consistent with independent-channels models when response errors are taken into consideration. The implications of these results for the analysis and interpretation of temporal order judgment data are discussed.

  5. Independent screening for single-index hazard rate models with ultrahigh dimensional features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    on performance. An iterative variant of the method is also described which combines screening with penalized regression to handle more complex feature covariance structures. The methodology is evaluated through simulation studies and through application to a real gene expression data set.......In data sets with many more features than observations, independent screening based on all univariate regression models leads to a computationally convenient variable selection method. Recent efforts have shown that, in the case of generalized linear models, independent screening may suffice...... to capture all relevant features with high probability, even in ultrahigh dimension. It is unclear whether this formal sure screening property is attainable when the response is a right-censored survival time. We propose a computationally very efficient independent screening method for survival data which...

  6. Model-independent constraints on dark matter annihilation in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Boddy, Kimberly; Kumar, Jason; Marfatia, Danny; Sandick, Pearl

    2018-01-01

    We present a general, model-independent formalism for determining bounds on the production of photons in dwarf spheroidal galaxies via dark matter annihilation, applicable to any set of assumptions about dark matter particle physics or astrophysics. As an illustration, we analyze gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to constrain a variety of nonstandard dark matter models, several of which have not previously been studied in the context of dwarf galaxy searches.

  7. Training Problems of Religious Studies in Independent Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Erpay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Kazakhstan training questions about religious studies still didn't receive enough attention since after statehood formation and before independence the Kazakhs endured a set of various historical events. Some of these events negatively affected people's consciousness. Seventy years of atheistic education changed people’s spiritual and cultural basis, as a result religious concepts partially lost the importance. After independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan started raise questions about teaching religious studies. However, heterogeneity in religious beliefs of the population to some extent negatively influences training in religious studies. Therefore study of the reasons for emergence of this problem turned into an actual problem. Within this article the genesis analysis of modern training problems in religious studies was carried out and ways of their decision were considered. Currently some religious studies teaching centers and preparation of the corresponding experts are formed. However, despite of the training standards are identical for all centers, ways of their implementation differ from each other. The reason for that – features of the outlook created under the influence of historical factors. These features cause necessity of teaching religious studies in high school. In article the questions on this problem was considered and necessary answers were given. The main method used in research work is the c omparative historical method. In summary it is necessary to specify that authors within article do the full analysis of questions of teaching of the subject "Religious studies" and offer solutions of these questions.

  8. MeV dark matter: model independent bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Caniu Barros, Cristian J.; Grilli di Cortona, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    We use the framework of dark matter effective field theories to study the complementarity of bounds for a dark matter particle with mass in the MeV range. Taking properly into account the mixing between operators induced by the renormalization group running, we impose experimental constraints coming from the CMB, BBN, LHC, LEP, direct detection experiments and meson decays. In particular, we focus on the case of a vector coupling between the dark matter and the standard model fermions, and study to which extent future experiments can hope to probe regions of parameters space which are not already ruled out by current data.

  9. Techniques to extract physical modes in model-independent analysis of rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-X.

    2004-01-01

    A basic goal of Model-Independent Analysis is to extract the physical modes underlying the beam histories collected at a large number of beam position monitors so that beam dynamics and machine properties can be deduced independent of specific machine models. Here we discuss techniques to achieve this goal, especially the Principal Component Analysis and the Independent Component Analysis.

  10. An independent review of NCCAM-funded studies of chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard; Posadzki, Paul

    2011-05-01

    To promote an independent and critical evaluation of 11 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of chiropractic funded by the National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Electronic searches were conducted to identify all relevant RCTs. Key data were extracted and the risk of bias of each study was determined. Ten RCTs were included, mostly related to chiropractic spinal manipulation for musculoskeletal problems. Their quality was frequently questionable. Several RCTs failed to report adverse effects and the majority was not described in sufficient detail to allow replication. The criticism repeatedly aimed at NCCAM seems justified, as far as their RCTs of chiropractic is concerned. It seems questionable whether such research is worthwhile.

  11. Economic trends of tokamak power plants independent of physics scaling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Steiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    This study examines the effects of plasma radius, field on axis, plasma impurity level, and aspect ratio on power level and unit capital cost, $/kW/sub e/, of tokamak power plants sized independent of plasma physics scaling models. It is noted that tokamaks sized in this manner are thermally unstable based on trapped particle scaling relationships. It is observed that there is an economic advantage for larger power level tokamaks achieved by physics independent sizing; however, the incentive for increased power levels is less than that for fission reactors. It is further observed that the economic advantage of these larger power level tokamaks is decreased when plasma thermal stability measures are incorporated, such as by increasing the plasma impurity concentration. This trend of economy with size obtained by physics independent sizing is opposite to that observed when the tokamak designs are constrained to obey the trapped particle and empirical scaling relationships

  12. Assessment of Response Surface Models using Independent Confirmation Point Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights various advantages that confirmation-point residuals have over conventional model design-point residuals in assessing the adequacy of a response surface model fitted by regression techniques to a sample of experimental data. Particular advantages are highlighted for the case of design matrices that may be ill-conditioned for a given sample of data. The impact of both aleatory and epistemological uncertainty in response model adequacy assessments is considered.

  13. Skill and independence weighting for multi-model assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Wehner, Michael; Knutti, Reto

    2017-01-01

    We present a weighting strategy for use with the CMIP5 multi-model archive in the fourth National Climate Assessment, which considers both skill in the climatological performance of models over North America as well as the inter-dependency of models arising from common parameterizations or tuning practices. The method exploits information relating to the climatological mean state of a number of projection-relevant variables as well as metrics representing long-term statistics of weather extremes. The weights, once computed can be used to simply compute weighted means and significance information from an ensemble containing multiple initial condition members from potentially co-dependent models of varying skill. Two parameters in the algorithm determine the degree to which model climatological skill and model uniqueness are rewarded; these parameters are explored and final values are defended for the assessment. The influence of model weighting on projected temperature and precipitation changes is found to be moderate, partly due to a compensating effect between model skill and uniqueness. However, more aggressive skill weighting and weighting by targeted metrics is found to have a more significant effect on inferred ensemble confidence in future patterns of change for a given projection.

  14. Independent regulatory authorities - a comparative study of European energy regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander Johansen, K.; Holm Pedersen, L.; Moll Soerensen, E.

    2004-04-01

    Independent regulatory authorities are widely recommended as part of the institutional design of liberalised energy markets - not least by the European Commission. This report describes and compares the regulatory authorities for energy in the EU. Arguments for regulatory independence are presented and discussed, and an index is developed to measure the degree of conformance to theories of regulatory independence. It is established that the main pattern of variation is that countries, which formerly had strong state-owned companies, have chosen to create regulatory authorities at state level with many institutional safeguards for independence. (au)

  15. Model independence of constraints on particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, K.; Sadoulet, B.

    1989-03-01

    The connection between the annihilation, elastic, and production cross sections is reviewed, showing how a general lower limit on the interaction rate in a detector is obtained from the requirement that a particle be the dark matter. High energy production experiments further constrain models, making very light dark matter particles unlikely. Special attention is paid to the uncertainties, loopholes and model dependencies that go into the arguments and several examples are given. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Macro Scale Independently Homogenized Subcells for Modeling Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinzler, Brina J.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to analyze the impact response of triaxially braided carbon fiber composites, including the penetration velocity and impact damage patterns. In the analytical model, the triaxial braid architecture is simulated by using four parallel shell elements, each of which is modeled as a laminated composite. Currently, each shell element is considered to be a smeared homogeneous material. The commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is used to conduct the simulations, and a continuum damage mechanics model internal to LS-DYNA is used as the material constitutive model. To determine the stiffness and strength properties required for the constitutive model, a top-down approach for determining the strength properties is merged with a bottom-up approach for determining the stiffness properties. The top-down portion uses global strengths obtained from macro-scale coupon level testing to characterize the material strengths for each subcell. The bottom-up portion uses micro-scale fiber and matrix stiffness properties to characterize the material stiffness for each subcell. Simulations of quasi-static coupon level tests for several representative composites are conducted along with impact simulations.

  17. The model-independent analysis for Higgs boson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-04

    The discovery of a 125 GeV particle, announced by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations on July 04, 2012, is one of the most important events in the recent history of particle physics. This particle could be the last missing particle of the Standard Model of particle physics or it could be the beginning of the long list of particles ...

  18. The model-independent analysis for Higgs boson

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-23

    Aug 23, 2016 ... VBF, WH and ZH and t¯tH and ff include WW, ZZ, bb, ττ, γγ, and Zγ final states. To accommodate the possibility of Higgs boson decaying into beyond the. Standard Model (BSM) particles with a partial width. BSM, the total width is considered as a dependent parameter such that tot = ∑ ii + BSM, where ii.

  19. Model-independent determination of the triple Higgs coupling at e+e- colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon; Peskin, Michael E.; Tian, Junping

    2018-03-01

    The observation of Higgs pair production at high-energy colliders can give evidence for the presence of a triple Higgs coupling. However, the actual determination of the value of this coupling is more difficult. In the context of general models for new physics, double Higgs production processes can receive contributions from many possible beyond-Standard-Model effects. This dependence must be understood if one is to make a definite statement about the deviation of the Higgs field potential from the Standard Model. In this paper, we study the extraction of the triple Higgs coupling from the process e+e-→Z h h . We show that, by combining the measurement of this process with other measurements available at a 500 GeV e+e- collider, it is possible to quote model-independent limits on the effective field theory parameter c6 that parametrizes modifications of the Higgs potential. We present precise error estimates based on the anticipated International Linear Collider physics program, studied with full simulation. Our analysis also gives new insight into the model-independent extraction of the Higgs boson coupling constants and total width from e+e- data.

  20. Origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors: towards an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, S T M; Luijkx, K G; Vrijhoef, H J M; Nieboer, M E; Aarts, S; van der Voort, C S; Rijnaard, M D; Wouters, E J M

    2017-08-22

    Living independently can be challenging for seniors. Technologies are expected to help older adults age in place, yet little empirical research is available on how seniors develop a need for technologies, how they acquire these technologies, and how these subsequently affect their lives. Aging is complex, dynamic and personal. But how does this translate to seniors' adoption and acceptance of technology? To better understand origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors, an explorative longitudinal qualitative field study was set up. Home visits were made to 33 community-dwelling seniors living in the Netherlands, on three occasions (2012-2014). Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the timeline of acquirements, and people and factors involved in acquirements. Additionally, participants were interviewed on experiences in using technologies since acquirement. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze interview transcripts, using a realist approach to better understand the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of technology acquirements. Findings were accumulated in a new conceptual model: The Cycle of Technology Acquirement by Independent-Living Seniors (C-TAILS), which provides an integrative perspective on why and how technologies are acquired, and why these may or may not prove to be appropriate and effective, considering an independent-living senior's needs and circumstances at a given point in time. We found that externally driven and purely desire-driven acquirements led to a higher risk of suboptimal use and low levels of need satisfaction. Technology acquirement by independent-living seniors may be best characterized as a heterogeneous process with many different origins, pathways and consequences. Furthermore, technologies that are acquired in ways that are not congruent with seniors' personal needs and circumstances run a higher risk of proving to be ineffective or inappropriate. Yet, these needs and circumstances are

  1. Small angle neutron scattering study of temperature-independent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent and consists of about 25% of ionic surfactants in the mixed system. Contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching one of the surfactant components to the solvent suggest homogeneous single mixed micelles of the two ...

  2. Small angle neutron scattering study of temperature-independent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent and consists of about 25% of ionic surfactants in the mixed system. Contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching one of the surfactant components to the solvent suggest homogeneous single mixed micelles of.

  3. The Integrated Medical Model: Outcomes from Independent Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Garcia, Y.; Griffin, D.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Goodenow, D. A.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) v4.0 underwent an extensive external review in preparation for transition to an operational status. In order to insure impartiality of the review process, the Exploration Medical Capabilities Element of NASA's Human Research Program convened the review through the Systems Review Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The review board convened by GSFC consisted of persons from both NASA and academia with expertise in the fields of statistics, epidemiology, modeling, software development, aerospace medicine, and project management (see Figure 1). The board reviewed software and code standards, as well as evidence pedigree associated with both the input and outcomes information. The board also assesses the models verification, validation, sensitivity to parameters and ability to answer operational questions. This talk will discuss the processes for designing the review, how the review progressed and the findings from the board, as well as summarize the IMM project responses to those findings. Overall, the board found that the IMM is scientifically sound, represents a necessary, comprehensive approach to identifying medical and environmental risks facing astronauts in long duration missions and is an excellent tool for communication between engineers and physicians. The board also found IMM and its customer(s) should convene an additional review of the IMM data sources and to develop a sustainable approach to augment, peer review, and maintain the information utilized in the IMM. The board found this is critically important because medical knowledge continues to evolve. Delivery of IMM v4.0 to the Crew Health and Safety (CHS) Program will occur in the 2017. Once delivered for operational decision support, IMM v4.0 will provide CHS with additional quantitative capability in to assess astronaut medical risks and required medical capabilities to help drive down overall mission risks.

  4. Dehydration Impairs Cycling Performance, Independently of Thirst: A Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Sekiguchi, Yasuki; Suh, Hyun-Gyu; Seal, Adam D; Sprong, Cameron A; Kirkland, Tracie W; Kavouras, Stavros A

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. Seven male cyclists (weight: 72±9 kg, body fat: 14±6%, VO2peak: 59.4±6 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg·min) exercised for 2 hours on a cycle ergometer at 55% VO2peak, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% rh), with a nasogastric (NG) tube under euhydrated - non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated - non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL of water every 5-min (300 mL[BULLET OPERATOR]h). In the EUH-NT trial sweat losses were fully replaced by water via the NG tube (calculated from the familiarization trial). Following the 2-h of steady state, the subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial at 4% grade. Body mass loss for the EUH-NT and DEH-NT after the 2-h was -0.2±0.6 and -2.2±0.4%, while after the 5-km time trial was -0.7±0.5 and 2.9±0.4%, respectively. Thirst (35±30 vs. 42±31 mm) and stomach fullness (46±21 vs. 35±20 mm) did not differ at the end of the 2-h of steady state between EUH-NT and DEH-NT trials (P>0.05). Subjects cycled faster during the 5-km time trial in the EUH-NT trial compared to the DEH-NT trial (23.2±1.5 vs. 22.3±1.8 km·h, P0.05). These data indicated that hypohydration decreased cycling performance and impaired thermoregulation independently of thirst, while the subjects were unaware of their hydration status.

  5. Testing the isotropy of the Universe with Type Ia supernovae in a model-independent way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Yang; Wang, F. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study an anisotropic universe model with Bianchi-I metric using Joint light-curve analysis (JLA) sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Because light-curve parameters of SNe Ia vary with different cosmological models and SNe Ia samples, we fit the SNe Ia light-curve parameters and cosmological parameters simultaneously employing Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Therefore, the results on the amount of deviation from isotropy of the dark energy equation of state (δ), and the level of anisotropy of the large-scale geometry (Σ0) at present, are totally model-independent. The constraints on the skewness and cosmic shear are -0.101 universe (δ = Σ0 = 0). However, a moderate level of anisotropy in the geometry of the Universe and the equation of state of dark energy, is allowed. Besides, there is no obvious evidence for a preferred direction of anisotropic axis in this model.

  6. Becoming Independent Storytellers: Modeling Children's Development of Narrative Macrostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison Louise

    2013-01-01

    For parents to provide effective support for their children's language development, they must be attuned to their child's changing abilities. This study presents a theoretically driven strategy that addresses a methodological challenge present when tracking longitudinally the cessation or "fading" of behaviors by capturing withdrawal of…

  7. Impact imaging of aircraft composite structure based on a model-independent spatial-wavenumber filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Liu, Bin; Yuan, Shenfang; Su, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    The spatial-wavenumber filtering technique is an effective approach to distinguish the propagating direction and wave mode of Lamb wave in spatial-wavenumber domain. Therefore, it has been gradually studied for damage evaluation in recent years. But for on-line impact monitoring in practical application, the main problem is how to realize the spatial-wavenumber filtering of impact signal when the wavenumber of high spatial resolution cannot be measured or the accurate wavenumber curve cannot be modeled. In this paper, a new model-independent spatial-wavenumber filter based impact imaging method is proposed. In this method, a 2D cross-shaped array constructed by two linear piezoelectric (PZT) sensor arrays is used to acquire impact signal on-line. The continuous complex Shannon wavelet transform is adopted to extract the frequency narrowband signals from the frequency wideband impact response signals of the PZT sensors. A model-independent spatial-wavenumber filter is designed based on the spatial-wavenumber filtering technique. Based on the designed filter, a wavenumber searching and best match mechanism is proposed to implement the spatial-wavenumber filtering of the frequency narrowband signals without modeling, which can be used to obtain a wavenumber-time image of the impact relative to a linear PZT sensor array. By using the two wavenumber-time images of the 2D cross-shaped array, the impact direction can be estimated without blind angle. The impact distance relative to the 2D cross-shaped array can be calculated by using the difference of time-of-flight between the frequency narrowband signals of two different central frequencies and the corresponding group velocities. The validations performed on a carbon fiber composite laminate plate and an aircraft composite oil tank show a good impact localization accuracy of the model-independent spatial-wavenumber filter based impact imaging method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Model-Independent Constraints on New Physics in $b \\to s$ Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Straub, David M.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive model-independent analysis of rare decays involving the b --> s transition to put constraints on dimension-six Delta(F)=1 effective operators. The constraints are derived from all the available up-to-date experimental data from the B-factories, CDF and LHCb. The implications and future prospects for observables in b --> s l+l- and b --> s nu nu transitions in view of improved measurements are also investigated. The present work updates and generalises previous studies providing, at the same time, a useful tool to test the flavour structure of any theory beyond the SM.

  9. Using causal models to distinguish between neurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects on behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Stanley E.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of research on the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and behaviour over the past 15 years, but the causal role that new neurons have on cognitive and affective behavioural tasks is still far from clear. This is partly due to the difficulty of manipulating levels of neurogenesis without inducing off-target effects, which might also influence behaviour. In addition, the analytical methods typically used do not directly test whether neurogenesis mediates the effect of an intervention on behaviour. Previous studies may have incorrectly attributed changes in behavioural performance to neurogenesis because the role of known (or unknown) neurogenesis-independent mechanisms was not formally taken into consideration during the analysis. Causal models can tease apart complex causal relationships and were used to demonstrate that the effect of exercise on pattern separation is via neurogenesis-independent mechanisms. Many studies in the neurogenesis literature would benefit from the use of statistical methods that can separate neurogenesis-dependent from neurogenesis-independent effects on behaviour. PMID:21957118

  10. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  11. A Quasi Model Independent Search for New High $p_T$ Physics at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuteson, Bruce Owen [UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2000-12-01

    We present a new quasi-model-independent strategy ("Sleuth") for searching for physics beyond the standard model. We define final states to be studied, and construct a rule that identities a set of relevant variables for any particular final state. A novel algorithm searches for regions of excess in those variables and quantities the significance of any detected excess. This strategy is applied to search for new high $p_T$ physics in $\\approx$ 100 $pb^{-1}$ of $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1:8 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during 1992{1996 at the Fermilab Tevatron. We systematically analyze many exclusive final states, and demonstrate sensitivity to a variety of models predicting new phenomena at the electroweak scale. No evidence of new high $p_T$ physics is observed.

  12. A model independent S/W framework for search-based software testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungsup; Baik, Jongmoon; Lim, Sung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    In Model-Based Testing (MBT) area, Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) has been employed to generate test cases from the model of a system under test. However, many types of models have been used in MBT. If the type of a model has changed from one to another, all functions of a search technique must be reimplemented because the types of models are different even if the same search technique has been applied. It requires too much time and effort to implement the same algorithm over and over again. We propose a model-independent software framework for SBST, which can reduce redundant works. The framework provides a reusable common software platform to reduce time and effort. The software framework not only presents design patterns to find test cases for a target model but also reduces development time by using common functions provided in the framework. We show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework with two case studies. The framework improves the productivity by about 50% when changing the type of a model.

  13. Assessing Independent Variables Used in Econometric Modeling Forest Land Use or Land Cover Change: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Jeuck; F. Cubbage; R. Abt; R. Bardon; J. McCarter; J. Coulston; M. Renkow

    2014-01-01

    : We conducted a meta-analysis on 64 econometric models from 47 studies predicting forestland conversion to agriculture (F2A), forestland to development (F2D), forestland to non-forested (F2NF) and undeveloped (including forestland) to developed (U2D) land. Over 250 independent econometric variables were identified from 21 F2A models, 21 F2D models, 12 F2NF models, and...

  14. A Capacity-Restraint Transit Assignment Model When a Predetermination Method Indicates the Invalidity of Time Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical independence of time of every two adjacent bus links plays a crucial role in deciding the feasibility of using many mathematical models to analyze urban transit networks. Traditional research generally ignores the time independence that acts as the ground of their models. Assumption is usually made that time independence of every two adjacent links is sound. This is, however, actually groundless and probably causes problematic conclusions reached by corresponding models. Many transit assignment models such as multinomial probit-based models lose their effects when the time independence is not valid. In this paper, a simple method to predetermine the time independence is proposed. Based on the predetermination method, a modified capacity-restraint transit assignment method aimed at engineering practice is put forward and tested through a small contrived network and a case study in Nanjing city, China, respectively. It is found that the slope of regression equation between the mean and standard deviation of normal distribution acts as the indicator of time independence at the same time. Besides, our modified assignment method performs better than the traditional one with more reasonable results while keeping the property of simplicity well.

  15. A model-independent description of few-body system with strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors discuss the formulation of equations that provide model-independent description of systems of three and more nucleons irrespective of the details of the interaction, substantiate the approach, estimate the correction terms with respect to the force range, and give basic qualitative results obtained by means of the model-independent procedure. They consider three nucleons in the doublet state (spin S=I/2) taking into account only S-interaction. The elastic nd-scattering amplitude may be found from the model-independent equations that follow from the Faddeev equations in the short-range-force limit. They note that the solutions of several model-independent equations and basic results obtained with the use of this approach may serve both as a standard solution and starting point in the discussion of various conceptions concerning the details of nuclear interactions

  16. Independent predictors of tuberculosis mortality in a high HIV prevalence setting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Dominique J; Schomaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Robert J; de Azevedo, Virginia; Maartens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Identifying those at increased risk of death during TB treatment is a priority in resource-constrained settings. We performed this study to determine predictors of mortality during TB treatment. We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB surveillance population in a high HIV prevalence area that was recorded in ETR.net (Electronic Tuberculosis Register). Adult TB cases initiated TB treatment from 2007 through 2009 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors for death (after multiple imputations for missing data). Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion to obtain the most relevant predictors of death. Of 16,209 adult TB cases, 851 (5.3 %) died during TB treatment. In all TB cases, advancing age, co-infection with HIV, a prior history of TB and the presence of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. In HIV-infected TB cases, advancing age and female gender were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. Increasing CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment during TB treatment were protective against death. In HIV-uninfected TB cases, advancing age was independently associated with death, whereas smear-positive disease was protective. We identified several independent predictors of death during TB treatment in resource-constrained settings. Our findings inform resource-constrained settings about certain subgroups of TB patients that should be targeted to improve mortality during TB treatment.

  17. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westli, Heidi Kristina; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle; Rasten, Ingvil; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2010-08-31

    Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills.

  18. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westli Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Methods Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Results Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. Conclusions The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills.

  19. MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2)-dependent and independent models of blister formation in pemphigus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuming; Li, Hong; Sano, Yasuyo; Gaestel, Matthias; Park, Jin Mo; Payne, Aimee S.

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to the keratinocyte adhesion protein desmoglein (Dsg) 3. Previous studies suggest that PV pathogenesis involves p38 mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. However, p38 is a difficult protein to study and therapeutically target because it has four isoforms and multiple downstream effectors. In the current study, we identify MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) as a downstream effector of p38 signaling in PV and describe MK2-dependent and -independent mechanisms of blister formation using passive transfer of human anti-Dsg IgG4 mAbs to neonatal mice. In human keratinocytes, PV mAbs activate MK2 in a dose-dependent manner. MK2 is also activated in human pemphigus skin blisters, causing translocation of MK2 from the nucleus to the cytosol. Small molecule inhibition of MK2 and silencing of MK2 expression block PV mAb-induced Dsg3 endocytosis in human keratinocytes. Additionally, small molecule inhibition and genetic deletion of p38α and MK2 inhibit spontaneous, but not induced, suprabasal blisters by PV mAbs in mouse passive transfer models. Collectively, these data suggest that MK2 is a key downstream effector of p38 that can modulate PV autoantibody pathogenicity. MK2 inhibition may be a valuable adjunctive therapy for control of pemphigus blistering. PMID:23657501

  20. Comprehensive aerodynamic and dynamic study of independence of ukraine monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lebedich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive approach for solution the engineering problems o f creation the high-rise extended pillartype Monument in Kiyv is described. The results o f dynamic tests o f 1:25 scale model and aerodynamictests o f 1:8 scale model o f the Monument in TAD-2 wind tunnel are given. The procedures fordetermination o f actual dynamic characteristics and assurance the efficiency o f damping on the siteare described

  1. Robust modeling of differential gene expression data using normal/independent distributions: a Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ganjali

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of identifying differentially expressed genes under different conditions using gene expression microarray data, in the presence of outliers, is discussed. For this purpose, the robust modeling of gene expression data using some powerful distributions known as normal/independent distributions is considered. These distributions include the Student's t and normal distributions which have been used previously, but also include extensions such as the slash, the contaminated normal and the Laplace distributions. The purpose of this paper is to identify differentially expressed genes by considering these distributional assumptions instead of the normal distribution. A Bayesian approach using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is adopted for parameter estimation. Two publicly available gene expression data sets are analyzed using the proposed approach. The use of the robust models for detecting differentially expressed genes is investigated. This investigation shows that the choice of model for differentiating gene expression data is very important. This is due to the small number of replicates for each gene and the existence of outlying data. Comparison of the performance of these models is made using different statistical criteria and the ROC curve. The method is illustrated using some simulation studies. We demonstrate the flexibility of these robust models in identifying differentially expressed genes.

  2. Commuting nonselfadjoint operators in Hilbert space two independent studies

    CERN Document Server

    Livšic, Moshe S

    1987-01-01

    Classification of commuting non-selfadjoint operators is one of the most challenging problems in operator theory even in the finite-dimensional case. The spectral analysis of dissipative operators has led to a series of deep results in the framework of unitary dilations and characteristic operator functions. It has turned out that the theory has to be based on analytic functions on algebraic manifolds and not on functions of several independent variables as was previously believed. This follows from the generalized Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, due to M.S.Livsic: "Two commuting operators with finite dimensional imaginary parts are connected in the generic case, by a certain algebraic equation whose degree does not exceed the dimension of the sum of the ranges of imaginary parts." Such investigations have been carried out in two directions. One of them, presented by L.L.Waksman, is related to semigroups of projections of multiplication operators on Riemann surfaces. Another direction, which is presented here by M.S...

  3. Model-independent X-ray Mass Determinations for Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulsen, Paul

    2005-09-01

    We propose to use high quality X-ray data from the Chandra archive to determine the mass distributions of about 60 clusters of galaxies over the largest possible range of radii. By avoiding unwarranted assumptions, model-independent methods make best use of high quality data. We will employ two model-independent methods. That used by Nulsen & Boehringer (1995) to determine the mass of the Virgo Cluster and a new method, that will be developed as part of the project. The new method will fit a general mass model directly to the X-ray spectra, making best possible use of the fitting errors to constrain mass profiles.

  4. Model-independent search for new physics at D0 experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finding the evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary goals of RunII of the Tevatron. Many dedicated searches for new physics are ongoing at the Tevatron but in order to broaden the scope and maximize the chances of finding the new physics, we also search in a model-independent way.

  5. QUANTIFYING THE CONTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGE MODELING TO WRITER­INDEPENDENT ON­LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitrelli, J.F.; Ratzlaf, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe experiments varying the degree of language­model constraint applied to writer­independent on­line handwriting recognition. Six types of models are used, varying statistical components and hard constraints which govern recognition search during the sequencing of characters to form valid

  6. Kernel Density Independence Sampling based Monte Carlo Scheme (KISMCS) for inverse hydrological modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiei, M.; Gharari, S.; Pande, S.; Bhulai, S.

    2014-01-01

    Posterior sampling methods are increasingly being used to describe parameter and model predictive uncertainty in hydrologic modelling. This paper proposes an alternative to random walk chains (such as DREAM-zs). We propose a sampler based on independence chains with an embedded feature of

  7. Voxel-level reproducibility assessment of modality independent elastography in a pre-clinical murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Katelyn M.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2015-03-01

    Changes in tissue mechanical properties, measured non-invasively by elastography methods, have been shown to be an important diagnostic tool, particularly for cancer. Tissue elasticity information, tracked over the course of therapy, may be an important prognostic indicator of tumor response to treatment. While many elastography techniques exist, this work reports on the use of a novel form of elastography that uses image texture to reconstruct elastic property distributions in tissue (i.e., a modality independent elastography (MIE) method) within the context of a pre-clinical breast cancer system.1,2 The elasticity results have previously shown good correlation with independent mechanical testing.1 Furthermore, MIE has been successfully utilized to localize and characterize lesions in both phantom experiments and simulation experiments with clinical data.2,3 However, the reproducibility of this method has not been characterized in previous work. The goal of this study is to evaluate voxel-level reproducibility of MIE in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer. Bland-Altman analysis of co-registered repeat MIE scans in this preliminary study showed a reproducibility index of 24.7% (scaled to a percent of maximum stiffness) at the voxel level. As opposed to many reports in the magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) literature that speak to reproducibility measures of the bulk organ, these results establish MIE reproducibility at the voxel level; i.e., the reproducibility of locally-defined mechanical property measurements throughout the tumor volume.

  8. Cloning-independent plasmid construction for genetic studies in streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

    2013-08-01

    Shuttle plasmids are among the few routinely utilized tools in the Streptococcus mutans genetic system that still require the use of classical cloning methodologies and intermediate hosts for genetic manipulation. Accordingly, it typically requires considerably less time and effort to introduce mutations onto the S. mutans chromosome than it does to construct shuttle vectors for expressing genes in trans. Occasionally, shuttle vector constructs also exhibit toxicity in Escherichia coli, which prevents their proper assembly. To circumvent these limitations, we modified a prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) protocol to facilitate direct plasmid assembly in S. mutans. Using solely PCR, we created the reporter vector pZX7, which contains a single minimal streptococcal replication origin and harbors a spectinomycin resistance cassette and the gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase. We compared the efficiency of pZX7 assembly using multiple strains of S. mutans and were able to obtain from 5 × 10³ to 2 × 10⁵ CFU/μg PCR product. Likewise, we used pZX7 to further demonstrate that Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii are also excellent hosts for cloning-independent plasmid assembly, which suggests that this system is likely to function in numerous other streptococci. Consequently, it should be possible to completely forgo the use of E. coli-Streptococcus shuttle vectors in many streptococcal species, thereby decreasing the time and effort required to assemble constructs and eliminating any toxicity issues associated with intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  10. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  11. SMATASY. A Program for the model independent description of the Z resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, S.; Riemann, T.

    1994-07-01

    SMATASY is an interface for the ZF I T T ER package and may be used for the model independent description of the Z resonance at LEP 1 and SLC. It allows the determination of the Z mass and width and its resonance shape parameters r and j for cross-sections and their asymmetries. The r describes the peak height and j the interference of the Z resonance with photon exchange in each scattering channel and for σ T , σ FB , σ lr , σ pol etc. separately. Alternatively, the helicity amplitudes for a given scattering channel may be determined. We compare our formalism with other model independent approaches. The model independent treatment of QED corrections in SMATASY is applicable also far away from the Z peak. (orig.)

  12. Antiallodynic Effect of Pregabalin in Rat Models of Sympathetically Maintained and Sympathetic Independent Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong Woo; Kweon, Tae Dong; Lee, Jong Seok

    2007-01-01

    Pregabalin binds to the voltage-dependent calcium channel α2δ subunit and modulates the release of neurotransmitters, resulting in analgesic effects on neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain has both sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) and sympathetic independent pain (SIP) components. We studied the antiallodynic effects of pregabalin on tactile allodynia (TA) and cold allodynia (CA) in SMP-and SIP-dominant neuropathic pain models. Allodynia was induced by ligation of the L5 & L6 spinal nerves (SMP model) or by transection of the tibial and sural nerves (SIP model) in rats. For intrathecal drug administration, a PE-10 catheter was implanted through the atlantooccipital membrane to the lumbar enlargement. Pregabalin was administered either intraperitoneally (IP) or intrathecally (IT) and dosed up incrementally until an antiallodynic effect without sedation or motor impairment was apparent. TA was assessed using von Frey filaments, and CA was assessed using acetone drops. IP-administered pregabalin dose-dependently attenuated TA in both models and CA in the SMP model, but not CA in the SIP model. IT-administered pregabalin dose-dependently attenuated both TA and CA in both models. However, the dose response curve of IT-administered pregabalin in SMP was shifted to left from that of SIP and the ED50 of IT-administered pregabalin for CA in SMP was about 900 times less than that in SIP. These findings suggest that pregabalin exerts its antiallodynic effect mainly by acting at the spinal cord, and that IT-administered pregabalin has more potent antiallodynic effects in SMP. The α2δ subunit might be less involved in the CA in SIP. PMID:17326244

  13. Model-independent tracking of criticality signals in nuclear multifragmentation date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.

    2003-01-01

    We study multifragment production in central heavy-ion collisions using model-independent universal fluctuations theory and a wide range of INDRA data for central collisions of symmetric systems of total mass A: 75 - 400 at bombarding energies from 25 to 100 MeV/nucleon. We find evidence for two different regimes at low and high incident energies, respectively, defined by the fluctuation scaling properties of the largest fragment in each event, Z(max), which plays the role of an order parameter. Data for a wide range of system masses and incident energies collapse on to an approximately universal scaling function in each regime. The form of the scaling functions is established, and their dependence on total system mass and bombarding energy is mapped out. (authors)

  14. Vascular dynamics aid a coupled neurovascular network learn sparse independent features: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Thomas Philips

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vascular dynamics are generally thought to be controlled by neural activity in a unidirectional fashion. However, both computational modeling and experimental evidence point to the feedback effects of vascular dynamics on neural activity. Vascular feedback in the form of glucose and oxygen controls neuronal ATP, either directly or via the agency of astrocytes, which in turn modulates neural firing. Recently, a detailed model of the neuron-astrocyte-vessel system has shown how vasomotion can modulate neural firing. Similarly, arguing from known cerebrovascular physiology, an approach known as `hemoneural hypothesis' postulates functional modulation of neural activity by vascular feedback. To instantiate this perspective, we present a computational model in which a network of `vascular units' supplies energy to a neural network. The complex dynamics of the vascular network, modeled by a network of oscillators, turns neurons ON and OFF randomly. The informational consequence of such dynamics is explored in the context of an auto-encoder network. In the proposed model, each vascular unit supplies energy to a subset of hidden neurons of an autoencoder network, which constitutes its `projective field'. Neurons that receive adequate energy in a given trial have reduced threshold, and thus are prone to fire. Dynamics of the vascular network are governed by changes in the reconstruction error of the auto-encoder network, interpreted as the neuronal demand. Vascular feedback causes random inactivation of a subset of hidden neurons in every trial. We observe that, under conditions of desynchronized vascular dynamics, the output reconstruction error is low and the feature vectors learnt are sparse and independent. Our earlier modeling study highlighted the link between desynchronized vascular dynamics and efficient energy delivery in skeletal muscle. We now show that desynchronized vascular dynamics leads to efficient training in an auto

  15. Vascular Dynamics Aid a Coupled Neurovascular Network Learn Sparse Independent Features: A Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Ryan T; Chhabria, Karishma; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vascular dynamics are generally thought to be controlled by neural activity in a unidirectional fashion. However, both computational modeling and experimental evidence point to the feedback effects of vascular dynamics on neural activity. Vascular feedback in the form of glucose and oxygen controls neuronal ATP, either directly or via the agency of astrocytes, which in turn modulates neural firing. Recently, a detailed model of the neuron-astrocyte-vessel system has shown how vasomotion can modulate neural firing. Similarly, arguing from known cerebrovascular physiology, an approach known as "hemoneural hypothesis" postulates functional modulation of neural activity by vascular feedback. To instantiate this perspective, we present a computational model in which a network of "vascular units" supplies energy to a neural network. The complex dynamics of the vascular network, modeled by a network of oscillators, turns neurons ON and OFF randomly. The informational consequence of such dynamics is explored in the context of an auto-encoder network. In the proposed model, each vascular unit supplies energy to a subset of hidden neurons of an autoencoder network, which constitutes its "projective field." Neurons that receive adequate energy in a given trial have reduced threshold, and thus are prone to fire. Dynamics of the vascular network are governed by changes in the reconstruction error of the auto-encoder network, interpreted as the neuronal demand. Vascular feedback causes random inactivation of a subset of hidden neurons in every trial. We observe that, under conditions of desynchronized vascular dynamics, the output reconstruction error is low and the feature vectors learnt are sparse and independent. Our earlier modeling study highlighted the link between desynchronized vascular dynamics and efficient energy delivery in skeletal muscle. We now show that desynchronized vascular dynamics leads to efficient training in an auto-encoder neural network.

  16. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion - GENIE, a general model-independent TCP/IP run manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffels, Christopher T.; Schreuder, Willem A.; Doherty, John E.; Karanovic, Marinko; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Hunt, Randall J.; Welter, David E.

    2012-01-01

    GENIE is a model-independent suite of programs that can be used to generally distribute, manage, and execute multiple model runs via the TCP/IP infrastructure. The suite consists of a file distribution interface, a run manage, a run executer, and a routine that can be compiled as part of a program and used to exchange model runs with the run manager. Because communication is via a standard protocol (TCP/IP), any computer connected to the Internet can serve in any of the capacities offered by this suite. Model independence is consistent with the existing template and instruction file protocols of the widely used PEST parameter estimation program. This report describes (1) the problem addressed; (2) the approach used by GENIE to queue, distribute, and retrieve model runs; and (3) user instructions, classes, and functions developed. It also includes (4) an example to illustrate the linking of GENIE with Parallel PEST using the interface routine.

  17. Towards a framework for deriving platform-independent model-driven software product lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Paz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Model-driven software product lines (MD-SPLs are created from domain models which are transformed, merged and composed with reusable core assets, until software products are produced. Model transformation chains (MTCs must be specified to generate such MD-SPLs. This paper presents a framework for creating platform-independent MD-SPLs; such framework includes a domain specific language (DSL for platform-independent MTC specification and facilities platform-specific MTC generation of several of the most used model transformation frameworks. The DSL also allows product line architects to compose generation taking the need for model transformation strategy and technology interoperability into account and specifying several types of variability involved in such generation.

  18. Small angle neutron scattering study of temperature-independent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    headgroup due to an increase in counterion dissociation decreases the size of ionic micelles, it is the decreased hydration of the headgroup that increases the size of nonionic micelles with an increase in temperature. Herein, we report SANS studies on a formulation of mixed micelles of ionic and nonionic surfactants that.

  19. Model-independent curvature determination with 21cm intensity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzemann, Amadeus; Bull, Philip; Clarkson, Chris; Santos, Mario G.; Spinelli, Marta; Weltman, Amanda

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of the spatial curvature of the Universe have improved significantly in recent years, but still tend to require strong assumptions to be made about the equation of state of dark energy (DE) in order to reach sub-percent precision. When these assumptions are relaxed, strong degeneracies arise that make it hard to disentangle DE and curvature, degrading the constraints. We show that forthcoming 21cm intensity mapping experiments such as HIRAX are ideally designed to carry out model-independent curvature measurements, as they can measure the clustering signal at high redshift with sufficient precision to break many of the degeneracies. We consider two different model-independent methods, based on `avoiding' the DE-dominated regime and non-parametric modelling of the DE equation of state respectively. Our forecasts show that HIRAX will be able to improve upon current model-independent constraints by around an order of magnitude, reaching percent-level accuracy even when an arbitrary DE equation of state is assumed. In the same model-independent analysis, the sample variance limit for a similar survey is another order of magnitude better.

  20. Towards a product independent ERP training model: An Insight from a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Motahar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ERP can be called as one of the most significant contributions of computer science and particularly information systems for the business environment which can support all complicated business process of an organisation including sale, purchase, warehouse and manufacturing into a single database. For such complex system like ERP, implementation involves much collaboration which raises the concern of the success of the project. Among most significant success and failure factors of ERP implementation cited in the literature are training and consultation. For many years the majority of ERP vendors promote their product specific training models as long-term and expensive allowing the organisation to gain knowledge of the ERP system and the way it handles the business process. However, recent studies showed that ERP training can be conducted in the short term and with minimum investment and yet to be effective. Findings triggered a signal and opened a new door for research to investigate vendor-independent training models that require limited investment in training and consultancy. This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature; highlighting the research methods and theories used by authors towards building ERP training models and methods.

  1. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  2. Model-Independent Calculation of Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupak, Gautam; Higa, Renato

    2011-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low-energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix elements. It depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range parameter

  3. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  4. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children's independent active free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L

    2015-01-24

    To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.

  5. Meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction exploiting gene-environment independence across multiple case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Jason P; Rice, John D; Li, Shi; Stringham, Heather M; Boehnke, Michael; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2017-10-30

    Multiple papers have studied the use of gene-environment (G-E) independence to enhance power for testing gene-environment interaction in case-control studies. However, studies that evaluate the role of G-E independence in a meta-analysis framework are limited. In this paper, we extend the single-study empirical Bayes type shrinkage estimators proposed by Mukherjee and Chatterjee (2008) to a meta-analysis setting that adjusts for uncertainty regarding the assumption of G-E independence across studies. We use the retrospective likelihood framework to derive an adaptive combination of estimators obtained under the constrained model (assuming G-E independence) and unconstrained model (without assumptions of G-E independence) with weights determined by measures of G-E association derived from multiple studies. Our simulation studies indicate that this newly proposed estimator has improved average performance across different simulation scenarios than the standard alternative of using inverse variance (covariance) weighted estimators that combines study-specific constrained, unconstrained, or empirical Bayes estimators. The results are illustrated by meta-analyzing 6 different studies of type 2 diabetes investigating interactions between genetic markers on the obesity related FTO gene and environmental factors body mass index and age. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  7. Comparison of model independent control and tracking with standard control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Triandaf, Ioana A.

