WorldWideScience

Sample records for model including shear

  1. Including fluid shear viscosity in a structural acoustic finite element model using a scalar fluid representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl

    2013-01-01

    An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem. PMID:23729844

  2. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  3. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  4. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... (PDF) of turbulence driven short-term extreme wind shear events, conditioned on the mean wind speed, for an arbitrary recurrence period. The model is based on an asymptotic expansion, and only a few and easily accessible parameters are needed as input. The model of the extreme PDF is supplemented...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  5. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... (PDF) of turbulence driven short-term extreme wind shear events, conditioned on the mean wind speed, for an arbitrary recurrence period. The model is based on an asymptotic expansion, and only a few and easily accessible parameters are needed as input. The model of the extreme PDF is supplemented...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...

  6. Extreme model reduction of shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qawasmeh, Bashar Rafee

    The aim of this research is to develop nonlinear low-dimensional models (LDMs) to describe vortex dynamics in shear layers. A modified Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection method is developed to obtain models at extremely low dimension for shear layers. The idea is to dynamically scale the shear layer along y direction to factor out the shear layer growth and capture the dynamics by only a couple of modes. The models are developed for two flows, incompressible spatially developing and weakly compressible temporally developing shear layers, respectively. To capture basic dynamics, the low-dimensional models require only two POD modes for each wavenumber/frequency. Thus, a two-mode model is capable of representing single-wavenumber/frequency dynamics such as vortex roll-up, and a four-mode model is capable of representing the nonlinear dynamics involving a fundamental wavenumber/frequency and its subharmonic, such as vortex pairing/merging. Most of the energy is captured by the first mode of each wavenumber/frequency, the second POD mode, however, plays a critical role and needs to be included. In the thesis, we first apply the approach on temporally developing weakly compressible shear layers. In compressible flows, the thermodynamic variables are dynamically important, and must be considered. We choose isentropic Navier-Stokes equations for simplicity, and choose a proper inner product to present both kinetic energy and thermal energy. Two cases of convective Mach numbers are studied for low compressibility and moderate compressibility. Moreover, we study the sensitivity of the compressible four-mode model to several flow parameters: Mach number, the strength of initial perturbations of the fundamental and its subharmonic, and Reynolds number. Secondly we apply the approach on spatially developing incompressible shear layers with periodicity in time. We consider a streamwise parabolic form of the Navier-Stokes equations. When we add arbitrary

  7. Application of a model of plastic porous materials including void shape effects to the prediction of ductile failure under shear-dominated loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean Baptiste; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    , a numerical implementation of the model is proposed and incorporated into the SYSTUS® and ABAQUS® finite element programmes (through some freely available UMAT (Leblond, 2015) in the second case). Second, the implementation in SYSTUS® is used to simulate previous "numerical experiments" of Tvergaard...

  8. Modeling and implementation of wind shear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Walter

    1987-01-01

    The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown.

  9. Probing dark energy with cluster counts and cosmic shear power spectra: including the full covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Masahiro; Bridle, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Several dark energy experiments are available from a single large-area imaging survey and may be combined to improve cosmological parameter constraints and/or test inherent systematics. Two promising experiments are cosmic shear power spectra and counts of galaxy clusters. However, the two experiments probe the same cosmic mass density field in large-scale structure, therefore the combination may be less powerful than first thought. We investigate the cross-covariance between the cosmic shear power spectra and the cluster counts based on the halo model approach, where the cross-covariance arises from the three-point correlations of the underlying mass density field. Fully taking into account the cross-covariance, as well as non-Gaussian errors on the lensing power spectrum covariance, we find a significant cross-correlation between the lensing power spectrum signals at multipoles l∼10 3 and the cluster counts containing halos with masses M∼>10 14 M o-dot . Including the cross-covariance for the combined measurement degrades and in some cases improves the total signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios up to ∼±20% relative to when the two are independent. For cosmological parameter determination, the cross-covariance has a smaller effect as a result of working in a multi-dimensional parameter space, implying that the two observables can be considered independent to a good approximation. We also discuss the fact that cluster count experiments using lensing-selected mass peaks could be more complementary to cosmic shear tomography than mass-selected cluster counts of the corresponding mass threshold. Using lensing selected clusters with a realistic usable detection threshold ((S/N) cluster ∼6 for a ground-based survey), the uncertainty on each dark energy parameter may be roughly halved by the combined experiments, relative to using the power spectra alone

  10. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

  11. Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included – FEM calculated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics ul. Jana Pawła II No. 24, 60-138 Poznań POLAND (Poland)

    2016-06-08

    The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.

  12. Cylindrical shell under impact load including transverse shear and normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, M.; Eslami, M.R.; Ghassaa, M.; Ohadi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The general governing equations of shell of revolution under shock loads are reduced to equations describing the elastic behavior of cylindrical shell under axisymmetric impact load. The effect of lateral normal stress, transverse shear, and rotary inertia are included, and the equations are solved by Galerkin finite element method. The results are compared with the previous works of authors. (author)

  13. Modified bond model for shear in slabs under concentrated loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.; Van der Veen, C.; De Boer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Slabs subjected to concentrated loads close to supports, as occurring for truck loads on slab bridges, are less studied than beams in shear or slab-column connections in punching. To predict the shear capacity for this case, the Bond Model for concentric punching shear was studied initially.

  14. Dynamic behavior of a rotating delaminated composite beam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.

  15. Mesoscale hydrodynamic modeling of a colloid in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shichen; Jiang, Run; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard

    2011-10-07

    In order to study the dynamics of colloidal suspensions with viscoelastic solvents, a simple mesoscopic model of the solvent is required. We propose to extend the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) technique--a particle-based simulation method, which has been successfully applied to study the hydrodynamic behavior of many complex fluids with Newtonian solvent--to shear-thinning viscoelastic solvents. Here, the normal MPC particles are replaced by dumbbells with finite-extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) springs. We have studied the properties of FENE-dumbbell fluids under simple shear flow with shear rate ̇γ. The stress tensor is calculated, and the viscosity η and the first normal-stress coefficient Ψ(1) are obtained. Shear-thinning behavior is found for reduced shear rates Γ= ̇γτ>1, where τ is a characteristic dumbbell relaxation time. Here, both η and Ψ(1) display power-law behavior in the shear-thinning regime. Thus, the FENE-dumbbell fluid with MPC collisions provides a good description of viscoelastic fluids. As a first application, we study the flow behavior of a colloid in a shear-thinning viscoelastic fluid in two dimensions. A slowing down of the colloid rotation in a viscoelastic fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid is obtained, in agreement with recent numerical calculations and experimental results. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  17. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is an engineering wake model designed to physically model the wake deficit evolution and the unsteady meandering that occurs in wind turbine wakes. The present study aims at improving two features of the model: The effect of the atmospheric boundary layer s...

  18. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  19. Seismic performance of square RC bridge columns under combined loading including torsion with low shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    During earthquake excitations, reinforced concrete bridge columns can be subjected to a combination of axial load, shear force, : flexural moments, and torsional moments. The torsional moment can be much more significant in columns of bridges that ar...

  20. MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D. [KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kratochvil, J. M. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dawson, W., E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.

  1. Modeling Shear Induced Von Willebrand Factor Binding to Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuqiao; Wei, Wei; Morabito, Michael; Webb, Edmund; Oztekin, Alparslan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2017-11-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a blood glycoprotein that binds with platelets and collagen on injured vessel surfaces to form clots. VWF bioactivity is shear flow induced: at low shear, binding between VWF and other biological entities is suppressed; for high shear rate conditions - as are found near arterial injury sites - VWF elongates, activating its binding with platelets and collagen. Based on parameters derived from single molecule force spectroscopy experiments, we developed a coarse-grain molecular model to simulate bond formation probability as a function of shear rate. By introducing a binding criterion that depends on the conformation of a sub-monomer molecular feature of our model, the model predicts shear-induced binding, even for conditions where binding is highly energetically favorable. We further investigate the influence of various model parameters on the ability to predict shear-induced binding (vWF length, collagen site density and distribution, binding energy landscape, and slip/catch bond length) and demonstrate parameter ranges where the model provides good agreement with existing experimental data. Our results may be important for understanding vWF activity and also for achieving targeted drug therapy via biomimetic synthetic molecules. National Science Foundation (NSF),Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS).

  2. A probabilistic model for visual inspection of concrete shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic model, called Bayesian networks, to visually assess the state of damage in reinforced concrete shear walls. The goal of this research is to reduce the inspection time and decrease the chance of missing or underestimating the state of damage in such structures. To develop this model, we define six types of visible damage on concrete shear walls. The model describes the causal relationship of such damage signs with the design parameters and damage states of the walls. To train and test the model, a database of all visually documented experimental works on concrete shear walls was collected from the literature. The model is trained on ninety percent of the database, and its performance is successfully validated on the ten percent remaining unseen portion of the database. The results show that the model can classify the images of yielded and failed walls. Additionally, it can prognosticate the most probable failure scenario for a yielded wall.

  3. Computational analysis of integrated biosensing and shear flow in a microfluidic vascular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeremy F.; Young, Edmond W. K.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2017-11-01

    Fluid flow and flow-induced shear stress are critical components of the vascular microenvironment commonly studied using microfluidic cell culture models. Microfluidic vascular models mimicking the physiological microenvironment also offer great potential for incorporating on-chip biomolecular detection. In spite of this potential, however, there are few examples of such functionality. Detection of biomolecules released by cells under flow-induced shear stress is a significant challenge due to severe sample dilution caused by the fluid flow used to generate the shear stress, frequently to the extent where the analyte is no longer detectable. In this work, we developed a computational model of a vascular microfluidic cell culture model that integrates physiological shear flow and on-chip monitoring of cell-secreted factors. Applicable to multilayer device configurations, the computational model was applied to a bilayer configuration, which has been used in numerous cell culture applications including vascular models. Guidelines were established that allow cells to be subjected to a wide range of physiological shear stress while ensuring optimal rapid transport of analyte to the biosensor surface and minimized biosensor response times. These guidelines therefore enable the development of microfluidic vascular models that integrate cell-secreted factor detection while addressing flow constraints imposed by physiological shear stress. Ultimately, this work will result in the addition of valuable functionality to microfluidic cell culture models that further fulfill their potential as labs-on-chips.

  4. Numerical Modelling of Double-Steel Plate Composite Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Elmatzoglou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-steel plate concrete composite shear walls are being used for nuclear plants and high-rise buildings. They consist of thick concrete walls, exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement and shear connectors, which guarantee the composite action between the two different materials. Several researchers have used the Finite Element Method to investigate the behaviour of double-steel plate concrete walls. The majority of them model every element explicitly leading to a rather time-consuming solution, which cannot be easily used for design purposes. In the present paper, the main objective is the introduction of a three-dimensional finite element model, which can efficiently predict the overall performance of a double-steel plate concrete wall in terms of accuracy and time saving. At first, empirical formulations and design relations established in current design codes for shear connectors are evaluated. Then, a simplified finite element model is used to investigate the nonlinear response of composite walls. The developed model is validated using results from tests reported in the literature in terms of axial compression and monotonic, cyclic in-plane shear loading. Several finite element modelling issues related to potential convergence problems, loading strategies and computer efficiency are also discussed. The accuracy and simplicity of the proposed model make it suitable for further numerical studies on the shear connection behaviour at the steel-concrete interface.

  5. A constitutive model for simple shear of dense frictional suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinendra; Mari, Romain; Denn, Morton M.; Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2018-03-01

    Discrete particle simulations are used to study the shear rheology of dense, stabilized, frictional particulate suspensions in a viscous liquid, toward development of a constitutive model for steady shear flows at arbitrary stress. These suspensions undergo increasingly strong continuous shear thickening (CST) as solid volume fraction $\\phi$ increases above a critical volume fraction, and discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is observed for a range of $\\phi$. When studied at controlled stress, the DST behavior is associated with non-monotonic flow curves of the steady-state stress as a function of shear rate. Recent studies have related shear thickening to a transition between mostly lubricated to predominantly frictional contacts with the increase in stress. In this study, the behavior is simulated over a wide range of the dimensionless parameters $(\\phi,\\tilde{\\sigma}$, and $\\mu)$, with $\\tilde{\\sigma} = \\sigma/\\sigma_0$ the dimensionless shear stress and $\\mu$ the coefficient of interparticle friction: the dimensional stress is $\\sigma$, and $\\sigma_0 \\propto F_0/ a^2$, where $F_0$ is the magnitude of repulsive force at contact and $a$ is the particle radius. The data have been used to populate the model of the lubricated-to-frictional rheology of Wyart and Cates [Phys. Rev. Lett.{\\bf 112}, 098302 (2014)], which is based on the concept of two viscosity divergences or \\textquotedblleft jamming\\textquotedblright\\ points at volume fraction $\\phi_{\\rm J}^0 = \\phi_{\\rm rcp}$ (random close packing) for the low-stress lubricated state, and at $\\phi_{\\rm J} (\\mu) < \\phi_{\\rm J}^0$ for any nonzero $\\mu$ in the frictional state; a generalization provides the normal stress response as well as the shear stress. A flow state map of this material is developed based on the simulation results.

  6. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shear Wave Propagation in Multilayered Medium including an Irregular Fluid Saturated Porous Stratum with Rigid Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned with the study of propagation of shear waves in an anisotropic fluid saturated porous layer over a semi-infinite homogeneous elastic half-space lying under an elastic homogeneous layer with irregularity present at the interface with rigid boundary. The rectangular irregularity has been taken in the half-space. The dispersion equation for shear waves is derived by using the perturbation technique followed by Fourier transformation. Numerically, the effect of irregularity present is analysed. It is seen that the phase velocity is significantly influenced by the wave number and the depth of the irregularity. The variations of dimensionless phase velocity against dimensionless wave number are shown graphically for the different size of rectangular irregularities with the help of MATLAB.

  8. Modeling Force Transfer around Openings in Wood-Frame Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghao Li; Frank Lam; Borjen Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Doug Rammer; James Wacker

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented a modeling study on force transfer around openings (FTAO) in wood-frame shear walls detailed for FTAO. To understand the load transfer in the walls, this study used a finite-element model WALL2D, which is able to model individual wall components, including framing members, sheathing panels, oriented panel-frame nailed connections, framing...

  9. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.

    2012-08-08

    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  10. Shear mechanical properties of the spleen: experiment and analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2012-05-01

    This paper aims at providing the first shear mechanical properties of spleen tissue. Rheometric tests on porcine splenic tissues were performed in the linear and nonlinear regime, revealing a weak frequency dependence of the dynamic moduli in linear regime and a distinct strain-hardening effect in nonlinear regime. These behaviours are typical of soft tissues such as kidney and liver, with however a less pronounced strain-hardening for the spleen. An analytical model based on power laws is then proposed to describe the general shear viscoelastic behaviour of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prescribed wind shear modelling with the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Troldborg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A method for prescribing arbitrary steady atmospheric wind shear profiles combined with CFD is presented. The method is furthermore combined with the actuator line technique governing the aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine. Computation are carried out on a wind turbine exposed to a representative...... steady atmospheric wind shear profile with and without wind direction changes up through the atmospheric boundary layer. Results show that the main impact on the turbine is captured by the model. Analysis of the wake behind the wind turbine, reveal the formation of a skewed wake geometry interacting...

  12. Numerical rigid plastic modelling of shear capacity of keyed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Keyed shear joints are currently designed using simple and conservative design formulas, yet these formulas do not take the local mechanisms in the concrete core of the joint into account. To investigate this phenomenon a rigid, perfectly plastic finite element model of keyed joints is used...

  13. Artificial Neural Network Model for Low Strength RC Beam Shear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was to investigate how the shear strength prediction of low strength reinforced concrete beams will improve under an ANN model. An existing database of 310 reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement was divided into three sets of training, validation and testing. A total of 224 different architectural ...

  14. Modelling elongational and shear rheology of two LDPE melts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rolón-Garrido, V. H.; Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zatloukal, M.; Wagner, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2009), s. 691-697 ISSN 0035-4511 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Rheology * MSF model * Shear flow * Elongational flow * Strain hardening * Low-density polyethylene * Polymer melts Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.882, year: 2009

  15. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...

  16. Numerical modelling of shear socketed piers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2000-09-01

    When a socketed pier embedded in a rock mass is pushed down, the concrete asperities slide over the matching rock asperities. Consequently, the normal stress across the rock-concrete interface increases due to the dilation of the rough contact. The objective of this paper is to model the behaviour of such rough interfaces analytically. A plasticity-based interface model is developed and implemented in a finite element program. Various features of the model such as failure criterion, plastic potential, bond degradation and dilatancy are presented. Interface parameters obtained from laboratory tests are used to simulate the interaction between concrete and rock numerically. A comparison between laboratory observations and numerical predictions is presented.

  17. Modeling of Mesoscale Variability in Biofilm Shear Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Barai

    Full Text Available Formation of bacterial colonies as biofilm on the surface/interface of various objects has the potential to impact not only human health and disease but also energy and environmental considerations. Biofilms can be regarded as soft materials, and comprehension of their shear response to external forces is a key element to the fundamental understanding. A mesoscale model has been presented in this article based on digitization of a biofilm microstructure. Its response under externally applied shear load is analyzed. Strain stiffening type behavior is readily observed under high strain loads due to the unfolding of chains within soft polymeric substrate. Sustained shear loading of the biofilm network results in strain localization along the diagonal direction. Rupture of the soft polymeric matrix can potentially reduce the intercellular interaction between the bacterial cells. Evolution of stiffness within the biofilm network under shear reveals two regimes: a initial increase in stiffness due to strain stiffening of polymer matrix, and b eventual reduction in stiffness because of tear in polymeric substrate.

  18. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  19. Material model for shear of the buffer - evaluation of laboratory test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    The report describes the material model of bentonite used for analysing a rock shear through a deposition hole. The old model used in SR-Can has been considerably changed. The new reference model that has been developed for SR-Site is described and motivated. The relevant properties of the buffer that affect the response to a rock shear are (in addition to the bentonite type) the density (which yields a swelling pressure), the shear strength, the stiffness before the maximum shear stress is reached and the shear rate, which also affects the shear strength. Since the shear caused by an earthquake is very fast and the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite is very low there is no possibility for the pore water in the water saturated bentonite to be redistributed. Since the compressibility of water and particles are negligible, the bentonite can be modelled as a solid material that cannot change volume but only exhibit shear deformations. A proper and simple model that behaves accordingly is a model with von Mises' stress modelled as a function of the strain (stress-strain model). The model is elastic-plastic with an E-modulus that determines the behaviour until the material starts yielding whereupon the plastic strain is modelled as a function of von Mises' stress and added to the elastic strain. Included in the model is also a strain rate dependency of the stress-strain relation, which ranges between the strain rates 10 -6 1/s 3 1/s. The reference material model is derived from a large number of laboratory tests made on different bentonites at different strain rates, densities and with different techniques. Since it cannot be excluded that the exchangeable cat-ions in the Na-bentonite MX-80 is exchanged to calcium-ions the Ca-bentonite Deponit CaN is proposed to be used as reference material. The overall conclusion is that a relevant and probably also slightly conservative material model of Ca-converted MX-80 is derived, presented and well motivated

  20. Material model for shear of the buffer - evaluation of laboratory test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The report describes the material model of bentonite used for analysing a rock shear through a deposition hole. The old model used in SR-Can has been considerably changed. The new reference model that has been developed for SR-Site is described and motivated. The relevant properties of the buffer that affect the response to a rock shear are (in addition to the bentonite type) the density (which yields a swelling pressure), the shear strength, the stiffness before the maximum shear stress is reached and the shear rate, which also affects the shear strength. Since the shear caused by an earthquake is very fast and the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite is very low there is no possibility for the pore water in the water saturated bentonite to be redistributed. Since the compressibility of water and particles are negligible, the bentonite can be modelled as a solid material that cannot change volume but only exhibit shear deformations. A proper and simple model that behaves accordingly is a model with von Mises' stress modelled as a function of the strain (stress-strain model). The model is elastic-plastic with an E-modulus that determines the behaviour until the material starts yielding whereupon the plastic strain is modelled as a function of von Mises' stress and added to the elastic strain. Included in the model is also a strain rate dependency of the stress-strain relation, which ranges between the strain rates 10-6 1/s < v < 103 1/s. The reference material model is derived from a large number of laboratory tests made on different bentonites at different strain rates, densities and with different techniques. Since it cannot be excluded that the exchangeable cat-ions in the Na-bentonite MX-80 is exchanged to calcium-ions the Ca-bentonite Deponit CaN is proposed to be used as reference material. The overall conclusion is that a relevant and probably also slightly conservative material model of Ca-converted MX-80 is derived, presented and well

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Intravascular Blood Coagulation under Wall Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhlenko, Oleksii S.; Dudchenko, Olga A.; Zlobina, Ksenia E.; Guria, Georgy Th.

    2015-01-01

    Increased shear stress such as observed at local stenosis may cause drastic changes in the permeability of the vessel wall to procoagulants and thus initiate intravascular blood coagulation. In this paper we suggest a mathematical model to investigate how shear stress-induced permeability influences the thrombogenic potential of atherosclerotic plaques. Numerical analysis of the model reveals the existence of two hydrodynamic thresholds for activation of blood coagulation in the system and unveils typical scenarios of thrombus formation. The dependence of blood coagulation development on the intensity of blood flow, as well as on geometrical parameters of atherosclerotic plaque is described. Relevant parametric diagrams are drawn. The results suggest a previously unrecognized role of relatively small plaques (resulting in less than 50% of the lumen area reduction) in atherothrombosis and have important implications for the existing stenting guidelines. PMID:26222505

  2. A pedestal temperature model with self-consistent calculation of safety factor and magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onjun, T; Siriburanon, T; Onjun, O

    2008-01-01

    A pedestal model based on theory-motivated models for the pedestal width and the pedestal pressure gradient is developed for the temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The pedestal width model based on magnetic shear and flow shear stabilization is used in this study, where the pedestal pressure gradient is assumed to be limited by first stability of infinite n ballooning mode instability. This pedestal model is implemented in the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the safety factor and magnetic shear are solved self-consistently in both core and pedestal regions. With the self-consistently approach for calculating safety factor and magnetic shear, the effect of bootstrap current can be correctly included in the pedestal model. The pedestal model is used to provide the boundary conditions in the simulations and the Multi-mode core transport model is used to describe the core transport. This new integrated modeling procedure of the BALDUR code is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of 26 H-mode discharges. Simulations are carried out for 13 discharges in the Joint European Torus and 13 discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and the predicted profiles of the temperature and the density, normalized by their central values, is found to be about 14%

  3. Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2010-01-01

    Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro......-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression...... for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models...

  4. Modeling shear-induced particle ordering and deformation in a dense soft particle suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chih-Tang; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chien, Wei; Huang, Jung-Ren; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2017-11-01

    We apply the lattice Boltzmann method and the bead-spring network model of deformable particles (DPs) to study shear-induced particle ordering and deformation and the corresponding rheological behavior for dense DP suspensions confined in a narrow gap under steady external shear. The particle configuration is characterized with small-angle scattering intensity, the real-space 2D local order parameter, and the particle shape factors including deformation, stretching and tilt angles. We investigate how particle ordering and deformation vary with the particle volume fraction ϕ (=0.45-0.65) and the external shear rate characterized with the capillary number Ca (=0.003-0.191). The degree of particle deformation increases mildly with ϕ but significantly with Ca. Under moderate shear rate (Ca  =  0.105), the inter-particle structure evolves from string-like ordering to layered hexagonal close packing (HCP) as ϕ increases. A long wavelength particle slithering motion emerges for sufficiently large ϕ. For ϕ  =  0.61, the structure maintains layered HCP for Ca  =  0.031-0.143 but gradually becomes disordered for larger and smaller Ca. The correlation in particle zigzag movements depends sensitively on ϕ and particle ordering. Layer-by-layer analysis reveals how the non-slippery hard walls affect particle ordering and deformation. The shear-induced reconfiguration of DPs observed in the simulation agrees qualitatively with experimental results of sheared uniform emulsions. The apparent suspension viscosity increases with ϕ but exhibits much weaker dependence compared to hard-sphere suspensions, indicating that particle deformation and unjamming under shear can significantly reduce the viscous stress. Furthermore, the suspension shear-thins, corresponding to increased inter-DP ordering and particle deformation with Ca. This work provides useful insights into the microstructure-rheology relationship of concentrated deformable particle suspensions.

  5. Shear viscosity from a large-Nc NJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Robert; Kaiser, Norbert [TUM Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Weise, Wolfram [ECT, Villa Tambosi, Villazzano (Italy); TUM Physik Department, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density within a large-N{sub c} Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. A consistent treatment of the Kubo formalism incorporating the full Dirac structure of the quark self-energy from mesonic fluctuations is presented. We compare our results to common approximation schemes applied to the Kubo formalism and to the quark self-energy.

  6. Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    shear is present in the inflow. This gives guidance to how the BEM modeling of shear should be implemented. Another result from the advanced vortex model computations is a clear indication of influence of the ground, and the general tendency is a speed up effect of the flow through the rotor giving...

  7. A Global Upper-Mantle Tomographic Model of Shear Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping anelastic 3D structure within the earth's mantle is key to understanding present day mantle dynamics, as it provides complementary constraints to those obtained from elastic structure, with the potential to distinguish between thermal and compositional heterogeneity. For this, we need to measure seismic wave amplitudes, which are sensitive to both elastic (through focusing and scattering) and anelastic structure. The elastic effects are less pronounced at long periods, so previous global upper-mantle attenuation models are based on teleseismic surface wave data, sometimes including overtones. In these studies, elastic effects are considered either indirectly, by eliminating data strongly contaminated by them (e.g. Romanowicz, 1995; Gung and Romanowicz, 2004), or by correcting for elastic focusing effects using an approximate linear approach (Dalton et al., 2008). Additionally, in these studies, the elastic structure is held fixed when inverting for intrinsic attenuation . The importance of (1) having a good starting elastic model, (2) accurate modeling of the seismic wavefield and (3) joint inversion for elastic and anelastic structure, becomes more evident as the targeted resolution level increases. Also, velocity dispersion effects due to anelasticity need to be taken into account. Here, we employ a hybrid full waveform inversion method, inverting jointly for global elastic and anelastic upper mantle structure, starting from the latest global 3D shear velocity model built by our group (French and Romanowicz, 2014), using the spectral element method for the forward waveform modeling (Capdeville et al., 2003), and normal-mode perturbation theory (NACT - Li and Romanowicz, 1995) for kernel computations. We present a 3D upper-mantle anelastic model built by using three component fundamental and overtone surface waveforms down to 60 s as well as long period body waveforms down to 30 s. We also include source and site effects to first order as frequency

  8. Discrete shear-transformation-zone plasticity modeling of notched bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondori, Babak; Amine Benzerga, A.; Needleman, Alan

    2018-02-01

    Plane strain tension analyses of un-notched and notched bars are carried out using discrete shear transformation zone plasticity. In this framework, the carriers of plastic deformation are shear transformation zones (STZs) which are modeled as Eshelby inclusions. Superposition is used to represent a boundary value problem solution in terms of discretely modeled Eshelby inclusions, given analytically for an infinite elastic medium, and an image solution that enforces the prescribed boundary conditions. The image problem is a standard linear elastic boundary value problem that is solved by the finite element method. Potential STZ activation sites are randomly distributed in the bars and constitutive relations are specified for their evolution. Results are presented for un-notched bars, for bars with blunt notches and for bars with sharp notches. The computed stress-strain curves are serrated with the magnitude of the associated stress-drops depending on bar size, notch acuity and STZ evolution. Cooperative deformation bands (shear bands) emerge upon straining and, in some cases, high stress levels occur within the bands. Effects of specimen geometry and size on the stress-strain curves are explored. Depending on STZ kinetics, notch strengthening, notch insensitivity or notch weakening are obtained. The analyses provide a rationale for some conflicting findings regarding notch effects on the mechanical response of metallic glasses.

  9. Effect of tree roots on a shear zone: modeling reinforced shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazutoki Abe; Robert R. Ziemer

    1991-01-01

    Tree roots provide important soil reinforcement that impoves the stability of hillslopes. After trees are cut and roots begin to decay, the frequency of slope failures can increase. To more fully understand the mechanics of how tree roots reinforce soil, fine sandy soil containing pine roots was placed in a large shear box in horizontal layers and sheared across a...

  10. Nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints using a linearized implementation of the Barton–Bandis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Heru Prassetyo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on rock joint behaviors have shown that joint surface roughness is mobilized under shearing, inducing dilation and resulting in nonlinear joint shear strength and shear stress vs. shear displacement behaviors. The Barton–Bandis (BB joint model provides the most realistic prediction for the nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints. The BB model accounts for asperity roughness and strength through the joint roughness coefficient (JRC and joint wall compressive strength (JCS parameters. Nevertheless, many computer codes for rock engineering analysis still use the constant shear strength parameters from the linear Mohr–Coulomb (M−C model, which is only appropriate for smooth and non-dilatant joints. This limitation prevents fractured rock models from capturing the nonlinearity of joint shear behavior. To bridge the BB and the M−C models, this paper aims to provide a linearized implementation of the BB model using a tangential technique to obtain the equivalent M−C parameters that can satisfy the nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints. These equivalent parameters, namely the equivalent peak cohesion, friction angle, and dilation angle, are then converted into their mobilized forms to account for the mobilization and degradation of JRC under shearing. The conversion is done by expressing JRC in the equivalent peak parameters as functions of joint shear displacement using proposed hyperbolic and logarithmic functions at the pre- and post-peak regions of shear displacement, respectively. Likewise, the pre- and post-peak joint shear stiffnesses are derived so that a complete shear stress-shear displacement relationship can be established. Verifications of the linearized implementation of the BB model show that the shear stress-shear displacement curves, the dilation behavior, and the shear strength envelopes of rock joints are consistent with available experimental and numerical results.

  11. Gusts and Shear in an Idealized LES-modeled Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, R.; Lundquist, J. K.; Bryan, G. H.; Damiani, R.; Musial, W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclone winds can cause extreme loading and damage to coastal structures such as buildings and energy infrastructure. Offshore wind energy development is underway along the US East Coast where hurricanes pose a substantial risk. Understanding wind gusts, gust factor, shear, and veer in the hurricane boundary layer (HBL) can help manufacturers assess risk and design wind turbines to better withstand these extreme wind conditions. Because of the paucity of observational data at low-levels (200 m and below), we use the Cloud Model Version I (CM1) large-eddy simulation numerical model to simulate high spatial- (10 m) and temporal- (0.1 s) resolution data. This unique dataset is used to answer the following questions: do severe mean wind speeds and gusts that exceed current design limits occur?; how does the gust factor vary with distance from the eye?; and lastly, how does wind direction vary horizontally and with height? We find that mean winds and gusts near the eyewall can exceed current turbine design thresholds of 50 m s-1 and 70 m s-1, respectively. Gust factors are greatest at the eye-eyewall interface just inward of the peak gust location and can exceed the 1.4 value used to convert a 50 m s-1 reference wind speed to a 50-year 3-second gust. Strong veer (15-30 degrees) across a 120 m-layer suggests that veer should be assessed against standard design prescriptions. Lastly, wind directions can shift 10-25 degrees in durations shorter than 10 minutes, which can challenge structures designed to endure winds from a consistent direction for periods longer than 10 minutes, including wind turbines.

  12. Shear Stress Transmission Model for the Flagellar Rotary Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the charasteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation.

  13. Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0

  14. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Won Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance.

  15. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Deuck Hang; Ju, Hyunjin; Kim, Kang Su; Seo, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Joo-Won

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance. PMID:28788364

  16. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Deuck Hang; Ju, Hyunjin; Kim, Kang Su; Seo, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Joo-Won

    2013-10-23

    Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%-1.5%, in terms of shear performance.

  17. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  18. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-07-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment

  19. Hysteretic Models Considering Axial-Shear-Flexure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Paola; Negrisoli, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Most of the existing numerical models implemented in finite element (FE) software, at the current state of the art, are not capable to describe, with enough reliability, the interaction between axial, shear and flexural actions under cyclic loading (e.g. seismic actions), neglecting crucial effects for predicting the nature of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements. Just a few existing 3D volume models or fibre beam models can lead to a quite accurate response, but they are still computationally inefficient for typical applications in earthquake engineering and also characterized by very complex formulation. Thus, discrete models with lumped plasticity hinges may be the preferred choice for modelling the hysteretic behaviour due to cyclic loading conditions, in particular with reference to its implementation in a commercial software package. These considerations lead to this research work focused on the development of a model for RC beam-column elements able to consider degradation effects and interaction between the actions under cyclic loading conditions. In order to develop a model for a general 3D discrete hinge element able to take into account the axial-shear-flexural interaction, it is necessary to provide an implementation which involves a corrector-predictor iterative scheme. Furthermore, a reliable constitutive model based on damage plasticity theory is formulated and implemented for its numerical validation. Aim of this research work is to provide the formulation of a numerical model, which will allow implementation within a FE software package for nonlinear cyclic analysis of RC structural members. The developed model accounts for stiffness degradation effect and stiffness recovery for loading reversal.

  20. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J

    2014-04-01

    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

  1. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over......We analyse high-frequency wind velocity measurements from two test stations over a period of several years and at heights ranging from 60 to 200 m, with the objective to validate wind shear predictions as used in load simulations for wind turbine design. A validated wind shear model is thereby...... different turbine components are evaluated under the full wind measurements, using the developed wind shear model and with standard wind conditions prescribed in the IEC 61400-1 ed. 3. The results display the effect of the Wöhler exponent and reveal that under moderate turbulence, the effect of wind shear...

  2. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William W.-W.

    1992-01-01

    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  3. Validation of a Perturbed-Continuum Model for Shear Localization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iyer, K; Schoenfeld, S; Casem, D; Wright, T

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments and continuum analysis (Wright, 2002) have shown sudden stress collapse via shear localization may be related to velocity or strain rate perturbations in the vicinity of shear band initiation...

  4. Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.

    horizontal continental shelf. Measurements of bed shear stress, surface elevation and flow velocities were carried out. Periodic waves were also generated and the bed shear stresses measured over a horizontal bed were found to be comparable with the earlier...

  5. Model development for transport studies in negative shear modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spang, M.C.; Casper, T.B.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1997-05-01

    This study develops a simple transport model which can be used predictively for tokamak negative central shear (NCS) modes, with the assistance of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s core plasma simulation code, CORSICA. The results show that the the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins Critical Electron Temperature Gradient Model, coupled with an NCS transport model and TRANSP data, renders a reasonably close match to experimental temperature profiles. Additionally, this research offers the first benchmark calculation indicating that the CORSICA code itself, when given transport coefficients from the analysis of experimental data, replicates the experimental profiles, indicating that both TRANSP and CORSICA together are consistent in their analysis of the plasma evolution. This means CORSICA is working properly and has no known major internal flaws. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Model development for transport studies in negative shear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang, M.C.; Casper, T.B.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1997-05-01

    This study develops a simple transport model which can be used predictively for tokamak negative central shear (NCS) modes, with the assistance of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's core plasma simulation code, CORSICA. The results show that the the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins Critical Electron Temperature Gradient Model, coupled with an NCS transport model and TRANSP data, renders a reasonably close match to experimental temperature profiles. Additionally, this research offers the first benchmark calculation indicating that the CORSICA code itself, when given transport coefficients from the analysis of experimental data, replicates the experimental profiles, indicating that both TRANSP and CORSICA together are consistent in their analysis of the plasma evolution. This means CORSICA is working properly and has no known major internal flaws. 14 refs., 12 figs

  7. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  8. DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of

  9. Steady shear rheometry of dissipative particle dynamics models of polymer fluids in reverse Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce

    2010-04-14

    Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.