    1993-12-01

    This paper highlights some of the new contributions nonlinear dynamics has made in the areas of control and tracking. In particular, emphasis is placed on the model independent approach to control and tracking: The connections between the classical control and the control based on time series embedding methods are made. In experiments of control, our approach does not necessarily imply new equipment is needed in the loop. Rather, it is the control settings which are constructed off-line so that location of the control point and gain are determined without trial and error. Using the model independent approach also allows one to locate and control many other accessible unstable phenomena without having to construct a global nonlinear model. Tracking gives a constructive approach to control inaccessible states, as well as maps out the global regions of phase space.

  8. A model-independent "General Search" for new physics with the ATLAS detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo Maria

    2014-06-02

    The LHC particle collider accelerates bunches of colliding protons at an energy never reached before, and a completely new landscape of new physics has been opened. In this scenario the number of possible physics processes and signatures becomes virtually infinite, making the setup of dedicated analyses impossible. Moreover it is important being able to reveal new physics signals even in regions of the phase-space where it is less lucky to be found, or where suitable theoretical models are missing. In this Thesis a new model-independent “General Search” for the ATLAS experiment has been conceived. In fact, at the time this project started, no model-independent search was set for ATLAS. In the end the new analysis has been run over the first data at 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment, and the results presented. The data have shown a very good agreement with the Standard Model expectation, and no evidence of new physics has been observed. But the strategy and methodology of the new model-independent Ge...

  9. Expanding Model Independent Approaches for Measuring the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Prouve, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Model independent approaches to measuring the CKM angle $\\gamma$ in $B\\rightarrow DK$ decays at LHCb are explored. In particular, we consider the case where the $D$ meson decays into a final state with four hadrons. Using four-body final states such as $\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, $K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $K^+ K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ in addition to traditional 2 and 3 body states and has the potential to significantly improve to the overall constraint on $\\gamma$. There is a significant systematic uncertainty associated with modelling the complex phase of the $D$ decay amplitude across the five-dimensional phase space of the four body decay. It is therefore important to replace these model-dependent quantities with model-independent parameters as input for the $\\gamma$ measurement. These model independent parameters have been measured using quantum-correlated $\\psi(3770) \\rightarrow D^0 \\overline{D^0}$ decays collected by the CLEO-c experiment, and, for $D\\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, with $D^0-\\overline{D^0...

  10. Complete Evaluation of Available Laboratory-scale Data for the Independence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Troy Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kress, Joel David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bhat, Kabekode Ghanasham [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Year 1 Objectives (August 2016 – December 2016) – The original Independence model is a sequentially regressed set of parameters from numerous data sets in the Aspen Plus modeling framework. The immediate goal with the basic data model is to collect and evaluate those data sets relevant to the thermodynamic submodels (pure substance heat capacity, solvent mixture heat capacity, loaded solvent heat capacities, and volatility data). These data are informative for the thermodynamic parameters involved in both vapor-liquid equilibrium, and in the chemical equilibrium of the liquid phase.

  11. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  12. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  13. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to

  14. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.

  15. Analysis of two standard reference materials using the Shape Independent Model for k0 based INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brushwood, J.; Beeley, P.A.; Neilsen, K.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    2000-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Shape Independent Model for k 0 based INAA can be applied in the Slowpoke-2 beryllium moderated reactor. The elemental concentration determined using this methodology agreed well with both certified values and those determined by the more conventional 'B'-value method. However, the facility characterising parameter B(x, 46 Sc, 124 Sb) differed significantly from that determined in other reactor types. (author)

  16. Severe Intraoperative Hyperglycemia Is Independently Associated With Postoperative Composite Infection After Craniotomy: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Toscani, Laura; Fomberstein, Kenneth M; Ruskin, Keith J; Dai, Feng; Qeva, Ega; Rosa, Giovanni; Meng, Lingzhong; Bilotta, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative infection after craniotomy carries an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Identification and correction of the risk factors should be prioritized. The association of intraoperative hyperglycemia with postoperative infections in patients undergoing craniotomy is inadequately studied. A total of 224 patients were prospectively enrolled in 2 major medical centers to assess whether severe intraoperative hyperglycemia (SIH, blood glucose ≥180 mg/dL) is associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection in patients undergoing craniotomy. Arterial blood samples were drawn and analyzed immediately after anesthetic induction and again before tracheal extubation. The new onset of any type of infection within 7 days after craniotomy was determined. The incidence of new postoperative composite infection was 10% (n = 22) within the first week after craniotomy. Weight, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative and/or intraoperative steroid use, and diabetes mellitus were not associated with postoperative infection. SIH was independently associated with postoperative infection (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 4.17 [1.50-11.56], P = .006) after fitting a multiple logistic regression model to adjust for emergency surgery, length of surgery, and age ≥65 years. SIH is independently associated with postoperative new-onset composite infections in patients undergoing craniotomy. Whether prevention of SIH during craniotomy results in a reduced postoperative risk of infection is unknown and needs to be appraised by further study.

  17. Stochastic Modeling of the Clathrin-dependent and -independent Endocytic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Dutta, Prashanta; Liu, Jin

    2017-11-01

    Endocytosis is one of the important processes that bioparticles use to enter the cells. During endocytosis the membrane-bound vesicles are formed by the invagination of plasma membrane as a result of interactions among many proteins and cytoskeletons. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis is one of the most significant form of endocytosis, where the dynamic assembly of clathrin-coated pits play a critical role. While herpes simplex virus-1 has recently shown to infect cell by a novel phagocytosis-like endocytic pathway where actin polymerization may facilitate the viral entry. In this work, we propose a stochastic model for both clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytic pathways based on Monte Carlo simulations. The important roles of clathrin coating and actin cytoskeleton as well as the impact of other biological parameters are studied. Our preliminary results indicate that there exist an intermediate particle size and ligand density that maximize the internalization efficiency. Below a critical size or surface ligand density, it is difficult for the entry of a single particle, which means clustering may needed for more efficient internalization. We also find that lower membrane bending rigidity may help promote the bioparticle entry. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  18. A grid-independent EMMS/bubbling drag model for bubbling and turbulent fluidization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hao; Lu, Bona; Zhang, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    The EMMS/bubbling drag model takes the effects of meso-scale structures (i.e. bubbles) into modeling of drag coefficient and thus improves coarse-grid simulation of bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds. However, its dependence on grid size has not been fully investigated. In this article, we adopt...... a periodic domain show the new drag model is less sensitive to grid size because of the additional dependence on local slip velocity. When applying the new drag model to simulations of realistic bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds, we find grid-independent results are easier to obtain for high......-velocity turbulent fluidized bed cases. The simulation results indicate that the extended EMMS/bubbling drag model is a potential method for coarse-grid simulations of large-scale fluidized beds....

  19. MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SERVICES WITH SYMBOLIC MODEL TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP INDEPENDENCE ACADEMIC OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE DISTRICT OF KUDUS CITY LESSONS 2014/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Lestari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was motivated by the phenomenon of independent learning elementary school children who tend to be low. This can be observed from the tendency of primary school age children dependent on parents, friends and tutors in the homework, cheating when it replicates and mimics the work of friends. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of information services with symbolic techniques to develop independent learning model of primary school age children. The results showed that the value of t obtained figures on chances of error 0.000 9.682 less than the chance of error (p = 0.05 or in other forms 0.000 <0.05, which means significant. Furthermore, a different test showed that the average post-test bigger with 59.26 value compared with the value of the pre-test of 49.96. Thus, the alternative hypothesis that reads information service model by using symbolic models can significantly improve student learning independence supported or accepted. Keywords: Independence learning, information services, symbolic models

  20. Model-independent search for new physics at D0 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimuddin, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Finding the evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary goals of RunII of the Tevatron. Many dedicated searches for new physics are ongoing at the Tevatron but in order to broaden the scope and maximize the chances of finding the new physics, we also search in a model-independent way. The results of such searches for indications of new physics at the electroweak scale are presented using data collected using the D0 detector from pp-bar-interactions at √s = 1.96 TeV. (author)

  1. Constitutive equations for the Doi-Edwards model without independent alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Hansen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    We present two representations of the Doi-Edwards model without Independent Alignment explicitly expressed in terms of the Finger strain tensor, its inverse and its invariants. The two representations provide explicit expressions for the stress prior to and after Rouse relaxation of chain stretch......, respectively. The maximum deviations from the exact representations in simple shear, biaxial extension and uniaxial extension are of order 2%. Based on these two representations, we propose a framework for Doi-Edwards models including chain stretch in the memory integral form....

  2. Bayesian conditional-independence modeling of the AIDS epidemic in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilks, Walter R.; De Angelis, Daniela; Day, Nicholas E.

    We describe the use of conditional-independence modeling, Bayesian inference and Markov chain Monte Carlo, to model and project the HIV-AIDS epidemic in homosexual/bisexual males in England and Wales. Complexity in this analysis arises through selectively missing data, indirectly observed underlying processes, and measurement error. Our emphasis is on presentation and discussion of the concepts, not on the technicalities of this analysis, which can be found elsewhere [D. De Angelis, W.R. Gilks, N.E. Day, Bayesian projection of the the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic (with discussion), Applied Statistics, in press].

  3. The independent quark-gluon string model for heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toneev, V.D.; Amelin, N.S.; Gudima, K.K.

    1989-06-01

    A dynamical model of independent quark-gluon strings is formulated for ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The formation and fragmentation of the strings are described in terms of the dual parton model. The consideration of the nuclear interaction is based on a coupled system of relativistic Boltzmann-like kinetic equations including the concept of the hadron formation time. The evolution of energy and baryonic densities is discussed for central O+Au collisions. The calculated characteristics for both the central and fragmentation rapidity region are compared with the recent CERN experimental data to disentangle the contributions of different nuclear effects. (orig.)

  4. Candidatus Sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: phylogenetically independent comparative model to the tsetse fly symbiont Sodalis glossinidius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Chrudimský

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Sodalis live in symbiosis with various groups of insects. The best known member of this group, a secondary symbiont of tsetse flies Sodalis glossinidius, has become one of the most important models in investigating establishment and evolution of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It represents a bacterium in the early/intermediate state of the transition towards symbiosis, which allows for exploring such interesting topics as: usage of secretory systems for entering the host cell, tempo of the genome modification, and metabolic interaction with a coexisting primary symbiont. In this study, we describe a new Sodalis species which could provide a useful comparative model to the tsetse symbiont. It lives in association with Melophagus ovinus, an insect related to tsetse flies, and resembles S. glossinidius in several important traits. Similar to S. glossinidius, it cohabits the host with another symbiotic bacterium, the bacteriome-harbored primary symbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. As a typical secondary symbiont, Candidatus Sodalis melophagi infects various host tissues, including bacteriome. We provide basic morphological and molecular characteristics of the symbiont and show that these traits also correspond to the early/intermediate state of the evolution towards symbiosis. Particularly, we demonstrate the ability of the bacterium to live in insect cell culture as well as in cell-free medium. We also provide basic characteristics of type three secretion system and using three reference sequences (16 S rDNA, groEL and spaPQR region we show that the bacterium branched within the genus Sodalis, but originated independently of the two previously described symbionts of hippoboscoids. We propose the name Candidatus Sodalis melophagi for this new bacterium.

  5. Candidatus Sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: phylogenetically independent comparative model to the tsetse fly symbiont Sodalis glossinidius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrudimský, Tomáš; Husník, Filip; Nováková, Eva; Hypša, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Sodalis live in symbiosis with various groups of insects. The best known member of this group, a secondary symbiont of tsetse flies Sodalis glossinidius, has become one of the most important models in investigating establishment and evolution of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It represents a bacterium in the early/intermediate state of the transition towards symbiosis, which allows for exploring such interesting topics as: usage of secretory systems for entering the host cell, tempo of the genome modification, and metabolic interaction with a coexisting primary symbiont. In this study, we describe a new Sodalis species which could provide a useful comparative model to the tsetse symbiont. It lives in association with Melophagus ovinus, an insect related to tsetse flies, and resembles S. glossinidius in several important traits. Similar to S. glossinidius, it cohabits the host with another symbiotic bacterium, the bacteriome-harbored primary symbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. As a typical secondary symbiont, Candidatus Sodalis melophagi infects various host tissues, including bacteriome. We provide basic morphological and molecular characteristics of the symbiont and show that these traits also correspond to the early/intermediate state of the evolution towards symbiosis. Particularly, we demonstrate the ability of the bacterium to live in insect cell culture as well as in cell-free medium. We also provide basic characteristics of type three secretion system and using three reference sequences (16 S rDNA, groEL and spaPQR region) we show that the bacterium branched within the genus Sodalis, but originated independently of the two previously described symbionts of hippoboscoids. We propose the name Candidatus Sodalis melophagi for this new bacterium.

  6. Evaluation of soft segment modeling on a context independent phoneme classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzazi, F.; Sayadiyan, A.

    2007-01-01

    The geometric distribution of states duration is one of the main performance limiting assumptions of hidden Markov modeling of speech signals. Stochastic segment models, generally, and segmental HMM, specifically overcome this deficiency partly at the cost of more complexity in both training and recognition phases. In addition to this assumption, the gradual temporal changes of speech statistics has not been modeled in HMM. In this paper, a new duration modeling approach is presented. The main idea of the model is to consider the effect of adjacent segments on the probability density function estimation and evaluation of each acoustic segment. This idea not only makes the model robust against segmentation errors, but also it models gradual change from one segment to the next one with a minimum set of parameters. The proposed idea is analytically formulated and tested on a TIMIT based context independent phenomena classification system. During the test procedure, the phoneme classification of different phoneme classes was performed by applying various proposed recognition algorithms. The system was optimized and the results have been compared with a continuous density hidden Markov model (CDHMM) with similar computational complexity. The results show 8-10% improvement in phoneme recognition rate in comparison with standard continuous density hidden Markov model. This indicates improved compatibility of the proposed model with the speech nature. (author)

  7. A comparative study to investigate burnup in research reactor fuel using two independent experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, T.; Ayazuddin, S.K.; Salahuddin, A.; Pervez, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two independent experimental methods have been used for the comparative study of fuel burnup measurement in low enriched uranium, plate type research reactor. In the first method a gamma ray activity ratio method was employed. An experimental setup was established for gamma ray scanning using prior calibrated high purity germanium detector. The computer software KORIGEN gave the theoretical support. In the second method reactivity difference technique was used. At the same location in the same core configuration the fresh and burned fuel element's reactivity worth was estimated. For theoretical estimated curve, group cross-sections were generated using computer code WIMS-D/4, and three dimensional modeling was made by computer code CITATION. The measured burnup of different fuel elements using these methods were found to be in good agreement

  8. Validation of a Grid Independent Spray Model and Fuel Chemistry Mechanism for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yoshikawa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Spray and combustion submodels used in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code, KIVACHEMKIN, were validated for Low Temperature Combustion (LTC in a diesel engine by comparing measured and model predicted fuel spray penetrations, and in-cylinder distributions of OH and soot. The conditions considered were long ignition delay, early and late fuel injection cases. It was found that use of a grid independent spray model, called the GASJET model, with an improved n-heptane chemistry mechanism can well predict the heat release rate, not only of the main combustion stage, but also of the cool flame stage. Additionally, the GASJET model appropriately predicts the distributions of OH and soot in the cylinder even when the resolution of the computational mesh is decreased by half, which significantly reduces the required computational time.

  9. Model-independent constraints on Lorentz invariance violation via the cosmographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bo Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Lorentz invariance plays an important role in modern physics, it is of interest to test the possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV. The time-lag (the arrival time delay between light curves in different energy bands of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs has been extensively used to this end. However, to our best knowledge, one or more particular cosmological models were assumed a priori in (almost all of the relevant works in the literature. So, this makes the results on LIV in those works model-dependent and hence not so robust in fact. In the present work, we try to avoid this problem by using a model-independent approach. We calculate the time delay induced by LIV with the cosmic expansion history given in terms of cosmography, without assuming any particular cosmological model. Then, we constrain the possible LIV with the observational data, and find weak hints for LIV.

  10. Model-independent constraints on Lorentz invariance violation via the cosmographic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Bo; Deng, Hua-Kai; Yin, Zhao-Yu; Wei, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Since Lorentz invariance plays an important role in modern physics, it is of interest to test the possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). The time-lag (the arrival time delay between light curves in different energy bands) of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been extensively used to this end. However, to our best knowledge, one or more particular cosmological models were assumed a priori in (almost) all of the relevant works in the literature. So, this makes the results on LIV in those works model-dependent and hence not so robust in fact. In the present work, we try to avoid this problem by using a model-independent approach. We calculate the time delay induced by LIV with the cosmic expansion history given in terms of cosmography, without assuming any particular cosmological model. Then, we constrain the possible LIV with the observational data, and find weak hints for LIV.

  11. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain dopamine is critically involved in movement control, and its deficiency is the primary cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Here we report development of an animal model of acute severe dopamine deficiency by using mice lacking the dopamine transporter. In the absence of transporter-mediated recycling mechanisms, dopamine levels become entirely dependent on de novo synthesis. Acute pharmacological inhibition of dopamine synthesis in these mice induces transient elimination of striatal dopamine accompanied by the development of a striking behavioral phenotype manifested as severe akinesia, rigidity, tremor, and ptosis. This phenotype can be reversed by administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, or by nonselective dopamine agonists. Surprisingly, several amphetamine derivatives were also effective in reversing these behavioral abnormalities in a dopamine-independent manner. Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs.

  12. A model for rate-dependent but time-independent material behavior in cyclic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafalias, Y.F.; Ramey, M.R.; Sheikh, I.

    1977-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to present a model for rate-dependent but time independent material behavior under cyclic loading in the plastic range. What is referred to as time independent behavior here, is the absence of creep and relaxation phenomena from the behavior of the model. The notion of plastic internal variables (piv) is introduced, as properly invariant scalars or second order tensors, whose constitutive relations are rate-type equations not necessarily homogeneous of oder one in the rates, as it would be required for independent plasticity. The concept of a yield surface in the strain space and a loading function in terms of the total strain rate is introduced, where the sign of the loading function defines zero or non-zero value of the rate of piv. Thus rate dependence is achieved without time dependent behavior (no creep or relaxation). In addition, discrete memory parameters associated with the most recent event of unloading-reloading in different directions enter the constitutive relations for the piv. A particular form of the constitutive relations is assumed, where the rate of piv is a linear combination of the strain rate components, with coefficients depending on the second invariant of the strain rate tensor, which can be viewed as a scalar measure of the rate of deformation in the multiaxial case and a direct generalization of the uniaxial strain rate. This leads to a particularly simple form of the constitutive relations resembling the ones for rate independent plasticity. The uniaxial counterpart would be a relation between the plastic strain rate (as one of the piv) and the total strain rate through a plastic modulus which depends on the strain rate, the piv, and the discrete memory parameters

  13. Development of the KINS Safety Culture Maturity Model for Self and Independent Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, C.; Choi, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture of an organization is cultivated and affected not only by societal and regulatory environment of the organization, but by its philosophies, policies, events and activities experienced in the process of accomplishing its mission. The safety culture would be continuously changed by the interactions between its members along with time as an organic entity. In order to perform a systematic self- or independent assessment of safety culture, a safety culture assessment model (SCAM) properly reflecting cultural characteristics should be necessary. In addition, a SCAM should be helpful not only to establish correct directions, goals, and strategies for safety culture development, but should anticipating obstacles against safety culture development in the implementation process derived from the assessment. In practical terms, a SCAM should be useful for deriving effective guidelines and implementing of corrective action programs for the evaluated organization. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performed a research project for six years to develop a SCAM satisfying the above prerequisites for self- and independent assessment. The KINS SCAM was developed based on the five stage safety culture maturity model proposed by Professor Patrick Hudson and was modified into four stages to reflect existing safety culture assessment experiences at Korean nuclear power plants. In order to define the change mechanism of safety culture for development and reversion, the change model proposed by Prochaska and DiClemente was introduced into KINS SCAM and developed into the Spiral Change Model.

  14. LOCAL INDEPENDENCE FEATURE SCREENING FOR NONPARAMETRIC AND SEMIPARAMETRIC MODELS BY MARGINAL EMPIRICAL LIKELIHOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinyuan; Tang, Cheng Yong; Wu, Yichao

    2015-01-01

    We consider an independence feature screening technique for identifying explanatory variables that locally contribute to the response variable in high-dimensional regression analysis. Without requiring a specific parametric form of the underlying data model, our approach accommodates a wide spectrum of nonparametric and semiparametric model families. To detect the local contributions of explanatory variables, our approach constructs empirical likelihood locally in conjunction with marginal nonparametric regressions. Since our approach actually requires no estimation, it is advantageous in scenarios such as the single-index models where even specification and identification of a marginal model is an issue. By automatically incorporating the level of variation of the nonparametric regression and directly assessing the strength of data evidence supporting local contribution from each explanatory variable, our approach provides a unique perspective for solving feature screening problems. Theoretical analysis shows that our approach can handle data dimensionality growing exponentially with the sample size. With extensive theoretical illustrations and numerical examples, we show that the local independence screening approach performs promisingly. PMID:27242388

  15. A tool for efficient, model-independent management optimization under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy; Fienen, Michael N.; Barlow, Paul M.; Welter, Dave E.

    2018-01-01

    To fill a need for risk-based environmental management optimization, we have developed PESTPP-OPT, a model-independent tool for resource management optimization under uncertainty. PESTPP-OPT solves a sequential linear programming (SLP) problem and also implements (optional) efficient, “on-the-fly” (without user intervention) first-order, second-moment (FOSM) uncertainty techniques to estimate model-derived constraint uncertainty. Combined with a user-specified risk value, the constraint uncertainty estimates are used to form chance-constraints for the SLP solution process, so that any optimal solution includes contributions from model input and observation uncertainty. In this way, a “single answer” that includes uncertainty is yielded from the modeling analysis. PESTPP-OPT uses the familiar PEST/PEST++ model interface protocols, which makes it widely applicable to many modeling analyses. The use of PESTPP-OPT is demonstrated with a synthetic, integrated surface-water/groundwater model. The function and implications of chance constraints for this synthetic model are discussed.

  16. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume IV. Model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M L; Allen, B J; Gale, J E; Lutz, M S; O& #x27; Hara, N E; Wood, R K

    1979-02-01

    This volume is the fourth in a series of seven documenting the PIES Integrating Model. It contains detailed descriptions of the basic assumptions behind each of the components of PIES and how they interact with one another. Chapter II of this volume presents the methodology used to integrate supply and demand. It includes a discussion of both the interface between the Demand Model and the equilibrating mechanism and the various supply models via the equilibrating algorithm used by PIES. Chapters III through IX describe each supply submodel in turn: coal, oil, and natural gas supply, utilities, refineries, advanced technologies, and transportation. Code and data documentation are covered elsewhere in this series (Volumes V and VI respectively). PIES is an evolving system. As this document was being prepared, many parts of the model were being modified. This document describes the PIES Integrating Model as of January 1, 1978.

  17. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  18. The finite and large-N behaviors of independent-value matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Geloun, Joseph, E-mail: jbengeloun@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications, ICMPA–UNESCO Chair, 072 B.P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin); Klauder, John R., E-mail: klauder@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8440 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We investigate the finite and large N behaviors of independent-value O(N)-invariant matrix models. These are models defined with matrix-type fields and with no gradient term in their action. They are generically nonrenormalizable but can be handled by nonperturbative techniques. We find that the functional integral of any O(N) matrix trace invariant may be expressed in terms of an O(N)-invariant measure. Based on this result, we prove that, in the limit that all interaction coupling constants go to zero, any interacting theory is continuously connected to a pseudo-free theory. This theory differs radically from the familiar free theory consisting in putting the coupling constants to zero in the initial action. The proof is given for generic, finite-size matrix models, whereas, in the limiting case N → ∞, we succeed in showing this behavior for restricted types of actions using a particular scaling of the parameters.

  19. Muscle artifact suppression using independent-component analysis and state-space modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán-Guzmán, Alina; Heute, Ulrich; Stephani, Ulrich; Galka, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at suppressing the muscle artifacts present in electroencephalographic (EEG) signals with a technique based on a combination of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and State-Space Modeling (SSM). The novel algorithm uses ICA to provide an initial model for SSM which is further optimized by the maximum-likelihood approach. This model is fitted to artifact-free data. Then it is applied to data with muscle artifacts. The state space is augmented by extracting additional components from the data prediction errors. The muscle artifacts are well separated in the additional components and, hence, a suppression of them can be performed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by application to a clinical epilepsy EEG data set.

  20. Model of the co-operative trade alliance for independent retail networks in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the contribution is proposal of the model of co-operative trade alliance for independent trade alliances with fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG in Czech Republic. Reason of the choice of this topic is sustain of variety of retail formats in Czech market in connection with position small and medium sized trade firms in comparison with transnational trade chains. Independent trade firms face to much bigger competitors operating supermarkets and hypermarkets, namely not even in size of sales area, width and depth of the assortment but also in possibility of negotiation of more profitable trade conditions with their suppliers. Effort of these independent trade firms, which operate mostly just in local or maximally regional market, is then mutual co-operation in form of consumer co-operatives, associations, alliances and networks. These groupings then mainly through common trade negotiation and purchase get for much more advantageous delivery and payment conditions from their suppliers. Besides they can participate in mutual financing of using of promotion instruments. Partial aim of the paper is investigation of opinion and willingness of Czech trade alliances with FMCG to utilize the opportunity of mutual co-operation in common trade alliance. Next partial goal is identification of the factors affecting formation of joint co-operative grouping and its structure, eventually definition of entry conditions which should be fulfilled by individual members.The system approach will be used to realize the given objective. This approach appears as the most suitable in consideration of anticipated structure and character of supposed model. The result will be then proposal of model of mutual co-operation between individual trade alliances.

  1. Rate-independent dissipation in phase-field modelling of displacive transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůma, K.; Stupkiewicz, S.; Petryk, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, rate-independent dissipation is introduced into the phase-field framework for modelling of displacive transformations, such as martensitic phase transformation and twinning. The finite-strain phase-field model developed recently by the present authors is here extended beyond the limitations of purely viscous dissipation. The variational formulation, in which the evolution problem is formulated as a constrained minimization problem for a global rate-potential, is enhanced by including a mixed-type dissipation potential that combines viscous and rate-independent contributions. Effective computational treatment of the resulting incremental problem of non-smooth optimization is developed by employing the augmented Lagrangian method. It is demonstrated that a single Lagrange multiplier field suffices to handle the dissipation potential vertex and simultaneously to enforce physical constraints on the order parameter. In this way, the initially non-smooth problem of evolution is converted into a smooth stationarity problem. The model is implemented in a finite-element code and applied to solve two- and three-dimensional boundary value problems representative for shape memory alloys.

  2. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded ``hidden sector'', annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e+e- and bar p p) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  3. Literature Reviews on Modeling Internal Geometry of Textile Composites and Rate-Independent Continuum Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Yuen, Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Textile composite materials have good potential for constructing composite structures where the effects of three-dimensional stresses are critical or geometric complexity is a manufacturing concern. There is a recent interest in advancing competence within Langley Research Center for modeling the degradation of mechanical properties of textile composites. In an initial effort, two critical areas are identified to pursue: (1) Construction of internal geometry of textile composites, and (2) Rate-independent continuum damage mechanics. This report documents reviews on the two subjects. Various reviewed approaches are categorized, their assumptions, methods, and progress are briefed, and then critiques are presented. Each review ends with recommended research.

  4. The Impact of Independency in Lesson Study Based Mathematic Learning in Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutama Sutama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This correlational quantitative research aims to testify students’ independency in lesson study based mathematic learning based on the parent’s economical status, environment, and learning facilities. Research population was 256 seventh grade students of State Junior High School 1 Salatiga Academic Year 2016/2017. 165 research sample students were determined by using Slovin formula (alpha 5%. Proportional random sampling technique was used by using a lottery. Documentation and questionnaire were used to collect the data and analyzed by using multiple linear regression. Research results are: students’ independency supported by parent’s economical status, environment, and learning facilities is 87.70% (significance 0.000; 20.01% (significance 0.008 parent’s economical status; 28,13% (significance 0.000 environment; and 39.56% (significance 0.000 facility supports students’ independency. Thus, good parent’s economical status, environment, and learning facilities increase students’ independency in lesson study based mathematic learning.

  5. Sustainable fisheries in shallow lakes: an independent empirical test of the Chinese mitten crab yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; Liang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hongzhu

    2017-07-01

    Next to excessive nutrient loading, intensive aquaculture is one of the major anthropogenic impacts threatening lake ecosystems. In China, particularly in the shallow lakes of mid-lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River, continuous overstocking of the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) could deteriorate water quality and exhaust natural resources. A series of crab yield models and a general optimum-stocking rate model have been established, which seek to benefit both crab culture and the environment. In this research, independent investigations were carried out to evaluate the crab yield models and modify the optimum-stocking model. Low percentage errors (average 47%, median 36%) between observed and calculated crab yields were obtained. Specific values were defined for adult crab body mass (135 g/ind.) and recapture rate (18% and 30% in lakes with submerged macrophyte biomass above and below 1 000 g/m2) to modify the optimum-stocking model. Analysis based on the modified optimum-stocking model indicated that the actual stocking rates in most lakes were much higher than the calculated optimum-stocking rates. This implies that, for most lakes, the current stocking rates should be greatly reduced to maintain healthy lake ecosystems.

  6. Board Size and Board Independence: A Quantitative Study on Banking Industry in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Rashid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship of board independence and board size with productivity and efficiency of the listed banks on the Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan. There is a lack of consensus regarding impact of corporate governance practices in correspondence to number of board members and board independence in banking sector. The derived results of the study show that there is a positive relationship between board independence and bank profitability and efficiency. Independent directors play a crucial role in providing genuine advice during executive decision making process which is an important source for improving overall corporate governance. Moreover, results regarding the role of control variables suggest a positive relationship of the total assets and deposits of the firm with the firm’s performance supporting stewardship theory in the market.

  7. A comparative study of independent particle model based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (4). Here, A is the Helmholtz free energy, U is the inter- nal energy, U(0) is the zero point energy and S is the entropy. ∗. For correspondence. With the development of quantum chemical meth- ods over last few decades, the accurate descriptions of molecular energy levels are achievable. The calcula- tion of the molecular ...

  8. An updated PREDICT breast cancer prognostication and treatment benefit prediction model with independent validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido Dos Reis, Francisco J; Wishart, Gordon C; Dicks, Ed M; Greenberg, David; Rashbass, Jem; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van den Broek, Alexandra J; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew; Rakha, Emad; Maishman, Tom; Eccles, Diana M; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2017-05-22

    PREDICT is a breast cancer prognostic and treatment benefit model implemented online. The overall fit of the model has been good in multiple independent case series, but PREDICT has been shown to underestimate breast cancer specific mortality in women diagnosed under the age of 40. Another limitation is the use of discrete categories for tumour size and node status resulting in 'step' changes in risk estimates on moving between categories. We have refitted the PREDICT prognostic model using the original cohort of cases from East Anglia with updated survival time in order to take into account age at diagnosis and to smooth out the survival function for tumour size and node status. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to fit separate models for ER negative and ER positive disease. Continuous variables were fitted using fractional polynomials and a smoothed baseline hazard was obtained by regressing the baseline cumulative hazard for each patients against time using fractional polynomials. The fit of the prognostic models were then tested in three independent data sets that had also been used to validate the original version of PREDICT. In the model fitting data, after adjusting for other prognostic variables, there is an increase in risk of breast cancer specific mortality in younger and older patients with ER positive disease, with a substantial increase in risk for women diagnosed before the age of 35. In ER negative disease the risk increases slightly with age. The association between breast cancer specific mortality and both tumour size and number of positive nodes was non-linear with a more marked increase in risk with increasing size and increasing number of nodes in ER positive disease. The overall calibration and discrimination of the new version of PREDICT (v2) was good and comparable to that of the previous version in both model development and validation data sets. However, the calibration of v2 improved over v1 in patients diagnosed under the age

  9. Strongest model-independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Mangano, Gianpiero; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Dark Matter is essential for structure formation in the late Universe so it must be stable on cosmological time scales. But how stable exactly? Only assuming decays into relativistic particles, we report an otherwise model independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter using current cosmological data. Since these decays affect only the low-$\\ell$ multipoles of the CMB, the Dark Matter lifetime is expected to correlate with the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ as well as curvature $\\Omega_k$. We consider two models, including $r$ and $r+\\Omega_k$ respectively, versus data from Planck, WMAP, WiggleZ and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, with or without the BICEP2 data (if interpreted in terms of primordial gravitational waves). This results in a lower bound on the lifetime of CDM given by 160Gyr (without BICEP2) or 200Gyr (with BICEP2) at 95% confidence level.

  10. Cardiopulmonary dysfunction in the Osteogenesis imperfecta mouse model Aga2 and human patients are caused by bone-independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Frank; Cohrs, Christian M; Flor, Armando; Lisse, Thomas S; Przemeck, Gerhard K H; Horsch, Marion; Schrewe, Anja; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Ivandic, Boris; Katus, Hugo A; Wurst, Wolfgang; Reisenberg, Catherine; Chaney, Hollis; Fuchs, Helmut; Hans, Wolfgang; Beckers, Johannes; Marini, Joan C; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin

    2012-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited connective tissue disorder with skeletal dysplasia of varying severity, predominantly caused by mutations in the collagen I genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). Extraskeletal findings such as cardiac and pulmonary complications are generally considered to be significant secondary features. Aga2, a murine model for human OI, was systemically analyzed in the German Mouse Clinic by means of in vivo and in vitro examinations of the cardiopulmonary system, to identify novel mechanisms accounting for perinatal lethality. Pulmonary and, especially, cardiac fibroblast of perinatal lethal Aga2/+ animals display a strong down-regulation of Col1a1 transcripts in vivo and in vitro, resulting in a loss of extracellular matrix integrity. In addition, dysregulated gene expression of Nppa, different types of collagen and Agt in heart and lung tissue support a bone-independent vicious cycle of heart dysfunction, including hypertrophy, loss of myocardial matrix integrity, pulmonary hypertension, pneumonia and hypoxia leading to death in Aga2. These murine findings are corroborated by a pediatric OI cohort study, displaying significant progressive decline in pulmonary function and restrictive pulmonary disease independent of scoliosis. Most participants show mild cardiac valvular regurgitation, independent of pulmonary and skeletal findings. Data obtained from human OI patients and the mouse model Aga2 provide novel evidence for primary effects of type I collagen mutations on the heart and lung. The findings will have potential benefits of anticipatory clinical exams and early intervention in OI patients.

  11. Correlates of children's independent outdoor play: Cross-sectional analyses from the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aggio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play.Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play. Children's physical activity levels were measured using waist worn accelerometry. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between correlates and odds of independent (unsupervised outdoor play. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between independent outdoor play and objective measures of physical activity. Activity was measured as average daily moderate-to-vigorous activity, steps, and sedentary behaviour.3856 (n=29% participants were categorised as engaging in independent outdoor play. Older age, being white British, being in poverty, living in close proximity to both family friends and family, having fewer internalising problems, having more externalising conduct problems and fewer pro-social behaviours were associated with higher odds of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with >2 additional minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (B=2.21 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.34, >330 additional steps per day (B=336.66 95% CI 209.80 to 463.51, and nearly 5min less time spent sedentary per day (B=−4.91 95% CI −7.54, −2.29Younger children, those from a higher socio-economic-status, those isolated in location from family friends and family, and those with high levels of prosocial behaviour have lower levels of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with higher levels of physical activity and less time sedentary. Future interventions to promote

  12. Creation of 3D Multi-Body Orthodontic Models by Using Independent Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Viviano Razionale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of dental health care, plaster models combined with 2D radiographs are widely used in clinical practice for orthodontic diagnoses. However, complex malocclusions can be better analyzed by exploiting 3D digital dental models, which allow virtual simulations and treatment planning processes. In this paper, dental data captured by independent imaging sensors are fused to create multi-body orthodontic models composed of teeth, oral soft tissues and alveolar bone structures. The methodology is based on integrating Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and surface structured light scanning. The optical scanner is used to reconstruct tooth crowns and soft tissues (visible surfaces through the digitalization of both patients’ mouth impressions and plaster casts. These data are also used to guide the segmentation of internal dental tissues by processing CBCT data sets. The 3D individual dental tissues obtained by the optical scanner and the CBCT sensor are fused within multi-body orthodontic models without human supervisions to identify target anatomical structures. The final multi-body models represent valuable virtual platforms to clinical diagnostic and treatment planning.

  13. Creation of 3D multi-body orthodontic models by using independent imaging sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2013-02-05

    In the field of dental health care, plaster models combined with 2D radiographs are widely used in clinical practice for orthodontic diagnoses. However, complex malocclusions can be better analyzed by exploiting 3D digital dental models, which allow virtual simulations and treatment planning processes. In this paper, dental data captured by independent imaging sensors are fused to create multi-body orthodontic models composed of teeth, oral soft tissues and alveolar bone structures. The methodology is based on integrating Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and surface structured light scanning. The optical scanner is used to reconstruct tooth crowns and soft tissues (visible surfaces) through the digitalization of both patients' mouth impressions and plaster casts. These data are also used to guide the segmentation of internal dental tissues by processing CBCT data sets. The 3D individual dental tissues obtained by the optical scanner and the CBCT sensor are fused within multi-body orthodontic models without human supervisions to identify target anatomical structures. The final multi-body models represent valuable virtual platforms to clinical diagnostic and treatment planning.

  14. A model-independent treatment of FSR in low energy σhad measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, A.; Jadach, S.; Gluza, J.; Jegerlehner, F.

    2003-03-01

    A new strategy for extracting the total cross section σ(e + e - → h + h - ) for the production of a charged scalar meson pair h + h - from experimental e + e - collision data is proposed. It is shown that by exploiting basic symmetries, like gauge invariance and parity conservation, it is possible to circumvent the need of ad hoc modeling to disentangle photonic radiation by the final state hadrons from photons radiated off the initial e + e - pair. The presented essentially model-independent approach is expected to be particularly interesting for the π + π - production channel since it provides a possibility to significantly reduce the model uncertainty of the extraction of the electromagnetic pion form factor vertical stroke F π vertical stroke 2 which is mainly related to our deficient knowledge of the hard photon radiation mechanism from the hadronic final state. Especially, for π + π - cross-section measurements via radiative return experiments, like the ones performed currently at the Φ-factory DAΦNE, an appreciable reduction of the model error could be achieved since here one is facing the problem of a leading order final state radiation (FSR) background. Applying the proposed method could be one step into the direction of a more accurate theoretical prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment a μ for which the precise knowledge of vertical stroke F π vertical stroke 2 is crucial. Furthermore, the validity and limitations of FSR models including scalar QED can hereby be tested. (orig.)

  15. Adaptive Kernel-density Independence Sampling based Monte Carlo Sampling (A-KISMCS) for inverse hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Shafiei, M.

    2016-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been applied in many hydrologic studies to explore posterior parameter distributions within a Bayesian framework. Accurate estimation of posterior parameter distributions is key to reliably estimate marginal likelihood functions and hence to reliably estimate measures of Bayesian complexity. This paper introduces an alternative to well-known random walk based MCMC samplers. An Adaptive Kernel Density Independence Sampling based Monte Carlo Sampling (A-KISMCS) is proposed. A-KISMCS uses an independence sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) updates which ensures that candidate observations are drawn independently of the current state of a chain. This ensures efficient exploration of the target distribution. The bandwidth of the kernel density estimator is also adapted online in order to increase its accuracy and ensure fast convergence to a target distribution. The performance of A-KISMCS is tested on one several case studies, including synthetic and real world case studies of hydrological modelling and compared with Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM-zs), which is fundamentally based on random walk sampling with differential evolution. Results show that while DREAM-zs converges to slightly sharper posterior densities, A-KISMCS is slightly more efficient in tracking the mode of the posteriors.

  16. Organization of the independent work of students while studying engineering graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel’noy Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the possibility of creating and implementing teaching conditions for the rational organization of the independent work of first-year students in state of adaptation to the study of the course of engineering drawing. Theoretical and methodological aspects of students’ independent work are presented: types and forms of organization and control, training and methodological support of their independent work. The authors used such an approach to independent work organization: teacher-led classes during the main types of training activities (lectures, practical and laboratory work; form of organization of training (extracurricular, and also self study using innovative teaching methods promotes creative activities of students and the development of competencies of a future skilled construction industry professional. The role of modern information and communication technologies in independent work of students was specified. According to the degree of coverage of students, taking into account individual characteristics and different levels of preparedness, the following forms of independent work organization were detached: individual, differentiated and front.In the process of engineering graphics studying it is recommended to use the following basic forms of independent work: ongoing work with the lecture material; selection and study of literature and electronic sources of information on the problems of the discipline; preparation for the main classroom training; performing calculation and graphic works; work in student scientific societies and carrying out research work; participation in scientific conferences, seminars and other. Emphasis on the formation of students’ skills in working with different types of educational and scientific literature, the ability to analyze, organize information in electronical library systems, open educational resources.

  17. The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.

  18. Cluster Morphologies and Model-independent Y SZ Estimates from Bolocam Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Ameglio, S.; Pierpaoli, E.