  10. Test and lower bound modeling of keyed shear connections in RC shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Harrild; Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the ultimate behavior of a recently developed design for keyed shear connections. The influence of the key depth on the failure mode and ductility of the connection has been studied by push-off tests. The tests showed that connections with larger key inde...

  11. Analytical model for shear strength of end slabs of prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman, H.O.; Sozen, M.A.; Schnobrich, W.C.

    1979-04-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of the behavior and strength of flat end slabs of cylindrical prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels. The investigation included tests of ten small-scale pressure vessels and development of a nonlinear finite-element model to simulate the deformation response and strength of the end slabs. Because earlier experimental studies had shown that the flexural strength of the end slab could be calculated using intelligible procedures, the emphasis of this investigation was on shear strength

  12. Modeling combined tension-shear failure of ductile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partom, Y

    2014-01-01

    Failure of ductile materials is usually expressed in terms of effective plastic strain. Ductile materials can fail by two different failure modes, shear failure and tensile failure. Under dynamic loading shear failure has to do with shear localization and formation of adiabatic shear bands. In these bands plastic strain rate is very high, dissipative heating is extensive, and shear strength is lost. Shear localization starts at a certain value of effective plastic strain, when thermal softening overcomes strain hardening. Shear failure is therefore represented in terms of effective plastic strain. On the other hand, tensile failure comes about by void growth under tension. For voids in a tension field there is a threshold state of the remote field for which voids grow spontaneously (cavitation), and the material there fails. Cavitation depends on the remote field stress components and on the flow stress. In this way failure in tension is related to shear strength and to failure in shear. Here we first evaluate the cavitation threshold for different remote field situations, using 2D numerical simulations with a hydro code. We then use the results to compute examples of rate dependent tension-shear failure of a ductile material.

  13. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  14. Interfaces in confined Ising models: Kawasaki, Glauber and sheared dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Thomas H R; Schmidt, Matthias; Vasilyev, Oleg; Maciolek, Anna; Abraham, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    We study interfacial properties of the phase-separated two-dimensional Ising model. The interface between coexisting phases is stabilized by two parallel walls with opposing surface fields. A driving field parallel to the walls is applied which (i) either acts locally at the walls or (ii) varies linearly with distance across the strip. Using computer simulations with Kawasaki dynamics, we found (Smith et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 067203) that the system reaches a steady state with a sharper magnetization profile, reduced interfacial width, and faster decay of correlations along the interface, as compared to the equilibrium case. Here we present new results for the bond energy profile, providing further evidence for the picture wherein shear acts as effective confinement in this system. As a prerequisite for understanding the driven system, we investigate the pronounced differences between Kawasaki (spin-exchange) and Glauber (spin-flip) dynamics in the confined equilibrium system.

  15. Numerical modeling of shear stimulation in naturally fractured geothermal reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Ucar, Eren

    2018-01-01

    Shear-dilation-based hydraulic stimulations are conducted to create enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) from low permeable geothermal reservoirs, which are initially not amenable to energy production. Reservoir stimulations are done by injecting low-pressurized fluid into the naturally fractured formations. The injection aims to activate critically stressed fractures by decreasing frictional strength and ultimately cause a shear failure. The shear failure leads to a permanent ...

  16. Dynamic modeling of smart shear-deformable heterogeneous piezoelectric nanobeams resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-11-01

    Free vibration analysis is presented for a simply supported, functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) nanobeam embedded on elastic foundation in the framework of third-order parabolic shear deformation beam theory. Effective electro-mechanical properties of FGP nanobeam are supposed to be variable throughout the thickness based on power-law model. To incorporate the small size effects into the local model, Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. Analytical solution is implemented to solve the size-dependent buckling analysis of FGP nanobeams based upon a higher-order shear deformation beam theory where coupled equations obtained using Hamilton's principle exist for such beams. Some numerical results for natural frequencies of the FGP nanobeams are prepared, which include the influences of elastic coefficients of foundation, electric voltage, material and geometrical parameters and mode number. This study is motivated by the absence of articles in the technical literature and provides beneficial results for accurate FGP structures design.

  17. Shear wave prediction using committee fuzzy model constrained by lithofacies, Zagros basin, SW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroodi, Sadjad Kazem; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Lashkaripour, Golamreza; Ghanadian, Mostafa

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to introduce the geological controlling factors in improving an intelligence-based model to estimate shear wave velocity from seismic attributes. The proposed method includes three main steps in the framework of geological events in a complex sedimentary succession located in the Persian Gulf. First, the best attributes were selected from extracted seismic data. Second, these attributes were transformed into shear wave velocity using fuzzy inference systems (FIS) such as Sugeno's fuzzy inference (SFIS), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS) and optimized fuzzy inference (OFIS). Finally, a committee fuzzy machine (CFM) based on bat-inspired algorithm (BA) optimization was applied to combine previous predictions into an enhanced solution. In order to show the geological effect on improving the prediction, the main classes of predominate lithofacies in the reservoir of interest including shale, sand, and carbonate were selected and then the proposed algorithm was performed with and without lithofacies constraint. The results showed a good agreement between real and predicted shear wave velocity in the lithofacies-based model compared to the model without lithofacies especially in sand and carbonate.

  18. Measurement and modeling of bed shear stress under solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Guard, P.A.; Baldock, T.E.

    Direct measurements of bed shear stresses (using a shear cell apparatus) generated by non-breaking solitary waves are presented. The measurements were carried out over a smooth bed in laminar and transitional flow regimes (~ 10 sup (4) < R sub (e...

  19. Modeling flow and shear stress fields over unsteady three dimensional dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Richard; Parsons, Dan; Ashworth, Phil; Reesink, Arjan; Best, Jim

    2014-05-01

    The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. This has allowed an understanding of bed shear stress to be derived and the development of morpho-dynamic models. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows and stresses, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through the adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and bed shear stress. A series of physical experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239µm) was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a numerical three dimensional flow model. The prediction of flow over the four static beds demonstrates the spatial distribution of shear stress and the potential sediment transport paths between the dune crests. These appear to be associated with coherent flow structures formed by localized shear flow. These flow predictions are currently being used to develop a fully three dimensional morphodynamic model to further understand dune dynamics under unsteady flow conditions.

  20. A generalized Ginzburg-Landau model for nonlinear relaxation oscillation of magnetized plasma boundary with shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gunsu; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Jieun; Hwang, H. J.; Lee, Jaehyun; Leconte, Michael; Kstar Team

    2017-10-01

    The boundary of high-temperature plasma confined by a toroidal magnetic field structure often undergoes quasi-periodic relaxation oscillations between high and low energy states. On the KSTAR tokamak, the oscillation cycle consists of a long quasi-steady state characterized by eigenmode-like filamentary modes, an abrupt transition into non-modal filamentary structure [Lee JE, Sci. Rep. 7, 45075], and its rapid burst (via magnetic reconnection) leading to the boundary collapse. A phenomenological model including the effects of time-varying perpendicular flow shear, turbulent transport, and external heating has been developed to understand the nonlinear oscillation. The model, which has the form of a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, shows that the flow shear amplitude and the shear layer width determine the nonlinear oscillation. Numerical solutions revealed that there exists a critical flow shear level below which steady states can exist. This result suggests that the abrupt transition to the non-modal unstable state is due to the flow shear increasing above the critical level. The model predicts that high wavenumber (k) modes can coexist with low- k modes at sufficiently low level of flow shear [Lee J, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 075001]. Work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea.

  1. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  2. Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

  3. An analysis of a joint shear model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteras, J.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a joint shear model used in conjunction with a computational model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets. The joint shear model allows nonlinear behavior for both joint sets. Because nonlinear behavior is allowed for both joint sets, a great many cases must be considered to fully describe the joint shear behavior of the jointed medium. An extensive set of equations is required to describe the joint shear stress and slip displacements that can occur for all the various cases. This report examines possible methods for simplifying this set of equations so that the model can be implemented efficiently form a computational standpoint. The shear model must be examined carefully to obtain a computationally efficient implementation that does not lead to numerical problems. The application to fractures in rock is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  4. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  5. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  6. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  7. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  8. Modelling and analytic studies of sheared flow effects on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, D.; Thyagaraja, A.; Sen, A.; Ham, C. J.; Hender, T. C.; Hastie, R. J.; Connor, J. W.; Kaw, P.; Mendonca, J.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of flow shear on the stability of a (2,1) tearing mode are examined using numerical and analytic studies on a number of model systems. For a cylindrical reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, linear computations using the CUTIE code show that sheared axial flows have a destabilizing effect, while sheared poloidal flows tend to reduce the growth rate of the mode. These effects are independent of the direction of the flow. For helical flows the sign of the shear in the flow matters. This symmetry breaking is also seen in the nonlinear regime where the island saturation level is found to depend on the sign of the flows. In the absence of flow, the CUTIE simulations show that the linear mode is more stable in a two fluid as compared to a single fluid model. However, in the presence of sheared axial flows a negative sheared flow is more destabilizing while a positive sheared flow is more stabilizing, compared to the single fluid model. In contrast to the cylindrical model, simulations in a toroidal model, using the MHD code NEAR, always show a stabilizing effect in the presence of a sheared toroidal flow. This is understood analytically in terms of a flow induced ‘Shafranov’ like shift in the profiles of the equilibrium current that results in a stabilizing change in Δ‧ and the saturated island size.

  9. Modelling shear wave splitting observations from Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson-Pidgeon, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.

    2004-05-01

    Frequency-dependent anisotropy was previously observed at the permanent broad-band station SNZO, South Karori, Wellington, New Zealand. This has important implications for the interpretation of measurements in other subduction zones and hence for our understanding of mantle flow. This motivated us to make further splitting measurements using events recorded since the previous study and to develop a new modelling technique. Thus, in this study we have made 67 high-quality shear wave splitting measurements using events recorded at the SNZO station spanning a 10-yr period. This station is the only one operating in New Zealand for longer than 2 yr. Using a combination of teleseismic SKS and S phases and regional ScS phases provides good azimuthal coverage, allowing us to undertake detailed modelling. The splitting measurements indicate that in addition to the frequency dependence observed previously at this station, there are also variations with propagation and initial polarization directions. The fast polarization directions range between 2° and 103°, and the delay times range between 0.75 s and 3.05 s. These ranges are much larger than observed previously at SNZO or elsewhere in New Zealand. Because of the observed frequency dependence we measure the dominant frequency of the phase used to make the splitting measurement, and take this into account in the modelling. We fit the fast polarization directions fairly well with a two-layer anisotropic model with horizontal axes of symmetry. However, such a model does not fit the delay times or explain the frequency dependence. We have developed a new inversion method which allows for an inclined axis of symmetry in each of the two layers. However, applying this method to SNZO does not significantly improve the fit over a two-layer model with horizontal symmetry axes. We are therefore unable to explain the frequency dependence or large variation in delay time values with multiple horizontal layers of anisotropy, even

  10. Are Available Models Reliable for Predicting the FRP Contribution to the Shear Resistance of RC Beams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sas, G.; Täljsten, Björn; Barros, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the trustworthiness of the existing theory for predicting the fiber-reinforced plastic contribution to the shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams is discussed. The most well-known shear models for external bonded reinforcement are presented, commented on, and compared...

  11. Testing and modeling dowel and catenary action in rebars crossing shear joints in RC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Harrild; Hoang, Linh Cao; Olesen, John Forbes

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the shear behavior of two-sided dowel joints, which includes initiation of dowel action at small shear displacements and development of full catenary action in the reinforcement at large displacements. In addition to experimental results, the paper also...

  12. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and...

  13. Soft computing for modeling punching shear of reinforced concrete flat slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Alkroosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents applying gene expression programming (GEP approach for predicting the punching shear strength of normal and high strength reinforced concrete flat slabs. The GEP model was developed and verified using 58 case histories that involve measured punching shear strength. The modeling was carried out by dividing the data into two sets: a training set for model calibration, and a validation set for verifying the generalization capability of the model. It is shown that the model is able to learn with high accuracy the complex relationship between the punching shear and the factors affecting it and produces this knowledge in the form of a function. The results have demonstrated that the GEP model performs very well with coefficient of determination, mean, standard deviation and probability density at 50% equivalent to 0.98, 0.99, 0.10 and 0.99, respectively. Moreover, the GEP predicts punching shear strength more accurately than the traditional methods.

  14. Quantifying Uncertainty in Inverse Models of Geologic Data from Shear Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Titus, S.

    2016-12-01

    We use Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty in inverse models of geologic data. Although this approach can be applied to many tectonic settings, field areas, and mathematical models, we focus on transpressional shear zones. The underlying forward model, either kinematic or dynamic, produces a velocity field, which predicts the dikes, foliation-lineations, crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), shape preferred orientation (SPO), and other geologic data that should arise in the shear zone. These predictions are compared to data using modern methods of geometric statistics, including the Watson (for lines such as dike poles), isotropic matrix Fisher (for orientations such as foliation-lineations and CPO), and multivariate normal (for log-ellipsoids such as SPO) distributions. The result of the comparison is a likelihood, which is a key ingredient in the Bayesian approach. The other key ingredient is a prior distribution, which reflects the geologist's knowledge of the parameters before seeing the data. For some parameters, such as shear zone strike and dip, we identify realistic informative priors. For other parameters, where the geologist has no prior knowledge, we identify useful uninformative priors.We investigate the performance of this approach through numerical experiments on synthetic data sets. A fundamental issue is that many models of deformation exhibit asymptotic behavior (e.g., flow apophyses, fabric attractors) or periodic behavior (e.g., SPO when the clasts are rigid), which causes the likelihood to be too uniform. Based on our experiments, we offer rules of thumb for how many data, of which types, are needed to constrain deformation.

  15. Modelling of JET hybrid scenarios with GLF23 transport model: E × B shear stabilization of anomalous transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voitsekhovitch, I.; Belo, da Silva Ares; Citrin, J.; Fable, E.; Ferreira, J.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Joffrin, E.; Kochl, F.; Litaudon, X.; Moradi, S.; Nabais, F.; JET-EFDA Contributors,; EU-ITM ITER Scenario Modelling group,

    2014-01-01

    The E × B shear stabilization of anomalous transport in JET hybrid discharges is studied via self-consistent predictive modelling of electron and ion temperature, ion density and toroidal rotation velocity performed with the GLF23 model. The E × B shear

  16. Modeling of the shear effects on the thermal ion transport in advanced tokamak scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovitch, I.; Garbet, X.; Moreau, D.; Bush, C. E.; Litaudon, X.; Budny, R. V.; Gohil, P.; Kinsey, J.; Taylor, T. S.; Stallard, B. W.

    1999-11-01

    Plasma shear effects on thermal ion transport in present advanced tokamak scenarios are analyzed. In order to overcome some limitations encountered from previous shear dependent models [e.g., V. Parail et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 40, 805 (1998), and references therein], a semiempirical model combining the effects of the magnetic and E×B rotation shears is proposed. These shear dependences are based on simple theoretical arguments from turbulence studies. The dominant stabilizing term of our shear correction is the shear in toroidal rotation. The predictive modeling of the formation and evolution of thermal ion internal transport barriers in relevant advanced scenarios of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [E. J. Synakowski et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1736 (1997)], Doublet III-D (DIII-D) [B. W. Rice et al., Nucl. Fusion 36, 1271 (1996)] and Joint European Torus (JET) [F. X. Söldner and the JET Team, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 39, B353 (1997)] with our shear correction is presented. A multimachine test of the model performed here provides a basis for predictive simulations of future experiments and for the optimization of advanced scenarios through plasma control.

  17. Modeling of Metallic Glass Matrix Composites Under Compression: Microstructure Effect on Shear Band Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Qiu, Kun; Sun, Longgang; Wu, Qingqing

    2018-01-01

    The relationship among processing, microstructure, and mechanical performance is the most important for metallic glass matrix composites (MGCs). Numerical modeling was performed on the shear banding in MGCs, and the impacts of particle concentration, morphology, agglomerate, size, and thermal residual stress were revealed. Based on the shear damage criterion, the equivalent plastic strain acted as an internal state variable to depict the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of shear bands. The element deletion technique was employed to describe the process of transformation from shear band to micro-crack. The impedance effect of particle morphology on the propagation of shear bands was discussed, whereby the toughening mechanism was clearly interpreted. The present work contributes to the subsequent strengthening and toughening design of MGCs.

  18. An analytic model of the shear modulus at all densities and temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Burakovsky, L.; Greeff, C. W.; Preston, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    An analytic model of the shear modulus applicable at temperatures up to melt and at all densities is presented. It is based in part on a relation between the melting temperature and the shear modulus at melt. Experimental data on argon are shown to agree with this relation to within 1%. The model of the shear modulus involves seven parameters, all of which can be determined from zero-pressure experimental data. We obtain the values of these parameters for 11 elemental solids. Both the experim...

  19. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hashemiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.

  20. Shear-induced aggregation or disaggregation in edible oils: Models, computer simulation, and USAXS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, B.; Peyronel, F.; Callaghan-Patrachar, N.; Quinn, B.; Marangoni, A. G.; Pink, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of shear upon the aggregation of solid objects formed from solid triacylglycerols (TAGs) immersed in liquid TAG oils were modeled using Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) and the predictions compared to experimental data using Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The solid components were represented by spheres interacting via attractive van der Waals forces and short range repulsive forces. A velocity was applied to the liquid particles nearest to the boundary, and Lees-Edwards boundary conditions were used to transmit this motion to non-boundary layers via dissipative interactions. The shear was created through the dissipative forces acting between liquid particles. Translational diffusion was simulated, and the Stokes-Einstein equation was used to relate DPD length and time scales to SI units for comparison with USAXS results. The SI values depended on how large the spherical particles were (250 nm vs. 25 nm). Aggregation was studied by (a) computing the Structure Function and (b) quantifying the number of pairs of solid spheres formed. Solid aggregation was found to be enhanced by low shear rates. As the shear rate was increased, a transition shear region was manifested in which aggregation was inhibited and shear banding was observed. Aggregation was inhibited, and eventually eliminated, by further increases in the shear rate. The magnitude of the transition region shear, γ˙ t, depended on the size of the solid particles, which was confirmed experimentally.

  1. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to four groups of dentin cleaning protocols (n = 9). Group 1 (control): Provisional cements were mechanically removed with a dental explorer. Group 2: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning brush with pumice Group 3: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning bur. Group 4: The provisional cements were removed by an Er:YAG laser. Self-adhesive luting cement was used to bond ceramic discs to dentin surfaces. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.05 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed using a Kolmogorov Smirnov, One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). RESULTS The dentin cleaning methods did not significantly affect the SBS of ceramic discs to dentin as follows: dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, and Er:YAG laser. CONCLUSION The use of different cleaning protocols did not affect the SBS between dentin and ceramic surfaces. PMID:23236570

  2. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to four groups of dentin cleaning protocols (n = 9). Group 1 (control): Provisional cements were mechanically removed with a dental explorer. Group 2: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning brush with pumice Group 3: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning bur. Group 4: The provisional cements were removed by an Er:YAG laser. Self-adhesive luting cement was used to bond ceramic discs to dentin surfaces. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.05 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed using a Kolmogorov Smirnov, One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). THE DENTIN CLEANING METHODS DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE SBS OF CERAMIC DISCS TO DENTIN AS FOLLOWS: dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, and Er:YAG laser. The use of different cleaning protocols did not affect the SBS between dentin and ceramic surfaces.

  3. Transcription profiling of S. cerevisiae cultures grown under low shear-modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this study was to assess whether low shear-modeled microgravity (LSMMG) effects yeast ,genomic expression patterns using the powerful tool of whole...

  4. Shear design and assessment of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams based on a mechanical model

    OpenAIRE

    Marí Bernat, Antonio Ricardo; Bairán García, Jesús Miguel; Cladera Bohigas, Antoni; Oller Ibars, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Safe and economical design and assessment of reinforced (RC) and prestressed concrete (PC) beams requires the availability of accurate but simple formulations which adequately capture the structural response. In this paper, a mechanical model for the prediction of the shear-flexural strength of PC and RC members with rectangular, I, or T sections, with and without shear reinforcement, is presented. The model is based on the principles of concrete mechanics and on assumptions supported by the ...

  5. A simple model to understand the role of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules

    2015-11-01

    The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.

  6. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Perepelyuk

    Full Text Available Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  7. Development of a structural model for the nonlinear shear deformation behavior of a seismic isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, Bong

    2002-02-01

    The seismic excitation test results of an isolated test structure for artificial time history excitation are summarized for structure models of the isolated structure and isolation bearing. To simulate the response characteristic of isolated structure, shear hysteresis curves of isolators are analyzed. A simple analysis model is developed representing the actual dynamic behaviors of the test model, and the seismic responses using the simple model of the isolated structure and structure models, which are developed such as linear and bilinear models for isolators, are performed and compared with those of the seismic tests. The developed bilinear model is well applicable only to large shear strain area of LLRB

  8. Physical Modeling of Shear Behavior of Infilled Rock Joints Under CNL and CNS Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Rao, K. Seshagiri

    2018-01-01

    Despite their frequent natural occurrence, filled discontinuities under constant normal stiffness (CNS) boundary conditions have been studied much less systematically, perhaps because of the difficulties arising from the increased number of variable parameters. Because of the lack of reliable and realistic theoretical or empirical relations and the difficulties in obtaining and testing representative samples, engineers rely on judgment and often consider the shear strength of the infilled material itself as shear strength of rock joints. This assumption leads to uneconomical and also sometimes the unsafe design of underground structures, slopes, rock-socketed piles and foundations. To study the effect of infill on the shear behavior of rock joints, tests were performed on the modeled infilled rock joint having different joint roughness under constant normal load (CNL) and CNS boundary conditions at various initial normal stress and varying thickness of the infilled material. The test results indicate that shear strength decreases with an increase in t/ a ratio for both CNL and CNS conditions, but the reduction in shear strength is more for CNL than for CNS condition for a given initial normal stress. The detailed account of the effect of thickness of infilled material on shear and deformation behavior of infilled rock joint is discussed in this paper, and a model is proposed to predict shear strength of infilled rock joint.

  9. Shear Moduli for Non-Isotropic, Open Cell Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Equations for calculating the shear modulus of non-isotropic, open cell foams in the plane perpendicular to the rise direction and in a plane parallel to the rise direction are derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model. This Kelvin foam model is more general than that employed by previous authors as the size and shape of the unit cell are defined by specifying three independent cell dimensions. The equations for the shear compliances are derived as a function of three unit cell dimensions and the section properties of the cell edges. From the compliance equations, the shear modulus equations are obtained and written as a function of the relative density and two unit cell shape parameters. The dependence of the two shear moduli on the relative density and the two shape parameters is demonstrated.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Primary Cilium Deformations Under Local Forces and Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Feng, Zhe; Resnick, Andrew; Young, Yuan-Nan

    2017-11-01

    We study the detailed deformations of a primary cilium under local forces and shear flows by developing a multiscale model based on the state-of-the-art understanding of its molecular structure. Most eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation, but the detailed mechanism for mechanosensation is not well understood. We apply the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to model an entire well with a primary cilium and consider its different components, including the basal body, microtubule doublets, actin cortex, and lipid bilayer. We calibrate the mechanical properties of individual components and their interactions from experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate the simulations by comparing the deformation profile of the cilium and the rotation of the basal body with optical trapping experiments. After validations, we investigate the deformation of the primary cilium under shear flows. Furthermore, we calculate the membrane tensions and cytoskeleton stresses, and use them to predict the activation of mechanosensitive channels.

  11. Flow and wall shear stress characterization after endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm sealing in an infrarenal aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersen, Johannes T; Groot Jebbink, Erik; Versluis, Michel; Slump, Cornelis H; Ku, David N; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-12-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a modular endograft has become the preferred treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. A novel concept is endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), consisting of dual endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags. This dual-lumen configuration is different from a bifurcation with a tapered trajectory of the flow lumen into the two limbs and may induce unfavorable flow conditions. These include low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS), linked to atherosclerosis, and high shear rates that may result in thrombosis. An in vitro study was performed to assess the impact of EVAR and EVAS on flow patterns and WSS. Four abdominal aortic aneurysm phantoms were constructed, including three stented models, to study the influence of the flow divider on flow (Endurant [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn], AFX [Endologix, Irvine, Calif], and Nellix [Endologix]). Experimental models were tested under physiologic resting conditions, and flow was visualized with laser particle imaging velocimetry, quantified by shear rate, WSS, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) in the suprarenal aorta, renal artery (RA), and common iliac artery. WSS and OSI were comparable for all models in the suprarenal aorta. The RA flow profile in the EVAR models was comparable to the control, but a region of lower WSS was observed on the caudal wall compared with the control. The EVAS model showed a stronger jet flow with a higher shear rate in some regions compared with the other models. Small regions of low WSS and high OSI were found near the distal end of all stents in the common iliac artery compared with the control. Maximum shear rates in each region of interest were well below the pathologic threshold for acute thrombosis. The different stent designs do not influence suprarenal flow. Lower WSS is observed in the caudal wall of the RA after EVAR and a higher shear rate after EVAS. All stented models have a small region of low WSS and high OSI near the distal outflow

  12. Hysteretic MDOF Model to Quantify Damage for RC Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, Ahmet S.

    A hysteretic mechanical formulation is derived to quantify local, modal and overall damage in reinforced concrete (RC) shear frames subject to seismic excitation. Each interstorey is represented by a Clough and Johnston (1966) hysteretic constitutive relation with degrading elastic fraction of th...... shear frame is subject to simulated earthquake excitations, which are modelled as a stationary Gaussian stochastic process with Kanai-Tajimi spectrum, multiplied by an envelope function. The relationship between local, modal and overall damage indices is investigated statistically....

  13. Experimental Verification of Same Simple Equilibrium Models of Masonry Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosław, Jasiński

    2017-10-01

    This paper contains theoretical fundamentals of strut and tie models, used in unreinforced horizontal shear walls. Depending on support conditions and wall loading, we can distinguish models with discrete bars when point load is applied to the wall (type I model) or with continuous bars (type II model) when load is uniformly distributed at the wall boundary. The main part of this paper compares calculated results with the own tests on horizontal shear walls made of solid brick, silicate elements and autoclaved aerated concrete. The tests were performed in Poland. The model required some modifications due to specific load and static diagram.

  14. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  15. Modeling Transversely Isotropic, Viscoelastic, Incompressible Tissue-like Materials with Application in Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. PMID:25591921

  16. Modeling transversely isotropic, viscoelastic, incompressible tissue-like materials with application in ultrasound shear wave elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Bo; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W; Brigham, John C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. (paper)

  17. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2014-01-01

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling

  18. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N., E-mail: beris@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.

  19. Modeling shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalgae growth in bubble column photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, Lorenzo; García-Camacho, Francisco; Sánchez-Mirón, Asterio; Contreras-Gómez, Antonio; Molina-Grima, Emilio

    2017-12-01

    The shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalga Karlodinium veneficum was grown in a sparged bubble column photobioreactor. The influence of mass transfer and shear stress on cell growth and physiology (concentration of reactive oxygen species, membrane fluidity and photosynthetic efficiency) was studied, and a model describing cell growth in term of mass transfer and culture parameters (nozzle sparger diameter, air flow rate, and culture height) was developed. The results show that mass transfer limits cell growth at low air-flow rates, whereas the shear stress produced by the presence of bubbles is critically detrimental for air flow rates above 0.1vvm. The model developed in this paper adequately represents the growth of K. veneficum. Moreover, the parameters of the model indicate that bubble rupture is much more harmful for cells than bubble formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Field Observations and Modeling Results of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications on Shear Margin Dynamics and Long- Term Viability of the South Pole Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Courville, Z.; Campbell, S. W.; Arcone, S.; Jordan, M.; Ray, L.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability are critical to predicting the future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. For the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), an important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), a 5-10 km wide strip of heavily crevassed ice. On a yearly basis the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) mitigates crevasse hazards along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT) route that crosses this region. However, as ice advects northward past the lateral buttress of White Island into a region of greater flow divergence, intensified crevassing has been observed which will continue to place a substantial burden on safety mitigation efforts. The route has advected down-glacier towards this complex region since 2002 so the USAP currently has plans to relocate the shear zone crossing upstream in the near future. Our work aims to assess the feasibility of moving the route to several potential locations based on results from an integrated project incorporating detailed field-based observations of crevasse distributions and orientation from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), GPS and remote sensing observations of the flow and stress field within the MSZ, and finite element numerical modeling of local and regional kinematics within the region. In addition, we assess plausible dynamic forcings both upstream and downstream of the MSZ that could influence shear zone stability. These include changes in mass flux across the grounding lines of tributary glaciers such as the observed increase in ice discharge from of Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008) as well as changes at the MIS front due to recent intensified rift propagation (Banwel et al., 2017). Results from this work will increase our understanding of ice shelf shear margin dynamics and provide a firm basis for predicting the long-term behavior of the MSZ and viability of the SPoT. Stearns, Leigh A., Benjamin E. Smith, and

  1. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  2. A Hybrid Kinetic Model of Asymmetric Thin Current Sheets with Sheared Flows in a Collisionless Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    2010 Interim April 2010 - Sept 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa . CONTRACT NUMBER A Hybrid Kinetic Model of Asymmetric Thin Current Sheets with Sheared...that charge neutrality is not an explicit assumption in this model. Rather it depends on VAle ¢: 1 and the current sheet thickness being Pa as

  3. Modelling Force Transfer Around Openings of Full-Scale Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Frank Lam; Minghao Li; Doug Rammer; James Wacker

    2011-01-01

    Wood structural panel (WSP) sheathed shear walls and diaphragms are the primary lateralload-resisting elements in wood-frame construction. The historical performance of lightframe structures in North America has been very good due, in part, to model building codes that are designed to preserve life safety. These model building codes have spawned continual improvement...

  4. A mathematical model for fluid shear-sensitive 3D tissue construct development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Chua, Chee-Kai; Leong, Kah-Fai

    2013-01-01

    This research studies dynamic culture for 3D tissue construct development with computational fluid dynamics. It proposes a mathematical model to evaluate the impact of flow rates and flow shear stress on cell growth in 3D constructs under perfusion. The modeling results show that dynamic flow, even at flow rate as low as 0.002 cm/s, can support much better mass exchange, higher cell number, and more even cell and nutrient distribution compared to static culture. Higher flow rate can further improve nutrient supply and mass exchange in the construct, promoting better nutritious environment and cell proliferation compared to lower flow rate. In addition, consideration of flow shear stress predicts much higher cell number in the construct compared to that without shear consideration. While the nutrient can dominate shear stress in influencing cell proliferation, the shear effect increases with flow rate. The proposed model helps tissue engineers better understand the cell-flow relationship at the molecular level during dynamic culture.

  5. Modelling The Transport Of Solutes And Colloids In The Grimsel Migration Shear Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosakowski, G.; Smith, P

    2005-02-01

    This report describes modelling of the transport of solutes and colloids in an experimental system comprising an artificial dipole flow field in a water-conducting shear zone at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in the central Swiss Alps. The modelling work forms part of the Colloid and Radionuclide Retardation Project (CRR), which includes a series of field transport experiments and a supporting laboratory programme, as well as modelling studies. Four independent groups representing different organisations or research institutes have conducted the modelling, with each group employing its own modelling approach or approaches. Only the work conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is described in the present report. The modelling approaches used in the present study may not be directly applicable to safety assessment problems and the direct implications of the results of this study for safety assessment are limited. It can, however, be said that the study has demonstrated the high degree of mobility of bentonite and other colloids in a system that is at least in some ways comparable to those of interest in safety assessment, and has shown that bentonite colloids can at least potentially affect the transport of some safety relevant radionuclides over longer temporal and spatial scales than those addressed here. (author)

  6. Modeling interface shear behavior of granular materials using micro-polar continuum approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Babak; Noorzad, Ali; Alsaleh, Mustafa I.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the authors have focused on the shear behavior of interface between granular soil body and very rough surface of moving bounding structure. For this purpose, they have used finite element method and a micro-polar elasto-plastic continuum model. They have shown that the boundary conditions assumed along the interface have strong influences on the soil behavior. While in the previous studies, only very rough bounding interfaces have been taken into account, the present investigation focuses on the rough, medium rough and relatively smooth interfaces. In this regard, plane monotonic shearing of an infinite extended narrow granular soil layer is simulated under constant vertical pressure and free dilatancy. The soil layer is located between two parallel rigid boundaries of different surface roughness values. Particular attention is paid to the effect of surface roughness of top and bottom boundaries on the shear behavior of granular soil layer. It is shown that the interaction between roughness of bounding structure surface and the rotation resistance of bounding grains can be modeled in a reasonable manner through considered Cosserat boundary conditions. The influence of surface roughness is investigated on the soil shear strength mobilized along the interface as well as on the location and evolution of shear localization formed within the layer. The obtained numerical results have been qualitatively compared with experimental observations as well as DEM simulations, and acceptable agreement is shown.

  7. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 o C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s -1 and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material

  8. Comparison of low-amplitude oscillatory shear in experimental and computational studies of model foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Micah; Krishan, Kapilanjan; Xu, Ning; O'Hern, Corey S; Dennin, Michael

    2009-04-01

    A fundamental difference between fluids and solids is their response to applied shear. Solids possess static shear moduli, while fluids do not. Complex fluids such as foams display an intermediate response to shear with nontrivial frequency-dependent shear moduli. In this paper, we conduct coordinated experiments and numerical simulations of model foams subjected to boundary-driven oscillatory planar shear. Our studies are performed on bubble rafts (experiments) and the bubble model (simulations) in two dimensions. We focus on the low-amplitude flow regime in which T1 events, i.e., bubble rearrangement events where originally touching bubbles switch nearest neighbors, do not occur, yet the system transitions from solid- to liquidlike behavior as the driving frequency is increased. In both simulations and experiments, we observe two distinct flow regimes. At low frequencies omega, the velocity profile of the bubbles increases linearly with distance from the stationary wall, and there is a nonzero total phase shift between the moving boundary and interior bubbles. In this frequency regime, the total phase shift scales as a power law Delta approximately omegan with n approximately 3. In contrast, for frequencies above a crossover frequency omega>omegap, the total phase shift Delta scales linearly with the driving frequency. At even higher frequencies above a characteristic frequency omeganl>omegap, the velocity profile changes from linear to nonlinear. We fully characterize this transition from solid- to liquidlike flow behavior in both the simulations and experiments and find qualitative and quantitative agreements for the characteristic frequencies.