    2011-02-01

    We present initial results from our ongoing program to image the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in galaxy clusters at 143 GHz using Bolocam; five clusters and one blank field are described in this manuscript. The images have a resolution of 58 arcsec and a radius of sime6-7 arcmin, which is approximately r 500-2r 500 for these clusters. We effectively high-pass filter our data in order to subtract noise sourced by atmospheric fluctuations, but we are able to obtain unbiased images of the clusters by deconvolving the effects of this filter. The beam-smoothed rms is sime10 μKCMB in these images; with this sensitivity, we are able to detect the SZ signal to beyond r 500 in binned radial profiles. We have fit our images to beta and Nagai models, fixing spherical symmetry or allowing for ellipticity in the plane of the sky, and we find that the best-fit parameter values are in general consistent with those obtained from other X-ray and SZ data. Our data show no clear preference for the Nagai model or the beta model due to the limited spatial dynamic range of our images. However, our data show a definitive preference for elliptical models over spherical models, quantified by an F ratio of sime20 for the two models. The weighted mean ellipticity of the five clusters is epsilon = 0.27 ± 0.03, consistent with results from X-ray data. Additionally, we obtain model-independent estimates of Y 500, the integrated SZ y-parameter over the cluster face to a radius of r 500, with systematics-dominated uncertainties of sime10%. Our Y 500 values, which are free from the biases associated with model-derived Y 500 values, scale with cluster mass in a way that is consistent with both self-similar predictions and expectations of a sime10% intrinsic scatter.

  19. Colonization of the Tongue Surface in Japanese Independent Elders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral care is important to decrease oral bacteria, especially in the dependent elders. There have been some reports on oral microflora in the dependent elders. However, investigations involving healthy independent elders are limited. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information on the microflora in Japanese independent elders. One hundred Japanese independent elders aged 65 years or older participated in this study. Eighty-one independent elders (male: 44, female: 37, mean age: 72.7 ± 5.8 participated in this study. Their mean Barthel Index was 99.1 ± 3.1, and mean score of MMSE was 28.0 ± 2.3. The tongue bacterial flora was examinved to identify microorganisms by the culture method. The predominant aerobic organisms were Streptococcus spp. (detection rate: 100%, Neisseria spp. (96%, and Corynebacterium spp. (56%. Candida spp. was also isolated (32%. In this study, the oral microflora of the tongue in Japanese independent elders was clarified. The results of this investigation may contribute to research on oral bacteria in elder persons in the future.

  20. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  1. Factors threatening the survival of independent financial advisers in their organisational life cycle: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle van Tonder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates various threats to the survival of independent financial advisers in their organisational life cycle.  Telephone interviews were conducted to gain more insight into the demographic data of the respondents and to attempt to group them into life cycle stages.  Personal interviews were conducted to investigate the respondents' problems.  The contribution of this study is twofold:  First, general life cycle stages applicable to the businesses of independent financial advisers were determined.  Secondly, the study identified the important problems as well as those that ought to be consideration in the advisers' businesses.  The findings could be of assistance to independent financial advisers in analysing both their current business position and their planning for future requirements as the business develops from one stage to the next.

  2. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded “hidden sector”, annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e{sup +}e{sup −} and p-barp) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  3. K→πν anti ν: a model-independent analysis and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.J.; Silvestrini, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a model-independent analysis of new-physics contributions to the rare decays K + →π + ν anti ν and K L →π 0 ν anti ν. We parameterize the effects of new physics in these decays by two parameters: r K and the phase θ K , with r K =1 and θ K =0 in the standard model. We show how these parameters can be extracted from future data together with the relevant CKM parameters, in particular the angle β of the unitarity triangle. To this end CP asymmetries in B →ψK S and B →π + π - as well as the ratio vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke have to be also considered. This analysis offers simultaneously some insight in a possible violation of a ''golden relation'' between K →πν anti ν decays and the CP asymmetry in B →ψK S in the standard model pointed out some time ago. We illustrate these ideas by considering a general class of supersymmetric models. We find that in the ''constrained'' MSSM, in which θ K =0, the measurements of Br(K + →π + ν anti ν) and Br(K L →π 0 ν anti ν) directly determine the angle β. Moreover, the ''golden relation'' remains unaffected. On the other hand, in general SUSY models with unbroken R parity the present experimental constraints still allow for substantial deviations from r K =1 and θ K =0. Typically 0.5 K circle K circle . Consequently, in these models the violation of the ''golden relation'' is possible and values for Br(K + →π + ν anti ν) and Br(K L →π 0 ν anti ν) departing from the standard model expectations by factors 2-3 cannot be excluded. (orig.)

  4. The Impact of "Virtualization" on Independent Study Course Completion Rates: The British Columbia Open University Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Louis

    2009-01-01

    In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…

  5. College Students' Attention Behaviors during Independent Study and Course Level Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    Students in college make daily choices about how to use their independent study time, including choices about allocation of attention. Based on theoretical considerations and clinical studies, attention and the dividing of attention through multitasking is thought to have a relationship to performance levels. Research is only beginning to explore,…

  6. Correlates of children's independent outdoor play: Cross-sectional analyses from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Daniel; Gardner, Benjamin; Roberts, Justin; Johnstone, James; Stubbs, Brendon; Williams, Genevieve; López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; Smith, Lee

    2017-12-01

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play. Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no) as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play. Children's physical activity levels were measured using waist worn accelerometry. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between correlates and odds of independent (unsupervised) outdoor play. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between independent outdoor play and objective measures of physical activity. Activity was measured as average daily moderate-to-vigorous activity, steps, and sedentary behaviour. 3856 ( n  = 29%) participants were categorised as engaging in independent outdoor play. Older age, being white British, being in poverty, living in close proximity to both family friends and family, having fewer internalising problems, having more externalising conduct problems and fewer pro-social behaviours were associated with higher odds of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with > 2 additional minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (B = 2.21 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.34), > 330 additional steps per day (B = 336.66 95% CI 209.80 to 463.51), and nearly 5 min less time spent sedentary per day (B = - 4.91 95% CI - 7.54, - 2.29) Younger children, those from a higher socio-economic-status, those isolated in location from family friends and family, and those with high levels of prosocial behaviour have lower levels of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with higher levels of physical activity and less time sedentary. Future interventions

  7. A quasi-model-independent search for new high pT physics at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuteson, Bruce Owen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-12-05

    We present a new quasi-model-independent strategy (''Sleuth'') for searching for physics beyond the standard model. We define final states to be studied, and construct a rule that identifies a set of relevant variables for any particular final state. A novel algorithm searches for regions of excess in those variables and quantifies the significance of any detected excess. This strategy is applied to search for new high pT physics in approximately 100 pb-1 of proton-anti-proton collisions a √s = 1.8 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during 1992-1996 at the Fermilab Tevatron. We systematically analyze many exclusive final states, and demonstrate sensitivity to a variety of models predicting new phenomena at the electroweak scale. No evidence of new high pT physics is observed.

  8. Studying the meaning of dreams: accurate definition of the independent variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R C

    1986-09-01

    Studying the meaning of dreams is difficult and subject to many methodological pitfalls. One of these is vagueness and inconsistancy in defining dream content variables that are used as independent measures. This study evaluated the effect, upon accurate definition of the independent variable, of repeating the dream report and of using associative content as dream material. The importance of controlling these two sources of dream material was demonstrated: when the patient was allowed to repeat the dream and to report associative content, the number of initial references to death and separation variables nearly doubled in comparison to the standard single report of manifest content. Furthermore, there was minimal or no correlation of the number of these variables between manifest content and associative content, providing additional evidence for the unique contribution of associative content. This article also describes a new interview technique, the Staged Interview Technique, which provides a means to control, as well as measure, these potential distortions of the independent variable.

  9. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume V. Code documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M L; Allen, B J; Lutz, M S; Gale, J E; O& #x27; Hara, N E; Wood, R K

    1978-07-01

    This volume is a description of the Project Independence Evaluation System as a computer system. It is intended for readers wanting a basic understanding of the computer implementation of PIES rather than an understanding of the modeling methodology. It can assist those who wish to run PIES on the EIA computer facility or to use PIES on their own facilities, or to analyze the PIES computer processing. The document contains: an overview of the computer implementation; a description of the data and naming conventions used in PIES; a functional description of PIES data processing; PIES hardware and software requirements; and an operational description of the PIES processing flow. This overview defines the scope of PIES in this report and thus governs the computer system descriptions that follow. It also provides an historical view of the development of PIES.

  10. Linear least squares compartmental-model-independent parameter identification in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.; Smith, G.T.; Hubner, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified approach involving linear-regression straight-line parameter fitting of dynamic scan data is developed for both specific and nonspecific models. Where compartmental-model topologies apply, the measured activity may be expressed in terms of: its integrals, plasma activity and plasma integrals -- all in a linear expression with macroparameters as coefficients. Multiple linear regression, as in spreadsheet software, determines parameters for best data fits. Positron emission tomography (PET)-acquired gray-matter images in a dynamic scan are analyzed: both by this method and by traditional iterative nonlinear least squares. Both patient and simulated data were used. Regression and traditional methods are in expected agreement. Monte-Carlo simulations evaluate parameter standard deviations, due to data noise, and much smaller noise-induced biases. Unique straight-line graphical displays permit visualizing data influences on various macroparameters as changes in slopes. Advantages of regression fitting are: simplicity, speed, ease of implementation in spreadsheet software, avoiding risks of convergence failures or false solutions in iterative least squares, and providing various visualizations of the uptake process by straight line graphical displays. Multiparameter model-independent analyses on lesser understood systems is also made possible

  11. Influence maximization in social networks under an independent cascade-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyao; Jin, Yuehui; Lin, Zhen; Cheng, Shiduan; Yang, Tan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid growth of online social networks is important for viral marketing. Influence maximization refers to the process of finding influential users who make the most of information or product adoption. An independent cascade-based model for influence maximization, called IMIC-OC, was proposed to calculate positive influence. We assumed that influential users spread positive opinions. At the beginning, users held positive or negative opinions as their initial opinions. When more users became involved in the discussions, users balanced their own opinions and those of their neighbors. The number of users who did not change positive opinions was used to determine positive influence. Corresponding influential users who had maximum positive influence were then obtained. Experiments were conducted on three real networks, namely, Facebook, HEP-PH and Epinions, to calculate maximum positive influence based on the IMIC-OC model and two other baseline methods. The proposed model resulted in larger positive influence, thus indicating better performance compared with the baseline methods.

  12. Histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen independent prostate cancer tumors: evaluation in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Delgado-Enciso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meclofenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has shown therapeutic potential for different types of cancers, including androgen-independent prostate neoplasms. The antitumor effect of diverse nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been shown to be accompanied by histological and molecular changes that are responsible for this beneficial effect. The objective of the present work was to analyze the histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Tumors were created in a nude mouse model using PC3 cancerous human cells. Meclofenamic acid (10 mg/kg/day; experimental group, n=5 or saline solution (control group, n=5 was administered intraperitoneally for twenty days. Histological analysis was then carried out on the tumors, describing changes in the cellular architecture, fibrosis, and quantification of cellular proliferation and tumor vasculature. Meclofenamic acid causes histological changes that indicate less tumor aggression (less hypercellularity, fewer atypical mitoses, and fewer nuclear polymorphisms, an increase in fibrosis, and reduced cellular proliferation and tumor vascularity. Further studies are needed to evaluate the molecular changes that cause the beneficial and therapeutic effects of meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  13. Aesthetic Surgery Training during Residency in the United States: A Comparison of the Integrated, Combined, and Independent Training Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Arash; Kim, Rebecca Y.; Wan, Derrick C.; Izadpanah, Ali; Lee, Gordon K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Three educational models for plastic surgery training exist in the United States, the integrated, combined, and independent model. The present study is a comparative analysis of aesthetic surgery training, to assess whether one model is particularly suitable to provide for high-quality training in aesthetic surgery. Methods. An 18-item online survey was developed to assess residents' perceptions regarding the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in the US. The survey had three distinct sections: demographic information, current state of aesthetic surgery training, and residents' perception regarding the quality of aesthetic surgery training. Results. A total of 86 senior plastic surgery residents completed the survey. Twenty-three, 24, and 39 residents were in integrated, combined, and independent residency programs, respectively. No statistically significant differences were seen with respect to number of aesthetic surgery procedures performed, additional training received in minimal-invasive cosmetic procedures, median level of confidence with index cosmetic surgery procedures, or perceived quality of aesthetic surgery training. Facial aesthetic procedures were felt to be the most challenging procedures. Exposure to minimally invasive aesthetic procedures was limited. Conclusion. While the educational experience in aesthetic surgery appears to be similar, weaknesses still exist with respect to training in minimally invasive/nonsurgical aesthetic procedures. PMID:25225615

  14. Evidence in Support of the Independent Channel Model Describing the Sensorimotor Control of Human Stance Using a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H. Pasma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Independent Channel (IC model is a commonly used linear balance control model in the frequency domain to analyze human balance control using system identification and parameter estimation. The IC model is a rudimentary and noise-free description of balance behavior in the frequency domain, where a stable model representation is not guaranteed. In this study, we conducted firstly time-domain simulations with added noise, and secondly robot experiments by implementing the IC model in a real-world robot (PostuRob II to test the validity and stability of the model in the time domain and for real world situations. Balance behavior of seven healthy participants was measured during upright stance by applying pseudorandom continuous support surface rotations. System identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the balance behavior with the IC model in the frequency domain. The IC model with the estimated parameters from human experiments was implemented in Simulink for computer simulations including noise in the time domain and robot experiments using the humanoid robot PostuRob II. Again, system identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the simulated balance behavior. Time series, Frequency Response Functions, and estimated parameters from human experiments, computer simulations, and robot experiments were compared with each other. The computer simulations showed similar balance behavior and estimated control parameters compared to the human experiments, in the time and frequency domain. Also, the IC model was able to control the humanoid robot by keeping it upright, but showed small differences compared to the human experiments in the time and frequency domain, especially at high frequencies. We conclude that the IC model, a descriptive model in the frequency domain, can imitate human balance behavior also in the time domain, both in computer simulations with added noise and real world situations with a

  15. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Göran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. Methods The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Results The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. Conclusion HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  16. Pure study and experimental application of laser measurement for students in independent colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Liu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The cultivation of independent college students is the development of applied talents and the strength of students' innovative ability. This requires teachers to make better use of the resources of the school, to develop students' ability with greatest possible and to encourage students to learn independently and personality development. We can carry out multi-discipline curriculum design practice after the study of related disciplines in order to make students have a more in-depth understanding and learning of the professional courses. In this paper, we will research on curriculum design based on the combination of Laser Measurement Technology and Digital Image Processing.

  17. Threat-Independent Column Removal and Fire-Induced Progressive Collapse: Numerical Study and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is defined as the spread of an initial failure from element to element, eventually resulting in the collapse of an entire structure or a disproportionately large part of it. The current progressive collapse analyses and design methods in guidelines and codes focus on the alternate load path method. This method is suitable especially in the case of blast-induced progressive collapse. In this paper, fire-induced and threat-independent progressive collapse potential is numerically investigated in steel moment resisting frames. Affecting parameters such as location of initial failure and number of floors are considered in this study. Two different mechanisms were observed in threat-independent and fire-induced progressive collapse: while in threat-independent column removal alternative load paths play major role, in fire-induced progressive collapse the weight of the structure above the failure region is the most important parameter.

  18. SU-F-T-494: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Using Golden Beam Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, R; Uchida, Y [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Shimizu, H [Kitasato University Medical Center, Kitamoto, Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Y; Kotabe, K [National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kamima, T [Cancer Institute Hospital Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, S [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In general, beam data of individual linac is measured for independent dose verification software program and the verification is performed as a secondary check. In this study, independent dose verification using golden beam data was compared to that using individual linac’s beam data. Methods: Six institutions were participated and three different beam data were prepared. The one was individual measured data (Original Beam Data, OBD) .The others were generated by all measurements from same linac model (Model-GBD) and all linac models (All-GBD). The three different beam data were registered to the independent verification software program for each institute. Subsequently, patient’s plans in eight sites (brain, head and neck, lung, esophagus, breast, abdomen, pelvis and bone) were analyzed using the verification program to compare doses calculated using the three different beam data. Results: 1116 plans were collected from six institutes. Compared to using the OBD, the results shows the variation using the Model-GBD based calculation and the All-GBD was 0.0 ± 0.3% and 0.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The maximum variations were 1.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The plans with the variation over 1% shows the reference points were located away from the central axis with/without physical wedge. Conclusion: The confidence limit (2SD) using the Model-GBD and the All-GBD was within 0.6% and 1.2%, respectively. Thus, the use of golden beam data may be feasible for independent verification. In addition to it, the verification using golden beam data provide quality assurance of planning from the view of audit. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development(AMED)

  19. How Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience Support Invention: A Study with German Independent Inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.; Bedenk, Stephan J.; Braun, Anna; Neyer, Franz J.

    2012-01-01

    How does invention depend on personality? Do inventors differ from noninventors? This study investigated the personal factors influencing a sample of independent inventors in Germany (N = 69). Standardized psychological questionnaires were employed to assess the Big Five personality dimensions, willingness to take risks, self-concept, and…

  20. Achieving Consensus on Principles of Good Practice for School Health in Independent Schools: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Miguel G.; Allegrante, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although the 8 components of the coordinated school health (CSH) framework have been implemented to various degrees in the nation's public schools, principles of good practice (PGPs) to guide health promotion efforts in independent schools do not exist. The purpose of this study was to generate PGPs and rate their feasibility of…

  1. Technology Integration in EFL Classrooms: A Study of Qatari Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Youmen; Ellili-Cherif, Maha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teachers' individual characteristics and perceptions of environmental factors on the extent of technology integration into EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms. To this end, a national survey examining EFL teachers' perceptions was conducted at Qatari Independent Schools. A total of…

  2. Review of Study Programme Renewal in Lithuania: Planning Students' Independent Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibeniene, Gintaute

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces external quality assessment results of first cycle and second cycle study programmes renewed under the Human Resources Development Action Programme 2007-2013 priority direction 2 "Lifelong Learning" (hereinafter the "Programme") through the aspect of planning students' independent work. Problems faced…

  3. Task Selection, Task Switching and Multitasking during Computer-Based Independent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Detailed logs of students' computer use, during independent study sessions, were captured in an open-access computer laboratory. Each log consisted of a chronological sequence of tasks representing either the application or the Internet domain displayed in the workstation's active window. Each task was classified using a three-tier schema…

  4. Comparative Study of Learning Using E-Learning and Printed Materials on Independent Learning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Utami, Niken; Aziz Saefudin, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine: 1) differences in students taking independent learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 2) differences in the creativity of students who follow learning with e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 3) differences in learning independence and creativity of students attend learning with e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the subject of Mathematics Instructional Media Development. This study was a quasi-experimental research design using only posttest control design. The study population was all students who take courses in Learning Mathematics Media Development, Academic Year 2014/2015 100 students and used a random sample (random sampling) is 60 students. To test the hypothesis used multivariate analysis of variance or multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the track. The results of this study indicate that 1) There is a difference in student learning independence following study using the e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 4.177, p = 0.046 creativity of the students who complete the learning by using e -learning and students to follow the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 0.470, p = 0.496 > 0.05) ; No difference learning independence and creativity of students attend learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM (F = 2.452, p = 0.095 > 0.05). Based on these studies suggested that the learning using e -learning can be used to develop student creativity, while learning to use e -learning and teaching materials can be printed to use to develop students’ independence.

  5. Reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: a case study of field independent-prospective teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, reflective thinking is one of the important things which become a concern in learning mathematics, especially in solving a mathematical problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the student used reflective thinking when solved an algebra problem. The subject of this research is one female student who has field independent cognitive style. This research is a descriptive exploratory study with data analysis using qualitative approach to describe in depth reflective thinking of prospective teacher in solving an algebra problem. Four main categories are used to analyse the reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: (1) formulation and synthesis of experience, (2) orderliness of experience, (3) evaluating the experience and (4) testing the selected solution based on the experience. The results showed that the subject described the problem by using another word and the subject also found the difficulties in making mathematical modelling. The subject analysed two concepts used in solving problem. For instance, geometry related to point and line while algebra is related to algebra arithmetic operation. The subject stated that solution must have four aspect to get effective solution, specifically the ability to (a) understand the meaning of every words; (b) make mathematical modelling; (c) calculate mathematically; (d) interpret solution obtained logically. To test the internal consistency or error in solution, the subject checked and looked back related procedures and operations used. Moreover, the subject tried to resolve the problem in a different way to compare the answers which had been obtained before. The findings supported the assertion that reflective thinking provides an opportunity for the students in improving their weakness in mathematical problem solving. It can make a grow accuracy and concentration in solving a mathematical problem. Consequently, the students will get the right and logic answer by reflective thinking.

  6. Robust Means Modeling: An Alternative for Hypothesis Testing of Independent Means under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes robust means modeling (RMM) approaches for hypothesis testing of mean differences for between-subjects designs in order to control the biasing effects of nonnormality and variance inequality. Drawing from structural equation modeling (SEM), the RMM approaches make no assumption of variance homogeneity and employ robust…

  7. Defining ATM-Independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-Lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A; Levine, Ross L; Bassing, Craig H; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H J

    2016-02-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM-deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM-independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATM(flox)) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) mice). Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vav(cre) were viable in vivo. Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) (VAV) mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double-strand break repair and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. A novel mouse model was developed, by combining a vav(cre)-inducible ATM knockout mouse with an NBS1 hypomorphic mutation, to analyze ATM-independent functions of the Mre11 complex in vivo. These data show that the DNA repair, rather than DDR signaling functions of the complex, is acutely required in the context of ATM deficiency to suppress genome instability and lymphomagenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Model-independent partial wave analysis using a massively-parallel fitting framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Aoude, R.; dos Reis, A. C.; Sokoloff, M.

    2017-10-01

    The functionality of GooFit, a GPU-friendly framework for doing maximum-likelihood fits, has been extended to extract model-independent {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes in three-body decays such as D + → h + h + h ‑. A full amplitude analysis is done where the magnitudes and phases of the {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes are anchored at a finite number of m 2(h + h ‑) control points, and a cubic spline is used to interpolate between these points. The amplitudes for {\\mathscr{P}}-wave and {\\mathscr{D}}-wave intermediate states are modeled as spin-dependent Breit-Wigner resonances. GooFit uses the Thrust library, with a CUDA backend for NVIDIA GPUs and an OpenMP backend for threads with conventional CPUs. Performance on a variety of platforms is compared. Executing on systems with GPUs is typically a few hundred times faster than executing the same algorithm on a single CPU.

  9. Security of Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in the Bounded-Quantum-Storage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pironio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD is a formalism that supersedes traditional quantum key distribution, as its security does not rely on any detailed modeling of the internal working of the devices. This strong form of security is only possible using devices producing correlations that violate a Bell inequality. Full security proofs of DIQKD have recently been reported, but they tolerate zero or small amounts of noise and are restricted to protocols based on specific Bell inequalities. Here, we provide a security proof of DIQKD that is both more efficient and noise resistant, and also more general, as it applies to protocols based on arbitrary Bell inequalities and can be adapted to cover supraquantum eavesdroppers limited by the no-signaling principle only. It is formulated, however, in the bounded-quantum-storage model, where an upper bound on the adversary’s quantum memory is a priori known. This condition is not a limitation at present, since the best existing quantum memories have very short coherence times.

  10. Development Of Entrepreneur Learning Model Based On Problem Based Learning To Increase Competency Independence And Creativity Students Of Industrial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola Dewiyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is undeniable that the competition to get a job is very tight and of course universities have an important role in printing human resources that can compete globally not least with the Department of Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta FT UMJ. Problems that occur is based on the analysis obtained from the track record of graduates researchers found that 60 percent of students of Industrial Engineering FT UMJ work not in accordance with the level of education owned so financially their income is still below the standard. This study aims to improve the competence of students of Industrial Engineering Department FT UMJ in entrepreneurship courses especially through the development of Problem Based Learning based learning model. Specific targets of this research were conducted with the aim to identify and analyze the need to implement learning model based on Problem Based Learning Entrepreneurship and to design and develop the model of entrepreneurship based on Problem Based Learning to improve the competence independence and creativity of Industrial Engineering students of FT UMJ in Entrepreneurship course. To achieve the above objectives this research uses research and development R amp D method. The product produced in this research is the detail of learning model of entrepreneurial model based on Problem Based Learning entrepreneurship model based on Problem Based Learning and international journals

  11. Independent modelling in SSM's licensing review of a spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shulan; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Norden, Maria

    2014-01-01

    inconsistency between the documents and the actual modelling performed in SKB's dose assessment, QA problems in the consequence analyses, and insufficient justification of assumptions. We can already now conclude that independent regulatory modelling combined with traditional document review is an effective way to enhance the authority's licensing review process. SSM communicated the results from the initial review phase on the 29 October 2012 by handing in a written statement to the Land and Environment Court and SKB. SKB has also been informed of the results of SSM's independent modelling through SSM's request for complementary information. In the main review phase, to follow, we plan to continue with reproduction of selected 'What if?' and 'residual' scenarios as well as 'barrier function' scenarios that were not covered in the initial review phase. Moreover, to further investigate uncertainty in the calculated LDF values we plan to perform some alternative modelling, i.e. simpler 'reference biosphere' modelling with the objective of exploring the uncertainty of various properties of SKB's biosphere objects, including their evolution in time. Further, the details of the derivations of the probabilities of canister failure scenarios, which are beyond scope of this paper, will be handled in the in-depth review of the main review phase. (authors)

  12. Uniform California earthquake rupture forecast, version 3 (UCERF3): the time-independent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Edward H.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Bird, Peter; Dawson, Timothy E.; Felzer, Karen R.; Jackson, David D.; Johnson, Kaj M.; Jordan, Thomas H.; Madden, Christopher; Michael, Andrew J.; Milner, Kevin R.; Page, Morgan T.; Parsons, Thomas; Powers, Peter M.; Shaw, Bruce E.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Weldon, Ray J.; Zeng, Yuehua; ,

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present the time-independent component of the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3), which provides authoritative estimates of the magnitude, location, and time-averaged frequency of potentially damaging earthquakes in California. The primary achievements have been to relax fault segmentation assumptions and to include multifault ruptures, both limitations of the previous model (UCERF2). The rates of all earthquakes are solved for simultaneously, and from a broader range of data, using a system-level "grand inversion" that is both conceptually simple and extensible. The inverse problem is large and underdetermined, so a range of models is sampled using an efficient simulated annealing algorithm. The approach is more derivative than prescriptive (for example, magnitude-frequency distributions are no longer assumed), so new analysis tools were developed for exploring solutions. Epistemic uncertainties were also accounted for using 1,440 alternative logic tree branches, necessitating access to supercomputers. The most influential uncertainties include alternative deformation models (fault slip rates), a new smoothed seismicity algorithm, alternative values for the total rate of M≥5 events, and different scaling relationships, virtually all of which are new. As a notable first, three deformation models are based on kinematically consistent inversions of geodetic and geologic data, also providing slip-rate constraints on faults previously excluded because of lack of geologic data. The grand inversion constitutes a system-level framework for testing hypotheses and balancing the influence of different experts. For example, we demonstrate serious challenges with the Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis for individual faults. UCERF3 is still an approximation of the system, however, and the range of models is limited (for example, constrained to stay close to UCERF2). Nevertheless, UCERF3 removes the apparent UCERF2 overprediction of

  13. Potential Success and Barrier Factors for Implementation of the Transition to Independence (TIP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kalinyak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study, 28 key stakeholders who work with transition-aged youth participated in focus group discussions addressing success and barrier factors regarding implementation of a transition to independence process (TIP program for youth, ages 14–29, in three Midwestern cities. All participants had prior knowledge of TIP. The paradigm shift to client-oriented goals and services was acknowledged by respondents as the prime benefit of TIP; youth are more motivated to follow through on self-determined goals. Barrier factors for providers involved collaboration with agencies adhering to provider-oriented interventions, provision of TIP methods training, and reallocation of time and money. Barrier factors for youth involved mistrust of service providers, overcoming maturational deficits, and acquiring and maintaining relationships, reputations, and social supports.

  14. ORGANIZATION OF STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENT WORK IN STUDYING PHYSICS BASED ON DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGY IN LMS MOODLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Shurygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to justify and substantiate the importance and usefulness of e-learning courses on the platform LMS MOODLE in the context of improving the quality of independent work of students in the study of high school physics course.Methods. Developed online courses in physics in LMS MOODLE based on the analysis of scientific publications and research, observations, lessons learned and results of educational activities are presented; the peculiarities of their application in terms of improving the effectiveness of different types of independent activity of students of high school are identified.Results. A brief analysis of the main trends of distance learning is given; the experience of the development and application of electronic educational courses on the main sections of the course of physics in the Physics and Mathematics Department at the Institute of Elabuga Kazan (Volga Federal University is described. It is concluded that the use of e-learning in the educational process enhances the effectiveness of different types of independent activity of students, self-development, and the formation of their professional competence.Scientific novelty. The notion of electronic educational courses and its place in the system of blended learning are clarified. The key features and opportunities for intensification of educational process and enhancing students’ independent work are highlighted.Practical significance. Outlined in the article the possibilities and potential of the spacers on a platform LMS MOODLE, as well as the features of their application can determine ways to optimize and streamline the learning process, improvement of methods and tools for the repose of information, monitoring, diagnosis of different types of self-employment. Presented experience of independent work of students in studying physics course based on e-learning courses can be used in various educational institutions of higher education.

  15. Energy-Independent Architectural Models for Residential Complex Plans through Solar Energy in Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yul Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests energy-independent architectural models for residential complexes through the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea, was selected as the target area for the residential complex. An optimal location in the area was selected to maximize the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Then, several architectural design models were developed. Next, after analyzing the energy-use patterns of each design model, economic analyses were conducted considering the profits generated from renewable-energy use. In this way, the optimum residential building model was identified. For this site, optimal solar power generation efficiency was obtained when solar panels were installed at 25° angles. Thus, the sloped roof angles were set to 25°, and the average height of the internal space of the highest floor was set to 1.8 m. Based on this model, analyses were performed regarding energy self-sufficiency improvement and economics. It was verified that connecting solar power generation capacity from a zero-energy perspective considering the consumer’s amount of power consumption was more effective than connecting maximum solar power generation capacity according to building structure. Moreover, it was verified that selecting a subsidizable solar power generation capacity according to the residential solar power facility connection can maximize operational benefits.

  16. Subject-independent modeling and representation data on the formation and distribution of innovative value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating an innovation environment is shown in the context of interaction of economic agents in the creation and consumption of innovative value-based infrastructure approach. The problem of the complexity of collecting heterogeneous data on the formation and distribution of innovative value in the conditions of the dynamic nature of the research object and the environment is formulated. An information model providing a subject-independent representation of data on innovation value flows is proposed and allows to automate the processes of data collection and analysis with the minimization of time costs. The article was prepared in the course of carrying out research work within the framework of the project part of the state task in the field of scientific activity in accordance with the assignment 26.2758.2017 / 4.6 for 2017-2019. on the topic “System for analyzing the formation and distribution of the value of innovative products based on the infrastructure concept”.

  17. A model independent determination of the B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} decay rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernlochner, Florian U. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Lacker, Heiko [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Ligeti, Zoltan [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The goal of the SIMBA collaboration is to provide a global fit to the available measurements of inclusive B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} and B{yields}X{sub u}l{nu} decays. By performing a global fit one is able to simultaneously determine the relevant normalizations, i.e. the total B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} rate and the CKM-matrix element vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke, together with the required hadronic parameters, most importantly the b-quark mass and the b-quark distribution function in the B-meson, called the shape function. In this talk, the current status on the model-independent determination of the shape function and vertical stroke C{sub 7}{sup incl}V{sub tb}V{sub ts}{sup *} vertical stroke, which parametrizes the total B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} rate, from a global fit to the available B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} measurements from Babar and Belle is presented. In particular, the theoretical uncertainties originating from variations of the different factorization scales are evaluated.

  18. A model independent determination of the B→Xsγ decay rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernlochner, Florian U.; Lacker, Heiko; Ligeti, Zoltan

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the SIMBA collaboration is to provide a global fit to the available measurements of inclusive B→X s γ and B→X u lν decays. By performing a global fit one is able to simultaneously determine the relevant normalizations, i.e. the total B→X s γ rate and the CKM-matrix element vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke, together with the required hadronic parameters, most importantly the b-quark mass and the b-quark distribution function in the B-meson, called the shape function. In this talk, the current status on the model-independent determination of the shape function and vertical stroke C 7 incl V tb V ts * vertical stroke, which parametrizes the total B→X s γ rate, from a global fit to the available B→X s γ measurements from Babar and Belle is presented. In particular, the theoretical uncertainties originating from variations of the different factorization scales are evaluated.

  19. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Report on Two- and Three-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Dean, Alicia; Carlson, Deven

    2011-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by non-school district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District (MPS).…

  20. A model perception on the independence of PhD students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwandan Journal of Education ... As results, we suggest that a well-trained independent PhD student from UR should be able to think critically, to initiate, to innovate and to enhance the research capabilities. Therefore ... Keywords: PhD supervision, independent researcher, PhD student, research capability, critical thinking ...

  1. SU-E-T-49: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H; Tachibana, H; Kamima, T; Takahashi, R; Kawai, D; Sugawara, Y; Yamamoto, T; Sato, A; Yamashita, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM TG114 does not cover the independent verification for IMRT. We conducted a study of independent dose verification for IMRT in seven institutes to show the feasibility. Methods: 384 IMRT plans in the sites of prostate and head and neck (HN) were collected from the institutes, where the planning was performed using Eclipse and Pinnacle3 with the two techniques of step and shoot (S&S) and sliding window (SW). All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. An ion-chamber measurement in a water-equivalent slab phantom was performed to compare the doses computed using the TPS and an independent dose verification program. Additionally, the agreement in dose computed in patient CT images between using the TPS and using the SMU was assessed. The dose of the composite beams in the plan was evaluated. Results: The agreement between the measurement and the SMU were −2.3±1.9 % and −5.6±3.6 % for prostate and HN sites, respectively. The agreement between the TPSs and the SMU were −2.1±1.9 % and −3.0±3.7 for prostate and HN sites, respectively. There was a negative systematic difference with similar standard deviation and the difference was larger in the HN site. The S&S technique showed a statistically significant difference between the SW. Because the Clarkson-based method in the independent program underestimated (cannot consider) the dose under the MLC. Conclusion: The accuracy would be improved when the Clarkson-based algorithm should be modified for IMRT and the tolerance level would be within 5%

  2. Iron deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel; Rohr, Aaron M; Wang, Wen-Tung; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Berman, Nancy E J; Lynch, Sharon G; LeVine, Steven M

    2011-06-23

    Perivenular inflammation is a common early pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent hypothesis stated that CNS inflammation is induced by perivenular iron deposits that occur in response to altered blood flow in MS subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, an animal model was developed, called cerebral experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE), which presents with CNS perivascular iron deposits. This model was used to investigate the relationship of iron deposition to inflammation. In order to generate cEAE, mice were given an encephalitogen injection followed by a stereotactic intracerebral injection of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Control animals received encephalitogen followed by an intracerebral injection of saline, or no encephalitogen plus an intracerebral injection of saline or cytokines. Laser Doppler was used to measure cerebral blood flow. MRI and iron histochemistry were used to localize iron deposits. Additional histological procedures were used to localize inflammatory cell infiltrates, microgliosis and astrogliosis. Doppler analysis revealed that cEAE mice had a reduction in cerebral blood flow compared to controls. MRI revealed T2 hypointense areas in cEAE animals that spatially correlated with iron deposition around vessels and at some sites of inflammation as detected by iron histochemistry. Vessels with associated iron deposits were distributed across both hemispheres. Mice with cEAE had more iron-labeled vessels compared to controls, but these vessels were not commonly associated with inflammatory cell infiltrates. Some iron-laden vessels had associated microgliosis that was above the background microglial response, and iron deposits were observed within reactive microglia. Vessels with associated astrogliosis were more commonly observed without colocalization of iron deposits. The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of inflammation providing evidence against the hypothesis that iron

  3. p53-independent DUX4 pathology in cell and animal models of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Bosnakovski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is a genetically dominant myopathy caused by mutations that disrupt repression of the normally silent DUX4 gene, which encodes a transcription factor that has been shown to interfere with myogenesis when misexpressed at very low levels in myoblasts and to cause cell death when overexpressed at high levels. A previous report using adeno-associated virus to deliver high levels of DUX4 to mouse skeletal muscle demonstrated severe pathology that was suppressed on a p53-knockout background, implying that DUX4 acted through the p53 pathway. Here, we investigate the p53 dependence of DUX4 using various in vitro and in vivo models. We find that inhibiting p53 has no effect on the cytoxicity of DUX4 on C2C12 myoblasts, and that expression of DUX4 does not lead to activation of the p53 pathway. DUX4 does lead to expression of the classic p53 target gene Cdkn1a (p21 but in a p53-independent manner. Meta-analysis of 5 publicly available data sets of DUX4 transcriptional profiles in both human and mouse cells shows no evidence of p53 activation, and further reveals that Cdkn1a is a mouse-specific target of DUX4. When the inducible DUX4 mouse model is crossed onto the p53-null background, we find no suppression of the male-specific lethality or skin phenotypes that are characteristic of the DUX4 transgene, and find that primary myoblasts from this mouse are still killed by DUX4 expression. These data challenge the notion that the p53 pathway is central to the pathogenicity of DUX4.

  4. Iron deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Phil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perivenular inflammation is a common early pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS. A recent hypothesis stated that CNS inflammation is induced by perivenular iron deposits that occur in response to altered blood flow in MS subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, an animal model was developed, called cerebral experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE, which presents with CNS perivascular iron deposits. This model was used to investigate the relationship of iron deposition to inflammation. Methods In order to generate cEAE, mice were given an encephalitogen injection followed by a stereotactic intracerebral injection of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Control animals received encephalitogen followed by an intracerebral injection of saline, or no encephalitogen plus an intracerebral injection of saline or cytokines. Laser Doppler was used to measure cerebral blood flow. MRI and iron histochemistry were used to localize iron deposits. Additional histological procedures were used to localize inflammatory cell infiltrates, microgliosis and astrogliosis. Results Doppler analysis revealed that cEAE mice had a reduction in cerebral blood flow compared to controls. MRI revealed T2 hypointense areas in cEAE animals that spatially correlated with iron deposition around vessels and at some sites of inflammation as detected by iron histochemistry. Vessels with associated iron deposits were distributed across both hemispheres. Mice with cEAE had more iron-labeled vessels compared to controls, but these vessels were not commonly associated with inflammatory cell infiltrates. Some iron-laden vessels had associated microgliosis that was above the background microglial response, and iron deposits were observed within reactive microglia. Vessels with associated astrogliosis were more commonly observed without colocalization of iron deposits. Conclusion The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of

  5. Model-independent determination of the carrier multiplication time constant in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Marco

    2009-11-21

    The experimental determination of the carrier multiplication (CM) time constant is complicated by the fact that this process occurs within the initial few hundreds of femtoseconds after excitation and, in transient-absorption experiments, cannot be separated from the buildup time of the 1p-state population. This work provides an accurate theoretical determination of the electron relaxation lifetime during the last stage of the p-state buildup, in CdSe nanocrystals, in the presence of a single photogenerated hole (no CM) and of a hole plus an additional electron-hole pair (following CM). From the invariance of the 1p buildup time observed experimentally for excitations above and below the CM threshold producing hot carriers with the same average per-exciton excess energy, and the calculated corresponding variations in the electron decay time in the two cases, an estimate is obtained for the carrier multiplication time constant. Unlike previous estimates reported in the literature so far, this result is model-independent, i.e., is obtained without making any assumption on the nature of the mechanism governing carrier multiplication. It is then compared with the time constant calculated, as a function of the excitation energy, assuming an impact-ionization-like process for carrier multiplication (DCM). The two results are in good agreement and show that carrier multiplication can occur on timescales of the order of tens of femtoseconds at energies close to the observed onset. These findings, which are compatible with the fastest lifetime estimated experimentally, confirm the suitability of the impact-ionization model to explain carrier multiplication in CdSe nanocrystals.

  6. Living arrangements of young adults living independently: evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K S; Garner, T I

    1990-12-01

    A cross-country comparison of the impact of socioeconomic factors on household formation by young adults in the 15-24 age group is presented. "Of those young people living independently (not in their parental homes), how do incomes from various sources affect their decision whether to live alone or with others? The sample did not include all persons in the 15-24 age group, only those living independently. A logit analysis of the living alone question was conducted using data from five countries (Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States) included in the LIS [Luxembourg Income Study] data base to determine whether differences across countries exist." excerpt

  7. A study of dynamics performance improvement by rear right and left independent drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Takashi; Fukuba, Hitoshi; Suetomi, Takamasa

    2010-11-01

    In this study, methods of motion control on a rear right and left independent electric motor drive vehicle and the benefit for drivers when using this configuration were researched. The system offers direct yaw moment control (DYC) function and it is possible to compensate for the vehicle turning motion. On the other hand, a rear drive vehicle often becomes unstable at a situation of acceleration in a turn. Even if the DYC system controls the vehicle motion, there are performance limits. One of the cause considered is that the characteristics of rear tyres are changed by the driving force. Control methods that focused especially on this point were examined, and the performance of independent drive system was evaluated by a simulation. Moreover, the effects on driver were confirmed with a driving simulator. The effectiveness of the system was confirmed from these results.

  8. Impulse-response function of splanchnic circulation with model-independent constraints: theory and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Keiding, S; Bass, L

    2003-01-01

    Modeling physiological processes using tracer kinetic methods requires knowledge of the time course of the tracer concentration in blood supplying the organ. For liver studies, however, inaccessibility of the portal vein makes direct measurement of the hepatic dual-input function impossible in hu...