  9. Wall Shear Stress Distribution in a Patient-Specific Cerebral Aneurysm Model using Reduced Order Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suyue; Chang, Gary Han; Schirmer, Clemens; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    We construct a reduced-order model (ROM) to study the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distributions in image-based patient-specific aneurysms models. The magnitude of WSS has been shown to be a critical factor in growth and rupture of human aneurysms. We start the process by running a training case using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation with time-varying flow parameters, such that these parameters cover the range of parameters of interest. The method of snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is utilized to construct the reduced-order bases using the training CFD simulation. The resulting ROM enables us to study the flow patterns and the WSS distributions over a range of system parameters computationally very efficiently with a relatively small number of modes. This enables comprehensive analysis of the model system across a range of physiological conditions without the need to re-compute the simulation for small changes in the system parameters.

  10. Numerical modelling of the evolution of conglomerate deformation up to high simple-shear strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Hao; Bons, Paul D.; Wang, Genhou; Steinbach, Florian; Finch, Melanie; Ran, Shuming; Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Deformed conglomerates have been widely used to investigate deformation history and structural analysis, using strain analyses techniques, such as the Rf-Φ and Fry methods on deformed pebbles. Although geologists have focused on the study of deformed conglomerates for several decades, some problems of the process and mechanism of deformation, such as the development of structures in pebbles and matrix, are still not understand well. Numerical modelling provides a method to investigate the process of deformation, as a function of different controlling parameters, up to high strains at conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. We use the 2D numerical modelling platform Elle coupled to the full field crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) to simulate the deformation of conglomerates under simple shear conditions, achieving high finite strains of ≥10. Probably for the first time, we included the effect of an anisotropy, i.e. mica-rich matrix. Our simulations show the deformation of pebbles not only depends on the viscosity contrast between pebbles and matrix but emphasises the importance of interaction between neighbouring pebbles. Under the same finite strain shearing the pebbles of conglomerates with high pebble densities show higher Rf and lower Φ than those of conglomerates with a low density pebbles. Strain localisation can be observed at both the margin of strong pebbles and in the bridging area between the pebbles. At low to medium finite strain, local areas show the opposite (antithetic) shear sense because of the different relative rotation and movement of pebbles or clusters of pebbles. Very hard pebbles retain their original shape and may rotate, depending on the anisotropy of the matrix. σ-clasts are formed by pebbles with moderate viscosity contrast between pebble and a softer matrix. By contrast, δ-clasts are not observed in our simulations with both isotropic and anisotropic matrices, which is consistent with their relative scarcity in

  11. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  12. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-07-15

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  13. One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available - dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model in which as many dislocations are poised for backward jumps as for forward jumps, the experimental activation volume Vye(C27a) under applied stresses close to C...27a is different from the true activation volume V(C27) evaluated at C27 ?C27a. The relations between the two are developed. A model is then discussed in which fewer dislocations are available for backward than for forward jumps. Finally...

  14. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  15. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  16. Viscoelastic shear zone model of a strike-slip earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    I examine the behavior of a two-dimensional (2-D) strike-slip fault system embedded in a 1-D elastic layer (schizosphere) overlying a uniform viscoelastic half-space (plastosphere) and within the boundaries of a finite width shear zone. The viscoelastic coupling model of Savage and Prescott [1978] considers the viscoelastic response of this system, in the absence of the shear zone boundaries, to an earthquake occurring within the upper elastic layer, steady slip beneath a prescribed depth, and the superposition of the responses of multiple earthquakes with characteristic slip occurring at regular intervals. So formulated, the viscoelastic coupling model predicts that sufficiently long after initiation of the system, (1) average fault-parallel velocity at any point is the average slip rate of that side of the fault and (2) far-field velocities equal the same constant rate. Because of the sensitivity to the mechanical properties of the schizosphere-plastosphere system (i.e., elastic layer thickness, plastosphere viscosity), this model has been used to infer such properties from measurements of interseismic velocity. Such inferences exploit the predicted behavior at a known time within the earthquake cycle. By modifying the viscoelastic coupling model to satisfy the additional constraint that the absolute velocity at prescribed shear zone boundaries is constant, I find that even though the time-averaged behavior remains the same, the spatiotemporal pattern of surface deformation (particularly its temporal variation within an earthquake cycle) is markedly different from that predicted by the conventional viscoelastic coupling model. These differences are magnified as plastosphere viscosity is reduced or as the recurrence interval of periodic earthquakes is lengthened. Application to the interseismic velocity field along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault suggests that the region behaves mechanically like a ???600-km-wide shear zone accommodating 50 mm/yr fault

  17. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  18. Brittle to ductile transition in a model of sheared granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Elbanna, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of deformation and failure in sheared fault gouge is critical for the development of physics-based earthquake rupture simulations that are becoming an essential ingredient in next generation hazard and risk models. To that end, we use the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory, a non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics framework to describe viscoplastic deformation and localization in gouge materials as a first step towards developing multiscale models for earthquake source processes that are informed by high-resolution fault zone physics. The primary ingredient of the STZ theory is that inelastic deformation occurs at rare and local non-interacting soft zones known as the shear transformation zones. The larger the number of these STZs the more disordered (the more loose) the layer is. We will describe an implementation of this theory in a 2D/3D finite element framework, accounting for finite deformation, under both axial and shear loading and for dry and saturated conditions. We examine conditions under which a localized shear band may form and show that the initial value of disorder (or the initial porosity) plays an important role. In particular, our simulations suggest that if the material is more compact initially, the behavior is more brittle and the plastic deformation localizes with generating large strength drop. On the other hand, an initially loose material will show a more ductile response and the plastic deformations will be distributed more broadly. We will further show that incorporation of pore fluids alters the localization pattern and changes the stress slip response due to coupling between gouge volume changes (compaction and dilation) and pore pressure build up. We validate the model predictions by comparing them to available experimental observations on strain localization and fault gouge strength evolution. Finally, we discuss the implications of our model for gouge friction and dynamic weakening.

  19. Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Uzarski

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.

  20. Calculation of benchmarks with a shear beam model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.A.N.; Boer, A.; Rots, J.G.; Ferreira, D.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber models for beam and shell elements allow for relatively rapid finite element analysis of concrete structures and structural elements. This project aims at the development of the formulation of such elements and a pilot implementation. Standard nonlinear fiber beam formulations do not account

  1. Shear beams in finite element modelling : Software implementation and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Boer, A.; Ferreira, D.; Kikstra, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber models for beam and shell elements allow for relatively rapid finite element analysis of concrete structures and structural elements. This project aims at the development of the formulation of such elements and a pilot implementation. The reduction of calculation time and degrees of freedom

  2. Eastern North American finite-frequency, compressional and shear tomographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B.; Shen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern North American margin and continental interior is imaged using a finite-frequency, tomographic method. Each of the P and S teleseismic body wave date sets consists of over 80,000 usable measurements recorded on the Transportable Array (TA). Sensitivity kernels are computed from a 1D model with grid spacing of 50 x 50 x 25 km. Measurements are performed automatically at three individual frequency bands, allowing a more effective use of the available broadband data. Imaged shear and compressional wave speeds show similar long-wavelength features of reduced wave speeds along the continent-ocean margin and increased wave speeds within the stable interior. Wave speeds throughout the model are highly variable at the scale of 100 to 200 km. Large wave speed reductions are present near New England, the Mid-Atlantic states, and the Gulf Coast states; these variations are present in previous models. Interestingly, the strongly reduced wave speeds near South Carolina are absent at depths greater than of 150 km within this model and recent teleseismic body-wave models. This result is contrary to a variety of surface wave models which contain an intense, reduced wave speed anomaly extending past 250 km depth and interpreted as a mantle upwelling associated with edge driven convection. An anomaly along the West Virginia-Virginia border, associated with volcanism and mantle upwelling, is also present, tightly constrained, and extends to 200 km depth. Moreover, the interior of the continent contains significant, regional wave speed variations. Variation of this style is present in other surface and body wave models and is not consistent with a massive, homogeneous continent with no internal variations. These internal continental variations suggest a compositional influence as temperature, melt and water are thought to have minimal effect. Unlike surface wave models that include a distinct continental base around 175 km, teleseismic body wave models, including this one

  3. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole - modelling of three scale tests for validation of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Three model shear tests of very high quality simulating a horizontal rock shear through a KBS-3V deposition hole in the centre of a canister were performed 1986. The tests simulated a deposition hole in the scale 1:10 with reference density of the buffer, very stiff confinement simulating the rock, and a solid bar of copper simulating the canister. The three tests were almost identical with exception of the rate of shear, which was varied between 0.031 and 160 mm/s, i.e. with a factor of more than 5000, and the density of the bentonite, which differed slightly. The tests were very well documented. Shear force, shear rate, total stress in the bentonite, strain in the copper and the movement of the top of the simulated canister were measured continuously during the shear. After finished shear the equipment was dismantled and careful sampling of the bentonite with measurement of water ratio and density were made. The deformed copper 'canister' was also carefully measured after the test. The tests have been modelled with the finite element code Abaqus with the same models and techniques that were used for the full scale cases in the Swedish safety assessment SR-Site. The results have been compared with the measured results, which has yielded very valuable information about the relevancy of the material models and the modelling technique. An elastic-plastic material model was used for the bentonite where the stress-strain relations have been derived from laboratory tests. The material model is also described in another article to this conference. The material model is made a function of both the density and the strain rate at shear. Since the shear is fast and takes place under undrained conditions, the density is not changed during the tests. However, strain rate varies largely with both the location of the elements and time. This can be taken into account in Abaqus by making the material model a function of the strain

  4. Piecewise Function Hysteretic Model for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Walls with Reinforced End Studs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel (CFS shear walls with concrete-filled rectangular steel tube (CFRST columns as end studs can upgrade the performance of mid-rise CFS structures, such as the vertical bearing capacity, anti-overturning ability, shear strength, and fire resistance properties, thereby enhancing the safety of structures. A theoretical hysteretic model is established according to a previous experimental study. This model is described in a simple mathematical form and takes nonlinearity, pinching, strength, and stiffness deterioration into consideration. It was established in two steps: (1 a discrete coordinate method was proposed to determine the load-displacement skeleton curve of the wall, by which governing deformations and their corresponding loads of the hysteretic loops under different loading cases can be obtained; afterwards; (2 a piecewise function was adopted to capture the hysteretic loop relative to each governing deformation, the hysteretic model of the wall was further established, and additional criteria for the dominant parameters of the model were stated. Finally, the hysteretic model was validated by experimental results from other studies. The results show that elastic lateral stiffness Ke and shear capacity Fp are key factors determining the load-displacement skeleton curve of the wall; hysteretic characteristics of the wall with reinforced end studs can be fully reflected by piecewise function hysteretic model, moreover, the model has intuitional expressions with clear physical interpretations for each parameter, paving the way for predicting the nonlinear dynamic responses of mid-rise CFS structures.

  5. Investigation of radial shear in the wall-base juncture of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    1998-04-01

    Construction of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is underway as part of a cooperative containment research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work is co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Preliminary analyses of the Sandia 1:4 Scale PCCV Model have determined axisymmetric global behavior and have estimated the potential for failure in several areas, including the wall-base juncture and near penetrations. Though the liner tearing failure mode has been emphasized, the assumption of a liner tearing failure mode is largely based on experience with reinforced concrete containments. For the PCCV, the potential for shear failure at or near the liner tearing pressure may be considerable and requires detailed investigation. This paper examines the behavior of the PCCV in the region most susceptible to a radial shear failure, the wall-basemat juncture region. Prediction of shear failure in concrete structures is a difficult goal, both experimentally and analytically. As a structure begins to deform under an applied system of forces that produce shear, other deformation modes such as bending and tension/compression begin to influence the response. Analytically, difficulties lie in characterizing the decrease in shear stiffness and shear stress and in predicting the associated transfer of stress to reinforcement as cracks become wider and more extensive. This paper examines existing methods for representing concrete shear response and existing criteria for predicting shear failure, and it discusses application of these methods and criteria to the study of the 1:4 scale PCCV

  6. Investigation of radial shear in the wall-base juncture of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Construction of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is underway as part of a cooperative containment research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work is co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Preliminary analyses of the Sandia 1:4 Scale PCCV Model have determined axisymmetric global behavior and have estimated the potential for failure in several areas, including the wall-base juncture and near penetrations. Though the liner tearing failure mode has been emphasized, the assumption of a liner tearing failure mode is largely based on experience with reinforced concrete containments. For the PCCV, the potential for shear failure at or near the liner tearing pressure may be considerable and requires detailed investigation. This paper examines the behavior of the PCCV in the region most susceptible to a radial shear failure, the wall-basemat juncture region. Prediction of shear failure in concrete structures is a difficult goal, both experimentally and analytically. As a structure begins to deform under an applied system of forces that produce shear, other deformation modes such as bending and tension/compression begin to influence the response. Analytically, difficulties lie in characterizing the decrease in shear stiffness and shear stress and in predicting the associated transfer of stress to reinforcement as cracks become wider and more extensive. This paper examines existing methods for representing concrete shear response and existing criteria for predicting shear failure, and it discusses application of these methods and criteria to the study of the 1:4 scale PCCV.

  7. Zonal flow shear amplification by depletion of anisotropic potential eddies in a magnetized plasma: idealized models and laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorczak, N; Manz, P; Chakraborty Thakur, S; Xu, M; Tynan, G R

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of vorticity conservation on the spatio-temporal interaction of a E × B zonal shear with a generic pattern of plasma potential modes are investigated in a magnetized plasma environment. Eddies organized on a chain along the zonal direction are locally depleted, resulting in what appears to be a radial decorrelation by the shear flow in the absence of dissipation. The eddy depletion occurs due to a transfer of enstrophy from the chain to the shear flow during the progressive growth in the chain anisotropy. The rate of zonal shear acceleration is derived analytically and its expression is validated by numerical simulations. The rate is proportional to the chain amplitude in the weak shear regime and to the shearing rate in the strong shear regime. Basic properties of the model are validated with fast visible imaging data collected on a magnetized plasma column experiment. A characteristic vorticity flux across the edge shear layer of tokamak plasmas is associated with the model predictions. The dependence of the interaction rate with turbulence amplitude and shearing rate could be an important ingredient of the low to high confinement mode transition. (paper)

  8. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  9. Nonlinear modeling of stratified shear instabilities, wave breaking, and wave-topography interactions using vortex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Divyanshu; Guha, Anirban

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical studies on linear shear instabilities often use simple velocity and density profiles (e.g., constant, piecewise) for obtaining good qualitative and quantitative predictions of the initial disturbances. Furthermore, such simple profiles provide a minimal model for obtaining a mechanistic understanding of otherwise elusive shear instabilities. However, except a few specific cases, the efficacy of simple profiles has remained limited to the linear stability paradigm. In this work, we have proposed a general framework that can simulate the fully nonlinear evolution of a variety of stratified shear instabilities as well as wave-wave and wave-topography interaction problems having simple piecewise constant and/or linear profiles. To this effect, we have modified the classical vortex method by extending the Birkhoff-Rott equation to multiple interfaces and, furthermore, have incorporated background shear across a density interface. The latter is more subtle and originates from the understanding that Bernoulli's equation is not just limited to irrotational flows but can be modified to make it applicable for piecewise linear velocity profiles. We have solved diverse problems that can be essentially reduced to the multiple interacting interfaces paradigm, e.g., spilling and plunging breakers, stratified shear instabilities like Holmboe and Taylor-Caulfield, jet flows, and even wave-topography interaction problems like Bragg resonance. Free-slip boundary being a vortex sheet, its effect can also be effectively captured using vortex method. We found that the minimal models capture key nonlinear features, e.g., wave breaking features like cusp formation and roll-ups, which are observed in experiments and/or extensive simulations with smooth, realistic profiles.

  10. Characterization of Escherichia coli MG1655 grown in a low-shear modeled microgravity environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Duane L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extra-cellular shear force is an important environmental parameter that is significant both medically and in the space environment. Escherichia coli cells grown in a low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG environment produced in a high aspect rotating vessel (HARV were subjected to transcriptional and physiological analysis. Results Aerobic LSMMG cultures were grown in rich (LB and minimal (MOPS + glucose medium with a normal gravity vector HARV control. Reproducible changes in transcription were seen, but no specific LSMMG responsive genes were identified. Instead, absence of shear and a randomized gravity vector appears to cause local extra-cellular environmental changes, which elicit reproducible cellular responses. In minimal media, the majority of the significantly up- or down-regulated genes of known function were associated with the cell envelope. In rich medium, most LSMMG down-regulated genes were involved in translation. No observable changes in post-culture stress responses and antibiotic sensitivity were seen in cells immediately after exposure to LSMMG. Comparison with earlier studies of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium conducted under similar growth conditions, revealed essentially no similarity in the genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated. Conclusion Comparison of these results to previous studies suggests that different organisms may dramatically differ in their responses to medically significant low-shear and space environments. Depending on their specific response, some organisms, such as Salmonella, may become preadapted in a manner that predisposes them to increased virulence.

  11. A new model for the formation of a spaced crenulation (shear band) cleavage in the Dalradian rocks of the Tay Nappe, SW Highlands, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff Tanner, P. W.

    2016-03-01

    The main conclusion of this study is that non-coaxial strain acting parallel to a flat-lying D1 spaced cleavage was responsible for the formation of the D2 spaced crenulation (shear band) cleavage in Dalradian rocks of Neoproterozoic-Lower Ordovician age in the SW Highlands, Scotland. The cm-dm-scale D2 microlithons are asymmetric; have a geometrically distinctive nose and tail; and show a thickened central portion resulting from back-rotation of the constituent D1 microlithons. The current terminology used to describe crenulation cleavages is reviewed and updated. Aided by exceptional 3D exposures, it is shown how embryonic D2 flexural-slip folds developed into a spaced cleavage comprising fold-pair domains wrapped by anastomosing cleavage seams. The bulk strain was partitioned into low-strain domains separated by zones of high non-coaxial strain. This new model provides a template for determining the sense of shear in both low-strain situations and in ductile, higher strain zones where other indicators, such as shear folds, give ambiguous results. Analogous structures include tectonic lozenges in shear zones, and flexural-slip duplexes. Disputes over the sense and direction of shear during emplacement of the Tay Nappe, and the apparently intractable conflict between minor fold asymmetry and shear sense, appear to be resolved.

  12. Separated shear-layer instability reproduction by a Reynolds stress model of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakirlic, Suad; Maduta, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A boundary layer separating from a solid wall transforms into a `separated shear layer' exhibiting a broader frequency range. Such a highly-unsteady shear layer separating the mean stream from the flow reversal is dominated by the organized, large-scale coherent structures, influencing to a large extent the overall flow behavior. Unlike in the case of a flat-plate boundary layer separating at a fixed point characterizing a backward-facing step geometry, which can be reasonably well captured by a statistical model of turbulence, the separation process pertinent to continuous curved surfaces as well as some fence- or rib-shaped configurations is beyond the reach of any RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes) model independent of the modeling level. The latter issue motivated the present work, dealing with an appropriate extension of a near-wall Second-Moment Closure (SMC) model towards an instability-sensitive formulation. The production term in the corresponding scale-supplying equation is selectively enhanced through introduction of the ratio of the first to the second derivative of the velocity field, the latter representing the integral part of the von Karman length scale, enabling appropriate capturing of the fluctuating turbulence and accordingly the reproduction of the separated shear-layer instability. The analysis is performed by simulating the flow separated from a fence, an axisymmetric hill and a cylinder configuration.

  13. Low-Shear modeled microgravity alters the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium stress response in an RpoS-independent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James W.; Ott, C. Mark; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Pierson, Duane L.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (low-shear MMG) serves to enhance the virulence of a bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Salmonella response to low-shear MMG involves a signaling pathway that we have termed the low-shear MMG stimulon, though the identities of the low-shear MMG stimulon genes and regulatory factors are not known. RpoS is the primary sigma factor required for the expression of genes that are induced upon exposure to different environmental-stress signals and is essential for virulence in mice. Since low-shear MMG induces a Salmonella acid stress response and enhances Salmonella virulence, we reasoned that RpoS would be a likely regulator of the Salmonella low-shear MMG response. Our results demonstrate that low-shear MMG provides cross-resistance to several environmental stresses in both wild-type and isogenic rpoS mutant strains. Growth under low-shear MMG decreased the generation time of both strains in minimal medium and increased the ability of both strains to survive in J774 macrophages. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found no evidence of induction of the RpoS regulon by low-shear MMG but did find that other genes were altered in expression under these conditions in both the wild-type and rpoS mutant strains. Our results indicate that, under the conditions of these studies, RpoS is not required for transmission of the signal that induces the low-shear MMG stimulon. Moreover, our studies also indicate that low-shear MMG can be added to a short list of growth conditions that can serve to preadapt an rpoS mutant for resistance to multiple environmental stresses.

  14. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  15. Planar channel flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening model fluid: Theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Wagner, N. J.; Ellero, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, an analytical solution for the pressure-driven flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening (DST) fluid in a planar channel is presented. In order to model the fluid rheology, a regularized inverse-biviscous model is adopted. This involves a region of finite thickness to model the sharp jump in viscosity, and it is consistent with momentum conservation. In the limit of vanishing thickness, the truly DST behavior is obtained. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations under steady and start-up flow using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Flow results are investigated and discussed for different values of the model parameters.

  16. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  17. Simulating stick-slip failure in a sheared granular layer using a physics-based constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Daub, Eric G.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ecke, Robert E.; Marone, Chris; Johnson, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    We model laboratory earthquakes in a biaxial shear apparatus using the Shear-Transformation-Zone (STZ) theory of dense granular flow. The theory is based on the observation that slip events in a granular layer are attributed to grain rearrangement at soft spots called STZs, which can be characterized according to principles of statistical physics. We model lab data on granular shear using STZ theory and document direct connections between the STZ approach and rate-and-state friction. We discuss the stability transition from stable shear to stick-slip failure and show that stick slip is predicted by STZ when the applied shear load exceeds a threshold value that is modulated by elastic stiffness and frictional rheology. We also show that STZ theory mimics fault zone dilation during the stick phase, consistent with lab observations.

  18. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: II. Shear analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J [Cardiovascular Research Group, Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Buick, J M [Mechanical and Design Engineering, Anglesea Building, Anglesea Road, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-21

    Near-wall shear is known to be important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, the shear field in a three-dimensional model of the human carotid artery is presented. The simulations are performed using the lattice Boltzmann model and are presented at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. The near-wall shear rate and von Mises effective shear are also examined. Regions of low near-wall shear rates are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery. These are regions where low near-wall velocity and circulatory flows have been observed and are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  19. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: II. Shear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J; Buick, J M

    2008-01-01

    Near-wall shear is known to be important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, the shear field in a three-dimensional model of the human carotid artery is presented. The simulations are performed using the lattice Boltzmann model and are presented at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. The near-wall shear rate and von Mises effective shear are also examined. Regions of low near-wall shear rates are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery. These are regions where low near-wall velocity and circulatory flows have been observed and are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  20. Sheared magnetospheric plasma flows and discrete auroral arcs: a quasi-static coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider sheared flows in magnetospheric boundary layers of tangential discontinuity type, forming a structure that is embedded in a large-scale convergent perpendicular electric field. We construct a kinetic model that couples the magnetospheric structure with the topside ionosphere. The contribution of magnetospheric electrons and ionospheric electrons and ions is taken into account into the current-voltage relationship derived for an electric potential monotonically decreasing with the altitude. The solution of the current continuity equation gives the distribution of the ionospheric potential consistent with the given magnetospheric electric potential. The model shows that a sheared magnetospheric flow generates current sheets corresponding to upward field-aligned currents, field-aligned potential drops and narrow bands of precipitating energy, as in discrete auroral arcs. Higher velocity magnetospheric sheared flows have the tendency to produce brighter and slightly broader arcs. An increase in arc luminosity is also associated with enhancements of magnetospheric plasma density, in which case the structures are narrower. Finally, the model predicts that an increase of the electron temperature of the magnetospheric flowing plasma corresponds to slightly wider arcs but does not modify their luminosity.

  1. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  2. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  3. A review of shear strength models for rock joints subjected to constant normal stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanathan Thirukumaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical shear behaviour of rough joints has been studied under constant normal load/stress (CNL boundary conditions, but recent studies have shown that this boundary condition may not replicate true practical situations. Constant normal stiffness (CNS is more appropriate to describe the stress–strain response of field joints since the CNS boundary condition is more realistic than CNL. The practical implications of CNS are movements of unstable blocks in the roof or walls of an underground excavation, reinforced rock wedges sliding in a rock slope or foundation, and the vertical movement of rock-socketed concrete piles. In this paper, the highlights and limitations of the existing models used to predict the shear strength/behaviour of joints under CNS conditions are discussed in depth.

  4. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC is a hot and dense state of strongly correlated matter. It behaves like an almost-perfect fluid featuring a small ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density. In this thesis we calculate within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the shear viscosity as function of temperature and chemical potential. A new Kubo formula is developed, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations occurring at Fock level provide the dominant dissipative process. The resulting parameter-free ratio is an overall decreasing function of temperature and chemical potential. In combination with hard-thermal-loop results we nd this ratio to feature a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark.

  5. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  6. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  7. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oleg

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent mixing of gases in free shear layers is simulated using a weighted essentially nonoscillatory implementation of ɛ- and L-based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models. Specifically, the air/air shear layer with velocity ratio 0.6 studied experimentally by Bell and Mehta (1990) is modeled. The detailed predictions of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and lengthscale models are compared to one another, and to the experimental data. The role of analytical, self-similar solutions for model calibration and physical insights is also discussed. It is shown that turbulent lengthscale-based models are unable to predict both the growth parameter (spreading rate) and turbulent kinetic energy normalized by the square of the velocity difference of the streams. The terms in the K, ɛ, and L equation budgets are compared between the models, and it is shown that the production and destruction mechanisms are substantially different in the ɛ and L equations. Application of the turbulence models to the Brown and Roshko (1974) experiments with streams having various velocity and density ratios is also briefly discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Shear flow dynamics in the Beris-Edwards model of nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murza, Adrian C; Teruel, Antonio E; Zarnescu, Arghir D

    2018-02-01

    We consider the Beris-Edwards model describing nematic liquid crystal dynamics and restrict it to a shear flow and spatially homogeneous situation. We analyse the dynamics focusing on the effect of the flow. We show that in the co-rotational case one has gradient dynamics, up to a periodic eigenframe rotation, while in the non-co-rotational case we identify the short- and long-time regimes of the dynamics. We express these in terms of the physical variables and compare with the predictions of other models of liquid crystal dynamics.

  9. Comparisons of Different Models on Dynamic Recrystallization of Plate during Asymmetrical Shear Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation.

  10. Comparisons of Different Models on Dynamic Recrystallization of Plate during Asymmetrical Shear Rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Lu, Shi-Hong; Gong, Hai; Wu, Yun-Xin

    2018-01-17

    Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM) coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA) are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation.

  11. Solvable groups and a shear construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freibert, Marco; Swann, Andrew Francis

    The twist construction is a geometric model of T-duality that includes constructions of nilmanifolds from tori. This paper shows how one-dimensional foliations on manifolds may be used in a shear construction, which in algebraic form builds certain solvable Lie groups from Abelian ones. We discuss...... other examples of geometric structures that may be obtained from the shear construction....

  12. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  13. Flow field and oscillatory shear stress in a tuning-fork-shaped model of the average human carotid bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z; Wang, K; Li, J; Cong, X

    2001-12-01

    The oscillatory shear index (OSI) was developed based on the hypothesis that intimal hyperplasia was correlated with oscillatory shear stresses. However, the validity of the OSI was in question since the correlation between intimal thickness and the OSI at the side walls of the sinus in the Y-shaped model of the average human carotid bifurcation (Y-AHCB) was weak. The objectives of this paper are to examine whether the reason for the weak correlation lies in the deviation in geometry of Y-AHCB from real human carotid bifurcation, and whether this correlation is clearly improved in the tuning-fork-shaped model of the average human carotid bifurcation (TF-AHCB). The geometry of the TF-AHCB model was based on observation and statistical analysis of specimens from 74 cadavers. The flow fields in both models were studied and compared by using flow visualization methods under steady flow conditions and by using laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) under pulsatile flow conditions. The TF-shaped geometry leads to a more complex flow field than the Y-shaped geometry. This added complexity includes strengthened helical movements in the sinus, new flow separation zone, and directional changes in the secondary flow patterns. The results show that the OSI-values at the side walls of the sinus in the TF-shaped model were more than two times as large as those in the Y-shaped model. This study confirmed the stronger correlation between the OSI and intimal thickness in the tuning-fork geometry of human carotid bifurcation, and the TF-AHCB model is a significant improvement over the traditional Y-shaped model.

  14. Parametric Study of Rockbolt Shear Behaviour by Double Shear Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Hagan, P. C.; Saydam, S.; Hebblewhite, B.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Failure of rockbolts as a result of shear or bending loads can often be found in underground excavations. The response of rock anchorage systems has been studied in shear, both by laboratory tests as well as numerical modelling in this study. A double shear test was developed to examine the shear behaviour of a bolt installed across two joints at different angles. To investigate the influence of various parameters in the double shear test, a numerical model of a fully grouted rockbolt installed in concrete was constructed and analysed using FLAC3D code. A number of parameters were considered including concrete strength, inclination between rockbolt and joints and rockbolt diameter. The numerical model considered three material types (steel, grout and concrete) and three interfaces (concrete-concrete, grout-concrete and grout-rockbolt). The main conclusions drawn from the study were that the level of bolt resistance to shear was influenced by rock strength, inclination angle, and diameter of the rockbolt. The numerical simulation of the bolt/grout interaction and deformational behaviour was found to be in close agreement with earlier experimental test results.

  15. Magnetic fabric of sheared till: A strain indicator for evaluating the bed deformation model of glacier flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Lagroix, F.; Thomason, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Wet-based portions of ice sheets may move primarily by shearing their till beds, resting in high sediment fluxes and the development of subglacial landforms. This model of glacier movement, which requires high bed shear strains, can be tested using till microstructural characteristics that evolve during till deformation. Here we examine the development of magnetic fabric using a ring shear device to defom two Wisconsin-age basal tills to shear strains as high as 70. Hysteresis experiments and the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of these tills on temperature demonstrate that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) develops during shear due to the rotation of primarily magnetite particles that are silt sized or smaller. At moderate shear strains (???6-25), principal axes of maximum magnetic susceptibility develop a strong fabric (S1 eignevalues of 0.83-0.96), without further strengthening at higher strains, During deformation, directions of maximum susceptibility cluster strongly in the direction of shear and plunge 'up-glacier,' consistent with the behavior of pebbles and sand particles studied in earlier experiments. In contrast, the magnitude of AMS does not vary systematically with strain and is small relative to its variability among samples; this is because most magnetite grains are contained as inclusions in larger particles and hence do not align during shear. Although processes other than pervasive bed deformation may result in strong flow parallel fabrics, AMS fabrics provide a rapid and objective means of identifying basal tills that have not been sheared sufficiently to be compatible with the bed deformation model. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Controls on sediment entrainment shear stress determined from X-Ray CT scans and a 3D moment-balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, R. A.; Voepel, H.; Leyland, J.; Sear, D. A.; Ahmed, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    The shear stress at which a grain is entrained is determined by the balance between the applied fluid forces, and the resisting forces of the grain. Recent research has tended to focus on the applied fluid forces; calculating the resisting forces requires measurement of the geometry of in-situ sediment grains which has previously been very difficult to measure. We have used CT scanning to measure the grain geometry of in-situ water-worked grains, and from these data have calculated metrics that are relevant to grain entrainment. We use these metrics to parameterise a new, fully 3D, moment-balance model of grain entrainment. Inputs to the model are grain dimensions, exposed area, elevation relative to the velocity profile, the location of grain-grain contact points, and contact area with fine matrix sediment. The new CT data and model mean that assumptions of previous grain-entrainment models (e.g. spherical grains, 1D measurements of protrusion, entrainment in the downstream direction) are no longer necessary. The model calculates the critical shear stress for each possible set of contact points, and outputs the lowest value. Consequently, metrics including pivot angle and the direction of grain entrainment are now model outputs, rather than having to be pre-determined. We use the CT data and model to calculate the critical shear stress of 1092 in-situ grains from baskets that were buried and water-worked in a flume prior to scanning. We find that there is no consistent relationship between relative grain size (D/D50) and pivot angle, whereas there is a negative relationship between D/D50 and protrusion. Out of all measured metrics, critical shear stress is most strongly controlled by protrusion. This finding suggests that grain-scale topographic data could be used to estimate grain protrusion and hence improve estimates of critical shear stress.

  17. Correlation of Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography with Pathological Analysis in a Xenografic Tumour Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elyas, Eli; Papaevangelou, Efthymia; Alles, Erwin J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential value of ultrasound (US) shear wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the relative change in elastic modulus in colorectal adenocarcinoma xenograft models in vivo and investigate any correlation with histological analysis. We sought to test...... = 0.37, p = 0.008). Irinotecan administration caused significant delay in the tumour growth (p = 0.02) when compared to control, but no significant difference in elastic modulus was detected. Histological analysis revealed a significant correlation between tumour necrosis and elastic modulus (r = -0...

  18. Comparison of wind and wind shear climatologies derived from high-resolution radiosondes and the ECMWF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchi, K.; Stoffelen, A.; Marseille, G. J.; de Kloe, J.

    2010-11-01

    The climatology of atmospheric horizontal wind and its vertical gradient, i.e., wind shear, is characterized as a function of climate region. For a better representation of the average atmospheric wind and shear and their variabilities, high-resolution radiosonde wind profiles up to about 30 km altitude are compared with the collocated operational ECMWF model for short-range forecast winds. Statistics of zonal and meridional winds are established from both data sets. The results show mainly similarity in the probability distributions of the modeled and observed horizontal winds, practically at all levels of the atmosphere, while at the same time the vertical shear of the wind is substantially underestimated in the model. The comparison of shear statistics of radiosonde and ECMWF model winds shows that the model wind shear mean and variability are on average a factor of 2.5 (zonal) and 3 (meridional) smaller than of radiosondes in the free troposphere, while in the stratosphere, the planetary boundary layer results are more variable. By applying vertical averaging to the radiosonde data, it is found that the effective vertical resolution of the ECMWF model is typically 1.7 km. Moreover, it is found for individually collocated radiosonde model wind and shear profiles that the model wind may lack in some cases variability larger than 5 m s-1 and 0.015 s-1, respectively, due mainly to the effect of lacking vertical resolution, in particular near the jets. Besides the general importance of this study in highlighting the difference in the representation of the atmospheric wind shear by model and observations, it is more specifically relevant for the future Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) of the European Space Agency due for launch in 2012. The results presented here are used to generate a realistic global atmospheric database, which is necessary to conduct simulations of the Aeolus Doppler wind lidar in order optimize its vertical sampling and processing.

  19. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  20. Comparison of lumped-element and transmission-line models for thickness-shear-mode quartz resonator sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hillman, A.R. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Both a transmission-line model and its simpler variant, a lumped-element model, can be used to predict the responses of a thickness-shear-mode quartz resonator sensor. Relative deviations in the parameters computed by the two models (shifts in resonant frequency and motional resistance) do not exceed 3% for most practical sensor configurations operating at the fundamental resonance. If the ratio of the load surface mechanical impedance to the quartz shear characteristic impedance does not exceed 0.1, the lumped-element model always predicts responses within 1% of those for the transmission-line model.