  9. A DTI-based model for TMS using the independent impedance method with frequency-dependent tissue parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Van Hecke, W.; Leemans, A.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate simulations on detailed realistic head models are necessary to gain a better understanding of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Hitherto, head models with simplified geometries and constant isotropic material properties are often used, whereas some biological tissues have anisotropic characteristics which vary naturally with frequency. Moreover, most computational methods do not take the tissue permittivity into account. Therefore, we calculate the electromagnetic behaviour due to TMS in a head model with realistic geometry and where realistic dispersive anisotropic tissue properties are incorporated, based on T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. This paper studies the impact of tissue anisotropy, permittivity and frequency dependence, using the anisotropic independent impedance method. The results show that anisotropy yields differences up to 32% and 19% of the maximum induced currents and electric field, respectively. Neglecting the permittivity values leads to a decrease of about 72% and 24% of the maximum currents and field, respectively. Implementing the dispersive effects of biological tissues results in a difference of 6% of the maximum currents. The cerebral voxels show limited sensitivity of the induced electric field to changes in conductivity and permittivity, whereas the field varies approximately linearly with frequency. These findings illustrate the importance of including each of the above parameters in the model and confirm the need for accuracy in the applied patient-specific method, which can be used in computer-assisted TMS.

  10. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  11. Allele- and Tir-independent functions of intimin in diverse animal infection models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Mallick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon binding to intestinal epithelial cells, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, and Citrobacter rodentium trigger formation of actin pedestals beneath bound bacteria. Pedestal formation has been associated with enhanced colonization, and requires intimin, an adhesin that binds to the bacterial effector Tir, which is translocated to the host cell membrane and promotes bacterial adherence and pedestal formation. Intimin has been suggested to also promote cell adhesion by binding one or more host receptors, and allelic differences in intimin have been associated with differences in tissue and host specificity. We assessed the function of EHEC, EPEC, or C. rodentium intimin, or a set of intimin derivatives with varying Tir-binding abilities in animal models of infection. We found that EPEC and EHEC intimin were functionally indistinguishable during infection of gnotobiotic piglets by EHEC, and that EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium intimin were functionally indistinguishable during infection of C57BL/6 mice by C. rodentium. A derivative of EHEC intimin that bound Tir but did not promote robust pedestal formation on cultured cells was unable to promote C. rodentium colonization of conventional mice, indicating that the ability to trigger actin assembly, not simply to bind Tir, is required for intimin-mediated intestinal colonization. Interestingly, streptomycin pre-treatment of mice eliminated the requirement for Tir but not intimin during colonization, and intimin derivatives that were defective in Tir-binding still promoted colonization of these mice. These results indicate that EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium are functionally interchangeable during infection of gnotobiotic piglets or conventional C57BL/6 mice, and that whereas the ability to trigger Tir-mediated pedestal formation is essential for colonization of conventional mice, intimin provides a Tir-independent activity during colonization of streptomycin pre

  12. Generalised model-independent characterisation of strong gravitational lenses. I. Theoretical foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.

    2017-05-01

    We extend our model-independent approach for characterising strong gravitational lenses to its most general form to leading order and use the orientation angles of a set of multiple images with respect to their connection line(s) in addition to the relative distances between the images, their ellipticities, and time-delays. For two symmetric images that straddle the critical curve, the orientation angle additionally allows us to determine the slope of the critical curve and a second (reduced) flexion coefficient at the critical point on the connection line between the images. It also allows us to drop the symmetry assumption that the axis of largest image extension is orthogonal to the critical curve. For three images almost forming a giant arc, the degree of assumed image symmetry is also reduced to the most general case, describing image configurations for which the source need not be placed on the symmetry axis of the two folds that unite at the cusp. For a given set of multiple images, we set limits on the applicability of our approach, show which information can be obtained in cases of merging images, and analyse the accuracy achievable due to the Taylor expansion of the lensing potential for the fold case on a galaxy cluster scale Navarro-Frenk-White-profile, a fold and cusp case on a galaxy cluster scale singular isothermal ellipse, and compare the generalised approach with our previously published one. The position of the critical points is reconstructed with less than 5'' deviation for multiple images closer to the critical points than 30% of the (effective) Einstein radius. The slope of the critical curve at a fold and its shape in the vicinity of a cusp deviate less than 20% from the true values for distances of the images to the critical points less than 15% of the (effective) Einstein radius.

  13. Independent Tuning Stiffness and Toughness of Polymer Metal Composites: Modeling, Validation, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Sajedeh

    Titanium (Ti) alloys are one of the most used metals for biomedical applications, specifically in making implants. The stiffness of the dense Ti is 80-110 GPa, while the stiffness of the compact bone is 12-20 GPa. This high difference between the stiffness of the Ti alloys and compact bone results in stress shielding of the bone and stress concentration at the implant, both of which are undesirable and could result in implant failure. An alternative method to reduce the stiffness of a dense implant and avoid the stress shielding is adding porosity to the structure. This however results in considerable reduction in the toughness of the structure, which is also undesirable for the long-term success of implants. Also, implants such as knee and spine should have high fracture toughness, which is not achievable with porous structures. In this work, we study a new method for independently tuning the stiffness and toughness of the material by adding various polymers to the additively manufactured Ti structures with engineered porosity. Porous Ti samples with different levels of porosity are fabricated using selective laser melting. Various types of thermoplastic polymers including High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Nylon (MXD6) are used to fill the pores to make the titanium-polymer composite parts. Compression simulations and tests are performed on both porous and composite specimens to compare the mechanical behavior of these structures. A set of finite element simulations is conducted on different structures, and the results are verified with experiments. Simulation results and experimental findings indicate that filling porous Ti with thermoplastic polymers leads to an increase in the toughness of the structure. The percentage increase of the toughness depends on several parameters such as the geometry of the porosity, the percentage of the porosity, and the type of the polymer. Also, a design algorithm is developed based on the

  14. Hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with albuminuria in the population-based CoLaus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased serum levels of homocysteine and uric acid have each been associated with cardiovascular risk. We analyzed whether homocysteine and uric acid were associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR and albuminuria independently of each other. We also investigated the association of MTHFR polymorphisms related to homocysteine with albuminuria to get further insight into causality. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study in Caucasians (n = 5913. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as total serum homocysteine ≥ 15 μmol/L. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. Results Uric acid was associated positively with homocysteine (r = 0.246 in men and r = 0.287 in women, P P for trend P P = 0.004 were significantly associated with albuminuria, independently of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The 2-fold higher risk of albuminuria associated with hyperhomocysteinemia was similar to the risk associated with hypertension or diabetes. MTHFR alleles related to higher homocysteine were associated with increased risk of albuminuria. Conclusions In the general adult population, elevated serum homocysteine and uric acid were associated with albuminuria independently of each other and of renal function.

  15. A stochastic chemostat model with an inhibitor and noise independent of population sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shulin; Zhang, Xiaolu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic chemostat model with an inhibitor is considered, here the inhibitor is input from an external source and two organisms in chemostat compete for a nutrient. Firstly, we show that the system has a unique global positive solution. Secondly, by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we investigate that the average in time of the second moment of the solutions of the stochastic model is bounded for a relatively small noise. That is, the asymptotic behaviors of the stochastic system around the equilibrium points of the deterministic system are studied. However, the sufficient large noise can make the microorganisms become extinct with probability one, although the solutions to the original deterministic model may be persistent. Finally, the obtained analytical results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  16. SU-F-T-268: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for Vero4DRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M; Kokubo, M; Takahashi, R; Takayama, K; Tanabe, H; Sueoka, M; Okuuchi, N; Ishii, M; Iwamoto, Y; Tachibana, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.) has been released for a few years. The treatment planning system (TPS) of Vero4DRT is dedicated, so the measurement is the only method of dose verification. There have been no reports of independent dose verification using Clarksonbased algorithm for Vero4DRT. An independent dose verification software program of the general-purpose linac using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was modified for Vero4DRT. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of independent dose verification program and the feasibility of the secondary check for Vero4DRT. Methods: iPlan (Brainlab AG) was used as the TPS. PencilBeam Convolution was used for dose calculation algorithm of IMRT and X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo was used for the others. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Products, Japan) was used as the independent dose verification software program in which CT-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients’ treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using the conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, SBRT for lung and Step and shoot IMRT for prostate. Comparison in dose between the TPS and the SMU was done and confidence limits (CLs, Mean ± 2SD %) were compared to those from the general-purpose linac. Results: As the results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation (lung, prostate), SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate) show 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the general-purpose linac: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (−0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%) and −0.5 ± 2.5% (−0.1 ± 3.6%), respectively. The CLs for Vero4DRT show similar results to that for the general-purpose linac. Conclusion: The independent dose verification for the new linac is clinically available as a secondary check and we performed the check with the similar tolerance level of the general-purpose linac. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and

  17. SU-F-T-268: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for Vero4DRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M; Kokubo, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, K [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tanabe, H; Sueoka, M; Okuuchi, N [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, M; Iwamoto, Y [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.) has been released for a few years. The treatment planning system (TPS) of Vero4DRT is dedicated, so the measurement is the only method of dose verification. There have been no reports of independent dose verification using Clarksonbased algorithm for Vero4DRT. An independent dose verification software program of the general-purpose linac using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was modified for Vero4DRT. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of independent dose verification program and the feasibility of the secondary check for Vero4DRT. Methods: iPlan (Brainlab AG) was used as the TPS. PencilBeam Convolution was used for dose calculation algorithm of IMRT and X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo was used for the others. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Products, Japan) was used as the independent dose verification software program in which CT-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients’ treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using the conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, SBRT for lung and Step and shoot IMRT for prostate. Comparison in dose between the TPS and the SMU was done and confidence limits (CLs, Mean ± 2SD %) were compared to those from the general-purpose linac. Results: As the results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation (lung, prostate), SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate) show 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the general-purpose linac: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (−0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%) and −0.5 ± 2.5% (−0.1 ± 3.6%), respectively. The CLs for Vero4DRT show similar results to that for the general-purpose linac. Conclusion: The independent dose verification for the new linac is clinically available as a secondary check and we performed the check with the similar tolerance level of the general-purpose linac. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and

  18. Psoriasis is the independent factor for early atherosclerosis: A prospective study of cardiometabolic risk profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Miroslav Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Psoriasis as multisystemic inflammatory dis-ease is related with an increased cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the study was to analyze risk biomarkers, peripheral and renal arteries ultrasonography and echocardiography for subclinical atherosclerosis and metabolic disease in 106 subjects (66 psoriasis patients and 40 controls, 20 eczema patients and 20 healthy volunteers. Methods. In all exameenes following parameters were analyzed: body mass index (BMI, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, serum amyloid A (SAA, apolipoprotein (Apo A1, ApoB, ApoB/Apo A1 index, fasting glucose, C-peptide, fasting insulinemia, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, HOMA-β-cell, lipid profile, serum uric acid concentration (SUAC, 24-h proteinuria and microalbuminuria. Carotid, brachial, femoral and renal arteries ultrasonography, as well as echocardiography was also performed. Results. Five of 66 (7.6% psoriasis patients had metabolic syndrome (not present in both control groups. The following variables were increased in patients with psoriasis compared to both control groups: BMI (p = 0.012, insulinemia (p < 0.001, HOMA-IR (p = 0.003, HOMA-β cell (p < 0.001, SUAC (p = 0.006, ApoB/ApoA1 ra-tio (p = 0.006 and microalbuminuria (p < 0.001. Also, increased C-peptide (p = 0.034, D-dimer (p = 0.029, triglycerides (p = 0.044, SAA (p = 0.005 and decreased ApoA1 (p = 0.014 were found in the psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls. HDL cholesterol was decreased in the psoriasis patients compared to the control group of eczema patients (p = 0.004. Common carotid (CIMT and femoral artery intima-media thickness (FIMT was significantly greater (p < 0.001 and the maximal flow speed (cm/s in brachial artery significantly de-creased (p = 0.017 in the patients with psoriasis in comparison to both control groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after the adjustment for confounding variables, the most important predictor of CIMT and

  19. PROBING THE EXPANSION HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE BY MODEL-INDEPENDENT RECONSTRUCTION FROM SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURST MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou, E-mail: fengcj@shnu.edu.cn, E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai United Center for Astrophysics (SUCA), Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-04-10

    To probe the late evolution history of the universe, we adopt two kinds of optimal basis systems. One of them is constructed by performing the principle component analysis, and the other is built by taking the multidimensional scaling approach. Cosmological observables such as the luminosity distance can be decomposed into these basis systems. These basis systems are optimized for different kinds of cosmological models that are based on different physical assumptions, even for a mixture model of them. Therefore, the so-called feature space that is projected from the basis systems is cosmological model independent, and it provides a parameterization for studying and reconstructing the Hubble expansion rate from the supernova luminosity distance and even gamma-ray burst (GRB) data with self-calibration. The circular problem when using GRBs as cosmological candles is naturally eliminated in this procedure. By using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform an observational constraint on this kind of parameterization. The data we used include the “joint light-curve analysis” data set that consists of 740 Type Ia supernovae and 109 long GRBs with the well-known Amati relation.

  20. Fall Hazards Within Senior Independent Living: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Portillo, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to identify significant relationships between environmental hazards and older adults' falling. Falls can present a major health risk to older persons. Identifying potential environmental hazards that increase fall risks can be effective for developing fall prevention strategies that can create safer residential environments for older adults. The research included a retrospective analysis of 449 fall incident reports in two case-control buildings. In the homes of 88 older adults residing in independent living, an observational study was conducted to identify environmental hazards using two assessment tools including Westmead Home Safety Assessment (WeHSA) and resident interviews. A fall history analysis indicated that falls occurred in the bathroom were significantly associated with hospitalization. The observational study revealed that the bathroom was the most common place for environmental hazards. The research showed, with increasing age and use of mobility assistive aids, there was a corresponding increase in the total number of environmental hazards. Home hazards were significantly and independently associated with the incidence rate of falls. In other words, the high fall rate building included more environmental hazards compared to the low fall rate building while controlling for residents' age and mobility. The current study provides empirical evidence of the link between environmental hazards and older adults' falling, which is useful for developing effective fall intervention design strategies.

  1. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study: Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Blair, Steven; Church, Tim; Espeland, Mark A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McDermott, Mary M.; Miller, Michael E.; Nayfield, Susan; Newman, Anne B.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bonds, Denise; Romashkan, Sergei; Hadley, Evan; Pahor, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background. As the number of older adults in the United States rises, maintaining functional independence among older Americans has emerged as a major clinical and public health priority. Older people who lose mobility are less likely to remain in the community; demonstrate higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations; and experience a poorer quality of life. Several studies have shown that regular physical activity improves functional limitations and intermediate functional outcomes, but definitive evidence showing that major mobility disability can be prevented is lacking. A Phase 3 randomized controlled trial is needed to fill this evidence gap. Methods. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase 3 multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to compare a supervised moderate-intensity physical activity program with a successful aging health education program in 1,600 sedentary older persons followed for an average of 2.7 years. Results. LIFE's primary outcome is major mobility disability, defined as the inability to walk 400 m. Secondary outcomes include cognitive function, serious fall injuries, persistent mobility disability, the combined outcome of major mobility disability or death, disability in activities of daily living, and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions. Results of this study are expected to have important public health implications for the large and growing population of older sedentary men and women. PMID:21825283

  3. Stroke-induced immunodepression and dysphagia independently predict stroke-associated pneumonia - The PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sarah; Harms, Hendrik; Ulm, Lena; Nabavi, Darius G; Mackert, Bruno-Marcel; Schmehl, Ingo; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Montaner, Joan; Bustamante, Alejandro; Hermans, Marcella; Hamilton, Frank; Göhler, Jos; Malzahn, Uwe; Malsch, Carolin; Heuschmann, Peter U; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). This was a prospective, multicenter study with 11 study sites in Germany and Spain, including 486 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Daily screening for stroke-associated pneumonia, dysphagia and biomarkers was performed. Frequency of stroke-associated pneumonia was 5.2%. Dysphagia and decreased monocytic HLA-DR were independent predictors for stroke-associated pneumonia in multivariable regression analysis. Proportion of pneumonia ranged between 0.9% in the higher monocytic HLA-DR quartile (≥21,876 mAb/cell) and 8.5% in the lower quartile (≤12,369 mAb/cell). In the presence of dysphagia, proportion of pneumonia increased to 5.9% and 18.8%, respectively. Patients without dysphagia and normal monocytic HLA-DR expression had no stroke-associated pneumonia risk. We demonstrate that dysphagia and stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome are independent risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia. Screening for immunodepression and dysphagia might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for stroke-associated pneumonia.

  4. [Regulatory effect of Tripterygium wilfordii polycoride (TWP) towards TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway in TNBS/ethanol ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dan-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Sun, Pei-Na; Cao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Chun-Li; Dai, Qun

    2016-03-01

    In order to study the regulatory effect of Tripterygium wilfordii polycoride (TWP) towards TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway in TNBS/ethanol ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model, TNBS/ethanol enema was adopted to build TNBS/ethanol UC rat model. After the successful modeling procedure, 90 male Wistar rats are were divided into 6 groups, including namely normal group, model group, TWP low, middle, high dose groups (3, 6, 12 mg•kg⁻¹)and azathioprine (AZA) group (6 g•kg⁻¹), with 15 rats in each group. All rats in each group were administrated with corresponding medicines for 14 days. After 14 days of administration, corresponding colon tissues were taken for general and microscopic evaluation. Western blotting analysis and RT-PCR were adopted to test the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway-related molecules, namely TLR4, TRAM, TRIF, NF-κB and IFN-γ. The results showed that DAI, general and microscopic evaluations all indicated that TNBS/ethanol UC rat model was successful. TWP can improve UC-related clinical manifestation and heal colonic mucosa, which was equal to AZA. RT-PCR and WB results showed that the expression of TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway-related molecules in model group were significantly superior to that in normal group at either mRNA or protein level (PUC rat model, TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway took part in regulating inflammation. TWP exerted its anti-inflammation effect by inhibiting the expression of TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Comparison of co-located independent ground-based middle atmospheric wind and temperature measurements with numerical weather prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pichon, A.; Assink, J.D.; Heinrich, P.; Blanc, E.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Lee, C.F.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.; Rufenacht, R.; Kampfer, N.; Drob, D.P.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.; Ceranna, L.; Pilger, C.; Ross, O.; Claud, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution, ground-based and independent observations including co-located wind radiometer, lidar stations, and infrasound instruments are used to evaluate the accuracy of general circulation models and data-constrained assimilation systems in the middle atmosphere at northern hemisphere

  6. Rap Music Literacy: A Case Study of Millennial Audience Reception to Rap Lyrics Depicting Independent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody-Ramirez, Mia; Scott, Lakia M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a feminist lens and a constructivist approach as the theoretical framework, we used rap lyrics and videos to help college students explore mass media's representation of the "independent" Black woman and the concept of "independence" in general. Students must be able to formulate their own concept of independence to…

  7. Legal and actual central bank independence : A case study of Bank of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period

  8. Homelessness as an independent risk factor for mortality: results from a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David S

    2009-06-01

    Homelessness is associated with increased risks of mortality but it has not previously been possible to distinguish whether this is typical of other socio-economically deprived populations, the result of a higher prevalence of morbidity or an independent risk of homelessness itself. The aim of this study was to describe mortality among a cohort of homeless adults and adjust for the effects of morbidity and socio-economic deprivation. Retrospective 5-year study of two fixed cohorts, homeless adults and an age- and sex-matched random sample of the local non-homeless population in Greater Glasgow National Health Service Board area for comparison. Over 5 years of observation, 1.7% (209/12 451) of the general population and 7.2% (457/6323) of the homeless cohort died. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in homeless compared with non-homeless cohorts was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.8-5.2). After adjustment for age, sex and previous hospitalization, homelessness was associated with an all-cause mortality hazard ratio of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Homelessness had differential effects on cause-specific mortality. Among patients who had been hospitalized for drug-related conditions, the homeless cohort experienced a 7-fold increase in risk of death from drugs compared with the general population. Homelessness is an independent risk factor for deaths from specific causes. Preventive programmes might be most effectively targeted at the homeless with these conditions.

  9. Design study on an independently-tunable-cells thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Hinode, F.; Kawai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of a thermionic RF gun have been studied by a 3-D simulation code developed using an FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method as a Maxwell's equations solver. The gun is consists of two independent power feeding cavities, so that we call it independently-tunable-cells (ITC)'-RF gun. The first cell is the cathode cell and the second one is an accelerating cell. The ITC gun can be operated at various modes of different RF-power ratio and phase between two cavities. Simulation study shows a velocity-bunching like effect may be occurred in the gun, so that the short pulse beam from the thermionic RF gun is a better candidate to produce the coherent THz synchrotron radiation. Expected bunch length with a total charge of ∼20 pC (1% energy width from the top energy) is around 200 fs (fwhm). Even the beam energy extracted from the gun is varied by which the input powers are changed, almost same shape of the longitudinal phase space can be produced by tuning the phase. (author)

  10. Mental health service user participation in Chinese culture: a model of independence or interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Pui-Shan; Tse, Samson Shu-Ki; Davidson, Larry; Cheng, Patrick

    2017-12-22

    Current models of user participation in mental health services were developed within Western culture and thus may not be applicable to Chinese communities. To present a new model of user participation, which emerged from research within a Chinese community, for understanding the processes of and factors influencing user participation in a non-Western culture. Multiple qualitative methods, including focus groups, individual in-depth interviews, and photovoice, were applied within the framework of constructivist grounded theory and collaborative research. Diverging from conceptualizations of user participation with emphasis on civil rights and the individual as a central agent, participants in the study highlighted the interpersonal dynamics between service users and different players affecting the participation intensity and outcomes. They valued a reciprocal relationship with their caregivers in making treatment decisions, cooperated with staff to observe power hierarchies and social harmony, identified the importance of peer support in enabling service engagement and delivery, and emphasized professional facilitation in advancing involvement at the policy level. User participation in Chinese culture embeds dynamic interdependence. The proposed model adds this new dimension to the existing frameworks and calls for attention to the complex local ecology and cultural consistency in realizing user participation.

  11. Constraining the dark energy models with H (z ) data: An approach independent of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios K.; Basilakos, Spyros

    2018-03-01

    We study the performance of the latest H (z ) data in constraining the cosmological parameters of different cosmological models, including that of Chevalier-Polarski-Linder w0w1 parametrization. First, we introduce a statistical procedure in which the chi-square estimator is not affected by the value of the Hubble constant. As a result, we find that the H (z ) data do not rule out the possibility of either nonflat models or dynamical dark energy cosmological models. However, we verify that the time varying equation-of-state parameter w (z ) is not constrained by the current expansion data. Combining the H (z ) and the Type Ia supernova data, we find that the H (z )/SNIa overall statistical analysis provides a substantial improvement of the cosmological constraints with respect to those of the H (z ) analysis. Moreover, the w0-w1 parameter space provided by the H (z )/SNIa joint analysis is in very good agreement with that of Planck 2015, which confirms that the present analysis with the H (z ) and supernova type Ia (SNIa) probes correctly reveals the expansion of the Universe as found by the team of Planck. Finally, we generate sets of Monte Carlo realizations in order to quantify the ability of the H (z ) data to provide strong constraints on the dark energy model parameters. The Monte Carlo approach shows significant improvement of the constraints, when increasing the sample to 100 H (z ) measurements. Such a goal can be achieved in the future, especially in the light of the next generation of surveys.

  12. Error analysis of tumor blood flow measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Miyazaki, Shohei

    2007-01-01

    We performed error analysis of tumor blood flow (TBF) measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis, based on computer simulations. For analysis, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) consisting of gamma-variate functions using an adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model under various plasma flow (F p ), mean capillary transit time (T c ), permeability-surface area product (PS) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Deconvolution analyses based on truncated singular value decomposition with a fixed threshold value (TSVD-F), with an adaptive threshold value (TSVD-A) and with the threshold value determined by generalized cross validation (TSVD-G) were used to estimate F p values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIF. First, we investigated the relationship between the optimal threshold value and SNR in TSVD-F, and then derived the equation describing the relationship between the threshold value and SNR for TSVD-A. Second, we investigated the dependences of the estimated F p values on T c , PS, the total duration for data acquisition and the shape of AIF. Although TSVD-F with a threshold value of 0.025, TSVD-A with the threshold value determined by the equation derived in this study and TSVD-G could estimate the F p values in a similar manner, the standard deviation of the estimates was the smallest and largest for TSVD-A and TSVD-G, respectively. PS did not largely affect the estimates, while T c did in all methods. Increasing the total duration significantly improved the variations in the estimates in all methods. TSVD-G was most sensitive to the shape of AIF, especially when the total duration was short. In conclusion, this study will be useful for understanding the reliability and limitation of model-independent deconvolution analysis when applied to TBF measurement using an

  13. Prediction of Mild Cognitive Impairment Conversion Using a Combination of Independent Component Analysis and the Cox Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional stage from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and corresponds to a higher risk of developing AD. Thus, it is necessary to explore and predict the onset of AD in MCI stage. In this study, we propose a combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model to investigate promising risk factors associated with MCI conversion among 126 MCI converters and 108 MCI non-converters from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data, we extracted brain networks from AD and normal control groups via ICA and then constructed Cox models that included network-based neuroimaging factors for the MCI group. We carried out five separate Cox analyses and the two-modality neuroimaging Cox model identified three significant network-based risk factors with higher prediction performance (accuracy = 73.50%) than those in either single-modality model (accuracy = 68.80%). Additionally, the results of the comprehensive Cox model, including significant neuroimaging factors and clinical variables, demonstrated that MCI individuals with reduced gray matter volume in a temporal lobe-related network of structural MRI [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.29E-05 (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.10E- 07 ~ 0.013)], low glucose metabolism in the posterior default mode network based on FDG-PET [HR = 0.066 (95% CI, 4.63E-03 ~ 0.928)], positive apolipoprotein E ε4-status [HR = 1. 988 (95% CI, 1.531 ~ 2.581)], increased Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale scores [HR = 1.100 (95% CI, 1.059 ~ 1.144)] and Sum of Boxes of Clinical Dementia Rating scores [HR = 1.622 (95% CI, 1.364 ~ 1.930)] were more likely to convert to AD within 36 months after baselines. These significant risk factors in such comprehensive Cox model had the best prediction

  14. Counterbalancing clinical supervision and independent practice: case studies in learning thoracic epidural catheter insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T

    2010-12-01

    Thoracic epidural catheter placement is an example of a demanding and high-risk clinical skill that junior anaesthetists need to learn by experience and under the supervision of consultants. This learning is known to present challenges that require further study. Ten consultant and 10 trainee anaesthetists in a teaching hospital were interviewed about teaching and learning this skill in the operating theatre, and a phenomenological analysis of their experience was performed. Trainee participation was limited by time pressure, lack of familiarity with consultants, and consultants' own need for clinical experience. There was a particular tension between safe and effective consultant practice and permitting trainees' independence. Three distinct stages of participation and assistance were identified from reports of ideal practice: early (part-task or basic procedure, consultant always present giving instruction and feedback), middle (independent practice with straightforward cases without further instruction), and late (skill extension and transfer). Learning assistance provided by consultants varied, but it was often not matched to the trainees' stages of learning. Negotiation of participation and assistance was recognized as being useful, but it did not happen routinely. There are many obstacles to trainees' participation in thoracic epidural catheter insertion, and learning assistance is not matched to need. A more explicit understanding of stages of learning is required to benefit the learning of this and other advanced clinical skills.

  15. Environmental implications of electricity purchase from independent power producers: a case study from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin Shrestha; Ram M Shrestha

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect on the environment of electricity purchase from independent power producers (IPPs) in the case of Thailand. The environmental implication is evaluated in terms of the net change in emission of air pollutants with electricity purchase from IPPs by a utility. The main finding of the study is that electricity purchase from a non-dispatchable IPP plant based on coal-fired generation would increase the net emissions compared with that without the purchase from IPPs. The study also shows that the lower plant factor of the IPP plant would also increase the emission of air pollutants. Furthermore, with non-dispatchable IPP plants, the total emission of air pollutants would increase, whereas with dispatchable IPP plants the total emission would decrease with the level of electricity purchases. (author)

  16. International long-term interim storage for spent fuel. An independent storage service investor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, P.

    1999-01-01

    Thinking globally the obvious world-wide demands for large storage capacities for spent fuel within the next decades and the newly arising demands for long-term interim storage of spent fuel urges to respond by international interim storage facilities of high capacity. Low cost storage can be achieved only by arranging the storage facility underground in a suitable host rock formation and by selecting the geographical are by an international competition under those countries, who are willing to offer their land. The investor and operator of an international storage facility selected and realised by a competition on the free market as well as the country where the storage is built are both bound by two different kinds of contacts. The main contract is between the offering country/region and the independent operator. The independent operator has in addition a series of contracts with various utilities, which are interested to have their spent fuel stored for a longer period

  17. Evaluation of 3D modality-independent elastography for breast imaging: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, J J; Ong, R E; Yankeelov, T E; Miga, M I

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and preliminary testing of a three-dimensional implementation of an inverse problem technique for extracting soft-tissue elasticity information via non-rigid model-based image registration. The modality-independent elastography (MIE) algorithm adjusts the elastic properties of a biomechanical model to achieve maximal similarity between images acquired under different states of static loading. A series of simulation experiments with clinical image sets of human breasts were performed to test the ability of the method to identify and characterize a radiographically occult stiff lesion. Because boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm, a comparison of three methods for semi-automated surface point correspondence was conducted in the context of systematic and randomized noise processes. The results illustrate that 3D MIE was able to successfully reconstruct elasticity images using data obtained from both magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography systems. The lesion was localized correctly in all cases and its relative elasticity found to be reasonably close to the true values (3.5% with the use of spatial priors and 11.6% without). In addition, the inaccuracies of surface registration performed with thin-plate spline interpolation did not exceed empiric thresholds of unacceptable boundary condition error

  18. Is preeclampsia an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, George F; Aziz, Michael M; Boccia Liang, Claire; Williams, Shauna F; Apuzzio, Joseph J; Bilinski, Robyn; Mornan, Adenieki J D; Shah, Leena P

    2015-10-01

    To determine if preeclampsia is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction and what factors among patients with preeclampsia are associated with diastolic dysfunction. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who delivered between 2008 and 2013 at a single institution who had a maternal echocardiogram during their pregnancy or within 5months of delivery. Patients with structural heart disease, ejection fraction less than 45%, pulmonary embolus, or age over 45years were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for medical and obstetric complications and echocardiogram findings. Demographic characteristics and rate of diastolic dysfunction were compared between patients with preeclampsia and without preeclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery, diabetes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate administration. Sixty-six patients were identified, of which 39 (59%) had preeclampsia. Past history of preeclampsia, IUGR in the current pregnancy, antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate use were higher in the preeclampsia group. Fifteen patients (39%) in the preeclampsia group were African-American compared to 2 (3%) in the control group (ppreeclampsia were found to have diastolic dysfunction compared to 3 (11%) controls (OR=6.18, 95% CI 1.59,24.02; p=0.006). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction. In the patients with preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia with severe features and IUGR were not associated with diastolic dysfunction. Our study supports previous findings that preeclampsia is associated with diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Case Study: Revising a Formal Case Study Presentation as an Independent Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of researching and revising a case study presentation on an individual who experienced anesthetic awareness during an abdominal surgery and eventually committed suicide. Topics addressed include the author's selection of an undergraduate student with a science and teaching background to work on the case…

  20. Testing independence between two Poisson-generated multinomial variables in case-series and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Mounia; Guillemot, Didier; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Moreau, Thierry

    2005-12-30

    In case-series or cohort studies, we propose a test of independence between the occurrences of two types of recurrent events (such as two repeated infections) related to an intermittent exposure (such as an antibiotic treatment). The test relies upon an extension of a recent method for analysing case-series data, in the presence of one type of recurrent event. The test statistic is derived from a bivariate Poisson generated-multinomial distribution. Simulations for checking the validity of the test concerning the type I error and the power properties are presented. The test is illustrated using data from a cohort on antibiotics bacterial resistance in schoolchildren. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Developing a collaboration with the Houston independent school district: testing the generalizability of a partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduska, Jeanne; Gomez, Mary Jane; Capo, Zeph; Holmes, Venita

    2012-07-01

    Moving evidence-based practices into real-world settings is a high priority for education and public health. This paper describes the development of a partnership among the Houston Independent School District, the American Institutes of Research, and the Houston Federation of Teachers to support research on and program sustainability for the Good Behavior Game, a team-based classroom behavior management strategy that has shown positive impact in randomized field trials. The conceptual framework guiding partnership development is presented, followed by an application of the framework in Houston. Lessons learned and implications for the next stage of research and practice are then discussed.

  2. Validation and verification of agent models for trust: Independent compared to relative trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; Jaffry, S.W.; Maanen, P.P. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a validation experiment for two existing computational trust models describing human trust are reported. One model uses experiences of performance in order to estimate the trust in different trustees. The second model in addition carries the notion of relative trust.

  3. Iterative sure independence screening EM-Bayesian LASSO algorithm for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, Cox Lwaka; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) entails examining a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a limited sample with hundreds of individuals, implying a variable selection problem in the high dimensional dataset. Although many single-locus GWAS approaches under polygenic background and population structure controls have been widely used, some significant loci fail to be detected. In this study, we used an iterative modified-sure independence screening (ISIS) approach in reducing the number of SNPs to a moderate size. Expectation-Maximization (EM)-Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BLASSO) was used to estimate all the selected SNP effects for true quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) detection. This method is referred to as ISIS EM-BLASSO algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation studies validated the new method, which has the highest empirical power in QTN detection and the highest accuracy in QTN effect estimation, and it is the fastest, as compared with efficient mixed-model association (EMMA), smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD), fixed and random model circulating probability unification (FarmCPU), and multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (mrMLM). To further demonstrate the new method, six flowering time traits in Arabidopsis thaliana were re-analyzed by four methods (New method, EMMA, FarmCPU, and mrMLM). As a result, the new method identified most previously reported genes. Therefore, the new method is a good alternative for multi-locus GWAS. PMID:28141824

  4. Three algorithms and SAS macros for estimating power and sample size for logistic models with one or more independent variables of interest in the presence of covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David Keith; Bursac, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Commonly when designing studies, researchers propose to measure several independent variables in a regression model, a subset of which are identified as the main variables of interest while the rest are retained in a model as covariates or confounders. Power for linear regression in this setting can be calculated using SAS PROC POWER. There exists a void in estimating power for the logistic regression models in the same setting. Currently, an approach that calculates power for only one variable of interest in the presence of other covariates for logistic regression is in common use and works well for this special case. In this paper we propose three related algorithms along with corresponding SAS macros that extend power estimation for one or more primary variables of interest in the presence of some confounders. The three proposed empirical algorithms employ likelihood ratio test to provide a user with either a power estimate for a given sample size, a quick sample size estimate for a given power, and an approximate power curve for a range of sample sizes. A user can specify odds ratios for a combination of binary, uniform and standard normal independent variables of interest, and or remaining covariates/confounders in the model, along with a correlation between variables. These user friendly algorithms and macro tools are a promising solution that can fill the void for estimation of power for logistic regression when multiple independent variables are of interest, in the presence of additional covariates in the model.

  5. Electronic Learning Courses as a Means to Activate Students' Independent Work in Studying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…

  6. The model-independent analysis of multi-channel pion-pion scattering and the pion-pion scattering length

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Surovtsev, Yu .S.; Bydžovský, Petr; Gutsche, T.; Kaminski, R.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Nagy, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 107 (2012), s. 263-266 ISSN 0920-5632. [5th Joint International Hadron Structure Conference. Tatranska Strba, 27.6.2011 - 1.7.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : scalar mesons * multichannel resonances * model-independent approach Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  7. Predicting the dynamics of a native Araucaria forest using a distance-independent individual tree-growth model

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Orellana; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Sylvio Péllico Netto; Jerome Klaas Vanclay

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, native Araucaria forests in Brazil have become fragmented due to the conversion of forest to agricultural lands and commercial tree plantations. Consequently, the forest dynamics in this forest type have been poorly investigated, as most fragments are poorly structured in terms of tree size and diversity. Methods: We developed a distance-independent individual tree-growth model to simulate the forest dynamics in a native Araucaria forest located pred...

  8. Integrating Model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume III. User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.L.; Hutzler, M.J.

    1979-03-01

    Volume III of the six-volume series documenting the Integrating Model of PIES provides a potential PIES user with a description of how PIES operates with particular emphasis on the possible variations in assumptions and data that can be made in specifying alternative scenarios. PIES is described as it existed on January 1, 1978. The introductory chapter is followed by Section II, an overview of the structure and components of PIES. Section III discusses each of the PIES components in detail; describes the Demand Model; contains a description of the models, assumptions, and data which provide supply side inputs to the PIES Integrating Model; and concludes with a discussion of those aspects of PIES which extend the scope of the analysis beyond the national energy market. Section IV discusses two reports produced by the PIES Integrating Model: the PIES Integrating Model Report and the Coal Transportation Report. (MCW)

  9. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  10. Model independent approach to the single photoelectron calibration of photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, R.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Wester, T.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate calibration of photomultiplier tubes is critical in a wide variety of applications in which it is necessary to know the absolute number of detected photons or precisely determine the resolution of the signal. Conventional calibration methods rely on fitting the photomultiplier response to a low intensity light source with analytical approximations to the single photoelectron distribution, often leading to biased estimates due to the inability to accurately model the full distribution, especially at low charge values. In this paper we present a simple statistical method to extract the relevant single photoelectron calibration parameters without making any assumptions about the underlying single photoelectron distribution. We illustrate the use of this method through the calibration of a Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube and study the accuracy and precision of the method using Monte Carlo simulations. The method is found to have significantly reduced bias compared to conventional methods and works under a wide range of light intensities, making it suitable for simultaneously calibrating large arrays of photomultiplier tubes.

  11. Independent component analysis-based source-level hyperlink analysis for two-person neuroscience studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Dai, Rui-Na; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Zong; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-02-01

    Two-person neuroscience, a perspective in understanding human social cognition and interaction, involves designing immersive social interaction experiments as well as simultaneously recording brain activity of two or more subjects, a process termed "hyperscanning." Using newly developed imaging techniques, the interbrain connectivity or hyperlink of various types of social interaction has been revealed. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-hyperscanning provides a more naturalistic environment for experimental paradigms of social interaction and has recently drawn much attention. However, most fNIRS-hyperscanning studies have computed hyperlinks using sensor data directly while ignoring the fact that the sensor-level signals contain confounding noises, which may lead to a loss of sensitivity and specificity in hyperlink analysis. In this study, on the basis of independent component analysis (ICA), a source-level analysis framework is proposed to investigate the hyperlinks in a fNIRS two-person neuroscience study. The performance of five widely used ICA algorithms in extracting sources of interaction was compared in simulative datasets, and increased sensitivity and specificity of hyperlink analysis by our proposed method were demonstrated in both simulative and real two-person experiments.

  12. Mathematical evaluation of similarity factor using various weighing approaches on aceclofenac marketed formulations by model-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, T G; Desai, J U; Nagda, C D; Gandhi, T R; Chotai, N P

    2008-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance for industry on dissolution testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms describes that drug dissolution may be the rate limiting step for drug absorption in the case of low solubility/high permeability drugs (BCS class II drugs). US FDA Guidance describes the model-independent mathematical approach proposed by Moore and Flanner for calculating a similarity factor (f2) of dissolution across a suitable time interval. In the present study, the similarity factor was calculated on dissolution data of two marketed aceclofenac tablets (a BCS class II drug) using various weighing approaches proposed by Gohel et al. The proposed approaches were compared with a conventional approach (W = 1). On the basis of consideration of variability, preference is given in the order of approach 3 > approach 2 > approach 1 as approach 3 considers batch-to-batch as well as within-samples variability and shows best similarity profile. Approach 2 considers batch-to batch variability with higher specificity than approach 1.