  1. Determining the shear viscosity of model liquids from molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, B

    2002-01-01

    Several methods are available for calculating shear viscosities of liquids from molecular dynamics simulations. There are equilibrium methods based on pressure or momentum fluctuations and several nonequilibrium methods. For the nonequilibrium method using a periodic shear flow, all relevant

  2. Multi-scale mantle structure underneath the Americas from a new tomographic model of seismic shear velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Becker, T. W.; Auer, L.; Boschi, L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a whole-mantle, variable resolution, shear-wave tomography model based on newly available and existing seismological datasets including regional body-wave delay times and multi-mode Rayleigh and Love wave phase delays. Our body wave dataset includes 160,000 S wave delays used in the DNA13 regional tomographic model focused on the western and central US, 86,000 S and SKS delays measured on stations in western South America (Porritt et al., in prep), and 3,900,000 S+ phases measured by correlation between data observed at stations in the IRIS global networks (IU, II) and stations in the continuous US, against synthetic data generated with IRIS Syngine. The surface wave dataset includes fundamental mode and overtone Rayleigh wave data from Schaeffer and Levedev (2014), ambient noise derived Rayleigh wave and Love wave measurements from Ekstrom (2013), newly computed fundamental mode ambient noise Rayleigh wave phase delays for the continuous US up to July 2017, and other, previously published, measurements. These datasets, along with a data-adaptive parameterization utilized for the SAVANI model (Auer et al., 2014), should allow significantly finer-scale imaging than previous global models, rivaling that of regional-scale approaches, under the USArray footprint in the continuous US, while seamlessly integrating into a global model. We parameterize the model for both vertically (vSV) and horizontally (vSH) polarized shear velocities by accounting for the different sensitivities of the various phases and wave types. The resulting, radially anisotropic model should allow for a range of new geodynamic analysis, including estimates of mantle flow induced topography or seismic anisotropy, without generating artifacts due to edge effects, or requiring assumptions about the structure of the region outside the well resolved model space. Our model shows a number of features, including indications of the effects of edge-driven convection in the Cordillera and along

  3. Quantification of shear stress in a meandering native topographic channel using a physical hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ursic

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines for predicting increases in shear stress in open-channel bends were developed from investigations that were primarily prismatic in cross section. This study provides possible increases in shear stress relative to approach flow conditions resulting from planimetric and topographic geometric features. Boundary shear stress estimates were determined by...

  4. Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, Chris H; Orpe, Ashish V; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2009-09-01

    We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity-driven sheared granular flow with a discrete-element simulation performed in the same geometry. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross section and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index-matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The simulations use a Cundall-Strack contact model between the grains using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. We then perform a detailed comparison of the particle fluctuation properties as measured by the displacement probability distribution function and the mean square displacement. All in all, our study suggests a high level of quantitative agreement between the simulations and experiments.

  5. Non-constant link tension coefficient in the tumbling-snake model subjected to simple shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Pavlos S.; Kröger, Martin

    2017-11-01

    The authors of the present study have recently presented evidence that the tumbling-snake model for polymeric systems has the necessary capacity to predict the appearance of pronounced undershoots in the time-dependent shear viscosity as well as an absence of equally pronounced undershoots in the transient two normal stress coefficients. The undershoots were found to appear due to the tumbling behavior of the director u when a rotational Brownian diffusion term is considered within the equation of motion of polymer segments, and a theoretical basis concerning the use of a link tension coefficient given through the nematic order parameter had been provided. The current work elaborates on the quantitative predictions of the tumbling-snake model to demonstrate its capacity to predict undershoots in the time-dependent shear viscosity. These predictions are shown to compare favorably with experimental rheological data for both polymer melts and solutions, help us to clarify the microscopic origin of the observed phenomena, and demonstrate in detail why a constant link tension coefficient has to be abandoned.

  6. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  7. A robust macroscopic model for normal-shear coupling, asymmetric and anisotropic behaviors of polycrystalline SMAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal-shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension-compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension-torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton-Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.

  8. Dielectric and shear mechanical relaxations in glass-forming liquids: A test of the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, K.; Jakobsen, B.; Olsen, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    that the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model is correct on a qualitative level. The quantitative agreement between the model and the data is on the other hand moderate to poor. It is discussed if a model-free comparison between the dielectric and shear mechanical relaxations is relevant, and it is concluded...

  9. Study of the interplay between magnetic shear and resonances using Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firpo, M.-C.; Constantinescu, D.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of magnetic confinement in magnetic fusion devices is addressed within a purely magnetic approach. Using some Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines, the dual impact of low magnetic shear is shown in a unified way. Away from resonances, it induces a drastic enhancement of magnetic confinement that favors robust internal transport barriers (ITBs) and stochastic transport reduction. When low shear occurs for values of the winding of the magnetic field lines close to low-order rationals, the amplitude thresholds of the resonant modes that break internal transport barriers by allowing a radial stochastic transport of the magnetic field lines may be quite low. The approach can be applied to assess the robustness versus magnetic perturbations of general (almost) integrable magnetic steady states, including nonaxisymmetric ones such as the important single-helicity steady states. This analysis puts a constraint on the tolerable mode amplitudes compatible with ITBs and may be proposed as a possible explanation of diverse experimental and numerical signatures of their collapses.

  10. Interaction of Water Waves and a Submerged Parabolic Obstacle in the Presence of a Following Uniform/Shear Current Using RANS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Lung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates regular waves propagating over a submerged parabolic obstacle in the presence of a uniform/shear current using a two-dimensional numerical model, named COBRAS (Cornell Breaking and Structure. The numerical model solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations and the free surface deformation is tracked using the volume of fluid method (VOF. The capability of the numerical model to simulate regular waves with a uniform or shear current over a constant water depth is first validated with available analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons among the experimental data, analytical solutions, and present numerical results show good agreements. Then, regular waves propagating over a submerged parabolic obstacle with a following current are investigated. Detailed discussions including those on the velocity and vorticity fields and the relation between free surface and vorticity are given.

  11. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  12. Remarks on impact shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepaczko, J. R.

    1998-10-01

    A review is presented on recent progress in shear testing of materials at high and very high strain rates. Some experimental techniques are discussed which allow for materials testing in shear up to 10 6 ls. More detailed informations are provided on experimental techniques based on the Modified Double Shear specimen loaded by direct impact. This technique has been applied so far to test a variety of materials, including construction, armor and inoxidable steels, and also aluminum alloys. The double shear configuration has also been applied to test sheet metals, mostly used in the automotive industry, in a wide range of strain rates. Details of both techniques, including measuring systems and elastic wave propagation in tubes, are discussed. In addition, a new experimental configuration which can be applied for experimental studies of adiabatic shear propagation and high speed machining is discussed. The role of adiabatic heating at different rates of shearing is also discussed, including transition from pure isothermal to pure adiabatic deformation. It appears that the initial impact velocity is an important parameter in development of plastic localization. Finally, a new development is discussed in determination of the Critical Impact Velocity in shear. A comparison is shown between recent experimental findings and a simple analytic estimation. The CIV in shear is a certain mode of adiabatic failure which occurs at relatively high shear velocities of adjacent material layers. Numerical simulations support the existence of the CIV in shear which can be recognized to some extent as a material constant.

  13. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  14. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  15. Equivalent-circuit model for the thickness-shear mode resonator with a viscoelastic film near film resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S J; Bandey, H L; Cernosek, R W; Hillman, A R; Brown, M J

    2000-01-01

    We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness-shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of pi/2 rad. For low-loss films, this model accurately predicts the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. Elements of the parallel LCR resonator are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and Sauerbrey models.

  16. 3D modelling of plug failure in resistance spot welded shear-lab specimens (DP600-steel)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2008-01-01

    Ductile plug failure of resistance spot welded shear-lab specimens is studied by full 3D finite element analysis, using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation that accounts for nucleation and growth of microvoids to coalescence (The Gurson model). Tensile properties and damage parameters...... it possible to numerically relate the weld diameter to the tensile shear force (TSF) and the associated displacement, u (TSF) , respectively. Main focus in the paper is on modelling the localization of plastic flow and the corresponding damage development in the vicinity of the spot weld, near the HAZ...

  17. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  18. Plasticity Approach to Shear Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...

  19. In-vitro measurement and modelling of shear-induced platelet margination and adhesion in channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qin M.; Oglesby, Irene; Cowman, Jonathan; Ricco, Antonio J.; Kenny, Dermot; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2017-11-01

    Blood coagulation is initiated by GPIb and GPIIbIIIa receptors on the platelet surface binding with von Willebrand factors tethered on the vascular wall. This process occurs much faster in the presence of flow shear than in the quiescent fluid. First of all, the near-wall platelet concentration in flowing blood increases significantly. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as platelet margination, is due to shear-induced hydrodynamic interactions between red blood cells and platelets. Flow shear also manifests itself in affecting the reaction kinetics of receptor-ligand binding. The breaking and formation of multiple bonds on the platelet surface result in the translocating motion of platelets rolling close to the vascular wall. To date, a fundamental understanding of how fluid mechanics relate the bond-level kinetics to the platelet-level dynamics is very limited. In this talk, we investigate platelet adhesion under physiological shear rates using both microfluidic experiments and multi-scale modeling. Our model, (based on existing single molecule measurements and hydrodynamics of blood at zero Reynolds number) shows good agreement with experimental results. We discuss the roles of red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit), shear rate, receptor densities in the dynamics of platelet adhesion. These findings also provide implications for how platelet defects and abnormal flow conditions influence hemostasis and thrombosis.

  20. Open quantum system model of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with tunable shear viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Presented is an analysis of an open quantum model of the time-dependent evolution of a flow field governed by the nonlinear Burgers equation in one spatial dimension. The quantum model is a system of qubits where there exists a minimum time interval in the time-dependent dynamics. Each temporally discrete unitary quantum-mechanical evolution is followed by state reduction of the quantum state. The mesoscopic behavior of this quantum model is described by a quantum Boltzmann equation with a naturally emergent entropy function and H theorem and the model obeys the detailed balance principle. The macroscopic-scale effective field theory for the quantum model is derived using a perturbative Chapman-Enskog expansion applied to the linearized quantum Boltzmann equation. The entropy function is consistent with the quantum-mechanical collision process and a Fermi-Dirac single-particle distribution function for the occupation probabilities of the qubit's energy eigenstates. Comparisons are presented between analytical predictions and numerical predictions and the agreement is excellent, indicating that the nonlinear Burgers equation with a tunable shear viscosity is the operative macroscopic scale effective field theory

  1. Thematic report: Macroeconomic models including specifically social and environmental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kratena, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Deliverable No. 8, 30 pages A significant reduction of the global environmental consequences of European consumption and production activities are the main objective of the policy simulations carried out in this paper. For this purpose three different modelling approaches have been chosen. Two macroeconomic models following the philosophy of consistent stock-flow accounting for the main institutional sectors (households, firms, banks, central bank and government) are used for...

  2. Unraveling the tectonic history of northwest Africa: Insights from shear-wave splitting, receiver functions, and geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. S.; Becker, T. W.; Allam, A. A.; Alpert, L. A.; Di Leo, J. F.; Wookey, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The complex tectonic history and orogenesis in the westernmost Mediterranean are primarily due to Cenozoic convergence of Africa with Eurasia. The Gibraltar system, which includes the Rif Mountains of Morocco and the Betics in Spain, forms a tight arc around the Alboran Basin. Further to the south the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, an example of an intracontinental fold and thrust belt, display only modest tectonic shortening, yet have unusually high topography. To the south of the Atlas, the anti-Atlas is the oldest mountain range in the region, has the lowest relief, and extends toward the northern extent of the West African Craton. To help unravel the regional tectonics, we use new broadband seismic data from 105 stations across the Gibraltar arc into southern Morocco. We use shear wave splitting analysis for a deep (617 km) local S event and over 230 SKS events to infer azimuthal seismic anisotropy and we image the lithospheric structure with receiver functions. One of the most striking discoveries from these methods is evidence for localized, near vertical-offset deformation of both crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere interfaces at the flanks of the High Atlas. These offsets coincide with the locations of Jurassic-aged normal faults that were reactivated during the Cenozoic. This suggests that these lithospheric-scale discontinuities were involved in the formation of the Atlas and are still active. Shear wave splitting results show that the inferred stretching axes are aligned with the highest topography in the Atlas, suggesting asthenospheric shearing in mantle flow guided by lithospheric topography. Geodynamic modeling shows that the inferred seismic anisotropy may be produced by the interaction of mantle flow with the subducted slab beneath the Alboran, the West African Craton, and the thinned lithosphere beneath the Atlas. Isostatic modeling based on these lithospheric structure estimates indicates that lithospheric thinning alone does not explain the

  3. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  4. A coupled damage-plasticity model for the cyclic behavior of shear-loaded interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.

    2015-12-01

    The present work proposes a novel thermodynamically consistent model for the behavior of interfaces under shear (i.e. mode-II) cyclic loading conditions. The interface behavior is defined coupling damage and plasticity. The admissible states' domain is formulated restricting the tangential interface stress to non-negative values, which makes the model suitable e.g. for interfaces with thin adherends. Linear softening is assumed so as to reproduce, under monotonic conditions, a bilinear mode-II interface law. Two damage variables govern respectively the loss of strength and of stiffness of the interface. The proposed model needs the evaluation of only four independent parameters, i.e. three defining the monotonic mode-II interface law, and one ruling the fatigue behavior. This limited number of parameters and their clear physical meaning facilitate experimental calibration. Model predictions are compared with experimental results on fiber reinforced polymer sheets externally bonded to concrete involving different load histories, and an excellent agreement is obtained.

  5. Machine Learning Approach for Predicting Wall Shear Distribution for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Carotid Bifurcation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanski, Milos; Radovic, Milos; Milosevic, Zarko; Filipovic, Nenad; Obradovic, Zoran

    2018-03-01

    Computer simulations based on the finite element method represent powerful tools for modeling blood flow through arteries. However, due to its computational complexity, this approach may be inappropriate when results are needed quickly. In order to reduce computational time, in this paper, we proposed an alternative machine learning based approach for calculation of wall shear stress (WSS) distribution, which may play an important role in mechanisms related to initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In order to capture relationships between geometric parameters, blood density, dynamic viscosity and velocity, and WSS distribution of geometrically parameterized abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and carotid bifurcation models, we proposed multivariate linear regression, multilayer perceptron neural network and Gaussian conditional random fields (GCRF). Results obtained in this paper show that machine learning approaches can successfully predict WSS distribution at different cardiac cycle time points. Even though all proposed methods showed high potential for WSS prediction, GCRF achieved the highest coefficient of determination (0.930-0.948 for AAA model and 0.946-0.954 for carotid bifurcation model) demonstrating benefits of accounting for spatial correlation. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative method for real time calculation of WSS distribution.

  6. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of unsteady air loads is an essential step in any aeroelastic analysis. The subsonic doublet lattice method (DLM) is used extensively for this purpose due to its simplicity and reliability. The body models available with the popular...

  7. Modeling of microalgal shear-induced flocculation and sedimentation using a coupled CFD-population balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzarijalal, Mohammad; Zokaee Ashtiani, Farzin; Dabir, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    In this study, shear-induced flocculation modeling of Chlorella sp. microalgae was conducted by combination of population balance modeling and CFD. The inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) and the Euler-Euler two fluid models were coupled via Ansys-CFX-15 software package to achieve both fluid and particle dynamics during the flocculation. For the first time, a detailed model was proposed to calculate the collision frequency and breakage rate during the microalgae flocculation by means of the response surface methodology as a tool for optimization. The particle size distribution resulted from the model was in good agreement with that of the jar test experiment. Furthermore, the subsequent sedimentation step was also examined by removing the shear rate in both simulations and experiments. Consequently, variation in the shear rate and its effects on the flocculation behavior, sedimentation rate and recovery efficiency were evaluated. Results indicate that flocculation of Chlorella sp. microalgae under shear rates of 37, 182, and 387 s -1 is a promising method of pre-concentration which guarantees the cost efficiency of the subsequent harvesting process by recovering more than 90% of the biomass. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:160-174, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris; Orpe, Ashish; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2009-01-15

    We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity driven sheared granular flow with a computational model performed with the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). To our knowledge, this is the first thorough test of the LAMMPS model with a laboratory granular flow. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross-section, and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The boundary imposes a packing order, and the grains are observed to flow in layers which get progressively more disordered with distance from the walls. The computations use a Cundall--Strack contact model between the grains, using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies, and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. After appropriate scaling, we find that the mean velocity of the grains and the number density as a function of flow cross-section observed in the experiments and the simulations are in excellent agreement. The mean flow profile is observed to be unchanged over a broad range of coefficient of friction, except near the smooth wall. We show that the flow profile is not sensitive to atleast 10\\percent polydispersity in particle size. Because the grain elasticity used is smaller in the computations as compared with glass grains, wave-like features can be noted over short time scales in the mean velocity and the velocity auto-correlations measured in the simulations. These wave features occur over an intermediate timescale larger than the particle interaction but smaller than the

  9. A thermal lens model including the Soret effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Humberto; Sira, Eloy; Rahn, Kareem; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we generalize the thermal lens model to account for the Soret effect in binary liquid mixtures. This formalism permits the precise determination of the Soret coefficient in a steady-state situation. The theory is experimentally verified using the measured values in the ethanol/water mixtures. The time evolution of the Soret signal has been used to derive mass-diffusion times from which mass-diffusion coefficients were calculated. (Author)

  10. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....