  13. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Ritter, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A-type voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na+ channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  14. Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: A genetically-informative cross-lagged study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children’s reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read. PMID:22026450

  15. OAK FOREST CARBON AND WATER SIMULATIONS: MODEL INTERCOMPARISONS AND EVALUATIONS AGAINST INDEPENDENT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Amthor, Jeffrey S [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, K. [NOAA ATDD; Grant, Robert F. [University of Alberta; Hartley, Anne [Florida International University, Miami; Hui, D. [University of Oklahoma; HuntJr., E. Raymond [USDA ARS; Johnson, Dale W. [University of Nevada, Reno; Kimball, John S. [University of Montana; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; Thornton, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wang, S. [Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing; Williams, M. [University of Edinburgh; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Cushman, Robert Michael [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    Models represent our primary method for integration of small-scale, processlevel phenomena into a comprehensive description of forest-stand or ecosystem function. They also represent a key method for testing hypotheses about the response of forest ecosystems to multiple changing environmental conditions. This paper describes the evaluation of 13 stand-level models varying in their spatial, mechanistic, and temporal complexity for their ability to capture intra- and interannual components of the water and carbon cycle for an upland, oak-dominated forest of eastern Tennessee. Comparisons between model simulations and observations were conducted for hourly, daily, and annual time steps. Data for the comparisons were obtained from a wide range of methods including: eddy covariance, sapflow, chamber-based soil respiration, biometric estimates of stand-level net primary production and growth, and soil water content by time or frequency domain reflectometry. Response surfaces of carbon and water flux as a function of environmental drivers, and a variety of goodness-of-fit statistics (bias, absolute bias, and model efficiency) were used to judge model performance. A single model did not consistently perform the best at all time steps or for all variables considered. Intermodel comparisons showed good agreement for water cycle fluxes, but considerable disagreement among models for predicted carbon fluxes. The mean of all model outputs, however, was nearly always the best fit to the observations. Not surprisingly, models missing key forest components or processes, such as roots or modeled soil water content, were unable to provide accurate predictions of ecosystem responses to short-term drought phenomenon. Nevertheless, an inability to correctly capture short-term physiological processes under drought was not necessarily an indicator of poor annual water and carbon budget simulations. This is possible because droughts in the subject ecosystem were of short duration and

  16. Early post-operative glucose levels are an independent risk factor for infection after peripheral vascular surgery. A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, T. M.; Morélis, Q. J.; DeVries, J. H.; Legemate, D. A.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether hyperglycaemia in the first 48 h after infrainguinal vascular surgery is a risk factor for postoperative infection, independent from factors associated with insulin resistance and surgical stress. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Patients and methods. Patients who

  17. Using the SIRDE model of social change to examine the vote of Scottish teenagers in the 2014 independence referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Bennett, Mark; Abrams, Dominic

    2017-09-01

    Five hundred and seventy-three Scottish high school students were surveyed in the 2 months following the 2014 referendum on Scotland's independence. We used the Social Identity, Relative Deprivation, collective Efficacy (SIRDE) model of social change to examine the social psychological factors that should have influenced the voting choices of these teenagers. Structural equation modelling indicated that the SIRDE model fit the data and largely supported four sets of hypotheses derived from the model. Specifically, (1) those with a stronger Scottish identity, (2) those who felt frustrated and angry that Scottish people are discriminated against in British society, and (3) those who believed that Scottish people are not able to improve their relatively poor social conditions within the United Kingdom (a lack of collective efficacy) were more likely to hold separatist beliefs. Further, the relationships between identity, relative deprivation, and collective efficacy, on the one hand, and voting for Scotland's independence, on the other, were fully mediated by separatist social change beliefs. Consistent with the specificity of the model, neither political engagement nor personal relative deprivation were associated with voting choice, whereas the latter was associated with lower life satisfaction. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Integrating chronological uncertainties for annually laminated lake sediments using layer counting, independent chronologies and Bayesian age modelling (Lake Ohau, South Island, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Howarth, Jamie D.; Dunbar, Gavin B.; Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Roop, Heidi A.; Levy, Richard H.; Li, Xun; Prior, Christine; Norris, Margaret; Keller, Liz D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Ditchburn, Robert; Fitzsimons, Sean J.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    Annually resolved (varved) lake sequences are important palaeoenvironmental archives as they offer a direct incremental dating technique for high-frequency reconstruction of environmental and climate change. Despite the importance of these records, establishing a robust chronology and quantifying its precision and accuracy (estimations of error) remains an essential but challenging component of their development. We outline an approach for building reliable independent chronologies, testing the accuracy of layer counts and integrating all chronological uncertainties to provide quantitative age and error estimates for varved lake sequences. The approach incorporates (1) layer counts and estimates of counting precision; (2) radiometric and biostratigrapic dating techniques to derive independent chronology; and (3) the application of Bayesian age modelling to produce an integrated age model. This approach is applied to a case study of an annually resolved sediment record from Lake Ohau, New Zealand. The most robust age model provides an average error of 72 years across the whole depth range. This represents a fractional uncertainty of ∼5%, higher than the <3% quoted for most published varve records. However, the age model and reported uncertainty represent the best fit between layer counts and independent chronology and the uncertainties account for both layer counting precision and the chronological accuracy of the layer counts. This integrated approach provides a more representative estimate of age uncertainty and therefore represents a statistically more robust chronology.

  19. Incorporating Probability Models of Complex Test Structures to Perform Technology Independent FPGA Single Event Upset Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Friendlich, M. A.; Perez, C. E.; Seidlick, C. M.; LaBel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present SEU test and analysis of the Microsemi ProASIC3 FPGA. SEU Probability models are incorporated for device evaluation. Included is a comparison to the RTAXS FPGA illustrating the effectiveness of the overall testing methodology.

  20. Tools for model-independent bounds in direct dark matter searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Del Nobile, E.; Panci, P.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a framework (based on non-relativistic operators) and a self-contained set of numerical tools to derive the bounds from some current direct detection experiments on virtually any arbitrary model of Dark Matter elastically scattering on nuclei.......We discuss a framework (based on non-relativistic operators) and a self-contained set of numerical tools to derive the bounds from some current direct detection experiments on virtually any arbitrary model of Dark Matter elastically scattering on nuclei....

  1. Semi-supervised anomaly detection - towards model-independent searches of new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusela, Mikael; Vatanen, Tommi; Malmi, Eric; Aaltonen, Timo; Raiko, Tapani; Nagai, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Most classification algorithms used in high energy physics fall under the category of supervised machine learning. Such methods require a training set containing both signal and background events and are prone to classification errors should this training data be systematically inaccurate for example due to the assumed MC model. To complement such model-dependent searches, we propose an algorithm based on semi-supervised anomaly detection techniques, which does not require a MC training sample for the signal data. We first model the background using a multivariate Gaussian mixture model. We then search for deviations from this model by fitting to the observations a mixture of the background model and a number of additional Gaussians. This allows us to perform pattern recognition of any anomalous excess over the background. We show by a comparison to neural network classifiers that such an approach is a lot more robust against misspecification of the signal MC than supervised classification. In cases where there is an unexpected signal, a neural network might fail to correctly identify it, while anomaly detection does not suffer from such a limitation. On the other hand, when there are no systematic errors in the training data, both methods perform comparably.

  2. HSF1-dependent and -independent regulation of the mammalian in vivo heat shock response and its impairment in Huntington's disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neueder, Andreas; Gipson, Theresa A; Batterton, Sophie; Lazell, Hayley J; Farshim, Pamela P; Paganetti, Paolo; Housman, David E; Bates, Gillian P

    2017-10-02

    The heat shock response (HSR) is a mechanism to cope with proteotoxic stress by inducing the expression of molecular chaperones and other heat shock response genes. The HSR is evolutionarily well conserved and has been widely studied in bacteria, cell lines and lower eukaryotic model organisms. However, mechanistic insights into the HSR in higher eukaryotes, in particular in mammals, are limited. We have developed an in vivo heat shock protocol to analyze the HSR in mice and dissected heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-dependent and -independent pathways. Whilst the induction of proteostasis-related genes was dependent on HSF1, the regulation of circadian function related genes, indicating that the circadian clock oscillators have been reset, was independent of its presence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the in vivo HSR is impaired in mouse models of Huntington's disease but we were unable to corroborate the general repression of transcription that follows a heat shock in lower eukaryotes.

  3. Deriving low-risk gambling limits from longitudinal data collected in two independent Canadian studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shawn R; Hodgins, David C; Casey, David M; El-Guebaly, Nady; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2017-11-01

    To derive low-risk gambling limits using the method developed by Currie et al. (2006) applied to longitudinal data. Secondary analysis of data from the Quinte Longitudinal Study (n = 3054) and Leisure, Lifestyle and Lifecycle Project (n = 809), two independently conducted cohort studies of the natural progression of gambling in Canadian adults. Community-dwelling adults in Southeastern Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 3863 adults (50% male; median age = 44) who reported gambling in the past year. Gambling behaviours (typical monthly frequency, total expenditure and percentage of income spent on gambling) and harm (experiencing two or more consequences of gambling in the past 12 months) were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. The dose-response relationship was comparable in both studies for frequency of gambling (days per month), total expenditure and percentage of household income spent on gambling (area under the curve values ranged from 0.66 to 0.74). Based on the optimal sensitivity and specificity values, the low-risk gambling cut-offs were eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling. Gamblers who exceeded any of these limits at time 1 were approximately four times more likely to report harm at time 2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9-6.6]. Longitudinal data in Canada suggest low-risk gambling thresholds of eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling, all of which are higher than previously derived limits from cross-sectional data. Gamblers who exceed any of the three low-risk limits are four times more likely to experience future harm than those who do not. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Independent Study: The Culture of Mentored Undergraduate Research at The College of Wooster (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Judge, S.; Wiles, G. C.; Wilson, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The foundation of a Wooster education is the Independent Study (I.S.) program. Established in 1947, the I.S. program is widely recognized as an exemplary undergraduate research experience (AAC&U; US News and World Report; College that Change Lives by Loren Pope). I.S. requires every Wooster student to complete an original research project. This presentation describes the details of the Wooster I.S. and, based on our experiences, gives strategies for a successful mentored undergraduate research program. Overall, the I.S. process resembles a graduate research project. Students typically begin their work in the spring of their junior year when they review the literature, learn techniques, and write a proposal for their Senior I.S. research. Many students conduct field and lab work over the following summer, although this is not a requirement of the program. In their senior year, students work one-on-one with faculty members and sometimes in small (~4 person) research groups to drive their projects forward with an increasing sense of independence. I.S. culminates in a written thesis and oral defense. Most of our students present their work at national meetings and many projects are published in peer-reviewed journals. The success of the I.S. program is largely the result of two key components: (1) the integration of undergraduate research into the curriculum, and (2) the focus on student mentoring. We have thoughtfully structured our courses so that, as students move toward I.S., they progress from concrete to abstract concepts, and from simple to complex skills. The College also recognizes the value of I.S by assigning it credit; Students earn a full course credit for each semester of I.S. (3 courses total) and there is some credit in the faculty teaching load for I.S. advising. Advisors are really mentors who are invested in their students' academic and scholarly success. As mentors, we emphasize collaboration, provide guidance and support, and hold students

  5. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Si Hassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  6. Comparing brain graphs in which nodes are regions of interest or independent components: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Du, Yuhui; Chen, Jiayu; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-11-01

    A key challenge in building a brain graph using fMRI data is how to define the nodes. Spatial brain components estimated by independent components analysis (ICA) and regions of interest (ROIs) determined by brain atlas are two popular methods to define nodes in brain graphs. It is difficult to evaluate which method is better in real fMRI data. Here we perform a simulation study and evaluate the accuracies of a few graph metrics in graphs with nodes of ICA components, ROIs, or modified ROIs in four simulation scenarios. Graph measures with ICA nodes are more accurate than graphs with ROI nodes in all cases. Graph measures with modified ROI nodes are modulated by artifacts. The correlations of graph metrics across subjects between graphs with ICA nodes and ground truth are higher than the correlations between graphs with ROI nodes and ground truth in scenarios with large overlapped spatial sources. Moreover, moving the location of ROIs would largely decrease the correlations in all scenarios. Evaluating graphs with different nodes is promising in simulated data rather than real data because different scenarios can be simulated and measures of different graphs can be compared with a known ground truth. Since ROIs defined using brain atlas may not correspond well to real functional boundaries, overall findings of this work suggest that it is more appropriate to define nodes using data-driven ICA than ROI approaches in real fMRI data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Children with myelomeningocele and independence in the toilet activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlau, Marie; Mattsson, Sven; Glad-Mattsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Regarding adult life and independence the most common obstacles for young adults with myelomeningocele (MMC) are cognitive dysfunction and difficulties in performing toilet activities. A step-by-step method with goal setting for the training of self-care in toilet activities for children with MMC was evaluated. Twenty-two children with MMC and bladder and bowel dysfunction (12 girls, 10 boys) aged 3-17.2 (m 9.1) were included. The toilet activities were observed at home jointly by an occupational therapist and urotherapist. Goal-setting procedures of self-training were promoted. Observation scores before and after intervention were compared, the goal setting being evaluated on a Goal Attainment Scale (GAS). Fifteen children who trained in self-catheterization had a median observation score of 22 before and 37 after the training period (p = 0.002). Another seven trained in trans-rectal irrigation with a median score of 30 before and 49 after (p = 0.02). As a result of GAS all children improved, of whom 17 reached the goal or even more so than expected. In this pilot study mutual goal setting in a step-by-step training programme based on professional observation of the toilet activity at home showed a better outcome than traditionally performed training in a hospital setting or with traditional habilitation support.

  8. Common effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment on resting-state connectivity across four independent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eTam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have shown limited reproducibility as they have had small sample sizes and substantial variation in study protocol. We sought to identify functional brain networks and connections that could consistently discriminate normal aging from aMCI despite variations in scanner manufacturer, imaging protocol, and diagnostic procedure. We therefore combined four datasets collected independently, including 112 healthy controls and 143 patients with aMCI. We systematically tested multiple brain connections for associations with aMCI using a weighted average routinely used in meta-analyses. The largest effects involved the superior medial frontal cortex (including the anterior cingulate, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and middle temporal lobe. Compared with controls, patients with aMCI exhibited significantly decreased connectivity between default mode network nodes and between regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. Despite the heterogeneity of methods among the four datasets, we identified common aMCI-related connectivity changes with small to medium effect sizes and sample size estimates recommending a minimum of 140 to upwards of 600 total subjects to achieve adequate statistical power in the context of a multisite study with 5-10 scanning sites and about 10 subjects per group and per site. If our findings can be replicated and associated with other established biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (e.g. amyloid and tau quantification, then these functional connections may be promising candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.

  9. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This volume contains two chapters. In Chapter I, Overview, the following subjects are briefly described: supply data, EIA projection series and scenarios, demand data and assumptions, and supply assumptions - oil and gas availabilities. Chapter II contains supply and demand data tables and sources used by the PIES Integrating Model for the mid-range scenario target years 1985 and 1990. Tabulated information is presented for demand, price, and elasticity data; coal data; imports data; oil and gas data; refineries data; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal data; transportation data; and utilities data.

  10. Independencies Induced from a Graphical Markov Model After Marginalization and Conditioning: The R Package ggm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Marchetti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe some functions in the R package ggm to derive from a given Markov model, represented by a directed acyclic graph, different types of graphs induced after marginalizing over and conditioning on some of the variables. The package has a few basic functions that find the essential graph, the induced concentration and covariance graphs, and several types of chain graphs implied by the directed acyclic graph (DAG after grouping and reordering the variables. These functions can be useful to explore the impact of latent variables or of selection effects on a chosen data generating model.

  11. Reasons in Support of Data Security and Data Security Management as Two Independent Concepts: A New Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Sajjadi, Samad; Kamkarhaghighi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Any information which is generated and saved needs to be protected against accidental or intentional losses and manipulations if it is to be used by the intended users in due time. As such, information managers have adopted numerous measures to achieve data security within data storage systems, along with the spread of information technology. The "data security models" presented thus far have unanimously highlighted the significance of data security management. For further clarification, the current study first introduces the "needs and improvement" cycle; the study will then present some independent definitions, together with a support umbrella, in an attempt to shed light on the data security management. Data security focuses on three features or attributes known as integrity, identity of sender(s) and identity of receiver(s). Management in data security follows an endless evolutionary process, to keep up with new developments in information technology and communication. In this process management develops new characteristics with greater capabilities to achieve better data security. The characteristics, continuously increasing in number, with a special focus on control, are as follows: private zone, confidentiality, availability, non-repudiation, possession, accountability, authenticity, authentication and auditability. Data security management steadily progresses, resulting in more sophisticated features. The developments are in line with new developments in information and communication technology and novel advances in intrusion detection systems (IDS). Attention to differences between data security and data security management by international organizations such as the International Standard Organization (ISO), and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is necessary if information quality is to be enhanced.

  12. Successful aging as a continuum of functional independence: lessons from physical disability models of aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowry, K.A.; Vallejo, A.N.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging is a multidimensional construct that could be viewed as a continuum of achievement. Based on the disability model proposed by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, successful aging includes not only the presence or absence of disease, but also

  13. Quantitative coating thickness determination using a coefficient-independent hyperspectral scattering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, LM; Papadakis, V.; Liu, P.; Adam, A.J.L.; Groves, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background
    Hyperspectral imaging is a technique that enables the mapping of spectral signatures across a surface. It is most commonly used for surface chemical mapping in fields as diverse as satellite remote sensing, biomedical imaging and heritage science. Existing models, such as the

  14. Repurposing and probabilistic integration of data: An iterative and data model independent approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.

    2016-01-01

    Besides the scientific paradigms of empiricism, mathematical modelling, and simulation, the method of combining and analysing data in novel ways has become a main research paradigm capable of tackling research questions that could not be answered before. To speed up research in this new paradigm,

  15. Studi Model Penerimaan Tehnologi (Technology Acceptance Model) Novice Accountant

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiana, Rustiana

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates adoption or application of behavior information technologyacceptance. Davis' Technology Acceptance Model is employed to explain perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use in information systems. The respondents were 228 accounting students in management information system. Data was collected by questionnaire and then analyzed by using linear regression analysis and independent t-test. The results are in line with most of the hypotheses, only hypo...

  16. [Incorporation of an organic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using independent data sources]. [MAGIC Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1992-09-01

    A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) incorporate a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC model of acidification response, and (2) test the revised model using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid modeling approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid model with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for model calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

  17. Linking GPS and travel diary data using sequence alignment in a study of children's independent mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoa Suzanne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global positioning systems (GPS are increasingly being used in health research to determine the location of study participants. Combining GPS data with data collected via travel/activity diaries allows researchers to assess where people travel in conjunction with data about trip purpose and accompaniment. However, linking GPS and diary data is problematic and to date the only method has been to match the two datasets manually, which is time consuming and unlikely to be practical for larger data sets. This paper assesses the feasibility of a new sequence alignment method of linking GPS and travel diary data in comparison with the manual matching method. Methods GPS and travel diary data obtained from a study of children's independent mobility were linked using sequence alignment algorithms to test the proof of concept. Travel diaries were assessed for quality by counting the number of errors and inconsistencies in each participant's set of diaries. The success of the sequence alignment method was compared for higher versus lower quality travel diaries, and for accompanied versus unaccompanied trips. Time taken and percentage of trips matched were compared for the sequence alignment method and the manual method. Results The sequence alignment method matched 61.9% of all trips. Higher quality travel diaries were associated with higher match rates in both the sequence alignment and manual matching methods. The sequence alignment method performed almost as well as the manual method and was an order of magnitude faster. However, the sequence alignment method was less successful at fully matching trips and at matching unaccompanied trips. Conclusions Sequence alignment is a promising method of linking GPS and travel diary data in large population datasets, especially if limitations in the trip detection algorithm are addressed.

  18. Acute stress alters auditory selective attention in humans independent of HPA: a study of evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM. However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such "paracorticoidal" stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd and mismatch negativity (MMN were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occurring 4-7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8-11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence

  19. Impact of allowing pharmacists to independently renew prescriptions: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Cheng, Lucy; Kratzer, Jillian; Morgan, Steven G; Marra, Carlo; Lynd, Larry D; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of a 2009 policy change in British Columbia (BC) that allowed pharmacists to independently renew certain prescriptions for chronic conditions. Population-based analysis. BC, Canada. All residents of BC (more than 3.9 million). Prescription drug use data were collected from the PharmaNet database. This database contains a record of all ambulatory prescription drug dispensations in BC including a variable indicating whether a pharmacist renewed the prescription. We studied pharmaceutical and physician insurance claims datasets for all BC residents for 2 years following the 2009 policy change. We assessed the number and types of drugs renewed by pharmacists, and whether these complied with the policy. Further, we matched pharmacist-renewed prescriptions to equivalent potentially renewable prescriptions and assessed the impact on ambulatory physician visits. Over the first 2 years, pharmacists renewed 150,950 prescriptions in BC. Almost one-half of these renewals did not appear to match the conditions set out in the new regulatory policy (n = 69,970, 47%). Those that did match the conditions (n = 80,980, 53%) represented a very small proportion of the 47 million prescriptions that pharmacists could have renewed (0.17%). The most frequently renewed medications were treatments for dyslipidemias, hypertension, diabetes, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pharmacist-renewed prescriptions were preceded by a 30% relative decrease in ambulatory physician visits in the week before dispensing, but there was also a 17% relative increase in visits in the week following the pharmacist-renewed prescription. Overall, the use of pharmacist renewals was very low and one-half of the renewals were not policy-concordant. Pharmacist renewals were associated with the intended reductions in physician visits before dispensing, but there was also an unintended increase in visits after dispensing. These findings suggest that future policies such as this one need to be

  20. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  1. Independent effects of temperature and precipitation on modeled runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A water-balance model is used to simulate time series of water-year runoff for 4 km ?? 4 km grid cells for the conterminous United States during the 1900-2008 period. Model outputs are used to examine the separate effects of precipitation and temperature on runoff variability. Overall, water-year runoff has increased in the conterminous United States and precipitation has accounted for almost all of the variability in water-year runoff during the past century. In contrast, temperature effects on runoff have been small for most locations in the United States even during periods when temperatures for most of the United States increased significantly. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  3. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  4. Risk prediction models for delirium in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery: a systematic review and independent external validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Mu, J L; Joynt, G M; Chiu, C H; Lai, V K W; Gin, T; Underwood, M J

    2017-03-01

    Numerous risk prediction models are available for predicting delirium after cardiac surgery, but few have been directly compared with one another or been validated in an independent data set. We conducted a systematic review to identify validated risk prediction models of delirium (using the Confusion Assessment Method-Intensive Care Unit tool) after cardiac surgery and assessed the transportability of the risk prediction models on a prospective cohort of 600 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery at a university hospital in Hong Kong from July 2013 to July 2015. The discrimination (c-statistic), calibration (GiViTI calibration belt), and clinical usefulness (decision curve analysis) of the risk prediction models were examined in a stepwise manner. Three published high-quality intensive care unit delirium risk prediction models (n=5939) were identified: Katznelson, the original PRE-DELIRIC, and the international recalibrated PRE-DELIRIC model. Delirium occurred in 83 patients (13.8%, 95% CI: 11.2-16.9%). After updating the intercept and regression coefficients in the Katznelson model, there was fair discrimination (0.62, 95% CI: 0.58-0.66) and good calibration. As the original PRE-DELIRIC model was already validated externally and recalibrated in six countries, we performed a logistic calibration on the recalibrated model and found acceptable discrimination (0.75, 95% CI: 0.72-0.79) and good calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the recalibrated PRE-DELIRIC risk model was marginally more clinically useful than the Katznelson model. Current models predict delirium risk in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery with only fair to moderate accuracy and are insufficient for routine clinical use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of visceral adipose tissue reduction on CVD risk factors independent of weight loss: The Look AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguankeo, Anawin; Lazo, Mariana; Upala, Sikarin; Brancati, Frederick L; Bonekamp, Susanne; Pownall, Henry J; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Clark, Jeanne M

    2017-05-01

    To determine if the reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by lifestyle intervention improved risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of weight loss amount. Ancillary study of randomized-controlled trial. Data analysis using multivariable regression models. Participants of the Look AHEAD (Action for HEAlth in Diabetes) Fatty Liver Ancillary Study. Correlations between changes in VAT and in CVD risk factors, while adjusting for weight loss and treatment (intensive lifestyle intervention [ILI] vs. diabetes support and education [DSE]). Of 100 participants analyzed, 52% were women, and 36% were black, with a mean age of 61.1 years. In the DSE group, mean weight and VAT changed by 0.1 % (p=0.90) and 4.3% (p=0.39), respectively. In the ILI group, mean weight and VAT decreased by 8.0% (pVAT decreased by 1.2% (p=0.22); the decrease in VAT was correlated with the increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C; R=-0.37; p=0.03). There were no correlations between changes in VAT and blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL-C, glucose, or HbA1c. After adjusting for age, race, gender, baseline metabolic values, fitness, and treatment group, changes in HDL-C were not associated with changes in VAT, while weight changes were independently associated with decrease in glucose, HbA1c, and increase in HDL-C. VAT reduction was not correlated with improvements of CVD risk factors in a sample of overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for weight loss.

  6. eMatchSite: sequence order-independent structure alignments of ligand binding pockets in protein models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Brylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Detecting similarities between ligand binding sites in the absence of global homology between target proteins has been recognized as one of the critical components of modern drug discovery. Local binding site alignments can be constructed using sequence order-independent techniques, however, to achieve a high accuracy, many current algorithms for binding site comparison require high-quality experimental protein structures, preferably in the bound conformational state. This, in turn, complicates proteome scale applications, where only various quality structure models are available for the majority of gene products. To improve the state-of-the-art, we developed eMatchSite, a new method for constructing sequence order-independent alignments of ligand binding sites in protein models. Large-scale benchmarking calculations using adenine-binding pockets in crystal structures demonstrate that eMatchSite generates accurate alignments for almost three times more protein pairs than SOIPPA. More importantly, eMatchSite offers a high tolerance to structural distortions in ligand binding regions in protein models. For example, the percentage of correctly aligned pairs of adenine-binding sites in weakly homologous protein models is only 4-9% lower than those aligned using crystal structures. This represents a significant improvement over other algorithms, e.g. the performance of eMatchSite in recognizing similar binding sites is 6% and 13% higher than that of SiteEngine using high- and moderate-quality protein models, respectively. Constructing biologically correct alignments using predicted ligand binding sites in protein models opens up the possibility to investigate drug-protein interaction networks for complete proteomes with prospective systems-level applications in polypharmacology and rational drug repositioning. eMatchSite is freely available to the academic community as a web-server and a stand-alone software distribution at http://www.brylinski.org/ematchsite.

  7. Improved Model-Independent Analysis of Semileptonic and Radiative Rare B Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, Gudrun

    2001-12-21

    We update the branching ratios for the inclusive decays B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and the exclusive decays B {yields} (K,K*){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, with {ell} = e, {mu}, in the standard model by including the explicit {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}) and {Lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b} corrections. This framework is used in conjunction with the current measurements of the branching ratios for B {yields} X{sub s{gamma}} and B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decays and upper limits on the branching ratios for the decays B {yields} (K*, X{sub s}){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} to work out bounds on the Wilson coefficients C{sub 7}, C{sub 8}, C{sub 9} and C{sub 10} appearing in the effective Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting bounds are found to be consistent with the predictions of the standard model and some variants of supersymmetric theories. We illustrate the constraints on supersymmetric parameters that the current data on rare B decays implies in the context of minimal flavour violating model and in more general scenarios admitting additional flavour changing mechanisms. Precise measurements of the dilepton invariant mass distributions in the decays B {yields} (X{sub s}, K*, K){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, in particular in the lower dilepton mass region, and the forward-backward asymmetry in the decays B {yields} (X{sub s}, K*){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, will greatly help in discriminating among the SM and various supersymmetric theories.

  8. Correlation of Amine Swingbed On-Orbit CO2 Performance with a Hardware Independent Predictive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, William; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The Amine Swingbed Payload is an experimental system deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) that includes a two-bed, vacuum regenerated, amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) removal subsystem as the principal item under investigation. The aminebased subsystem, also described previously in various publications as CAMRAS 3, was originally designed, fabricated and tested by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) and delivered to NASA in November 2008. The CAMRAS 3 unit was subsequently designed into a flight payload experiment in 2010 and 2011, with flight test integration activities accomplished on-orbit between January 2012 and March 2013. Payload activation was accomplished in May 2013 followed by a 1000 hour experimental period. The experimental nature of the Payload and the interaction with the dynamic ISS environment present unique scientific and engineering challenges, in particular to the verification and validation of the expected Payload CO2 removal performance. A modeling and simulation approach that incorporates principles of chemical reaction engineering has been developed for the amine-based system to predict the dynamic cabin CO2 partial pressure with given inputs of sorbent bed size, process air flow, operating temperature, half-cycle time, CO2 generation rate, cabin volume and the magnitude of vacuum available. Simulation runs using the model to predict ambient CO2 concentrations show good correlation to on-orbit performance measurements and ISS dynamic concentrations for the assumed operating conditions. The dynamic predictive modelling could benefit operational planning to help ensure ISS CO2 concentrations are maintained below prescribed limits and for the Orion vehicle to simulate various operating conditions, scenarios and transients.

  9. Linear-Time Non-Malleable Codes in the Bit-Wise Independent Tampering Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Döttling, Nico

    Non-malleable codes were introduced by Dziembowski et al. (ICS 2010) as coding schemes that protect a message against tampering attacks. Roughly speaking, a code is non-malleable if decoding an adversarially tampered encoding of a message m produces the original message m or a value m' (eventuall...... non-malleable codes of Agrawal et al. (TCC 2015) and of Cher- aghchi and Guruswami (TCC 2014) and improves the previous result in the bit-wise tampering model: it builds the first non-malleable codes with linear-time complexity and optimal-rate (i.e. rate 1 - o(1))....

  10. Caspase dependent and independent mechanisms of apoptosis across gestation in a sheep model of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Troy; Wright, Tanner; Galan, Henry L; Reynolds, Paul R; Arroyo, Juan A

    2017-05-01

    Increased placental apoptosis is a hallmark of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR). Several molecules have been shown to be involved in the control of apoptosis during this disease. Our objective was to determine the expression of Bcl2, Bax, phospho XIAP, AIF, caspase 3 and 9, and telomerase activity across gestation in an ovine hyperthermia-induced model of IUGR. Pregnant sheep were placed in hyperthermic (HT) conditions to induce IUGR along with age-matched controls. Placental tissues were collected at 55 (early), 95 (mid-gestation) and 130 (near-term) days of gestational age (dGA) to determine the expression of apoptotic molecules during the development of IUGR. Compared to the control placenta, IGUR pregnancies showed: significantly reduced placental Bcl2 in early gestation (55 dGA) with a significant increase observed at mid gestation (95 dGA); decreased placental pXIAP at both mid and near term gestational days (95 and 130 dGA); placental AIF increased only at 55 dGA (early gestation); active caspase 3 increased at both mid and near term gestational days (95 and 130 dGA); caspase 9 only increased at mid gestation (95 dGA) and decreased Telomerase activity near term. Placental apoptosis, mediated in part by the apoptosis related molecule, participates in the development of IUGR. Findings from this study suggest a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway during early gestation and caspase-dependent apoptosis at mid and near term gestation. The data also implicate decreased activation of XIAP as a plausible factor involved in the control of placental apoptosis during IUGR.

  11. Model-Independent Analysis of $B \\to \\pi K$ Decays and Bounds on the Weak Phase $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1999-01-01

    A general parametrization of the amplitudes for the rare two-body decays B -> pi K is introduced, which makes maximal use of theoretical constraints arising from flavour symmetries of the strong interactions and the structure of the low-energy effective weak Hamiltonian. With the help of this parametrization, a model-independent analysis of the branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in the various B -> pi K decay modes is performed, and the impact of hadronic uncertainties on bounds on the weak phase gamma = arg(Vub*) is investigated.

  12. Model independent constraints on a heavy neutral vector boson from present and future LEP and SLC data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layssac, J.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1990-06-01

    We review the information that is already provided and will be soon provided on the parameters of a new neutral boson of the most general nature from LEP and SLC experiments. We develop a strategy that associates the general independent lepton and quark Z' couplings to precisely defined experiments. For the specific case of particular popular models (E 6 , left-right symmetry, composite Z) that we have analyzed, we predict, in case of negative searches, bounds of typical order one percent for the Z' mixing angle and one TeV for the Z' mass, at the end of the various experimental phases

  13. Concentration addition and independent action model: Which is better in predicting the toxicity for metal mixtures on zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Kang, Lili; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    The joint toxicity of chemical mixtures has emerged as a popular topic, particularly on the additive and potential synergistic actions of environmental mixtures. We investigated the 24h toxicity of Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, and Cu-Pb and 96h toxicity of Cd-Pb binary mixtures on the survival of zebrafish larvae. Joint toxicity was predicted and compared using the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models with different assumptions in the toxic action mode in toxicodynamic processes through single and binary metal mixture tests. Results showed that the CA and IA models presented varying predictive abilities for different metal combinations. For the Cu-Cd and Cd-Pb mixtures, the CA model simulated the observed survival rates better than the IA model. By contrast, the IA model simulated the observed survival rates better than the CA model for the Cu-Zn and Cu-Pb mixtures. These findings revealed that the toxic action mode may depend on the combinations and concentrations of tested metal mixtures. Statistical analysis of the antagonistic or synergistic interactions indicated that synergistic interactions were observed for the Cu-Cd and Cu-Pb mixtures, non-interactions were observed for the Cd-Pb mixtures, and slight antagonistic interactions for the Cu-Zn mixtures. These results illustrated that the CA and IA models are consistent in specifying the interaction patterns of binary metal mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Conformation Independent Computational Models for the Early Recognition of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Melisa Edith; Di Ianni, Mauricio Emiliano; Ruiz, María Esperanza; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E.

    2013-01-01

    ABC efflux transporters are polyspecific members of the ABC superfamily that, acting as drug and metabolite carriers, provide a biochemical barrier against drug penetration and contribute to detoxification. Their overexpression is linked to multidrug resistance issues in a diversity of diseases. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is the most expressed ABC efflux transporter throughout the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, limiting oral absorption and brain bioavailability of its substrates. Early recognition of BCRP substrates is thus essential to optimize oral drug absorption, design of novel therapeutics for central nervous system conditions, and overcome BCRP-mediated cross-resistance issues. We present the development of an ensemble of ligand-based machine learning algorithms for the early recognition of BCRP substrates, from a database of 262 substrates and nonsubstrates compiled from the literature. Such dataset was rationally partitioned into training and test sets by application of a 2-step clustering procedure. The models were developed through application of linear discriminant analysis to random subsamples of Dragon molecular descriptors. Simple data fusion and statistical comparison of partial areas under the curve of ROC curves were applied to obtain the best 2-model combination, which presented 82% and 74.5% of overall accuracy in the training and test set, respectively. PMID:23984415

  15. Is received dose from ingested soil independent of soil PAH concentrations?-Animal model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle; Cave, Mark; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability from ingested soils will vary between soils; however, the nature of this variation is not well characterized. A juvenile swine model was used to link external exposure to internal benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and anthracene exposure following oral PAH ingestion of 27 different impacted site soils, soots, or spiked artificial soils. Internal exposure of BaP and anthracene, represented by area under the plasma-time curve, did not relate to soil concentration in impacted site soils, but did relate in spiked artificial soil. Point of departure modeling identified soil PAH concentrations greater than 1900 mg kg(-1) as the point where area under the curve becomes proportional to external dose. A BaP internal exposure below 1900 mg kg(-1) had an upper 95% confidence interval estimate of 33% of external exposure. Weak relationships between soil:simulated gastrointestinal fluid PAH partitioning and area under the curve values suggest that differences in internal PAH exposure between soils may not be dominated by differences in PAH partitioning. The data seem to best support exposure assessment assuming constant internal PAH exposure below soil concentrations of 1900 mg kg(-1) . However, because constant internal exposure would challenge several existing paradigms, a bioavailability estimate of 33% of the external exposure is suggested as a likely workable solution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2261-2269. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Development of Conformation Independent Computational Models for the Early Recognition of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Edith Gantner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC efflux transporters are polyspecific members of the ABC superfamily that, acting as drug and metabolite carriers, provide a biochemical barrier against drug penetration and contribute to detoxification. Their overexpression is linked to multidrug resistance issues in a diversity of diseases. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP is the most expressed ABC efflux transporter throughout the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, limiting oral absorption and brain bioavailability of its substrates. Early recognition of BCRP substrates is thus essential to optimize oral drug absorption, design of novel therapeutics for central nervous system conditions, and overcome BCRP-mediated cross-resistance issues. We present the development of an ensemble of ligand-based machine learning algorithms for the early recognition of BCRP substrates, from a database of 262 substrates and nonsubstrates compiled from the literature. Such dataset was rationally partitioned into training and test sets by application of a 2-step clustering procedure. The models were developed through application of linear discriminant analysis to random subsamples of Dragon molecular descriptors. Simple data fusion and statistical comparison of partial areas under the curve of ROC curves were applied to obtain the best 2-model combination, which presented 82% and 74.5% of overall accuracy in the training and test set, respectively.

  17. Gauge-Independent Scales Related to the Standard Model Vacuum Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R.; Konstandin, Thomas; Riotto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about $10^{11}$ GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge-invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  18. Gauge-independent scales related to the Standard Model vacuum instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.; Garny, M.; Konstandin, T.; Riotto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about 10 11 GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  19. Model-independent nonlinear control algorithm with application to a liquid bridge experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.; Haaning, A.; Muehlner, K.A.; Van Hook, S.J.; Swinney, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a control method for high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems that can target remote unstable states without a priori knowledge of the underlying dynamical equations. The algorithm constructs a high-dimensional look-up table based on the system's responses to a sequence of random perturbations. The method is demonstrated by stabilizing unstable flow of a liquid bridge surface-tension-driven convection experiment that models the float zone refining process. Control of the dynamics is achieved by heating or cooling two thermoelectric Peltier devices placed in the vicinity of the liquid bridge surface. The algorithm routines along with several example programs written in the MATLAB language can be found at ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/contrib/v5/control/nlcontrol. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Model-based orientation-independent 3-D machine vision techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Figueiredo, R. J. P.; Kehtarnavaz, N.

    1988-01-01

    Orientation-dependent techniques for the identification of a three-dimensional object by a machine vision system are represented in parts. In the first part, the data consist of intensity images of polyhedral objects obtained by a single camera, while in the second part, the data consist of range images of curved objects obtained by a laser scanner. In both cases, the attributed graphic representation of the object surface is used to drive the respective algorithm. In this representation, a graph node represents a surface patch and a link represents the adjacency between two patches. The attributes assigned to nodes are moment invariants of the corresponding face for polyhedral objects. For range images, the Gaussian curvature is used as a segmentation criterion for providing symbolic shape attributes. Identification is achieved by an efficient graph-matching algorithm used to match the graph obtained from the data to a subgraph of one of the model graphs stored in the commputer memory.

  1. Immunological tumor destruction in a murine melanoma model by targeted LTalpha independent of secondary lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, D.; Voigt, H.; Eggert, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that targeting lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) to the tumor evokes its immunological destruction in a syngeneic B16 melanoma model. Since treatment was associated with the induction of peritumoral tertiary lymphoid tissue, we speculated that the induced immune...... of specific T-cell responses even in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, this effect is accompanied by the initiation of tertiary lymphoid tissue at the tumor site in which B and T lymphocytes are compartmentalized in defined areas and which harbor expanded numbers of tumor specific T cells...... as demonstrated by in situ TRP-2/K(b) tetramer staining. Mechanistically, targeted LTalpha therapy seems to induce changes at the tumor site which allows a coordinated interaction of immune competent cells triggering the induction of tertiary lymphoid tissue. CONCLUSION: Thus, our data demonstrate that targeted...

  2. Model Independent Framework for Analysis of Scenarios with Multiple Heavy Extra Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Barducci, Daniele; Buchkremer, Mathieu; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; De Curtis, Stefania; Marrouche, Jad; Moretti, Stefano; Panizzi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis strategy and a dedicated tool to determine the exclusion confidence level for any scenario involving multiple heavy extra quarks with generic decay channels, as predicted in several extensions of the Standard Model. We have created, validated and used a software package, called XQCAT (eXtra Quark Combined Analysis Tool), which is based on publicly available experimental data from direct searches for top partners and from Supersymmetry inspired searches. The code will soon be publicly available and will be upgraded to include data from new searches. By means of this code, we recast the limits from CMS on new heavy extra quarks considering a complete set of decay channels. The resulting exclusion confidence levels are presented for some simple scenarios with multiple states and general coupling assumptions. Highlighting the importance of combining multiple topology searches to obtain accurate re-interpretations of the existing searches, we discuss the reach of the SUSY analy...

  3. Independent clusters in coordinate space: an efficient alternative to shell-model expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.F. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology); Buendia, E. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Moderna); Flynn, M.F.; Guardiola, R. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear)

    1991-06-01

    A previous shell-model-style calculation for the ground-state energy of the {sup 4}He nucleus, based on coupled cluster techniques, was able to treat exactly the centre-of-mass motion. It is now recast in a precisely equivalent but vastly more computationally efficient form, directly in terms of coordinate-space correlation functions which are expanded in a Gaussian geminal basis and determined variationally. This reformulation further leads in a straightforward manner to a natural procedure for including higher-order correlations. Its implementation at even the simplest level produces a significant improvement in the already very good upper bounds achieved for the ground-state energy. Further extensions are also discussed. (author).

  4. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  5. Studies on culture and osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells under CO2-independent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Cui; Feng, Yiding; Zong, Chen; Chen, Jiarong; Tang, Zihua; Jia, Bingbing; Tong, Xiangming; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Jinfu

    2013-04-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the important factors that regulate bone anabolism. Osteoporosis resulting from microgravity during spaceflight may possibly be due to a decrease in osteogenesis mediated by hMSCs. This speculation should be verified through culture and osteogenic induction of hMSCs in a microgravity environment during spaceflight. Control of CO2 is a key component in current experimental protocols for growth, survival, and proliferation of in vitro cultured cells. However, carrying CO2 tanks on a spaceflight and devoting space/mass allowances for classical CO2 control protocols make experimentation on culture and osteogenesis difficult during most missions. Therefore, an experimental culture and osteogenic medium was developed through modifying the components of buffer salts in conventional culture medium. This experimental medium was used to culture and induce hMSCs under CO2-independent conditions. The results showed that culture and induction of hMSCs with conventional culture medium and conventional osteogenic medium under CO2-independent conditions resulted in an increase of pH in medium. The proliferation of hMSCs was also inhibited. hMSCs cultured with experimental culture medium under CO2-independent conditions showed a proliferation potential that was the same as those cultured with conventional culture medium under CO2-dependent conditions. The experimental osteogenic medium could promote hMSCs to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells under CO2-independent conditions. Cells induced by this induction system showed high alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression levels of osteogenic genes in cells induced with experimental osteogenic medium under CO2-independent conditions were not significantly different from those cells induced with conventional osteogenic medium under CO2-dependent conditions. These results suggest that the experimental culture and induction system could be used to culture hMSCs and induce the

  6. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  7. Frailty syndrome in an independent urban population in Brazil (FIBRA study: a cross-sectional populational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Barradas Calado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a multifactorial syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of frailty syndrome in an elderly urban population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out at the homes of a randomized sample representing the independent elderly individuals of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and criteria of the frailty phenotype were obtained at the subjects' homes; 385 individuals were evaluated. Frailty was defined based on detection of weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness and low physical activity level. Individuals with three or more of these characteristics were classified as frail and those with one or two as pre-frail. Specific cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level were calculated. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 73.9 ± 6.5 years, and 64.7% were women. 12.5% had lost weight over the last year; 20.5% showed exhaustion, 17.1% slowness, 24.4% low physical activity level and 20.5% weakness. 9.1% were considered frail and 49.6% pre-frail. Frail subjects were older, attended more medical visits, had a higher chance of hospitalization within the last 12 months and had more cerebrovascular events, diabetes, neoplasms, osteoporosis and urinary and fecal incontinence. CONCLUSION: In this independent elderly population, there were numerous frail and pre-frail individuals. Frailty syndrome was associated with high morbidity. Cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level should be adjusted for the population under study. It is essential to identify frail and pre-frail older individuals for appropriate interventions.

  8. Dynamics-based model-independent local inspection method for damage detection of large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. Frank; Huang, Lu

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents recent development and current capabilities of a dynamics-based Boundary Effect Evaluation Method (BEEM) for damage inspection of large structures. Damage introduces new boundaries to a structure, and influences of boundaries on steady-state high-frequency dynamic response are localized effects. The BEEM is a signal processing method that takes advantage of these localized effects to perform area-by-area extraction of damage-induced boundary effects from steady-state Operational Deflection Shapes (ODSs) to reveal damage locations. Steady-state ODSs of a structure can be measured using any full-field measurement tool, and the BEEM decomposes an ODS into central and boundary solutions using a sliding-window least-squares data-fitting technique. Numerical and experimental results show that boundary solutions are excellent damage indicators because of Gibbs' phenomenon, and the central solutions can be used to easily identify actual structural boundary conditions. Except experimental ODSs of the damaged structure under inspection the method requires no model or historical data for comparison. Experimental results of many one- and two-dimensional structures validates the capabilities of BEEM in detecting and estimating multiple small defects in large structures.

  9. Uncertainties in model-independent extractions of amplitudes from complete experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoblit, S.; Sandorfi, A.M.; Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S.H.

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of over-complete experiments is underway, with the goal of performing a high precision extraction of pseudoscalar meson photo-production amplitudes. Such experimentally determined amplitudes can be used both as a test to validate models and as a starting point for an analytic continuation in the complex plane to search for poles. Of crucial importance for both is the level of uncertainty in the extracted multipoles. We have probed these uncertainties by analyses of pseudo-data for KLambda photoproduction, first for the set of 8 observables that have been published for the K + Lambda channel and then for pseudo-data on a complete set of 16 observables with the uncertainties expected from analyses of ongoing CLAS experiments. In fitting multipoles, we have used a combined Monte Carlo sampling of the amplitude space, with gradient minimization, and have found a shallow X 2 valley pitted with a large number of local minima. This results in bands of solutions that are experimentally indistinguishable. All ongoing experiments will measure observables with limited statistics. We have found a dependence on the particular random choice of values of Gaussian distributed pseudo-data, due to the presence of multiple local minima. This results in actual uncertainties for reconstructed multipoles that are often considerable larger than those returned by gradient minimization routines such as Minuit which find a single local minimum. As intuitively expected, this additional level of uncertainty decreases as larger numbers of observables are included.

  10. MODEL-INDEPENDENT STELLAR AND PLANETARY MASSES FROM MULTI-TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-01-01

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  11. Online Calibration Methods for the DINA Model with Independent Attributes in CD-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Xin, Tao; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Item replenishing is essential for item bank maintenance in cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). In regular CAT, online calibration is commonly used to calibrate the new items continuously. However, until now no reference has publicly become available about online calibration for CD-CAT. Thus, this study investigates the…

  12. Parratt-based and model-independent X-ray reflectivity fitting procedure for nanoscale thin film characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung-Jong; Kim, Euikwoun; Kim, Jae-Yong

    2011-05-01

    A general-purpose fitting procedure is presented for X-ray reflectivity data. The Parratt formula was used to fit the low-angle region of the reflectivity data and the resulting electron density profile (continuous base EDP or cbEDP) was then divided into a series of electron density slabs of width 1 angstroms (discrete base EDP or dbEDP), which is then easily incorporated into the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). An additional series of density slabs of resolution-limited width are overlapped to the dbEDP, and the density value of the each additional slab is allowed to vary to further fit the data model-independently using DWBA. Because this procedure combines the Parratt formula and the model-independent DWBA fitting, each fitting method can always be employed depending on the type of thin film. Moreover, it provides a way to overcome the difficulties when both fitting methods do not work well for certain types of thin films. Simulations show that this procedure is suitable for nanoscale thin film characterization.

  13. Model-Independent Measurement of the W-Boson Helicity in Top-Quark Decays at D0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, P.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chan, K.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, J.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Korablev, V. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lellouch, J.; Leveque, J.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, L.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, A.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Naumann, N. A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nilsen, H.; Nogima, H.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; O'Dell, V.; O'Neil, D. C.; Obrant, G.; Ochando, C.; Onoprienko, D.; Oshima, N.; Osta, J.; Otec, R.

    2008-02-01

    We present the first model-independent measurement of the helicity of W bosons produced in top quark decays, based on a 1fb-1 sample of candidate tt¯ events in the dilepton and lepton plus jets channels collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ Collider. We reconstruct the angle θ* between the momenta of the down-type fermion and the top quark in the W boson rest frame for each top quark decay. A fit of the resulting cos⁡θ* distribution finds that the fraction of longitudinal W bosons f0=0.425±0.166(stat)±0.102(syst) and the fraction of right-handed W bosons f+=0.119±0.090(stat)±0.053(syst), which is consistent at the 30% C.L. with the standard model.

  14. Associative study between anthropometrics, physical activity, daily life activities independency and malnutrition risk in institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Bartolomeu, Raúl Filipe; Morais, J.E.; Reis, A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Monteiro, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Apart of physiologic aging, other alterations occur in the human body over time. Sometimes elderly people live alone, but with a meaningful dependency level which may lead to frequent falls and other incidents. The risk of falls is one of the factors that influence elderly's institutionalization. To better understand the elderly institutionalized profile and how risk of falls might be predicted, a set of anthropometric, physical activity, daily life activities independency, malnutrit...

  15. A comparison of citations across multidisciplinary psychology journals: a case study of two independent journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2010-02-01

    Citation rates and impact factors are often used in an attempt to evaluate the apparent prestige of scholarly journals and the quality of research published by individual scholars. However, the apparent prestige of "top tier" journals may reflect aggressive marketing and advertising efforts as much as scholarship. Some journals have retained their independence from professional organizations and the funding, marketing, and advocacy policies that may be associated with such organizations. While lacking as much visibility as organizational journals and sometimes considered "lower tier," independent journals may be able to provide comparable scientific quality as measured by citation rates. To test this, the citation rates of 169 articles published by a frequently cited scholar were compared across first- and second-tier journals, including many sponsored and marketed by large professional organizations, and to rates for two independent journals combined, Psychological Reports and Perceptual and Motor Skills. Citation rates were higher for first-tier journals but for most comparisons, especially those that controlled for heterogeneity of variance, results did not differ in statistically significant ways among the three tiers of journals, though some nonsignificant trends (p good quality.

  16. Differential Equations Models to Study Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Velázquez, Judith; Hense, Burkhard A

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical models to study quorum sensing (QS) have become an important tool to explore all aspects of this type of bacterial communication. A wide spectrum of mathematical tools and methods such as dynamical systems, stochastics, and spatial models can be employed. In this chapter, we focus on giving an overview of models consisting of differential equations (DE), which can be used to describe changing quantities, for example, the dynamics of one or more signaling molecule in time and space, often in conjunction with bacterial growth dynamics. The chapter is divided into two sections: ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) models of QS. Rates of change are represented mathematically by derivatives, i.e., in terms of DE. ODE models allow describing changes in one independent variable, for example, time. PDE models can be used to follow changes in more than one independent variable, for example, time and space. Both types of models often consist of systems (i.e., more than one equation) of equations, such as equations for bacterial growth and autoinducer concentration dynamics. Almost from the onset, mathematical modeling of QS using differential equations has been an interdisciplinary endeavor and many of the works we revised here will be placed into their biological context.

  17. Apathy is an independent risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease in the older individual: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurelings, Lisa S. M.; Ligthart, Suzanne A.; van Dalen, Jan Willem; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo

    2014-01-01

    Although depression is considered to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically symptoms of apathy have been strongly associated with a history of CVD in recent studies. In this study, we prospectively assess whether symptoms of apathy and depression are independent risk factors

  18. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-09-30

    The Mississippian (late Kinderhookian to early Meramecian) Leadville Limestone is a shallow, open-marine, carbonate-shelf deposit. The Leadville has produced over 53 million barrels (8.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil/condensate from seven fields in the Paradox fold and fault belt of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. The environmentally sensitive, 7500-square-mile (19,400 km{sup 2}) area that makes up the fold and fault belt is relatively unexplored. Only independent producers operate and continue to hunt for Leadville oil targets in the region. The overall goal of this study is to assist these independents by (1) developing and demonstrating techniques and exploration methods never tried on the Leadville Limestone, (2) targeting areas for exploration, (3) increasing deliverability from new and old Leadville fields through detailed reservoir characterization, (4) reducing exploration costs and risk especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and (5) adding new oil discoveries and reserves. The final results will hopefully reduce exploration costs and risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and add new oil discoveries and reserves. The study consists of three sections: (1) description of lithofacies and diagenetic history of the Leadville at Lisbon field, San Juan County, Utah, (2) methodology and results of a surface geochemical survey conducted over the Lisbon and Lightning Draw Southeast fields (and areas in between) and identification of oil-prone areas using epifluorescence in well cuttings from regional wells, and (3) determination of regional lithofacies, description of modern and outcrop depositional analogs, and estimation of potential oil migration directions (evaluating the middle Paleozoic hydrodynamic pressure regime and water chemistry). Leadville lithofacies at Libon field include open marine (crinoidal banks or shoals and Waulsortian-type buildups), oolitic and peloid shoals, and middle shelf. Rock units with open-marine and restricted

  19. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-01-01

    The Mississippian (late Kinderhookian to early Meramecian) Leadville Limestone is a shallow, open-marine, carbonate-shelf deposit. The Leadville has produced over 53 million barrels (8.4 million m 3 ) of oil/condensate from seven fields in the Paradox fold and fault belt of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. The environmentally sensitive, 7500-square-mile (19,400 km 2 ) area that makes up the fold and fault belt is relatively unexplored. Only independent producers operate and continue to hunt for Leadville oil targets in the region. The overall goal of this study is to assist these independents by (1) developing and demonstrating techniques and exploration methods never tried on the Leadville Limestone, (2) targeting areas for exploration, (3) increasing deliverability from new and old Leadville fields through detailed reservoir characterization, (4) reducing exploration costs and risk especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and (5) adding new oil discoveries and reserves. The final results will hopefully reduce exploration costs and risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and add new oil discoveries and reserves. The study consists of three sections: (1) description of lithofacies and diagenetic history of the Leadville at Lisbon field, San Juan County, Utah, (2) methodology and results of a surface geochemical survey conducted over the Lisbon and Lightning Draw Southeast fields (and areas in between) and identification of oil-prone areas using epifluorescence in well cuttings from regional wells, and (3) determination of regional lithofacies, description of modern and outcrop depositional analogs, and estimation of potential oil migration directions (evaluating the middle Paleozoic hydrodynamic pressure regime and water chemistry). Leadville lithofacies at Libon field include open marine (crinoidal banks or shoals and Waulsortian-type buildups), oolitic and peloid shoals, and middle shelf. Rock units with open-marine and restricted

  20. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) Modeling of Laser-Induced Plasma Emission Spectra of Edible Salts for Accurate Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yonghoon; Han, Song-Hee; Nam, Sang-Ho

    2017-09-01

    We report soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) analysis of laser-induced plasma emission spectra of edible salts from 12 different geographical origins for their classification model. The spectra were recorded by using a simple laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) device. Each class was modeled by principal component analysis (PCA) of the LIBS spectra. For the classification of a separate test data set, the SIMCA model showed 97% accuracy in classification. An additional insight could be obtained by comparing the SIMCA classification result with that of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Different from SIMCA, the PLS-DA classification accuracy seems to be sensitive to addition of new sample classes to the whole data set. This indicates that the individual modeling approach (SIMCA) can be an alternative to global modeling (PLS-DA), particularly for the classification problems with a relatively large number of sample classes.

  1. Triaxiality and shape coexistence in 72,76Ge: A model independent analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayangeakaa, Akaa Daniel; Janssens, Robert V. F.; ANL Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration; LBNL Collaboration; U of Maryland Collaboration; Rochester Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    An exploration of the structure of Ge isotopes is important for understanding the microscopic origin of collectivity, the nature of deformation and modifications of shell structure in nuclei of the N 40 mass region. The present study focuses on the electromagnetic properties of low-lying states in 72,76Ge obtained via sub-barrier multiple Coulomb excitation with GRETINA and CHICO2. In the case of 72Ge, the extracted matrix elements agree with a shape coexistence interpretation between the 01+ and 02+ states, but require significant mixing between the 0+ wavefunctions as well as triaxiality in order to reproduce the data. Similarly, the invariant sum-rule analysis of the 76Ge data indicates that both the ground state and gamma bands are characterized by the same deformation parameters, with triaxiality (γ 30°) being important for a complete description. A summary of these results and data highlighting the nature of gamma deformation in 76Ge - whether rigid or soft - will be presented. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, and Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40834 and DE-FG02-08ER41556.

  2. Zinc-induced cardiomyocyte relaxation in a rat model of hyperglycemia is independent of myosin isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported previously that diabetic cardiomyopathy can be inhibited or reverted with chronic zinc supplementation. In the current study, we hypothesized that total cardiac calcium and zinc content is altered in early onset diabetes mellitus characterized in part as hyperglycemia (HG and that exposure of zinc ion (Zn2+ to isolated cardiomyocytes would enhance contraction-relaxation function in HG more so than in nonHG controls. To better control for differential cardiac myosin isoform expression as occurs in rodents after β-islet cell necrosis, hypothyroidism was induced in 16 rats resulting in 100% β-myosin heavy chain expression in the heart. β-Islet cell necrosis was induced in half of the rats by streptozocin administration. After 6 wks of HG, both HG and nonHG controls rats demonstrated similar myofilament performance measured as thin filament calcium sensitivity, native thin filament velocity in the myosin motility assay and contractile velocity and power. Extracellular Zn2+ reduced cardiomyocyte contractile function in both groups, but enhanced relaxation function significantly in the HG group compared to controls. Most notably, a reduction in diastolic sarcomere length with increasing pacing frequencies, i.e., incomplete relaxation, was more pronounced in the HG compared to controls, but was normalized with extracellular Zn2+ application. This is a novel finding implicating that the detrimental effect of HG on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ regulation can be amelioration by Zn2+. Among the many post-translational modifications examined, only phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor (RyR at S-2808 was significantly higher in HG compared to nonHG. We did not find in our hypothyroid rats any differentiating effects of HG on myofibrillar protein phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and advanced glycated end-products, which are often implicated as complicating factors in cardiac performance due to HG. Our

  3. Model Insensitive and Calibration Independent Method for Determination of the Downstream Neutral Hydrogen Density Through Ly-alpha Glow Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, P.; Judge, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Our knowledge of the various heliospheric phenomena (location of the solar wind termination shock, heliopause configuration and very local interstellar medium parameters) is limited by uncertainties in the available heliospheric plasma models and by calibration uncertainties in the observing instruments. There is, thus, a strong motivation to develop model insensitive and calibration independent methods to reduce the uncertainties in the relevant heliospheric parameters. We have developed such a method to constrain the downstream neutral hydrogen density inside the heliospheric tail. In our approach we have taken advantage of the relative insensitivity of the downstream neutral hydrogen density profile to the specific plasma model adopted. We have also used the fact that the presence of an asymmetric neutral hydrogen cavity surrounding the sun, characteristic of all neutral densities models, results in a higher multiple scattering contribution to the observed glow in the downstream region than in the upstream region. This allows us to approximate the actual density profile with one which is spatially uniform for the purpose of calculating the downstream backscattered glow. Using different spatially constant density profiles, radiative transfer calculations are performed, and the radial dependence of the predicted glow is compared with the observed I/R dependence of Pioneer 10 UV data. Such a comparison bounds the large distance heliospheric neutral hydrogen density in the downstream direction to a value between 0.05 and 0.1/cc.

  4. Constructing a history of independent Mozambique, 1974-1982: a study in photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Thompson

    Full Text Available The taking and publication of photographs played an important role in Mozambique's independence and in the years after 1975. As settlers departed Mozambique in the wake of riots and the Portuguese handover of power, the newly independent government, Frelimo, assumed control of abandoned commercial studios and other photographic equipment. Frelimo used legal and technical distinctions to create a group of photographers who traveled with and photographed its leader President Machel, while the other photographers, lumped under the heading 'commercial', were responsible for studio portraits also known as headshots. In one respect, press photographs allowed Frelimo to document and transmit its political ideologies to public audiences. In another respect, commercial studio portraits, which individuals carried on identification cards in their wallets, permitted Frelimo to categorise populations as employed versus unemployed or as possible enemies of the state. These contrasting forms of image making illuminate the reality that Frelimo supplemented the 'more positive' political power represented through press photographs of President Machel with 'more negative' forces of self-identification and public shaming. This article uses photographs and oral histories with photographers, journalists and government leaders to explore the inter-relationship between press and commercial photography from 1974 to 1982, a time of transition for the Frelimo government from a liberation movement into a political party. By exploring the uneasy and tenuous relationship that ensued between institutions and technologies that supported photography's practice in Mozambique, this article considers how Frelimo's control over photography - and photographers' own compliance - impacted on the historical and visual representation of Mozambique's independence.

  5. A Study Of Student's Independent Thinking As Manifested In Real Achievement Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Karaja, Adbul Qader I. [عبد القادر اسماعيل كراجه

    1998-01-01

    The major aim of the paper is to examine to what extent expectancy as an expression of perceived ability is related to amount of independent thinking as manifested in the examination situation, and to what extent the latter is a determinant of grades. A randomly selected sample of 117 students, 77 female and 40 male were asked one week before their examination of psychology to estimate as realistically as possible the grades (1.4-4.0) in fact they think they will get in the examination0 ...

  6. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated...... to nationality or gender. CONCLUSION: Several gene variants in the Glycolysis were associated with schizophrenia in three independent samples. However, the findings are weak and not resistant to correction for multiple testing, which may indicate that they are either spurious or may relate to a particular...

  7. Clinical and histopathologic independent prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study of 334 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Chiecchio, Andrea; Broccoletti, Roberto; Tirone, Federico; Borra, Eleonora; Bertolusso, Giorgio; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2008-08-01

    This retrospective hospital-based study reviewed and evaluated the outcome of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the aim of identifying factors affecting the clinical course and survival rate. Patients with a follow-up of at least 12 months were included. The data collected were statistically analyzed for the presence of factors valuable for prognosis; survival curves were processed in accordance with the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in the expression of variables in different grading levels were investigated. Cox's proportional hazard model for Z(i) covariates (grading, age, T, N) also was calculated. Mean patient age was 67.7 years in women (n = 152) and 62.4 years in men (n = 182). A total of 98 patients were identified with Broder's/World Health Organization grade 1 histology, 176 with grade 2, and 55 with grade 3; 5 patients were identified as grade 4 (carcinoma in situ). Gender and risk factors seemed to be unrelated to prognosis, whereas a significant increase in mortality was seen in patients over age 70. Histological grading, tumor size, and neck involvement were related, as independent factors, in predicting survival in patients with OSCC (QM-H > 3.9). Gender, age, and risk factors had no statistical relationship with cancer histological differentiation. Our analysis reveals a statistically significant relationship among histological Broder's grading of malignancy, tumor size, locoregional involvement, and survival rates, underscoring the utility of tumor differentiation in predicting the clinical course and outcome of OSCC.

  8. Implementation of a model-independent search for new physics with the CMS detector exploiting the world-wide LHC Computing Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Hof, Carsten

    With this year's start of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) it will be possible for the first time to directly probe the physics at the TeV-scale at a collider experiment. At this scale the Standard Model of particle physics will reach its limits and new physical phenomena are expected to appear. This study performed with one of the LHC's experiments, namely the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), is trying to quantify the understanding of the Standard Model and is hunting for deviations from the expectation by investigating a large fraction of the CMS data. While the classical approach for searches of physics beyond the Standard Model assumes a specific theoretical model and tries to isolate events with a certain signature characteristic for the new theory, this thesis follows a model-independent approach. The method relies only on the knowledge of the Standard Model and is suitable to spot deviations from this model induced by particular theoretical models but also theories not yet thought of. Future data are to ...

  9. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction.

  10. Development of a flattening filter free multiple source model for use as an independent, Monte Carlo, dose calculation, quality assurance tool for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Davidson, Scott E; Popple, Richard; Kry, Stephen F; Etzel, Carol; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Followill, David S

    2017-09-01

    The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) Quality Assurance Center (formerly the Radiological Physics Center) has reported varying levels of compliance from their anthropomorphic phantom auditing program. IROC-H studies have suggested that one source of disagreement between institution submitted calculated doses and measurement is the accuracy of the institution's treatment planning system dose calculations and heterogeneity corrections used. In order to audit this step of the radiation therapy treatment process, an independent dose calculation tool is needed. Monte Carlo multiple source models for Varian flattening filter free (FFF) 6 MV and FFF 10 MV therapeutic x-ray beams were commissioned based on central axis depth dose data from a 10 × 10 cm 2 field size and dose profiles for a 40 × 40 cm 2 field size. The models were validated against open-field measurements in a water tank for field sizes ranging from 3 × 3 cm 2 to 40 × 40 cm 2 . The models were then benchmarked against IROC-H's anthropomorphic head and neck phantom and lung phantom measurements. Validation results, assessed with a ±2%/2 mm gamma criterion, showed average agreement of 99.9% and 99.0% for central axis depth dose data for FFF 6 MV and FFF 10 MV models, respectively. Dose profile agreement using the same evaluation technique averaged 97.8% and 97.9% for the respective models. Phantom benchmarking comparisons were evaluated with a ±3%/2 mm gamma criterion, and agreement averaged 90.1% and 90.8% for the respective models. Multiple source models for Varian FFF 6 MV and FFF 10 MV beams have been developed, validated, and benchmarked for inclusion in an independent dose calculation quality assurance tool for use in clinical trial audits. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Low socioeconomic status is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke: a case-control study in North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Prasad, Manya; Kathuria, Prachi; Nair, Pallavi; Pandit, Awadh Kishor; Sahu, Jitendra K; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease and is influenced by complex environmental interactions. The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is not well known, particularly in developing countries. The present case-control study is aimed at exploring the association between a low socioeconomic status and the risk of ischemic stroke among the North Indian population. The study design was a hospital-based, case-control study. Age- and sex-matched controls were included. The demographic characteristics and risk factor variables were documented by means of a personal interview through a standardized case record form. The household asset index for determining the socioeconomic status (HAISS) was used for the assessment of the socioeconomic status of the population. HAISS was validated with the widely used Kuppuswamy scale for measurement of socioeconomic status. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio associated with stroke. In all, 224 ischemic stroke patients and 224 controls were recruited between February 2009 and February 2012. The mean age of cases and controls was 53.47 ± 14 and 52.92 ± 13.4, respectively. The low economic status was independently associated with the risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for demographic and risk factor variables (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.3). Our findings suggest that there is a significant association between a low socioeconomic status and the risk of ischemic stroke risk in North Indian population. Well-designed studies embedded with long-term prospective cohorts are required for confirming the results. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Bmi1 controls tumor development in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner in a mouse model for glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Sophia W M; Hulsman, Danielle; Tanger, Ellen; Buckle, Tessa; Blom, Marleen; Zevenhoven, John; van Tellingen, Olaf; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2007-10-01

    The Polycomb group and oncogene Bmi1 is required for the proliferation of various differentiated cells and for the self-renewal of stem cells and leukemic cancer stem cells. Repression of the Ink4a/Arf locus is a well described mechanism through which Bmi1 can exert its proliferative effects. However, we now demonstrate in an orthotopic transplantation model for glioma, a type of cancer harboring cancer stem cells, that Bmi1 is also required for tumor development in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. Tumors derived from Bmi1;Ink4a/Arf doubly deficient astrocytes or neural stem cells have a later time of onset and different histological grading. Moreover, in the absence of Ink4a/Arf, Bmi1-deficient cells and tumors display changes in differentiation capacity.

  13. Model-independent measurement of mixing parameters in $D^0 \\to K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-04-06

    The first model-independent measurement of the charm mixing parameters in the decay $D^0 \\to K_S \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ is reported, using a sample of $pp$ collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measured values are \\begin{eqnarray*} x &=& ( -0.86 \\pm 0.53 \\pm 0.17 ) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ y &=& ( +0.03 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.13 ) \\times 10^{-2}, \\end{eqnarray*} where the first uncertainties are statistical and include small contributions due to the external input for the strong phase measured by the CLEO collaboration, and the second uncertainties are systematic.

  14. Enhancing Independent Internet Access for Individuals with Mental Retardation through Use of a Specialized Web Browser: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a prototype web browser, called Web Trek, that utilizes multimedia to provide access for individuals with cognitive disabilities was developed and pilot-tested with 12 adults with mental retardation. The Web Trek browser provided greater independence in accessing the Internet compared to Internet Explorer. (Contains references.)…

  15. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to Comprehensive English Classes in a Chinese Independent College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ji

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…

  16. Ionization and thermal equilibrium models for O star winds based on time-independent radiation-driven wind theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio ionization and thermal equilibrium models are calculated for the winds of O stars using the results of steady state radiation-driven wind theory to determine the input parameters. Self-consistent methods are used for the roles of H, He, and the most abundant heavy elements in both the statistical and the thermal equilibrium. The model grid was chosen to encompass all O spectral subtypes and the full range of luminosity classes. Results of earlier modeling of O star winds by Klein and Castor (1978) are reproduced and used to motivate improvements in the treatment of the hydrogen equilibrium. The wind temperature profile is revealed to be sensitive to gross changes in the heavy element abundances, but insensitive to other factors considered such as the mass-loss rate and velocity law. The reduced wind temperatures obtained in observing the luminosity dependence of the Si IV lambda 1397 wind absorption profile are shown to eliminate any prospect of explaining the observed O VI lambda 1036 line profiles in terms of time-independent radiation-driven wind theory.

  17. Flavour Independent $h^{0}A^{0}$ Search and Two Higgs Doublet Model Interpretation of Neutral Higgs Boson Searches at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2005-01-01

    Upper limits on the cross-section of the pair-production process e+e- -> h0A0 assuming 100% decays into hadrons, are derived from a new search for the h0A0 -> hadrons topology, independent of the hadronic flavour of the decay products. Searches for the neutral Higgs bosons h0 and A0, are used to obtain constraints on the Type II Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM(11)) with no CP violation in the Higgs sector and no additional non Standard Model particles besides the five Higgs bosons. The analysis combines LEP1 and LEP2 data collected with the OPAL detctor up to the highest available centre-of-mass energies. The searches are sensitive to the h0, A0 -> qq, gg,tau+tau- and h0 -> A0A0 decay modes of the Higgs bosons. The 2HDM(II) parameter space is explored in a detailed scan. Large regions of the 2HDM(II) parameter space are excluded at the 95% CL in the (mh, mA), (mh, tanb) and (mA, tanb) planes, using both direct neutral Higgs boson searches and indirect limits derived from Standard Model high precision measuremen...

  18. Ionization and thermal equilibrium models for O star winds based on time-independent radiation-driven wind theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio ionization and thermal equilibrium models are calculated for the winds of O stars using the results of steady state radiation-driven wind theory to determine the input parameters. Self-consistent methods are used for the roles of H, He, and the most abundant heavy elements in both the statistical and the thermal equilibrium. The model grid was chosen to encompass all O spectral subtypes and the full range of luminosity classes. Results of earlier modeling of O star winds by Klein and Castor (1978) are reproduced and used to motivate improvements in the treatment of the hydrogen equilibrium. The wind temperature profile is revealed to be sensitive to gross changes in the heavy element abundances, but insensitive to other factors considered such as the mass-loss rate and velocity law. The reduced wind temperatures obtained in observing the luminosity dependence of the Si IV lambda 1397 wind absorption profile are shown to eliminate any prospect of explaining the observed O VI lambda 1036 line profiles in terms of time-independent radiation-driven wind theory. 55 refs

  19. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Studies on DANESS Code Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon

    2009-09-01

    The DANESS code modeling study has been performed. DANESS code is widely used in a dynamic fuel cycle analysis. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used the DANESS code for the Korean national nuclear fuel cycle scenario analysis. In this report, the important models such as Energy-demand scenario model, New Reactor Capacity Decision Model, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Facility History Model, and Fuel Cycle Model are investigated. And, some models in the interface module are refined and inserted for Korean nuclear fuel cycle model. Some application studies have also been performed for GNEP cases and for US fast reactor scenarios with various conversion ratios

  1. A study of heart sound and lung sound separation by independent component analysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Chien; Huang, Ming-Chuan; Lin, Yue-Der; Chong, Fok-ching

    2006-01-01

    In the hospital, using percussion and auscultation are the most common ways for physical examination. Recently, in order to develop tele-medicine and home care system and to assist physician getting better auscultation results; electric stethoscope and computer analysis have become an inevitable trend. However, two important physical signals heart sound and lung sound recorded from chest overlap on spectrum chart. Therefore, in order to reduce human factor (ex. misplace or untrained of using) and minimize correlated effect in computer analysis; it's necessary for separated heart sound and lung sound. Independent component analysis can divide these sounds efficiency. In this paper, we use two microphones to collect signals from left and right chest. We have successfully divide heart and lung sounds by fast ICA algorithm. Therefore, it can assist physician examine and also using on tele-medicine and home care by this way.

  2. Numerical studies of time-independent and time-dependent scattering by several elliptical cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigsch, Martin

    2007-07-01

    A numerical solution to the problem of time-dependent scattering by an array of elliptical cylinders with parallel axes is presented. The solution is an exact one, based on the separation-of-variables technique in the elliptical coordinate system, the addition theorem for Mathieu functions, and numerical integration. Time-independent solutions are described by a system of linear equations of infinite order which are truncated for numerical computations. Time-dependent solutions are obtained by numerical integration involving a large number of these solutions. First results of a software package generating these solutions are presented: wave propagation around three impenetrable elliptical scatterers. As far as we know, this method described has never been used for time-dependent multiple scattering.

  3. Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: Experimental study and global active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, C.; Papantoni, V.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2017-08-01

    Active control of structural sound radiation is a promising technique to overcome the poor passive acoustic isolation performance of lightweight structures in the low-frequency region. Active structural acoustic control commonly aims at the suppression of the far-field radiated sound power. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound radiation into acoustic enclosures. Experimental results of a coupled rectangular plate-fluid system under stochastic excitation are presented. The amplitudes of the frequency-independent interior radiation modes are determined in real-time using a set of structural vibration sensors, for the purpose of estimating their contribution to the acoustic potential energy in the enclosure. This approach is validated by acoustic measurements inside the cavity. Utilizing a feedback control approach, a broadband reduction of the global acoustic response inside the enclosure is achieved.

  4. Modelling Systemic Iron Regulation during Dietary Iron Overload and Acute Inflammation: Role of Hepcidin-Independent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enculescu, Mihaela; Metzendorf, Christoph; Sparla, Richard; Hahnel, Maximilian; Bode, Johannes; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Legewie, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Systemic iron levels must be maintained in physiological concentrations to prevent diseases associated with iron deficiency or iron overload. A key role in this process plays ferroportin, the only known mammalian transmembrane iron exporter, which releases iron from duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes, or iron-recycling macrophages into the blood stream. Ferroportin expression is tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to hypoxia, iron deficiency, heme iron and inflammatory cues by cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. At the systemic level, the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is released from the liver in response to these cues, binds to ferroportin and triggers its degradation. The relative importance of individual ferroportin control mechanisms and their interplay at the systemic level is incompletely understood. Here, we built a mathematical model of systemic iron regulation. It incorporates the dynamics of organ iron pools as well as regulation by the hepcidin/ferroportin system. We calibrated and validated the model with time-resolved measurements of iron responses in mice challenged with dietary iron overload and/or inflammation. The model demonstrates that inflammation mainly reduces the amount of iron in the blood stream by reducing intracellular ferroportin transcription, and not by hepcidin-dependent ferroportin protein destabilization. In contrast, ferroportin regulation by hepcidin is the predominant mechanism of iron homeostasis in response to changing iron diets for a big range of dietary iron contents. The model further reveals that additional homeostasis mechanisms must be taken into account at very high dietary iron levels, including the saturation of intestinal uptake of nutritional iron and the uptake of circulating, non-transferrin-bound iron, into liver. Taken together, our model quantitatively describes systemic iron metabolism and generated experimentally testable predictions for additional

  5. Improve Outcomes Study subjects Chemistry Teaching and Learning Strategies through independent study with the help of computer-based media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharti, Gulmah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to see the improvement of student learning outcomes by independent learning using computer-based learning media in the course of STBM (Teaching and Learning Strategy) Chemistry. Population in this research all student of class of 2014 which take subject STBM Chemistry as many as 4 class. While the sample is taken by purposive as many as 2 classes, each 32 students, as control class and expriment class. The instrument used is the test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple choice with the number of questions as many as 20 questions that have been declared valid, and reliable. Data analysis techniques used one-sided t test and improved learning outcomes using a normalized gain test. Based on the learning result data, the average of normalized gain values for the experimental class is 0,530 and for the control class is 0,224. The result of the experimental student learning result is 53% and the control class is 22,4%. Hypothesis testing results obtained t count> ttable is 9.02> 1.6723 at the level of significance α = 0.05 and db = 58. This means that the acceptance of Ha is the use of computer-based learning media (CAI Computer) can improve student learning outcomes in the course Learning Teaching Strategy (STBM) Chemistry academic year 2017/2018.

  6. Lifetime opiate exposure as an independent and interactive cardiovascular risk factor in males: a cross-sectional clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece AS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Albert S Reece, Gary K HulseSchool of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, AustraliaIntroduction: While several studies have identified an increased incidence of cardiovascular disorders in opiate dependence, neither opiates as a cardiovascular risk factor nor their effect on central arterial function has been considered.Methods: Pulse wave analysis (SphygmoCor, AtCorMedical Pty Limited, Sydney, NSW, Australia was undertaken on a cohort of controls and opiate dependent patients and the results compared to their lifetime opiate exposure.Results: Controls (N = 401 were compared with 465 opiate dependent men. The mean (log ages were different and were found to be 28.80 ± 0.49 years versus 35.02 ± 0.39 years (P < 0.0001, respectively. Of the opiate dependent group, 87.7% were treated with buprenorphine, 8.8% with methadone, and 3.4% with naltrexone. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for chronologic age (CA. At CA of 60 years, the modeled age in the controls was 66.40 years, and that in the addicted group was 73.11 years, an advancement of 6.71 years, or 10.10%. Exacerbations of age dependent changes in central arterial stiffness, central pressures, pulse rate, ejection duration, diastolic duration, and subendocardial perfusion ratio by opiate dependence were all noted (P < 0.05. Current heroin dose, heroin duration, and the dose duration interaction were all significantly related to the vascular (or “reference” age (RA/CA ratio (all P < 0.006. After multivariate adjustment, the opiate dose duration was independently predictive of RA (P < 0.02. Opiate dose and/or duration were included in a further 25 terms.Conclusion: These data show that opiate use is not benign for the male cardiovascular system, but has a dose response relationship to central arterial stiffness and thus cardiovascular aging, acting independently and interactively with established cardiovascular risk factors

  7. Identifying the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers in Scotland by utilising Porter’s generic competitive strategy model and the marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola O’HARE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El mismo texto del Independent retailers in the fashion sector make a substantial contribution to the UK economy at the time of significant change on the high street due to financial pressures and the growth of online trade. They provide an element of creativity and innovation to a homogenous retail landscape. The independent fashion retailer creates a destination and individual identity by presenting a unique offering and differentiated experience. Whilst independent retailers are important to the future of our high street, research is limited, particularly in the area of fashion independents. Therefore this research examines and identifies the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers within Scotland. The research adopts a case study approach, qualitative methods of data collection in order to fulfil the aim and objectives of the study. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies and the marketing mix were utilised as a means of drawing out the individual aspects and unique characteristics of the independent fashion retailer.

  8. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  9. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case...... in a data-adaptive way, to the additive scale. An EB estimator of Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction is derived and the corresponding Wald test is proposed with general regression setting under a retrospective likelihood framework. We study the impact of gene-environment association on the resultant...... test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides power gain compared to the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of Type I error when compared to the analysis...

  10. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Conceptual Design Study: Advanced Independent Pitch Control; July 30, 2002--July 31, 2004 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.; Lang, E.; Hansen, A.C.; Cheney, M. C.; Quandt, G.; VandenBosche, J.; Meyer, T.

    2004-12-01

    AES conducted a conceptual study of independent pitch control using inflow angle sensors. The control strategy combined input from turbine states (rotor speed, rotor azimuth, each blade pitch) with inflow angle measurements (each blade angle of attack at station 11 of 15) to derive blade pitch demand signals. The controller reduced loads sufficiently to allow a 10% rotor extension and reduce COE by 6.3%.

  11. Model-independent constraints on modified gravity from current data and from the Euclid and SKA future surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Laura; Martinelli, Matteo; Amendola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to constrain modified gravity with redshift space distortion observations and supernovae measurements. Compared with a standard ΛCDM analysis, we include three additional free parameters, namely the initial conditions of the matter perturbations, the overall perturbation normalization, and a scale-dependent modified gravity parameter modifying the Poisson equation, in an attempt to perform a more model-independent analysis. First, we constrain the Poisson parameter Y (also called G eff ) by using currently available f σ 8 data and the recent SN catalog JLA. We find that the inclusion of the additional free parameters makes the constraints significantly weaker than when fixing them to the standard cosmological value. Second, we forecast future constraints on Y by using the predicted growth-rate data for Euclid and SKA missions. Here again we point out the weakening of the constraints when the additional parameters are included. Finally, we adopt as modified gravity Poisson parameter the specific Horndeski form, and use scale-dependent forecasts to build an exclusion plot for the Yukawa potential akin to the ones realized in laboratory experiments, both for the Euclid and the SKA surveys.

  12. Interpretation of Ocular Melanin Drug Binding Assays. Alternatives to the Model of Multiple Classes of Independent Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, José A; Rimpelä, Anna-Kaisa; Urtti, Arto

    2016-04-04

    Melanin has a high binding affinity for a wide range of drugs. The determination of the melanin binding capacity and its binding affinity are important, e.g., in the determination of the ocular drug distribution, the prediction of drug effects in the eye, and the trans-scleral drug delivery. The binding parameters estimated from a given data set vary significantly when using different isotherms or different nonlinear fitting methods. In this work, the commonly used bi-Langmuir isotherm, which assumes two classes of independent sites, is confronted with the Sips isotherm. Direct, log-log, and Scatchard plots are used, and the interpretation of the binding curves in the latter is critically analyzed. In addition to the goodness of fit, the emphasis is placed on the physical meaning of the binding parameters. The bi-Langmuir model imposes a bimodal distribution of binding energies for the sites on the melanin granules, but the actual distribution is most likely continuous and unimodal, as assumed by the Sips isotherm. Hence, the latter describes more accurately the distribution of binding energies and also the experimental results of melanin binding to drugs and metal ions. Simulations are used to show that the existence of two classes of sites cannot be confirmed on the sole basis of the shape of the binding curve in the Scatchard plot, and that serious doubts may appear on the meaning of the binding parameters of the bi-Langmuir model. Experimental results of melanin binding to chloroquine and metoprolol are used to illustrate the importance of the choice of the binding isotherm and of the method used to evaluate the binding parameters.

  13. Hepcidin-dependent and hepcidin-independent regulation of erythropoiesis in a mouse model of anemia of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Yates, Saiah C; Femnou, Laurette K; McCranor, Bryan J; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Vaulont, Sophie; Civin, Curt I; Walston, Jeremy D; Roy, Cindy N

    2014-05-01

    Increased hepcidin antimicrobial peptide correlates with hypoferremia and anemia in various disease states, but its requirement for anemia of inflammation has not been adequately demonstrated. Anemia of inflammation is usually described as normocytic and normochromic, while diseases associated with over expression of hepcidin, alone, are often microcytic and hypochromic. These differences in erythrocyte parameters suggest anemia in many inflammatory states may not be fully explained by hepcidin-mediated iron sequestration. We used turpentine-induced sterile abscesses to model chronic inflammation in mice with targeted disruption of Hepcidin 1 [Hepc1 (-/-)] or its positive regulator, Interleukin-6 [IL-6 (-/-)], to determine whether these genes are required for features characteristic of anemia of inflammation. Although hemoglobin levels did not decline in Hepc1 (-/-) mice with sterile abscesses, erythrocyte numbers were significantly reduced compared to untreated Hepc1 (-/-) mice. In contrast, both hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte number declined significantly in wild type and IL-6 (-/-) mice with sterile abscesses. Both Hepc1 (-/-) and IL-6 (-/-) mice had increased erythrocyte mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin following sterile abscesses, while wild types had no change. Thus, IL-6 (-/-) mice with sterile abscesses exhibit an intermediate phenotype between wild type and Hepc1 (-/-). Our results demonstrate the requirement of Hepc1 for the development of anemia in this rodent model. Simultaneously, our results demonstrate hepcidin-independent effects of inflammation on the suppression of erythropoiesis. Our results suggest chronic anemia associated with inflammation may benefit from interventions protecting erythrocyte number in addition to anti-hepcidin interventions aimed at enhancing iron availability. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Building Capacity, Fostering Institutionalization: A Study of Assessment at Independent Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jocelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on higher education assessment provides a historical context for this study and describes best practices and their challenges. While research studies have examined institutional efforts on a case-by-case basis, little quantitatively empirical research has been conducted concerning the extent to which institutions have built capacity…

  15. Independent Curriculum Enrichment Studies: Learning Packages for the Gifted. Table of Contents; Teachers' Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafayette School District, CA.

    The looseleaf binder contains a series of 268 learning packages for gifted and talented elementary school students, divided into 13 subject area sections, including art, chess, general, health, language arts, literature, mathematics, perception, reading, science, social studies, study skills, and thinking skills. Two additional sections include…

  16. A penalty-based interface technology for connecting independently modeled substructures and for simulating growth of delamination in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, Antonio

    An effective and robust interface element technology able to connect independently modeled finite element subdomains is presented. This method has been developed using penalty constraints and allows coupling of finite element models whose nodes do not coincide along their common interface. Additionally, the present formulation leads to a computational approach that is very efficient and completely compatible with existing commercial software. A significant effort has been directed toward identifying those model characteristics (element geometric properties, material properties and loads) that most strongly affect the required penalty parameter, and subsequently to developing simple "formulae" for automatically calculating the proper penalty parameter for each interface constraint. This task is especially critical in composite materials and structures, where adjacent sub-regions may be composed of significantly different materials or laminates. The present interface element has been implemented in the commercial finite element code ABAQUS as a User Element Subroutine (UEL), making it easy to test the approach for a wide range of problems. Once the reliability and the effectiveness of the interface element were established, new capabilities were implemented in the FE code in order to simulate delamination growth in composite laminates. Thanks to its special features, the interface element approach has several advantages over the conventional FE ones. An analysis of the literature on delamination techniques shows that generally delamination growth is simulated in a discretized form by releasing nodes of the FEM. The presented interface element allows this limitation to be overcome. It is possible to release portions of the interface surface whose length is smaller than that of the finite elements. In addition, for each portion the value of the penalty parameter can be changed at will, allowing the damage model to be applied to a desired fraction of the interface

  17. Independent and combined influence of neonatal and current body composition on academic performance in youth: The UP & DOWN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, I; Tejero-González, C M; Castro-Piñero, J; Conde-Caveda, J; Cabanas-Sanchez, V; Sallis, J F; Veiga, Óscar L

    2015-06-01

    Unhealthy body composition is a cause for concern across the lifespan. The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined associations between neonatal and current body composition with academic performance among youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1557 youth (745 girls) aged 10.4 ± 3.4 years. Birth weight and length at birth were self-reported. Current body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Academic performance was assessed through schools records. Birth weight was related to all academic variables in boys, independent of potential confounders, including BMI; whereas WC, BMI and BF% were related to all academic performance indicators in both boys and girls, independent of potential confounders, including birth weight (all P academic performance were observed in both boys and girls for grade point average (GPA) indicator. Boys in the group with none adverse effect had significantly higher scores in GPA (score +0.535; 95% confidence interval, 0.082-0.989) than boys in the group of both adverse effects (P academic performance in youth. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  19. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  20. Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: a retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    the objective of this study was to describe and compare perinatal and neonatal outcomes of women who received care from independent midwives practicing home births and at birth centres in Tokyo. a retrospective cohort study. birth centres and homes serviced by independent midwives in Tokyo. of the 43 eligible independent midwives 19 (44%) (10 assisted birth at birth centres, nine assisted home birth) participated in the study. A total of 5477 women received care during their pregnancy and gave birth assisted by these midwives between 2001 and 2006. researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of women's individual data. Collected data included demographic characteristics, process of pregnancy and perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We also collected data about independent midwives and their practice. of the 5477 women, 83.9% gave birth at birth centres and 16.1% gave birth at home. The average age was 31.7 years old and the majority (70.6%) were multiparas. All women had vaginal spontaneous deliveries, with no vacuum, forceps or caesarean section interventions. No maternal fatalities were reported, nor were breech or multiple births. The average duration of the first and second stages of labour was 14.9 hours for primiparas and 6.2 hours for multiparas. Most women (97.1%) gave birth within 24 hours of membrane rupture. Maternal position during labour varied and family attended birth was common. The average blood loss was 371.3mL, while blood loss over 500mL was 22.6% and over 1000mL was 3.6%. Nearly 60% of women had intact perinea. There were few preterm births (0.6%) and post mature births (1.3%). Infant's average birth weight was 3126g and 0.5% were low-birthweight-infants, while 3.3% had macrosomia. Among primiparas, the birth centre group had more women experiencing an excess of 500mL blood loss compared to the home birth group (27.2% versus 17.6% respectively; RR 1.54; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.16). Multiparas delivering at birth centres were more likely to have a

  1. Severe hypoalbuminemia is a strong independent risk factor for acute respiratory failure in COPD: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Char-Wen Chen,1,* Yih-Yuan Chen,2,* Chin-Li Lu,3 Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen,3 Yi-Jen Chen,1,4 Ming-Shian Lin,1,4 Wei Chen1,5,6 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, 3Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, 4Department of Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi Campus; Changhua, 5College of Nursing, Dayeh University, Changhua 6Department of Respiratory Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Acute respiratory failure (ARF is a life-threatening event, which is frequently associated with the severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Hypoalbuminemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with COPD. However, to date, little is known regarding whether or not hypoalbuminemia is a risk factor for developing ARF in COPD.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. A total of 42,732 newly diagnosed COPD patients (age ≥40 years from 1997 to 2011 were enrolled. Among them, 1,861 (4.36% patients who had received albumin supplementation were defined as hypoalbuminemia, and 40,871 (95.6% patients who had not received albumin supplementation were defined as no hypoalbuminemia.Results: Of 42,732 newly diagnosed COPD patients, 5,248 patients (12.3% developed ARF during the 6 years follow-up period. Patients with hypoalbuminemia were older, predominantly male, had more comorbidities, and required more steroid treatment and blood transfusions than patients without hypoalbuminemia. In a multivariable Cox regression analysis model, being elderly was the strongest independent risk factor for ARF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 4.63, P<0.001, followed by hypoalbuminemia (adjusted HR: 2

  2. Acquired obesity is associated with changes in the serum lipidomic profile independent of genetic effects--a monozygotic twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi H Pietiläinen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity and the associated lipid disturbances. We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with changes in global serum lipid profiles independent of genetic factors in young adult monozygotic (MZ twins. 14 healthy MZ pairs discordant for obesity (10 to 25 kg weight difference and ten weight concordant control pairs aged 24-27 years were identified from a large population-based study. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic clamp technique, and body composition by DEXA (% body fat and by MRI (subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Global characterization of lipid molecular species in serum was performed by a lipidomics strategy using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Obesity, independent of genetic influences, was primarily related to increases in lysophosphatidylcholines, lipids found in proinflammatory and proatherogenic conditions and to decreases in ether phospholipids, which are known to have antioxidant properties. These lipid changes were associated with insulin resistance, a pathogonomic characteristic of acquired obesity in these young adult twins. Our results show that obesity, already in its early stages and independent of genetic influences, is associated with deleterious alterations in the lipid metabolism known to facilitate atherogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  3. CD4+ T-cell-independent mechanisms suppress reactivation of latent tuberculosis in a macaque model of HIV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Taylor W; Mehra, Smriti; LoBato, Denae N; Malek, Adel; Alvarez, Xavier; Golden, Nadia A; Bucşan, Allison N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Roy, Chad J; Blanchard, James; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Lackner, Andrew A; Chan, John; Khader, Shabaana A; Jacobs, William R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2016-09-20

    The synergy between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and HIV in coinfected patients has profoundly impacted global mortality because of tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS. HIV significantly increases rates of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease, with the decline in CD4(+) T cells believed to be the major causality. In this study, nonhuman primates were coinfected with Mtb and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), recapitulating human coinfection. A majority of animals exhibited rapid reactivation of Mtb replication, progressing to disseminated TB and increased SIV-associated pathology. Although a severe loss of pulmonary CD4(+) T cells was observed in all coinfected macaques, a subpopulation of the animals was still able to prevent reactivation and maintain LTBI. Investigation of pulmonary immune responses and pathology in this cohort demonstrated that increased CD8(+) memory T-cell proliferation, higher granzyme B production, and expanded B-cell follicles correlated with protection from reactivation. Our findings reveal mechanisms that control SIV- and TB-associated pathology. These CD4-independent protective immune responses warrant further studies in HIV coinfected humans able to control their TB infection. Moreover, these findings will provide insight into natural immunity to Mtb and will guide development of novel vaccine strategies and immunotherapies.

  4. The Vitality, Independence, and Vigor in the Elderly 2 Study (VIVE2): Design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirn, Dylan R; Koochek, Afsaneh; Reid, Kieran F; von Berens, Åsa; Travison, Thomas G; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer; Nelson, Miriam; Liu, Christine; Phillips, Edward; Åberg, Anna Cristina; Nydahl, Margaretha; Gustafsson, Thomas; Cederholm, Tommy; Fielding, Roger A

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional supplementation may potentiate the increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis following exercise in healthy older individuals. Whether exercise and nutrition act synergistically to produce sustained changes in physical functioning and body composition has not been well studied, particularly in mobility-limited older adults. The VIVE2 study was a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, conducted in the United States and Sweden. This study was designed to compare the effects of a 6-month intervention with a once daily, experimental, 4 fl.oz. liquid nutritional supplement providing 150 kcal, whey protein (20 g), and vitamin D (800 IU) (Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland), to a low calorie placebo drink (30 kcal, non-nutritive; identical format) when combined with group-based exercise in 150 community-dwelling, mobility-limited older adults. All participants participated in a structured exercise program (3 sessions/week for 6 months), which included aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises. The primary outcome was 6-month change in 400 m walk performance (m/s) between supplement and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes included 6 month change in: body composition, muscle cross-sectional area, leg strength, grip strength, stair climb time, quality of life, physical performance, mood/depressive symptoms and nutritional status. These outcomes were selected based on their applicability to the health and well-being of older adults. The results of this study will further define the role of nutritional supplementation on physical functioning and restoration of skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Additionally, these results will help refine the current physical activity and nutritional recommendations for mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying cardiac syncope based on clinical history: a literature-based model tested in four independent datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Sheldon, Aaron; Wieling, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke; Costantino, Giorgio; Furlan, Raffaello; Shen, Win-Kuang; Sheldon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to develop and test a literature-based model for symptoms that associate with cardiac causes of syncope. Seven studies (the derivation sample) reporting ≥2 predictors of cardiac syncope were identified (4 Italian, 1 Swiss, 1 Canadian, and 1 from the United States). From these, 10 criteria

  6. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Hsiung, Chao A; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-11-01

    A vegetarian diet may prevent elevation of blood pressures and lower the risk for hypertension through lower degrees of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study investigated the association between a vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence in a cohort of Taiwanese adult nonsmokers and examined whether this association was mediated through inflammation, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance (using fasting glucose as a proxy). This matched cohort study was from the 1994-2008 MJ Health Screening Database. Each vegetarian was matched with five nonvegetarians by age, sex, and study site. The analysis included 4109 nonsmokers (3423 nonvegetarians and 686 vegetarians), followed for a median of 1.61 years. The outcome includes hypertension incidence, as well as SBP and DBP levels. Regression analysis was performed to assess the association between vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence or future blood pressure levels in the presence/absence of potential mediators. Vegetarians had a 34% lower risk for hypertension, adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio: 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.87; SBP: -3.3 mmHg, P vegetarian diet and hypertension appeared to be consistent across age groups. Taiwanese vegetarians had lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. Vegetarian diets may protect against hypertension beyond lower abdominal obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  7. Genetic Predisposition to Central Obesity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Independent Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Ley, Sylvia H; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to examine the association between the genetic predisposition to central obesity, assessed by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) genetic score, and T2D risk. The current study included 2,591 participants with T2D and 3,052 participants without T2D of European ancestry from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Genetic predisposition to central obesity was estimated using a genetic score based on 14 established loci for the WHR. We found that the central obesity genetic score was linearly related to higher T2D risk. Results were similar in the NHS (women) and HPFS (men). In combined results, each point of the central obesity genetic score was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07) for developing T2D, and the OR was 1.24 (1.03-1.45) when comparing extreme quartiles of the genetic score after multivariate adjustment. The data indicate that genetic predisposition to central obesity is associated with higher T2D risk. This association is mediated by central obesity. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

  9. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  10. Increases in guanylin and uroguanylin in a mouse model of osmotic diarrhea are guanylate cyclase C-independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, K A; Mann, E A; Giannella, R A; Cohen, M B

    2001-11-01

    Guanylin and uroguanylin are peptide hormones that are homologous to the diarrhea-causing Escherichia coli enterotoxins. These secretagogues are released from the intestinal epithelia into the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation and bind to the receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C). We hypothesized that a hypertonic diet would result in osmotic diarrhea and cause a compensatory down-regulation of guanylin/uroguanylin. Gut-to-carcass weights were used to measure fluid accumulation in the intestine. Northern and/or Western analysis was used to determine the levels of guanylin, uroguanylin, and GC-C in mice with osmotic diarrhea. Wild-type mice fed a polyethylene glycol or lactose-based diet developed weight loss, diarrhea, and an increased gut-to-carcass ratio. Unexpectedly, 2 days on either diet resulted in increased guanylin/uroguanylin RNA and prohormone throughout the intestine, elevated uroguanylin RNA, and prohormone levels in the kidney and increased levels of circulating prouroguanylin. GC-C-deficient mice given the lactose diet reacted with higher gut-to-carcass ratios. Although they did not develop diarrhea, GC-C-sufficient and -deficient mice on the lactose diet responded with elevated levels of guanylin and uroguanylin RNA and protein. A polyethylene glycol drinking water solution resulted in diarrhea, higher gut-to-carcass ratios, and induction of guanylin and uroguanylin in both GC-C heterozygous and null animals. We conclude that this model of osmotic diarrhea results in a GC-C-independent increase in intestinal fluid accumulation, in levels of these peptide ligands in the epithelia of the intestine, and in prouroguanylin in the kidney and blood.

  11. Characterization of a Cell-Culturing System for the Study of Contact-Independent Extracellular Vesicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Louise Schacht Revenfeld

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate and well-documented in vitro cell-culturing systems are necessary to study the activity and biological function of extracellular vesicles (EVs. The aim of this study was to describe an experimental system, in which dynamic, vesicle-based cell communication can be investigated. A commercially available cell-culturing system was applied to study contact-independent cell communication, which separated two cell populations using a membrane with a pore size of 0.4 μm. The EV exchange characteristics between the two compartments in the culture set-up was preliminarily investigated in a cell-free set-up, and analysed using the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. The application of the cell-culturing set-up was demonstrated using co-cultures of human primary cells. The effects of the relative placement of the two cell populations on the phenotype of EVs found in the cell supernatant were investigated. The results indicate that this placement can be important for the biological hypothesis that is being investigated. These observations are relevant for short (<24h as well as long (several days studies of vesicle-based cell communication. Moreover, the introduced cell-culturing set-up and analytical strategy can be used to study contact-independent vesicle communication in a reproducible manner.

  12. [Study of ATP-independent stages of reaction catalyzed by phage T4 RNA-ligase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1986-01-01

    The isotope exchange between [5'-32P]pAP and A(5')ppAp catalyzed by enzyme was shown not to take place in the absence of the acceptor; i. e. the necessity of the acceptor presence during the second step of the process was demonstrated. The isotope exchange reaction between [5'32P]pAp and (pA)5p was studied. It was demonstrated that acceptor (pA)4, slightly whereas the acceptor (pU)4 completely inhibits the isotope reaction. The isotope reaction exchange between [5'-32P]pAp and (pU)4pAp does not take place. The question of existence of adenylated donor elimination mechanism in the presence of "poor" acceptors is considered on the basis of the data obtained.

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background: An experimental murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Octavio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading respiratory viral pathogen in young children worldwide. RSV disease is associated with acute airway obstruction (AO, long-term airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, and chronic lung inflammation. Using two different mouse strains, this study was designed to determine whether RSV disease patterns are host-dependent. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were inoculated with RSV and followed for 77 days. RSV loads were measured by plaque assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and whole lung samples; cytokines were measured in BAL samples. Lung inflammation was evaluated with a histopathologic score (HPS, and AO and AHR were determined by plethysmography. Results Viral load dynamics, histopathologic score (HPS, cytokine concentrations, AO and long-term AHR were similar in both strains of RSV-infected mice, although RSV-infected C57BL/6 mice developed significantly greater AO compared with RSV-infected BALB/c mice on day 5. PCR detected RSV RNA in BAL samples of RSV infected mice until day 42, and in whole lung samples through day 77. BAL concentrations of cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and chemokines MIG, RANTES and MIP-1α were significantly elevated in both strains of RSV-infected mice compared with their respective controls. Viral load measured by PCR significantly correlated with disease severity on days 14 and 21. Conclusion RSV-induced acute and chronic airway disease is independent of genetic background.

  14. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  15. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  16. Gas independence in France in 2050. A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050? Study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelon, Guillain; Rabetsimamanga, Ony; Bosso, Valerie; Frederic, Sylvain; Leboul-Proust, Catherine; Legrand, Stephanie; Monin, William; Singly, Bertrand de; Combet, Emmanuel; Marchal, David; Meunier, Laurent; Varet, Anne; Vincent, Isabelle; Antoine, Loic; Bardinal, Marc; Bastide, Guillaume; Bodineau, Luc; Canal, David; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mainsant, Arnaud; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Pouet, Jean-Christophe; Theobald, Olivier; Vidalenc, Eric; Thomas, Alban; Madiec, Philippe; Meradi, Sabra; Boure, Quentin; Cherrey, Marc; Coupe, Florian; Couturier, Christian; Metivier, Simon; Chiche, Alice

    2018-01-01

    ADEME contributes to the discussions on France's proactive strategy, notably by examining possible trajectories for the French energies of the future and has been publishing energy-climate scenarios on a regular basis since 2013. This study, 'A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050?', conducted by ADEME in collaboration with GRDF and GRTgaz, follows on from the works published in 2016 - 2017, and concerns the second most consumed energy in France, gas. Herein, ADEME explores the conditions of the technical and economic feasibility of a gas system in 2050 based on 100% renewable gas. The work is based on ADEME's 2035-2050 energy scenario, with a level of final demand for gas in 2050 of around 300 TWh, compared with today's figure of 460 TWh. The results, based on sensitivity analyses and various renewable gas production mix scenarios, reveal that there is a theoretical potential source of renewable gas that could fulfil this lower demand for energy in 2050 at an overall cost of gas between euros 116 and euros 153/MWh. It would involve making some modifications to the gas system and notably development of the complementarity between the gas network and the electric grid. This confirms that to improve the sustainability of our energy system, we must strengthen the interactions between the energy vectors and optimise their synergies, at various territorial scales

  17. France independent on gas by 2050. A 100 pc renewable gas mix by 2050? Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelon, Guillain; Rabetsimamanga, Ony; Bosso, Valerie; Frederic, Sylvain; Legrand, Stephanie; Leboul-Proust, Catherine; Monin, William; Singly, Bertrand de; Combet, Emmanuel; Marchal, David; Meunier, Laurent; Varet, Anne; Vincent, Isabelle; Antoine, Loic; Bardinal, Marc; Bastide, Guillaume; Bodineau, Luc; Canal, David; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mainsant, Arnaud; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Pouet, Jean-Christophe; Theobald, Olivier; Vidalenc, Eric; Thomas, Alban; Madiec, Philippe; Meradi, Sabra; Boure, Quentin; Cherrey, Marc; Coupe, Florian; Couturier, Christian; Metivier, Simon; Chiche, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at determining what could be an available renewable or recovery gas resource by 2050 in metropolitan France, whether it would be sufficient to face gas demand every day and at any point of the network, which network or production sector evolutions would be needed, which are the available constraints and leeway, and which would be the impact on the average cost of supplied gas. Potential renewable resources come from methanization, pyro-gasification, and power-to-gas. The production mix assessment is based on an ADEME scenario for 2035-2050. Four scenarios have been defined to assess the different hypotheses, notably resources: a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies, a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies with a high pyro-gasification, a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies with a biomass restrained to gas usages, and a 75 per cent renewable and recovery. Results are presented in terms of theoretical potential, gas demand meeting, cost, and avoided emissions. Lessons learned concern the possibility of a 100 per cent renewable gas system with necessary evolutions, and a complementarity between the gas and electric networks. Limitations and perspectives are discussed

  18. Balancing collaborative and independent practice roles in clinical pharmacy: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Megan B; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Park, Angela M; Ourth, Heather; Morreale, Anthony P; Rose, Adam J

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacists (CPs) with a scope of practice operate as direct care providers and health care team members. Research often focuses on one role or the other; little is understood about the dynamic relationship between roles in practice settings. To identify the challenges CPs face in balancing dual roles as direct care providers and health care team members and the implications for CP effectiveness and quality of care. Pharmacists were interviewed with a primary purpose of informing an implementation effort. Besides the implementation, there were emergent themes regarding the challenges posed for CPs in negotiating dual roles. This study is, therefore, a secondary analysis of semistructured interviews and direct observation of 48 CPs, addressing this phenomenon. Interview data were entered into NVivo 10 and systematically analyzed using an emergent thematic coding strategy. Pharmacists describe role ambiguity, where they perform as direct providers or team members simultaneously or in quick succession. They note the existence of a "transaction cost," where switching causes loss of momentum or disruption of work flow. Additionally, pharmacists feel that fellow providers lack an understanding of what they do and that CP contributions are not evaluated accurately by other health professionals. It is a challenge for CPs to balance the distinct roles of serving as collaborators and primary providers. Frequent role switching is not conducive to optimal work efficiency or patient care. Our findings suggest concrete steps that medical centers can take to improve both CP worklife and quality of patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Quantifying the Earthquake Clustering that Independent Sources with Stationary Rates (as Included in Current Risk Models) Can Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.; Apel, E. V.; Muir-Wood, R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) renewed public and academic awareness concerning the clustered nature of seismicity. Multiple event occurrence in short time and space intervals is reminiscent of aftershock sequences, but aftershock is a statistical definition, not a label one can give an earthquake in real-time. Aftershocks are defined collectively as what creates the Omori event rate decay after a large event or are defined as what is taken away as "dependent events" using a declustering method. It is noteworthy that depending on the declustering method used on the Canterbury earthquake sequence, the number of independent events varies a lot. This lack of unambiguous definition of aftershocks leads to the need to investigate the amount of clustering inherent in "declustered" risk models. This is the task we concentrate on in this contribution. We start from a background source model for the Canterbury region, in which 1) centroids of events of given magnitude are distributed using a latin-hypercube lattice, 2) following the range of preferential orientations determined from stress maps and focal mechanism, 3) with length determined using the local scaling relationship and 4) rates from a and b values derived from the declustered pre-2010 catalog. We then proceed to create tens of thousands of realizations of 6 to 20 year periods, and we define criteria to identify which successions of events in the region would be perceived as a sequence. Note that the spatial clustering expected is a lower end compared to a fully uniform distribution of events. Then we perform the same exercise with rates and b-values determined from the catalog including the CES. If the pre-2010 catalog was long (or rich) enough, then the computed "stationary" rates calculated from it would include the CES declustered events (by construction, regardless of the physical meaning of or relationship between those events). In regions of low seismicity rate (e.g., Canterbury before

  20. Chronic kidney disease and subclinical lacunar infarction are independently associated with frontal lobe dysfunction in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Yahara, Koji; Uchino, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Although recent studies have found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment in population-based cohorts, the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in subjects with CKD are unclear. We examined 503 elderly subjects (mean age: 72.4 years), who were living independently at home without apparent dementia, using MRI. The subject was judged as having frontal lobe dysfunction if the scores on the modified Stroop test were higher than the fifth quintile for each given decade. Serum creatinine values, measured by the enzymatic method, were used for the Japanese equation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Subjects in the frontal lobe dysfunction group tended to have higher blood pressure, lower eGFR and more lacunar infarcts, and were less educated. When possible confounders were entered into the multivariate logistic regression model, the independent predictors of frontal lobe dysfunction were eGFR (odds ratio 0.854; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.743-0.983 per 10 ml min -1 per 1.73 m 2 ) and the number of lacunar infarction (odds ratio 1.460; 95% CI 1.127-1.892). The mean of the logarithmically transformed Stroop test scores in the eGFR -1 per 1.73 m 2 group was 1.376 (95% CI 1.301-1.451), which was significantly higher than that (1.250) for the eGFR 60-89 ml min -1 per 1.73 m 2 group (95% CI 1.215-1.285) (P=0.009) and tended to be higher than that (1.264) for the eGFR ≥90 ml min -1 per 1.73 m 2 group (95% CI 1.188-1.340) (analysis of covariance, adjusted for age). The present study showed that CKD and subclinical lacunar infarction independently contributed to frontal lobe dysfunction in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  1. Identifying cardiac syncope based on clinical history: a literature-based model tested in four independent datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Sheldon, Aaron; Wieling, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke; Costantino, Giorgio; Furlan, Raffaello; Shen, Win-Kuang; Sheldon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to develop and test a literature-based model for symptoms that associate with cardiac causes of syncope. Seven studies (the derivation sample) reporting ≥2 predictors of cardiac syncope were identified (4 Italian, 1 Swiss, 1 Canadian, and 1 from the United States). From these, 10 criteria were identified as diagnostic predictors. The conditional probability of each predictor was calculated by summation of the reported frequencies. A model of conditional probabilities and a priori probabilities of cardiac syncope was constructed. The model was tested in four datasets of patients with syncope (the test sample) from Calgary (n=670; 21% had cardiac syncope), Amsterdam (n=503; 9%), Milan (n=689; 5%) and Rochester (3877; 11%). In the derivation sample ten variables were significantly associated with cardiac syncope: age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, brief or absent prodrome, supine syncope, effort syncope, and absence of nausea, diaphoresis and blurred vision. Fitting the test datasets to the full model gave C-statistics of 0.87 (Calgary), 0.84 (Amsterdam), 0.72 (Milan) and 0.71 (Rochester). Model sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 68% for Calgary, 86% and 67% for Amsterdam, 76% and 59% for Milan, and 73% and 52% for Rochester. A model with 5 variables (age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, and lack of prodromal symptoms) was as accurate as the total set. A simple literature-based Bayesian model of historical criteria can distinguish patients with cardiac syncope from other patients with syncope with moderate accuracy.

  2. Identifying cardiac syncope based on clinical history: a literature-based model tested in four independent datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop and test a literature-based model for symptoms that associate with cardiac causes of syncope. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven studies (the derivation sample reporting ≥2 predictors of cardiac syncope were identified (4 Italian, 1 Swiss, 1 Canadian, and 1 from the United States. From these, 10 criteria were identified as diagnostic predictors. The conditional probability of each predictor was calculated by summation of the reported frequencies. A model of conditional probabilities and a priori probabilities of cardiac syncope was constructed. The model was tested in four datasets of patients with syncope (the test sample from Calgary (n=670; 21% had cardiac syncope, Amsterdam (n=503; 9%, Milan (n=689; 5% and Rochester (3877; 11%. In the derivation sample ten variables were significantly associated with cardiac syncope: age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, brief or absent prodrome, supine syncope, effort syncope, and absence of nausea, diaphoresis and blurred vision. Fitting the test datasets to the full model gave C-statistics of 0.87 (Calgary, 0.84 (Amsterdam, 0.72 (Milan and 0.71 (Rochester. Model sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 68% for Calgary, 86% and 67% for Amsterdam, 76% and 59% for Milan, and 73% and 52% for Rochester. A model with 5 variables (age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, and lack of prodromal symptoms was as accurate as the total set. CONCLUSION: A simple literature-based Bayesian model of historical criteria can distinguish patients with cardiac syncope from other patients with syncope with moderate accuracy.

  3. Aberrant default mode network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of independent component analysis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ChunLei; Pan, Yuan; Liu, YanMei; Xu, Ke; Hao, LanXiang; Huang, Fei; Ke, Juan; Sheng, LiQin; Ma, HaiRong; Guo, WeiFeng

    2018-03-06

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the most popular and valid methods to investigate the default mode network (DMN), an intrinsic network which attracts particular attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, previous studies present inconsistent results regarding the topographical organization of the DMN in aMCI. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative, voxel-wise meta-analysis of resting-state ICA studies using Seed-based d Mapping to establish the most consistent pattern of DMN functional connectivity alterations in aMCI. Twenty studies, comprising 23 independent datasets involving 535 patients and 586 healthy controls, met the inclusion criteria. Patients with aMCI exhibited reliably lower DMN functional connectivity than the healthy controls in the bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate cortices and medial temporal lobes, which are implicated in episodic memory deficits. Moreover, an exploratory meta-regression analysis revealed that greater severity of global cognitive impairment in the patient groups was associated with stronger functional connectivity in the bilateral medial frontal cortices (including the anterior cingulate cortices), left angular gyrus, and right temporal pole extending to the middle temporal gyrus, likely reflecting a compensatory mechanism for maintaining cognitive efficiency. This meta-analysis identifies a consistent pattern of aberrant DMN functional connectivity in aMCI, which facilitates understanding of the neurobiological substrates of this disease.

  4. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  5. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in independent community-dwelling older adults: The Fujiwara-kyo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomoda, Koichi; Fujita, Yukio; Yamauchi, Motoo; Osa, Takao; Uyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    As the Japanese population ages, the number of older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to increase, but the prevalence of COPD in patients aged ≥80 years remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in independent community-dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. We investigated the prevalence of COPD in 2862 independent community-dwelling older adults (1504 men, 1358 women, mean age 77.7 ± 7.0 years) who underwent spirometry in the Fujiwara-kyo study, a study of successful aging in older adults. Those participants with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. However, the benefits of the spirometric screening and treatment for these patients needs to be determined. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2421-2426. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Autonomic dysfunction independently predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes in asymptomatic individuals with type 2 diabetes in the DIAD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Chyun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary aim of this secondary analysis was to determine whether cardiac autonomic neuropathy independently predicted adverse cardiac outcomes in asymptomatic individuals with type 2 diabetes. Additional aims include the determination of the correlation of standard autonomic testing measures and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the association of diabetes-related and cardiac risk factors with cardiac autonomic neuropathy measures. Methods: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was assessed at the study entry into the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics study, using autonomic heart rate and blood pressure testing, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. All participants were prospectively followed for the composite clinical outcome of cardiac death, acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, or coronary revascularization. Results: Over 5 years of follow-up, 94 of 1119 (8.4% subjects developed symptomatic cardiac disease. In unadjusted bivariate analyses, abnormalities in several cardiac autonomic neuropathy tests, including lower Valsalva and Standing Heart Rate Ratios, higher resting Heart Rate, greater systolic blood pressure decrease on standing, and lower low-frequency power, were predictive of symptomatic disease. Independent predictors of poor cardiac outcome were a lower Valsalva Heart Rate Ratio, non-Black ethnicity, longer diabetes duration, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin use, reported numbness in the extremities, higher pulse pressure, family history of coronary artery disease, and higher waist-to-hip ratio. Clinical factors independently associated with a lower Valsalva Heart Rate Ratio were insulin use, clinical proteinuria, higher pulse pressure, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and non-Black ethnicity. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy predicted adverse cardiac outcomes in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes without known cardiac disease. Clinical

  7. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle 3 (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly

  8. Reasons in Support of Data Security and Data Security Management as Two Independent Concepts: A New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Kamkarhaghighi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Any information which is generated and saved needs to be protected against accidental or intentional losses and manipulations if it is to be used by the intended users in due time. As such, information managers have adopted numerous measures to achieve data security within data storage systems, along with the spread of information technology. Background: The “data security models” presented thus far have unanimously highlighted the significance of data security management. For further clarification, the current study first introduces the “needs and improvement” cycle; the study will then present some independent definitions, together with a support umbrella, in an attempt to shed light on the data security management. Findings: Data security focuses on three features or attributes known as integrity, identity of sender(s) and identity of receiver(s). Management in data security follows an endless evolutionary process, to keep up with new developments in information technology and communication. In this process management develops new characteristics with greater capabilities to achieve better data security. The characteristics, continuously increasing in number, with a special focus on control, are as follows: private zone, confidentiality, availability, non-repudiation, possession, accountability, authenticity, authentication and auditability. Conclusion: Data security management steadily progresses, resulting in more sophisticated features. The developments are in line with new developments in information and communication technology and novel advances in intrusion detection systems (IDS). Attention to differences between data security and data security management by international organizations such as the International Standard Organization (ISO), and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is necessary if information quality is to be enhanced. PMID:27857823

  9. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  10. Favoreciendo la alimentación independiente: Estudio de un caso Favoring the independent feeding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carrera Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el desarrollo de las actividades de la vida diaria de la forma más autónoma e independiente posible debería ser prioritario en la valoración y cuidado de las personas dependientes. Objetivo: detección y corrección de los problemas que evitan la alimentación autónoma e independiente en una usuaria de centro residencial. Método: estudio de caso de base cualitativa mediante observación participante. Desarrollo: mayo-junio de 2010. Resultados: se observaron los siguientes problemas que dificultan la correcta alimentación: dificultad en la movilización de brazos y manos para llevar la comida a la boca, nerviosismo y ansiedad durante las comidas y sobreprotección de los cuidadores. Al final del periodo de estudio nuestra usuaria consigue realizar las comidas de forma autónoma e independiente. Discusión: una valoración individualizada puede poner de manifiesto capacidades desconocidas en una persona. Tras la evaluación inicial, se detectaron los problemas que impedían la alimentación de forma independiente de nuestra usuaria y se estableció un plan de acción consensuado con ella. Se apreció un cambio sustancial: no solo era capaz de realizar una comida por sí misma con la mínima ayuda indispensable, sino que aumentó su autoestima.Introduction: the development of the Daily Life Activities in the most autonomous and independent way ever possible should be a priority in the evaluation and care of the dependent people. Objective: detection and correction of the problems that avoid the autonomous and independent feeding in a user of our residential center. Method: Case Study with qualitative base by means of participant observation. Development: may-june 2010. Results: the problems observed that impede the correct feeding were:difficult movements of arms and hands to take the food to the mouth, nervousness and anxiety during the meals and overprotection of the carers. At the end of the period of study our user managed

  11. Quantitative study of Portland cement hydration by X-ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis and independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivener, K.L.; Fuellmann, T.; Gallucci, E.; Walenta, G.; Bermejo, E.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful technique for the study of crystalline materials. The technique of Rietveld refinement now enables the amounts of different phases in anhydrous cementitious materials to be determined to a good degree of precision. This paper describes the extension of this technique to a pilot study of the hydration of a typical Portland cement. To validate this XRD-Rietveld analysis technique, its results were compared with independent measures of the same materials by the analysis of backscattered electron images (BSE/IA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the internal consistency of the measurements was studied by comparing the XRD estimates of the amounts of hydrates formed with the amounts expected to form from the XRD estimates of the amounts of anhydrous materials reacted

  12. SEARCH FOR MODEL INDEPENDENT DI-HIGGS PRODUCTION IN THE bb$\\tau_{h}\\tau_{h}$ CHANNEL AT CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dewanjee, Ram Krishna

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Standard Model (SM) scalar of mass 125 GeV was a clear experimental evidence of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. However the true nature of electroweak symmetry breaking can be probed by studying higher order terms in the Higgs potential. The tri-linear Higgs self coupling can be analyzed at the LHC by searching for non resonant di-Higgs production. Besides, a number of exotic theories (e.g. WED models) predict heavy resonances that can decay into two SM Higgs bosons. In this talk, I will be describing searches for both resonant and non-resonant di-Higgs production in which one of the Higgs bosons decays into two b-quarks and the other to two (hadronically decaying) tau leptons. Both the searches use full Run-1 luminosity (18.3 $fb ^{-1}$ ) at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment in 2012.

  13. Function Modelling Of The Market And Assessing The Degree Of Similarity Between Real Properties - Dependent Or Independent Procedures In The Process Of Office Property Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barańska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the developed and presented in previous publications (e.g. Barańska 2011 two-stage algorithm for real estate valuation, this article addresses the problem of the relationship between the two stages of the algorithm. An essential part of the first stage is the multi-dimensional function modelling of the real estate market. As a result of selecting the model best fitted to the market data, in which the dependent variable is always the price of a real property, a set of market attributes is obtained, which in this model are considered to be price-determining. In the second stage, from the collection of real estate which served as a database in the process of estimating model parameters, the selected objects are those which are most similar to the one subject to valuation and form the basis for predicting the final value of the property being valued. Assessing the degree of similarity between real properties can be carried out based on the full spectrum of real estate attributes that potentially affect their value and which it is possible to gather information about, or only on the basis of those attributes which were considered to be price-determining in function modelling. It can also be performed by various methods. This article has examined the effect of various approaches on the final value of the property obtained using the two-stage prediction. In order fulfill the study aim precisely as possible, the results of each calculation step of the algorithm have been investigated in detail. Each of them points to the independence of the two procedures.

  14. What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

  15. Modeling School Choice: A Comparison of Public, Private-Independent, Private-Religious and Home-Schooled Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private-religious schooling, private-independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legalization across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to…

  16. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  17. Self-Access Language Learning Programme: The Case of the English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.

  18. Is Progestin an Independent Risk Factor for Incident Venous Thromboembolism? A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Michel K.; Heit, John A.; Ashrani, Aneel A.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Petterson, Tanya M.; Bailey, Kent R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Because the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with progestin is uncertain, we tested oral contraceptives, estrogen and progestin as independent VTE risk factors. Materials and Methods Using longitudinal, population-based Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we identified all Olmsted County, MN women with objectively-diagnosed incident VTE over the 13-year period, 1988–2000 (n=726) and one to two Olmsted County women per case matched on age, event year and duration of prior medical history (n=830), and reviewed their complete medical history in the community for previously-identified VTE risk factors (i.e., hospitalization with or without surgery, nursing home confinement, trauma/fracture, leg paresis, active cancer, varicose veins and pregnancy/postpartum), and oral contraceptive, oral estrogen, and oral or injectable progestin exposure. Using conditional logistic regression we tested these hormone exposures as VTE risk factors, both unadjusted and after adjusting for previously-identified VTE risk factors. Results In unadjusted models, oral contraceptives, progestin alone, and estrogen plus progestin were significantly associated with VTE. Individually adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and previously-identified VTE risk factors, these effects remained essentially unchanged except that progestin alone was not associated with VTE after adjusting for active cancer. Considering only case-control pairs without active cancer, progestin alone was positively but non-significantly associated with VTE (OR=2.49; p=0.16). Adjusting for BMI and previously-identified VTE risk factors including active cancer, oral contraceptives, estrogen alone, and progestin with or without estrogen were significantly associated with VTE. Conclusions Oral contraceptives, estrogen alone, estrogen plus progestin, and progestin with or without estrogen are independent VTE risk factors. PMID:20833412

  19. Intravenous opioid drug abuse as an independent risk factor for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma-A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, H; Cohen, O; Slavin, M; Haimovich, Y; Halperin, D; Lahav, Y

    2018-04-01

    Intravenous opioid drug abuse (IVDA) was previously correlated with laryngeal cancer. However, discrimination of this correlation by anatomical subsites has not yet been described. In this study, we aim to further establish the association between IVDA and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to indicate the laryngeal subsites that are predisposed for this correlation. A retrospective matched case-control study. Patients diagnosed with supraglottic SCC (SG-SCC) between 1996 and 2016 treated in a tertiary academic referral centre were enrolled to the case group. The control group comprised of matched patients diagnosed with glottis SCC (G-SCC). Matching was based on gender, age and socio-economic rank. Variables studies as risk factors included the following: smoking, alcohol consumption, history of IVDA and infectious diseases. The variables were tested for association with the 2 groups and with each other. Forty-eight patients with SG-SCC were matched with 48 patients with G-SCC. IVDA rates significantly increased among patients with SG-SCC. Of the SG-SCC group, 18.8% had a positive history for IVDA compared with 2.1% of the G-SCC (P = .008). A history of IVDA was found to be a risk factor for SG-SCC, independent of smoking, excessive alcohol and socio-economic status. The odds ratio for patients with an IVDA history to have SG-SCC relatively to G-SCC was 10.846 (95% CI: 1.3-89.4). Intravenous opioid drug abuse represents an independent risk factor for SG-SCC. The pathogenesis should be investigated not just as a risk factor, as opioids are commonly used for pain management in oncologic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pelargonidin Improves Passive Avoidance Task Performance in a Rat Amyloid Beta25-35 Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Via Estrogen Receptor Independent Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sohanaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a disorder with multiple pathophysiological causes, destructive outcomes, and no available definitive cure. Pelargonidin (Pel, an anthocyanin derivative, is an estrogen receptor agonist with little estrogen side effects. This study was designed to assess Pel memory enhancing effects on the a rat Amyloid Beta25-35 (Aβ intrahippocampal microinjections model of AD in the passive avoidance task performance paradigm and further evaluate the potential estrogen receptor role on the memory-evoking compound. Equally divided rats were assigned to 5 groups of sham, Aβ intrahippocampal microinjected, Pel pretreated (10 mg/kg; P.O, α estrogen antagonist intra-cerebrovascular (i.c.v. microinjected, and β estrogen antagonist (i.c.v microinjected animals. Intrahippocampal microinjections of Aβ were adopted to provoke AD model. Passive avoidance task test was also used to assess memory performance. Pel pretreatment prior to Aβ microinjections significantly improved step-through latency (P<0.001 in passive avoidance test. In α and β estrogen, antagonists received animals, passive avoidance task performance was not statistically changed (P=0.11 & P=0.41 respectively compared to Pel pretreated and sham animals. Our results depicted that Pel improves Aβ induced memory dysfunction in passive avoidance test performance through estrogen receptor independently related pathways.

  1. Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West Burn Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high grade burn is one of the most devastating injuries with several medical, social, economic, and psychological effects. These injuries are the most common cause of accidental deaths after traffic injuries in both the developed and developing countries. Therefore this research was aimed to determine demographic characteristics of patients with burn injury admitted to the emergency department and identify predictive factors of hospitalization. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study, which is done in 20 March up to 20 September 2011 in emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients’ information including demographic characteristic, cause of burn, place of accident, anatomical areas burned, grading and percent of burning and disposition were gathered and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of hospitalization in burned patients. Results: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled (54.4% female. The average age of those was 20.47±13.5 years. The prevalence of burn was significantly higher in ages under 20 years (p<0.001. Lower limb (37.5%, head and neck (21.25% and upper limb (17.5% were three frequent site of burn. The most common cause of burns was boiling water scalding (34.4%. Home related burn was significantly higher than other place (p<0.001. The most frequent percent of burn was <5% (46.25%. Finally 50 (31.25% cases hospitalized. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age under 20 years old (p=0.02 female gender (p=0.02, burning site (p=0.002, cause (p=0.005, place (p<0.001, grade (p<0.001, and percent (p<0.001 was related to disposition of patients. Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed female gender (OR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.57-7.88; p=0.002, work related burning (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.26-2.52; p=0.001, and burning over 5 percent (OR=2.15; 95% CI: 1.35-3.41; p=0.001 as

  2. The degree of hair graying as an independent risk marker for coronary artery disease, a CT coronary angiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdel Aziz ElFaramawy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Aging is an unavoidable coronary risk factor and is associated with dermatological signs that could be a marker for increased coronary risk. We tested the hypothesis that hair graying as a visible marker of aging is associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD independent of chronological age. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 545 males who underwent a computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA for suspicious of CAD, patients were divided into subgroups according to the percentage of gray/white hairs (Hair Whitening Score, HWS: 1–5 and to the absence or presence of CAD. Results: CAD was prevalent in 80% of our studied population, 255 (46.8% had 3 vessels disease with mean age of 53.2 ± 10.7 yrs. Hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia were more prevalent in CAD group (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.003, respectively. Patients with CAD had statistically significant higher HWS (32.1% vs 60.1%, p < 0.001 and significant coronary artery calcification (<0.001. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio (OR: 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: [1.31–4.39], p = 0.004, HWS (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: [1.09–1.57], p = 0.004, hypertension (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: [1.03–2.58], p = 0.036, and dyslipidemia (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: [1.02–2.54], p = 0.038 were independent predictors of the presence of atherosclerotic CAD, and only age (p < 0.001 was significantly associated with HWS. Conclusions: Higher HWS was associated with increased coronary artery calcification and risk of CAD independent of chronological age and other established cardiovascular risk factors. Keywords: Hair graying, Male gender, Coronary artery disease, Computed tomography coronary angiography

  3. A comparative and combined study of EMIS and GPR detectors by the use of Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenstjerne, Axel; Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is applied to classify unexploded ordnance (UXO) on laboratory UXO test-field data, acquired by stand-off detection. The data are acquired by an Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS) metal detector and a ground penetrating radar (GPR) detector. The metal...... detector is a GEM-3, which is a monostatic sensor measuring the response of the environment on a multi-frequency constant wave excitation field (300 Hz to 25 kHz), and the GPR detector is a stepped-frequency GPR with a monostatic bow-tie antenna (500MHz to 2.5GHz). For both sensors the in...... are processed by the use of statistical signal processing based on ICA. An unsupervised method based on ICA to detect, discriminate, and classify the UXOs from clutter is suggested. The approach is studied on GPR and EMIS data, separately and compared. The potential is an improved ability: to detect the UXOs...

  4. GWA study data mining and independent replication identify cardiomyopathy-associated 5 (CMYA5) as a risk gene for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X; Lee, G; Maher, B S

    2011-01-01

    We conducted data-mining analyses using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and molecular genetics of schizophrenia genome-wide association study supported by the genetic association information network (MGS-GAIN) schizophrenia data sets and performed...... bioinformatic prioritization for all the markers with P-values ¿0.05 in both data sets. In this process, we found that in the CMYA5 gene, there were two non-synonymous markers, rs3828611 and rs10043986, showing nominal significance in both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples. In a combined analysis of both the CATIE...... in our Irish samples and was dropped out without further investigation. The other two markers were verified in 23 other independent data sets. In a meta-analysis of all 23 replication samples (family samples, 912 families with 4160 subjects; case-control samples, 11¿380 cases and 15¿021 controls), we...

  5. Independent effects of geometry and landmark in a spontaneous reorientation task: a study of two species of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Ruga, Vincenza; Sovrano, Valeria A

    2012-09-01

    While disoriented humans and animals use both landmarks and environmental geometry to guide their navigation, it is not clear what kinds of cognitive mechanisms underlie these behaviors. Because traditional tests of trained navigation behavior in environments containing both landmarks and geometric information may cloud our insight into the nature of these processes, the present study tested the spontaneous use of landmarks and environmental shape by two species of fish-Redtail Splitfins (Xenotoca eiseni) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results suggest that while geometry is spontaneously used by both species and both sexes to compute relative position or direction, the spontaneous use of landmarks is limited to direct beaconing and complicated by attraction to features and variability across species and sex. These findings support the view that while multiple cues may ultimately guide behavior, the computation of orientation and relative positions is specified by geometric input and is independent from other navigation processes such as beaconing.

  6. Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.K.; Thomsen, T.R.; Moser, C.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. METHODS: In this study traditional semiquantitative...... culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ...... observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. CONCLUSION: The results show that diagnosis based on molecular methods improves the detection of microorganisms involved in central catheter-related infections. The importance...

  7. Investigator and independent review committee exploratory assessment and verification of tumor response in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert R; Ford, Robert W; O'Neal, Michael; Kahl, Brad S; Chen, Ling; Munteanu, Mihaela; Cheson, Bruce D

    2017-06-01

    Interpretation of endpoints (e.g. overall response rate) in clinical trials depends on the accurate and reliable measurement and identification of tumors. Regulatory agencies recommend blinded reviews of imaging data by independent review committees (IRCs). Differences in response outcomes that arise between IRCs and site investigators raise regulatory/sponsor concerns. Here, we evaluate discrepant tumor response assessments by the IRC and unblinded investigators (complete versus partial response, respectively) occurring in 52 (13% of 393 IRC-assessed responders) of 447 enrolled patients with treatment-naïve non-Hodgkin lymphoma from a randomized study. The IRC and investigators were 'likely correct' in 73% and 25% of cases, respectively (p audit, with retraining as needed, and a specialized consensus committee for concurrent blinded review of site/central data.

  8. Are anticoagulant independent mechanical valves within reach-fast prototype fabrication and in vitro testing of innovative bi-leaflet valve models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotten, Lawrence N; Siegel, Rolland

    2015-08-01

    Exploration for causes of prosthetic valve thrombogenicity has frequently focused on forward or post-closure flow detail. In prior laboratory studies, we uncovered high amplitude flow velocities of short duration close to valve closure implying potential for substantial shear stress with subsequent initiation of blood coagulation pathways. This may be relevant to widely accepted clinical disparity between mechanical and tissue valves vis-à-vis thrombogenicity. With a series of prototype bi-leaflet mechanical valves, we attempt reduction of closure related velocities with the objective of identifying a prototype valve with thrombogenic potential similar to our tissue valve control. This iterative design approach may find application in preclinical assessment of valves for anticoagulation independence. Tested valves included: prototype mechanical bi-leaflet BVs (n=56), controls (n=2) and patented early prototype mechanicals (n=2) from other investigators. Pulsatile and quasi-steady flow systems were used for testing. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) was measured using previously described novel technology. Flow velocity over the open and closing periods was determined by volumetric flow rate/PDVA. For the closed valve interval, use was made of data obtained from quasi-steady back pressure/flow tests. Performance was ranked by a proposed thrombogenicity potential index (TPI) relative to tissue and mechanical control valves. Optimization of the prototype valve designs lead to a 3-D printed model (BV3D). For the mitral/aortic site, BV3D has lower TPI (1.10/1.47) relative to the control mechanical valve (3.44/3.93) and similar to the control tissue valve (ideal TPI ≤1.0). Using unique technology, rapid prototyping and thrombogenicity ranking, optimization of experimental valves for reduced thrombogenic potential was expedited and simplified. Innovative mechanical valve configurations were identified that merit consideration for further development which may bring

  9. Is Sleep Apnea an Independent Risk Factor for Prevalent and Incident Diabetes in the Busselton Health Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Wong, Keith K. H.; Phillips, Craig L.; Liu, Peter Y.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional analyses of North American population-based cohorts and one nonsignificant longitudinal analysis have suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. However, this observation has yet to be replicated outside the USA or be observed lonigitudinally. Methods: Residents of the Western Australian town of Busselton had their OSA quantified by the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) overnight in their own homes (MESAM IV device). Diabetes was defined as either a fasting blood glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L or physician diagnosed diabetes. Results: Of 399 participants at baseline, 295 had complete data and did not have diabetes at baseline; 9 incident cases were observed within 4 years. At baseline moderate-severe OSA was associated with a univariate, but not multivariate, increased risk of diabetes (odds ratio = 4.37, 95% CL = 1.12, 17.12). Longitudinally, moderate-severe OSA was a significant univariate and independent risk factor for incident diabetes (fully adjusted OR = 13.45, 95% CL = 1.59, 114.11). Conclusions: Moderate-severe sleep apnea was a significant risk factor for incident diabetes in this Australian population-based cohort. However, the confidence intervals were wide and meta-analyses or studies with greater power will be required to verify the relationship between sleep apnea and the incidence of diabetes in community-based populations. Citation: Marshall NS; Wong KKH; Phillips CL; Liu PY; Knuiman MW; Grunstein RR. Is sleep apnea an independent risk factor for prevalent and incident diabetes in the busselton health study? J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(1):15–20. PMID:19317376

  10. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects: the Sefuri brain MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Uchino, Akira; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mm Hg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.014-1.098 per mm Hg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP>or=90 mm Hg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBPanalysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects.

  11. Pneumonia is an independent risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess: A population-based, nested, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Yeh, Chao-Bin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Han-Wei; Huang, Jing-Yang; Teng, Ying-Hock

    2017-01-01

    Bacteremic pneumonia is considered a potential cause of distal organ abscess formation. Therefore, we hypothesize that pneumonia is a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess (PLA).The aim of this study is to explore the association between pneumonia and PLA. A nationwide, population-based, nested, case-control study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 494 patients with PLA and 1,976 propensity score matched controls were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) in patients with exposure to pneumonia before PLA. After matched and adjusted for confounding factors including age, sex, urbanization, income, chronic liver disease, alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, and cancer, hospitalization for pneumonia remained an independent risk factor for PLA with an aORs of 2.104 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.309-3.379, p = 0.0021]. Moreover, the aORs were significantly higher among patients hospitalized for pneumonia within 30 days (aORs = 10.73, 95% CI = 3.381-34.054), 30-90 days (aORs = 4.698, 95% CI = 1.541-14.327) and 90-180 (aORs = 4.000, 95% CI = 1.158-13.817) days before PLA diagnosis. Pneumonia is an independent risk factor for subsequent PLA. Moreover, hospitalization for pneumonia within 180 days before PLA diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of PLA.

  12. SU-E-T-50: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Software Program for Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, D; Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Baba, H; Yamamoto, T; Kubo, Y; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Takahashi, H; Tachibana, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of dose distribution depends on treatment planning system especially in heterogeneity-region. The tolerance level (TL) of the secondary check using the independent dose verification may be variable in lung SBRT plans. We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the tolerance level of lung SBRT plans shown in the AAPM TG114. Methods: Five institutes in Japan participated in this study. All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA), Pencil Beam Convolution with modified Batho-method (PBC-B) and Adaptive Convolve (AC) were used for lung SBRT planning. A measurement using an ion-chamber was performed in a heterogeneous phantom to compare doses from the three different algorithms and the SMU to the measured dose. In addition to it, a retrospective analysis using clinical lung SBRT plans (547 beams from 77 patients) was conducted to evaluate the confidence limit (CL, Average±2SD) in dose between the three algorithms and the SMU. Results: Compared to the measurement, the AAA showed the larger systematic dose error of 2.9±3.2% than PBC-B and AC. The Clarkson-based SMU showed larger error of 5.8±3.8%. The CLs for clinical plans were 7.7±6.0 % (AAA), 5.3±3.3 % (AC), 5.7±3.4 % (PBC -B), respectively. Conclusion: The TLs from the CLs were evaluated. A Clarkson-based system shows a large systematic variation because of inhomogeneous correction. The AAA showed a significant variation. Thus, we must consider the difference of inhomogeneous correction as well as the dependence of dose calculation engine

  13. Pneumonia is an independent risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess: A population-based, nested, case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Wai Ho

    Full Text Available Bacteremic pneumonia is considered a potential cause of distal organ abscess formation. Therefore, we hypothesize that pneumonia is a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess (PLA.The aim of this study is to explore the association between pneumonia and PLA.A nationwide, population-based, nested, case-control study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 494 patients with PLA and 1,976 propensity score matched controls were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs in patients with exposure to pneumonia before PLA. After matched and adjusted for confounding factors including age, sex, urbanization, income, chronic liver disease, alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, and cancer, hospitalization for pneumonia remained an independent risk factor for PLA with an aORs of 2.104 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.309-3.379, p = 0.0021]. Moreover, the aORs were significantly higher among patients hospitalized for pneumonia within 30 days (aORs = 10.73, 95% CI = 3.381-34.054, 30-90 days (aORs = 4.698, 95% CI = 1.541-14.327 and 90-180 (aORs = 4.000, 95% CI = 1.158-13.817 days before PLA diagnosis.Pneumonia is an independent risk factor for subsequent PLA. Moreover, hospitalization for pneumonia within 180 days before PLA diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of PLA.

  14. Proximal aortic distensibility is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and incident CV events: the MESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redheuil, Alban; Wu, Colin O; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Yan, Raymond T; Bertoni, Alain G; Hundley, Gregory W; Duprez, Daniel A; Jacobs, David R; Daniels, Lori B; Darwin, Christine; Sibley, Christopher; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2014-12-23

    The predictive value of ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) for mortality and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events has not been fully established. This study sought to assess the utility of AAD to predict mortality and incident CVD events beyond conventional risk factors in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). AAD was measured with magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in 3,675 MESA participants free of overt CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate risk of death, heart failure (HF), and incident CVD in relation to AAD, CVD risk factors, indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis, and Framingham risk score. There were 246 deaths, 171 hard CVD events (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke and CV death), and 88 HF events over a median 8.5-year follow-up. Decreased AAD was associated with increased all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) for the first versus fifth quintile of AAD of 2.7 (p = 0.008) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, other CVD risk factors, and indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis. Overall, patients with the lowest AAD had an independent 2-fold higher risk of hard CVD events. Decreased AAD was associated with CV events in low to intermediate- CVD risk individuals with an HR for the first quintile of AAD of 5.3 (p = 0.03) as well as with incident HF but not after full adjustment. Decreased proximal aorta distensibility significantly predicted all-cause mortality and hard CV events among individuals without overt CVD. AAD may help refine risk stratification, especially among asymptomatic, low- to intermediate-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  16. Model-independent implications of the e±, p-bar cosmic ray spectra on properties of Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, M.; Kadastik, M.; Raidal, M.; Strumia, A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account spins, we classify all two-body non-relativistic Dark Matter annihilation channels to the allowed polarization states of Standard Model particles, computing the energy spectra of the stable final-state particles relevant for indirect DM detection. We study the DM masses, annihilation channels and cross sections that can reproduce the PAMELA indications of an e + excess consistently with the PAMELA p-bar data and the ATIC/PPB-BETS e + +e - data. From the PAMELA data alone, two solutions emerge: (i) either the DM particles that annihilate into W,Z,h must be heavier than about 10 TeV or (ii) the DM must annihilate only into leptons. Thus in both cases a DM particle compatible with the PAMELA excess seems to have quite unexpected properties. The solution (ii) implies a peak in the e + +e - energy spectrum, which, indeed, seems to appear in the ATIC/PPB-BETS data around 700 GeV. If upcoming data from ATIC-4 and GLAST confirm this feature, this would point to a O(1) TeV DM annihilating only into leptons. Otherwise the solution (i) would be favored. We comment on the implications of these results for DM models, direct DM detection and colliders as well as on the possibility of an astrophysical origin of the excess

  17. Independent effects of bottom-up temporal expectancy and top-down spatial attention. An audiovisual study using rhythmic cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eJones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention to a spatial location has shown enhance perception and facilitate behaviour for events at attended locations. However, selection relies not only on where but also when an event occurs. Recently, interest has turned to how intrinsic neural oscillations in the brain entrain to rhythms in our environment, and, stimuli appearing in or out of synch with a rhythm have shown to modulate perception and performance. Temporal expectations created by rhythms and spatial attention are two processes which have independently shown to affect stimulus processing but it remains largely unknown how, and if, they interact. In four separate tasks, this study investigated the effects of voluntary spatial attention and bottom-up temporal expectations created by rhythms in both unimodal and crossmodal conditions. In each task the participant used an informative cue, either colour or pitch, to direct their covert spatial attention to the left or right, and respond as quickly as possible to a target. The lateralized target (visual or auditory was then presented at the attended or unattended side. Importantly, although not task relevant, the cue was a rhythm of either flashes or beeps. The target was presented in or out of sync (early or late with the rhythmic cue. The results showed participants were faster responding to spatially attended compared to unattended targets in all tasks. Moreover, there was an effect of rhythmic cueing upon response times in both unimodal and crossmodal conditions. Responses were faster to targets presented in sync with the rhythm compared to when they appeared too early in both crossmodal tasks. That is, rhythmic stimuli in one modality influenced the temporal expectancy in the other modality, suggesting temporal expectancies created by rhythms are crossmodal. Interestingly, there was no interaction between top-down spatial attention and rhythmic cueing in any task suggesting these two processes largely influenced

  18. On the interpretation of the independent components underlying the abdominal phonogram: a study of their physiological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-González, A; James, C J

    2012-01-01

    Recorded by positioning a sensitive acoustic sensor over the maternal womb, the abdominal phonogram is a signal that contains valuable information for foetal surveillance (e.g. heart rate), which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, previous work used single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) to separate the abdominal phonogram into statistically independent components (ICs) that, once acquired, must be objectively associated with the real sources underlying the abdominal phonogram—either physiological or environmental. This is a typical challenge for blind source separation methodologies and requires further research on the signals of interest to find a suitable solution. Here, we have conducted a joint study on 75 sets of ICs by means of statistical, spectral, complexity and time-structure analysis methods. As a result, valuable and consistent characteristics of the components separated from the abdominal phonogram by SCICA have been revealed: (1) the ICs are spectrally disjoint and sorted according to their frequency content, (2) only the ICs with lower frequency content present strong regular patterns and (3) such regular patterns are driven by well-known physiological processes given by the maternal breathing rate, the maternal heart rate and the foetal heart rate. This information was so promising that it has been used in current work for automatic classification of ICs and recovery of the traces of the physiological sources underlying the abdominal phonogram. Future work will look for the extraction of information useful for surveillance (e.g. heart rate), not only about foetal well-being, but also about maternal condition. (paper)

  19. Determination of 13C CSA Tensors: Extension of the Model-independent Approach to an RNA Kissing Complex Undergoing Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion in Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranathan, Sapna; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensor parameters have been determined for the protonated carbons of the purine bases in an RNA kissing complex in solution by extending the model-independent approach [Fushman, D., Cowburn, D. (1998) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 7109-7110]. A strategy for determining CSA tensor parameters of heteronuclei in isolated X-H two-spin systems (X = 13 C or 15 N) in molecules undergoing anisotropic rotational diffusion is presented. The original method relies on the fact that the ratio κ 2 =R 2 auto /R 2 cross of the transverse auto- and cross-correlated relaxation rates involving the X CSA and the X-H dipolar interaction is independent of parameters related to molecular motion, provided rotational diffusion is isotropic. However, if the overall motion is anisotropic κ 2 depends on the anisotropy D parallel /D -perpendicular of rotational diffusion. In this paper, the field dependence of both κ 2 and its longitudinal counterpart κ 1 =R 1 auto /R 1 cross are determined. For anisotropic rotational diffusion, our calculations show that the average κ av = 1/2 (κ 1 +κ 2 ), of the ratios is largely independent of the anisotropy parameter D parallel /D -perpendicular . The field dependence of the average ratio κ av may thus be utilized to determine CSA tensor parameters by a generalized model-independent approach in the case of molecules with an overall motion described by an axially symmetric rotational diffusion tensor

  20. Model-independent analysis of Higgs spin and CP properties in the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}t anti t{phi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbole, R.M. [CERN TH-PH, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Utrecht University, Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hangst, C.; Muehlleitner, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rindani, S.D.; Sharma, P. [Physical Research Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Division, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India)

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we investigate methods to study the t anti t Higgs coupling. The spin and CP properties of a Higgs boson are analysed in a model-independent way in its associated production with a t anti t pair in high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. We study the prospects of establishing the CP quantum numbers of the Higgs boson in the CP-conserving case as well as those of determining the CP-mixing if CP is violated. We explore in this analysis the combined use of the total cross section and its energy dependence, the polarisation asymmetry of the top quark and the up-down asymmetry of the antitop with respect to the top-electron plane. We find that combining all three observables remarkably reduces the error on the determination of the CP properties of the Higgs Yukawa coupling. Furthermore, the top polarisation asymmetry and the ratio of cross sections at different collider energies are shown to be sensitive to the spin of the particle produced in association with the top-quark pair. (orig.)

  1. Separated-pair independent particle model and the generalized Brillouin theorem: ab initio calculations on the dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Kenneth Randall [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed to optimize the separated-pair independent particle (SPIP) wave function; it is a special case of the separated-pair theory obtained by using two-term natural expansions of the geminals. The orbitals are optimized by a theory based on the generalized Brillouin theorem and iterative configuration interaction (CI) calculations in the space of the SPIP function and its single excitations. The geminal expansion coefficients are optimized by serial 2 x 2 CI calculations. Formulas are derived for the matrix elements. An algorithm to implement the method is presented, and the work needed to evaluate the molecular integrals is discussed.

  2. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  3. Urban Studies: A Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Terry L.; Sundeen, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The urban studies learning model described in this article was found to increase students' self-esteem, imbue a more flexible and open perspective, contribute to the capacity for self-direction, produce increases on the feeling reactivity, spontaneity, and acceptance of aggression scales, and expand interpersonal competence. (Author/WI)

  4. Correlation between prefrontal cortex activity during working memory tasks and natural mood independent of personality effects: an optical topography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Sato, Hiroki; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2013-04-30

    Interactions between mood and cognition have drawn much attention in the fields of psychology and neuroscience. Recent neuroimaging studies have examined a neural basis of the mood-cognition interaction that which emphasize the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although these studies have shown that natural mood variations among participants are correlated with PFC activity during cognitive tasks, they did not control for personality differences. Our aim in this study was to clarify the relationship between natural mood and PFC activity by partialling out the effects of personality. Forty healthy adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing natural mood (the Profile of Mood States) and personality (the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Systems scales). They performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks while their PFC activity was measured using optical topography, a non-invasive, low-constraint neuroimaging tool. Correlation analysis showed that the level of negative mood was inversely associated with PFC activity during the verbal WM task, which replicated our previous findings. Furthermore, the negative correlation between negative mood and PFC activity remained significant after controlling for participants' personality traits, suggesting that natural mood is an independent contributing factor of PFC activity during verbal WM tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin-Independent Antidepressant Effects of (R)-Ketamine in a Social Defeat Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Qu, Youge; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Ma, Min; Dong, Chao; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the antidepressant effects of ketamine is controversial. In addition to mTOR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a key signaling molecule in prominent pathways that regulate protein synthesis. (R)-Ketamine has a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine. Here we investigated whether mTOR signaling and ERK signaling play a role in the antidepressant effects of two enantiomers. The effects of mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin and AZD8055) and an ERK inhibitor (SL327) on the antidepressant effects of ketamine enantiomers in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model (n = 7 or 8) and on those of ketamine enantiomers in these signaling pathways in mouse brain regions were examined. The intracerebroventricular infusion of rapamycin or AZD8055 blocked the antidepressant effects of (S)-ketamine, but not (R)-ketamine, in the CSDS model. Furthermore, (S)-ketamine, but not (R)-ketamine, significantly attenuated the decreased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream effector, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, in the prefrontal cortex of susceptible mice after CSDS. Pretreatment with SL327 blocked the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine but not (S)-ketamine. Moreover, (R)-ketamine, but not (S)-ketamine, significantly attenuated the decreased phosphorylation of ERK and its upstream effector, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus of susceptible mice after CSDS. This study suggests that mTOR plays a role in the antidepressant effects of (S)-ketamine, but not (R)-ketamine, and that ERK plays a role in (R)-ketamine's antidepressant effects. Thus, it is unlikely that the activation of mTOR signaling is necessary for antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Independent Antidepressant Actions of (R)-Ketamine in a Chronic Social Defeat Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Dong, Chao; Fujita, Yuko; Fujita, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine might play a role in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine. However, its role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, is unknown. This study was conducted to examine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion affects the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. An inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis, para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (300 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 consecutive days), or vehicle was administered to control and chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in mouse brain regions were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg) in the vehicle- and para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride-treated susceptible mice were assessed using tail suspension test and 1% sucrose preference test. para-Chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride treatment caused marked reductions of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the brain regions of control and chronic social defeat stress susceptible mice. In the tail suspension test, (R)-ketamine significantly attenuated the increased immobility time in the chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice with or without 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. In the sucrose preference test (2 and 5 days after a single dose), (R)-ketamine significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption in the chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice with or without 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. These findings show that 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion did not affect the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. Therefore, it is unlikely that 5-hydroxytryptamine plays a major role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  7. SPCA2 regulates Orai1 trafficking and store independent Ca2+ entry in a model of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie M Cross

    Full Text Available An unconventional interaction between SPCA2, an isoform of the Golgi secretory pathway Ca(2+-ATPase, and the Ca(2+ influx channel Orai1, has previously been shown to contribute to elevated Ca(2+ influx in breast cancer derived cells. In order to investigate the physiological role of this interaction, we examined expression and localization of SPCA2 and Orai1 in mouse lactating mammary glands. We observed co-induction and co-immunoprecipitation of both proteins, and isoform-specific differences in the localization of SPCA1 and SPCA2. Three-dimensional cultures of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells were established using lactogenic hormones and basement membrane. The mammospheres displayed elevated Ca(2+ influx by store independent mechanisms, consistent with upregulation of both SPCA2 and Orai1. Knockdown of either SPCA2 or Orai1 severely depleted Ca(2+ influx and interfered with mammosphere differentiation. We show that SPCA2 is required for plasma membrane trafficking of Orai1 in mouse mammary epithelial cells and that this function can be replaced, at least in part, by a membrane-anchored C-terminal domain of SPCA2. These findings clearly show that SPCA2 and Orai1 function together to regulate Store-independent Ca(2+ entry (SICE, which mediates the massive basolateral Ca(2+ influx into mammary epithelia to support the large calcium transport requirements for milk secretion.

  8. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaeps, Sara; Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both pcardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, pcardio-metabolic health.

  9. Bacteremia is an independent risk factor for mortality in nosocomial pneumonia: a prospective and observational multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magret, Mònica; Lisboa, Thiago; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Máñez, Rafael; Nauwynck, Marc; Wrigge, Hermann; Cardellino, Silvano; Díaz, Emili; Koulenti, Despina; Rello, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Since positive blood cultures are uncommon in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP), the responsible pathogens are usually isolated from respiratory samples. Studies on bacteremia associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) have reported fatality rates of up to 50%. The purpose of the study is to compare risk factors, pathogens and outcomes between bacteremic nosocomial pneumonia (B-NP) and nonbacteremic nosocomial pneumonia (NB-NP) episodes. This is a prospective, observational and multicenter study (27 intensive care units in nine European countries). Consecutive patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for an admission diagnosis of pneumonia or on mechanical ventilation for > 48 hours irrespective of admission diagnosis were recruited. A total of 2,436 patients were evaluated; 689 intubated patients presented with NP, 224 of them developed HAP and 465 developed ventilation-acquired pneumonia. Blood samples were extracted in 479 (69.5%) patients, 70 (14.6%) being positive. B-NP patients had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score (51.5 ± 19.8 vs. 46.6 ± 17.5, P = 0.03) and were more frequently medical patients (77.1% vs. 60.4%, P = 0.01). Mortality in the intensive care unit was higher in B-NP patients compared with NB-NP patients (57.1% vs. 33%, P NP patients had a more prolonged mean intensive care unit length of stay after pneumonia onset than NB-NP patients (28.5 ± 30.6 vs. 20.5 ± 17.1 days, P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that medical patients (odds ratio (OR) = 5.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93 to 16.99, P = 0.002), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) etiology (OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.57 to 5.81, P = 0.01), Acinetobacter baumannii etiology (OR = 4.78, 95% CI = 2.46 to 9.29, P P NP episodes. Bacteremia (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.55, P = 0.008), diagnostic category (medical patients (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.01 to 6.95, P = 0.02) and surgical patients (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.10 to 4

  10. Study of Stark broadening of Li I 460 and 497 nm spectral lines with independent plasma diagnostics by Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierżȩga, Krzysztof; Piȩta, Tomasz; Zawadzki, Witold; Stambulchik, Evgeny; Gavrilović-Božović, Marijana; Jovićević, Sonja; Pokrzywka, Bartłomiej

    2018-02-01

    We present results of experimental and theoretical studies of the Stark broadening of the Li I 460 nm spectral line with forbidden components and of the isolated 497 nm line. Plasma was induced by Nd:YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm with pulse duration ∼4.5 ns. Laser-induced plasma was generated in front of the alumina pellet, with some content of Li2CO3, placed in a vacuum chamber filled with argon under reduced pressure. Plasma diagnostics was performed using the laser Thomson scattering technique, free from assumptions about the plasma equilibrium state and its composition and so independently of plasma emission spectra. Spatially resolved spectra with Li lines were obtained from the measured, laterally integrated ones applying the inverse Abel transform. The Stark profiles were calculated by computer simulation method assuming a plasma in the local thermodynamic equilibrium. Calculations were performed for experimentally-inferred electron densities and temperatures, from 1.422 × 1023 to 3.55 × 1022 m‑3 and from 1.96 eV to 1.04 eV, respectively. Our studies show very good agreement between experimental Stark profiles and those computer simulated.

  11. Studies on the independence of the strong interactions on the flavor quantum numbers with bottom, charm, strange, and light quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebel, O.

    1993-11-01

    A study of possible flavour dependence of the strong interaction is presented using data collected with the OPAL detector at the e + e - collider LEP. Four subsamples of events, highly enriched in bottom, charm, strange and light quarks are obtained from high momentum electrons and muons, D *± mesons, K s 0 mesons, and highly energetic stable charged particles, respectively. From the jet production rates of each of these four samples a strong coupling constant α s f for the dominant quark flavour is derived. The ratios of α s for a specific quark flavour f and its complementary flavours are determined to be α s b /α s udsc =1.017±0.036, α s c /α s udsb =0.918±0.115, α s s /α s udcb =1.158±0.164, α s uds /α s cb =1.038 ± 0.221, where the errors are combinations of statistical and systematic uncertainties. In combining the relevant data samples, a systematic study of possible dependence of the strong interaction on quark mass, weak isospin, and generation is performed. No evidence for any such dependence of the strong coupling constant α s is observed. Finally all samples are combined to determine the strong coupling constant of each flavour individually. Again the results are well consistent with the flavour independence of QCD. (orig.)

  12. Marginal Emission Factors Considering Renewables: A Case Study of the U.S. Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Smith, Timothy M; Yang, Yi; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2017-10-03

    Estimates of marginal emission factors (MEFs) for the electricity sector have focused on emitting sources only, assuming nonemitting renewables rarely contribute to marginal generation. However, with increased penetration and improved dispatch of renewables, this assumption may be outdated. Here, we improve the methodology to incorporate renewables in MEF estimates and demonstrate a case study for the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) system where wind has been commonly dispatched on the margin. We also illustrate spatiotemporal variations of MEFs and explore implications for energy storage technologies. Results show that because the share of renewables in MISO is still relatively low (6.34%), conventional MEFs focused on emitting sources can provide a good estimate in MISO overall, as well as in the Central and South subregions. However, in the MISO North subregion where wind provides 22.5% of grid generation, neglecting nonemitting sources can overestimate MEFs for CO 2 , SO 2 , and NO x by about 30%. The application of expanded MEFs in this case also reveals heightened emission increases associated with load shifting of storage technologies. Our study highlights the importance of expanded MEFs in regions with high and growing renewables penetration, particularly as renewable energy policy seeks to incorporate demand-side technologies.

  13. GWA study data mining and independent replication identify cardiomyopathy-associated 5 (CMYA5) as a risk gene for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, X

    2011-11-01

    We conducted data-mining analyses using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and molecular genetics of schizophrenia genome-wide association study supported by the genetic association information network (MGS-GAIN) schizophrenia data sets and performed bioinformatic prioritization for all the markers with P-values ≤0.05 in both data sets. In this process, we found that in the CMYA5 gene, there were two non-synonymous markers, rs3828611 and rs10043986, showing nominal significance in both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples. In a combined analysis of both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples, rs4704591 was identified as the most significant marker in the gene. Linkage disequilibrium analyses indicated that these markers were in low LD (3 828 611-rs10043986, r(2)=0.008; rs10043986-rs4704591, r(2)=0.204). In addition, CMYA5 was reported to be physically interacting with the DTNBP1 gene, a promising candidate for schizophrenia, suggesting that CMYA5 may be involved in the same biological pathway and process. On the basis of this information, we performed replication studies for these three single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The rs3828611 was found to have conflicting results in our Irish samples and was dropped out without further investigation. The other two markers were verified in 23 other independent data sets. In a meta-analysis of all 23 replication samples (family samples, 912 families with 4160 subjects; case-control samples, 11 380 cases and 15 021 controls), we found that both markers are significantly associated with schizophrenia (rs10043986, odds ratio (OR)=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.18, P=8.2 × 10(-4) and rs4704591, OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.03-1.11, P=3.0 × 10(-4)). The results were also significant for the 22 Caucasian replication samples (rs10043986, OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.03-1.17, P=0.0026 and rs4704591, OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.02-1.11, P=0.0015). Furthermore, haplotype conditioned analyses indicated that the association

  14. Low-Shear modeled microgravity alters the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium stress response in an RpoS-independent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James W.; Ott, C. Mark; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Pierson, Duane L.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (low-shear MMG) serves to enhance the virulence of a bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Salmonella response to low-shear MMG involves a signaling pathway that we have termed the low-shear MMG stimulon, though the identities of the low-shear MMG stimulon genes and regulatory factors are not known. RpoS is the primary sigma factor required for the expression of genes that are induced upon exposure to different environmental-stress signals and is essential for virulence in mice. Since low-shear MMG induces a Salmonella acid stress response and enhances Salmonella virulence, we reasoned that RpoS would be a likely regulator of the Salmonella low-shear MMG response. Our results demonstrate that low-shear MMG provides cross-resistance to several environmental stresses in both wild-type and isogenic rpoS mutant strains. Growth under low-shear MMG decreased the generation time of both strains in minimal medium and increased the ability of both strains to survive in J774 macrophages. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found no evidence of induction of the RpoS regulon by low-shear MMG but did find that other genes were altered in expression under these conditions in both the wild-type and rpoS mutant strains. Our results indicate that, under the conditions of these studies, RpoS is not required for transmission of the signal that induces the low-shear MMG stimulon. Moreover, our studies also indicate that low-shear MMG can be added to a short list of growth conditions that can serve to preadapt an rpoS mutant for resistance to multiple environmental stresses.

  15. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  16. Evaluation of results from genome-wide studies of language and reading in a novel independent dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Castillo, A; van Bergen, E; Vino, A; van Zuijen, T; de Jong, P F; Francks, C; Fisher, S E

    2016-07-01

    Recent genome-wide association scans (GWAS) for reading and language abilities have pin-pointed promising new candidate loci. However, the potential contributions of these loci remain to be validated. In this study, we tested 17 of the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these GWAS studies (P < 10(-6) in the original studies) in a new independent population dataset from the Netherlands: known as Familial Influences on Literacy Abilities. This dataset comprised 483 children from 307 nuclear families and 505 adults (including parents of participating children), and provided adequate statistical power to detect the effects that were previously reported. The following measures of reading and language performance were collected: word reading fluency, nonword reading fluency, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming. Two SNPs (rs12636438 and rs7187223) were associated with performance in multivariate and univariate testing, but these did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. Another SNP (rs482700) was only nominally associated in the multivariate test. For the rest of the SNPs, we did not find supportive evidence of association. The findings may reflect differences between our study and the previous investigations with respect to the language of testing, the exact tests used and the recruitment criteria. Alternatively, most of the prior reported associations may have been false positives. A larger scale GWAS meta-analysis than those previously performed will likely be required to obtain robust insights into the genomic architecture underlying reading and language. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. FTIR-ATR-based prediction and modelling of lignin and energy contents reveals independent intra-specific variation of these traits in bioenergy poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Gail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing demand for renewable resources to replace fossil fuels. However, different applications such as the production of secondary biofuels or combustion for energy production require different wood properties. Therefore, high-throughput methods are needed for rapid screening of wood in large scale samples, e.g., to evaluate the outcome of tree breeding or genetic engineering. In this study, we investigated the intra-specific variability of lignin and energy contents in extractive-free wood of hybrid poplar progenies (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides and tested if the range was sufficient for the development of quantitative prediction models based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Since lignin is a major energy-bearing compound, we expected that the energy content of wood would be positively correlated with the lignin content. Results Lignin contents of extractive-free poplar wood samples determined by the acetyl bromide method ranged from 23.4% to 32.1%, and the calorific values measured with a combustion calorimeter varied from 17260 to 19767 J g-1. For the development of calibration models partial least square regression and cross validation was applied to correlate FTIR spectra determined with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR unit to measured values of lignin or energy contents. The best models with high coefficients of determination (R2 (calibration = 0.91 and 0.90; R2 (cross-validation = 0.81 and 0.79 and low root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV = 0.77% and 62 J g-1 for lignin and energy determination, respectively, were obtained after data pre-processing and automatic wavenumber restriction. The calibration models were validated by analyses of independent sets of wood samples yielding R2 = 0.88 and 0.86 for lignin and energy contents, respectively. Conclusions These results show that FTIR-ATR spectroscopy is suitable as a high-throughput method for lignin and energy

  18. Model-independent constraints on the weak phase α (or φ2) and QCD penguin pollution in B→ππ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhizhong; Zhang He

    2005-01-01

    We present an algebraic isospin approach towards a more straightforward and model-independent determination of the weak phase α (or φ 2 ) and QCD penguin pollution in B→ππ decays. The world averages of current experimental data allow us to impose some useful constraints on the isospin parameters of B→ππ transitions. We find that the magnitude of α (or φ 2 ) extracted from the indirect CP violation in the π + π - mode is in agreement with the standard-model expectation from other indirect measurements, but its fourfold discrete ambiguity has to be resolved in the near future

  19. Young adolescents' independent mobility, related factors and association with transport to school. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's independent mobility differs between groups of adolescents, but knowledge is lacking on how mobility-limiting factors interact. This study explores the association between factors that can affect young adolescents' mobility, searching for typical patterns within a geographical area where mobility is both relatively high and promoted (in this case Stockholm County, Sweden. An additional question is how clusters of limiting factors and demographic attributes relate to active commuting to school. Methods A sample of 7th grade students (ca 13-14 years old in Stockholm County, Sweden, answered a survey (n = 1008. A cluster analysis was performed on variables descriptive of the respondents and of potential limitations to their independent mobility, such as fears, coping, traffic situation in the neighbourhood and parent/child opinions on mobility (18 variables and 50 categories. Active commuting to/from school was compared using proportion (with 95% confidence intervals by cluster. Results Five consistent and distinct clusters were identified. Among the most discriminating factors were fears experienced in the neighbourhood, strategies to cope with fear, type of housing and traffic environment. Girls were over-represented in the two clusters most typical of respondents experiencing fears (either several of these or darkness in particular and boys in two others where housing (house vs. apartment and neighbourhood conditions played a more determinant role. The proportion of active commuting among respondents was quite similar over clusters but was nonetheless higher in the cluster (over girls reporting more fears and other factors limiting mobility. Conclusions Whereas fears - and coping - are more typical of adolescent girls in the formation of the clusters, household and neighbourhood characteristics are more typical of boys. Broadly speaking, there seem to be two groups of girls with fears but these differ based on

  20. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for severe nocturnal hypoxemia in obese patients. A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lecube

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and obesity have become two of the main threats to public health in the Western world. In addition, obesity is the most important determinant of the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS, a condition that adversely affects glucose metabolism. However, it is unknown whether patients with diabetes have more severe SAHS than non-diabetic subjects. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate whether obese patients with T2DM are more prone to severe SAHS than obese non-diabetic subjects.Thirty obese T2DM and 60 non-diabetic women closely matched by age, body mass index, waist circumference, and smoking status were recruited from the outpatient Obesity Unit of a university hospital. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, smoking habit, neuromuscular and cerebrovascular disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and pregnancy. Examinations included a non-attended respiratory polygraphy, pulmonary function testing, and an awake arterial gasometry. Oxygen saturation measures included the percentage of time spent at saturations below 90% (CT90. A high prevalence of SAHS was found in both groups (T2DM:80%, nondiabetic:78.3%. No differences in the number of sleep apnea-hypopnea events between diabetic and non-diabetic patients were observed. However, in diabetic patients, a significantly increase in the CT90 was detected (20.2+/-30.2% vs. 6.8+/-13,5%; p = 0.027. In addition, residual volume (RV was significantly higher in T2DM (percentage of predicted: 79.7+/-18.1 vs. 100.1+/-22.8; p<0.001. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2DM but not RV was independently associated with CT90.T2DM adversely affects breathing during sleep, becoming an independent risk factor for severe nocturnal hypoxemia in obese patients. Given that SAHS is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease, the screening for SAHS in T2DM patients seems mandatory.

  1. Premature Graying of Hair: An Independent Risk Marker for Coronary Artery Disease in Smokers - A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Srivastava, S; Agarwal, M P; Dwivedi, S

    2015-04-01

    Premature graying of hair as a risk marker among young smokers has a potential of identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) at a very early stage. There is absence of literature that assesses premature graying of hair as an independent marker of CAD in smokers. The present single-centre case control study enrolled a total of 62 consecutive chronic smokers (≤ 45 years) (Group I) and 60 consecutive young CAD patients (≤45 years) who were chronic smokers (Group II). Another group comprising of 114 patients (≤45 years) having no smoking history and no cardiac ailments either (Group III) was enrolled as control population. All subjects were males. A detailed history and clinical examination regarding conventional coronary risk factors and carotid intima media thickness was done in both groups. The carotid intima media thickness, dyslipidemia and blood pressure were significantly higher in group I and II as compared to group III. When the groups were compared for graying of hair, it was found that the group II (i.e., smokers and CAD) had maximum prevalence of graying which was s