  11. A stochastic model of gene expression including splicing events

    OpenAIRE

    Penim, Flávia Alexandra Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Bioinformática e Biologia Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Proteins carry out the great majority of the catalytic and structural work within an organism. The RNA templates used in their synthesis determines their identity, and this is dictated by which genes are transcribed. Therefore, gene expression is the fundamental determinant of an organism’s nature. The main objective of this thesis was to develop a stochastic computational model a...

  12. Effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement on geometrical and hydraulic properties of three-dimensional crossed rock fracture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Yu, Liyuan

    2018-03-01

    While shear-flow behavior through fractured media has been so far studied at single fracture scale, a numerical analysis of the shear effect on the hydraulic response of 3D crossed fracture model is presented. The analysis was based on a series of crossed fracture models, in which the effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement were considered. The rough fracture surfaces were generated using the modified successive random additions (SRA) algorithm. The shear displacement was applied on one fracture, and at the same time another fracture shifted along with the upper and lower surfaces of the sheared fracture. The simulation results reveal the development and variation of preferential flow paths through the model during the shear, accompanied by the change of the flow rate ratios between two flow planes at the outlet boundary. The average contact area accounts for approximately 5-27% of the fracture planes during shear, but the actual calculated flow area is about 38-55% of the fracture planes, which is much smaller than the noncontact area. The equivalent permeability will either increase or decrease as shear displacement increases from 0 to 4 mm, depending on the aperture distribution of intersection part between two fractures. When the shear displacement continuously increases by up to 20 mm, the equivalent permeability increases sharply first, and then keeps increasing with a lower gradient. The equivalent permeability of rough fractured model is about 26-80% of that calculated from the parallel plate model, and the equivalent permeability in the direction perpendicular to shear direction is approximately 1.31-3.67 times larger than that in the direction parallel to shear direction. These results can provide a fundamental understanding of fluid flow through crossed fracture model under shear.

  13. The role of protein content on the steady and oscillatory shear rheology of model synovial fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Barman, S; Christopher, G F

    2014-08-28

    Recent studies have debated the role of protein content on the bulk rheology of synovial fluid; in particular, it has been questioned if proteins aggregate or interact with hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid to enhance bulk rheology, or if observed effects were due to systematic measurement error caused by interfacial rheology, stemming from protein adsorption to the interface. Utilizing several techniques to ensure results reflect only bulk rheology, an examination of the role of bovine serum albumin and γ-globulin on model synovial fluid rheology has been undertaken. When interfacial rheology caused by protein adsorption to the interface is abrogated, the bulk rheology of a model synovial fluid composed of bovine serum albumin, γ-globulin, and hyaluronic acid is found to be dominated solely by the hyaluronic acid over a wide range of shear rates, strains and frequencies. These results show that the previously reported enhanced rheological properties of model synovial fluids are solely due to interfacial rheology and not from any type of protein aggregation/interaction in bulk solution.

  14. Recapitulating physiological and pathological shear stress and oxygen to model vasculature in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shen, Yu-I.; Tan, Scott; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Studying human vascular disease in conventional cell cultures and in animal models does not effectively mimic the complex vascular microenvironment and may not accurately predict vascular responses in humans. We utilized a microfluidic device to recapitulate both shear stress and O2 levels in health and disease, establishing a microfluidic vascular model (μVM). Maintaining human endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy-mimicking conditions resulted in conversion to a physiological phenotype namely cell elongation, reduced proliferation, lowered angiogenic gene expression and formation of actin cortical rim and continuous barrier. We next examined the responses of the healthy μVM to a vasotoxic cancer drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in comparison with an in vivo mouse model. We found that 5-FU does not induce apoptosis rather vascular hyperpermeability, which can be alleviated by Resveratrol treatment. This effect was confirmed by in vivo findings identifying a vasoprotecting strategy by the adjunct therapy of 5-FU with Resveratrol. The μVM of ischemic disease demonstrated the transition of ECs from a quiescent to an activated state, with higher proliferation rate, upregulation of angiogenic genes, and impaired barrier integrity. The μVM offers opportunities to study and predict human ECs with physiologically relevant phenotypes in healthy, pathological and drug-treated environments.

  15. Simulations of a stretching bar using a plasticity model from the shear transformation zone theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Gibou, Frederic

    2010-06-05

    An Eulerian simulation is developed to study an elastoplastic model of amorphous materials that is based upon the shear transformation zone theory developed by Langer and coworkers. In this theory, plastic deformation is controlled by an effective temperature that measures the amount of configurational disorder in the material. The simulation is used to model ductile fracture in a stretching bar that initially contains a small notch, and the effects of many of the model parameters are examined. The simulation tracks the shape of the bar using the level set method. Within the bar, a finite difference discretization is employed that makes use of the essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme. The system of equations is moderately stiff due to the presence of large elastic constants, and one of the key numerical challenges is to accurately track the level set and construct extrapolated field values for use in boundary conditions. A new approach to field extrapolation is discussed that is second order accurate and requires a constant amount of work per gridpoint.

  16. Transformation of a Foucault shadowgram into the geometrical model of a shear interferogram by means of isophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Zatsepina, M. E.; Kirillovskii, V. K.

    2014-06-01

    The principles of transformation of a Foucault shadowgram into a quantitative map of wave-front deformation based on creation of a system of isophotes are unveiled. The presented studies and their results prove that there is a high degree of correspondence between a Foucault shadowgram and the geometrical model of a shear interferogram with respect to displaying wave-front deformations.

  17. Numerical prediction of the response of a squat shear wall sunjected to monotonic loading through PARC_CL model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belletti, B.; Esposito, R.; Damoni, C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper adopts the FEM to describe the behaviour of a squat shear wall subjected to monotonic loading conditions. Nonlinear finite element analyses (NLFEA) have been performed with the model, denoted as PARC_CL, implemented at the University of Parma in the user’s subroutine UMAT.for for the

  18. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  19. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane

    2016-07-22

    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  20. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  1. Hydration of marginal basins and compositional variations within the continental lithospheric mantle inferred from a new global model of shear and compressional velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesoniero, Andrea; Auer, Ludwig; Boschi, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    We present a new global model of shear and compressional wave speeds for the entire mantle, partly based on the data set employed for the shear velocity model savani. We invert Rayleigh and Love surface waves up to the sixth overtone in combination with major P and S body wave phases. Mineral...

  2. Ideal flow theory for the double – shearing model as a basis for metal forming design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, S.; Trung, N. T.

    2018-02-01

    In the case of Tresca’ solids (i.e. solids obeying the Tresca yield criterion and its associated flow rule) ideal flows have been defined elsewhere as solenoidal smooth deformations in which an eigenvector field associated everywhere with the greatest principal stress (and strain rate) is fixed in the material. Under such conditions all material elements undergo paths of minimum plastic work, a condition which is often advantageous for metal forming processes. Therefore, the ideal flow theory is used as the basis of a procedure for the preliminary design of such processes. The present paper extends the theory of stationary planar ideal flow to pressure dependent materials obeying the double shearing model and the double slip and rotation model. It is shown that the original problem of plasticity reduces to a purely geometric problem. The corresponding system of equations is hyperbolic. The characteristic relations are integrated in elementary functions. In regions where one family of characteristics is straight, mapping between the principal lines and Cartesian coordinates is determined by linear ordinary differential equations. An illustrative example is provided.

  3. Low-shear modelled microgravity alters expression of virulence determinants of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Helena; Doyle, Marie; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2010-02-01

    Microbiological monitoring of air and surfaces within the ISS indicate that bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are found with high frequency. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen with the capacity to cause severe debilitating infection, constitutes a significant proportion of these isolates. Experiments conducted during short-term flight suggest that growth in microgravity leads to increases in bacterial antibiotic resistance and to cell wall changes. Growth under low-shear modelled microgravity (LSMMG) indicated that a reduced gravitational field acts as an environmental signal for expression of enhanced bacterial virulence in gram-negative pathogens. We therefore examined the effect of simulated microgravity on parameters of antibiotic susceptibility and virulence in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates RF1, RF6 and RF11; these strains were grown in a high aspect ratio vessel under LSMMG and compared with cells grown under normal gravity (NG). There were no significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci grown under LSMMG compared to NG. LSMMG-induced reductions in synthesis of the pigment staphyloxanthin and the major virulence determinant α-toxin were noted. Significant changes in global gene expression were identified by DNA microarray analysis; with isolate RF6, the expression of hla and genes of the regulatory system saeR/saeS were reduced approximately two-fold. These data provide strong evidence that growth of S. aureus under modelled microgravity leads to a reduction in expression of virulence determinants.

  4. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  5. Simulation of gaseous pollutant dispersion around an isolated building using the k-ω SST (shear stress transport) turbulence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hesheng; Thé, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion of gaseous pollutant around buildings is complex due to complex turbulence features such as flow detachment and zones of high shear. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are one of the most promising tools to describe the pollutant distribution in the near field of buildings. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are the most commonly used CFD techniques to address turbulence transport of the pollutant. This research work studies the use of [Formula: see text] closure model for the gas dispersion around a building by fully resolving the viscous sublayer for the first time. The performance of standard [Formula: see text] model is also included for comparison, along with results of an extensively validated Gaussian dispersion model, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model). This study's CFD models apply the standard [Formula: see text] and the [Formula: see text] turbulence models to obtain wind flow field. A passive concentration transport equation is then calculated based on the resolved flow field to simulate the distribution of pollutant concentrations. The resultant simulation of both wind flow and concentration fields are validated rigorously by extensive data using multiple validation metrics. The wind flow field can be acceptably modeled by the [Formula: see text] model. However, the [Formula: see text] model fails to simulate the gas dispersion. The [Formula: see text] model outperforms [Formula: see text] in both flow and dispersion simulations, with higher hit rates for dimensionless velocity components and higher "factor of 2" of observations (FAC2) for normalized concentration. All these validation metrics of [Formula: see text] model pass the quality assurance criteria recommended by The Association of German Engineers (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, VDI) guideline. Furthermore, these metrics are better than or the same as those

  6. Modeling fracture in the context of a strain-limiting theory of elasticity: a single anti-plane shear crack

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-01-06

    This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Model for the alpha and beta shear-mechanical properties of supercooled liquids and its comparison to squalane data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2017-04-21

    This paper presents data for supercooled squalane's frequency-dependent shear modulus covering frequencies from 10 mHz to 30 kHz and temperatures from 168 K to 190 K; measurements are also reported for the glass phase down to 146 K. The data reveal a strong mechanical beta process. A model is proposed for the shear response of the metastable equilibrium liquid phase of supercooled liquids. The model is an electrical equivalent-circuit characterized by additivity of the dynamic shear compliances of the alpha and beta processes. The nontrivial parts of the alpha and beta processes are each represented by a "Cole-Cole retardation element" defined as a series connection of a capacitor and a constant-phase element, resulting in the Cole-Cole compliance function well-known from dielectrics. The model, which assumes that the high-frequency decay of the alpha shear compliance loss varies with the angular frequency as ω -1/2 , has seven parameters. Assuming time-temperature superposition for the alpha and beta processes separately, the number of parameters varying with temperature is reduced to four. The model provides a better fit to the data than an equally parametrized Havriliak-Negami type model. From the temperature dependence of the best-fit model parameters, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) the alpha relaxation time conforms to the shoving model; (2) the beta relaxation loss-peak frequency is almost temperature independent; (3) the alpha compliance magnitude, which in the model equals the inverse of the instantaneous shear modulus, is only weakly temperature dependent; (4) the beta compliance magnitude decreases by a factor of three upon cooling in the temperature range studied. The final part of the paper briefly presents measurements of the dynamic adiabatic bulk modulus covering frequencies from 10 mHz to 10 kHz in the temperature range from 172 K to 200 K. The data are qualitatively similar to the shear modulus data by having a significant beta process

  8. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  9. MHD modeling of ATLAS experiments to study transverse shear interface interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Lindemuth, I R

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The transverse shear established at the interface of two solids moving at differential velocities on the order of the sound speed is being studied in experiments on the ATLAS capacitor bank at Los Alamos, beginning in August 2001. The ATLAS bank has finished certification tests and has demonstrated peak currents of 27.5 MA with a 5 microsecond risetime into an inductive load. One- and two-dimensional MHD calculations have been performed in support of these "friction-like" ATLAS experiments. Current flowing along the outer surface of a thick aluminum liner, roughly 8 mm thick, accelerates the solid liner to velocities ~1 km/s. This cylindrically imploding liner then impacts a target assembly, composed of alternating regions of high and low density materials. The different shock speeds in the two materials leads to a differential velocity along the interface. Shock heating, elastic- plastic flow, and stress transport are included in the calculations. Material strength properties are tre...

  10. Modelling lamb carcase pH and temperature decline parameters: relationship to shear force and abattoir variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J

    2015-02-01

    Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18 °C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs.

  11. Modelling of rheological behaviour of guava, pomelo and soursop juice concentrates via shear rate-temperature-concentration superpositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Norazlin; Chin, Nyuk Ling; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Talib, Rosnita A

    2018-03-01

    The steady-state flow test was conducted on pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo and soursop juice concentrates using a rheometer to understand its rheological behaviour. The power law model was used and a master-curve was created using the shear rate-temperature-concentration superposition technique to predict rheological properties from a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. All three juice concentrates undergo a double horizontal shift whilst the pink-fleshed guava required an additional vertical shift. The final equations show shear-thinning behaviour of pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo and soursop with flow behaviour index of 0.2217, 0.7507 and 0.6347, respectively. The final master-curve predicts shear stress at wide range of shear rates, i.e. between 10 -2 and 10 6  s -1 for the pink-fleshed guava, 10 0 and 10 6  s -1 for the pink-fleshed pomelo and 10 0 and 10 7  s -1 for the soursop. The results provide useful information and effective technique to predict fruit juice concentrates behaviour affected by heat changes during processing.

  12. Influence of Fiber Properties on Shear Failure of Steel Fiber Reinforced Beams Without Web Reinforcement: ANN Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassir M. Abbas

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN-10 model was developed to predict the ultimate shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC beams without web reinforcement. ANN-10 is a four-layered feed forward network with a back propagation training algorithm. The experimental data of 70 SFRC beams reported in the technical literature were utilized to train and test the validity of ANN-10. The input layer receives 10 input signals for the fiber properties (type, aspect ratio, length and volume content, section properties (width, overall depth and effective depth and beam properties (longitudinal reinforcement ratio, compressive strength of concrete and shear span to effective depth ratio. ANN-10 has exhibited excellent predictive performance for both training and testing data sets, with an average of 1.002 for the average of predicted to experimental values. This performance of ANN-10 established the promising potential of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to simulate the complex shear behavior of SFRC beams. ANN-10 was applied to investigate the influence of the fiber volume content, type, aspect ratio and length on the ultimate shear strength of SFRC.

  13. Development of new pedestal temperature models with self-consistent magnetic shear and safety factor in BALDUR and JETTO codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanna, S.; Onjun, T.; Wongpan, P.; Parail, V.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A formation of a steep pressure gradient region near the plasma edge, called the pedestal, is a main reason for an improved performance in H-mode plasma. In this work, new pedestal temperature models are developed based on different theoretical-based width concepts: flow shear stabilization width concept, magnetic and flow shear stabilization width concept, and diamagnetic stabilization width concept. In the BALDUR code, each pedestal width model is combined with a ballooning mode pressure gradient model to predict the pedestal temperature, which is a boundary condition needed to predict plasma profiles. In the JETTO code, an anomalous transport is suppressed within the pedestal region, which results in a formation of a steep pressure gradient region. The pedestal width is predicted using these theoretically based width concepts. The plasma profiles in the pedestal region are limited by ELM crashes, which can be triggered either by ballooning modes or by peeling modes, depending on which instability is destabilized first. It is found in the BALDUR simulations that the simulated pedestal temperature profiles agree well with experimental data in the region close to the pedestal, but show larger deviation in the core region. In a preliminary investigation, these models agree reasonably well with experiments, yielding overall RMS less than 20%. Furthermore, the model based flow shear stabilization matches very well data from both DIII-D and JET, while the model based on magnetic and flow shear stabilization over-predicts results from JET and under-predicts those from DIII-D. Other statistical analyses such a calculation of offset values, ratios of predicted pedestal (resp. core) temperatures to those from experiments are performed. (author)

  14. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  15. Steady State Droplet Deformation and Orientation during Bulk and Confined Shear Flow in Blends with One Viscoelastic Component: Experiments, Modeling and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Kristof; Cardinaels, Ruth; Renardy, Yuriko; Moldenaers, Paula

    2008-07-01

    The steady deformation and orientation of droplets in shear flow, both under bulk and confined conditions, is microscopically studied for blends with one viscoelastic phase and a viscosity ratio of 1.5. The experiments are performed with a Linkam shearing cell and a counter rotating setup, based on a Paar Physica MCR300. For bulk shear flow, it is shown that matrix viscoelasticity suppresses droplet deformation and promotes droplet orientation towards the flow direction. Interestingly, these effects saturate at Deborah numbers above 2. For ellipsoidal droplets, viscoelasticity of the droplet fluid hardly affects the droplet deformation and droplet orientation, even up to Deborah numbers as high as 16. When the droplet is confined between two plates, the droplet deformation and the orientation towards the flow direction increase with confinement ratio, as in fully Newtonian systems. At a Deborah number of 1, the effect of component viscoelasticity under confined conditions remains qualitatively the same as under bulk conditions, at least up to a confinement ratio 2R/H of 0.6. The experiments under bulk conditions are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models, such as the Maffettone-Minale model, for droplet deformation. The Shapira-Haber model, which analytically describes the effects of the walls on the droplet deformation for fully Newtonian systems, is used to describe the experimental results under confinement. Here, this model is combined with the bulk phenomenological models to include bulk viscoelasticity effects. Under the present conditions, the adapted Shapira-Haber model describes the steady droplet deformation under confinement rather well. Finally, the experimentally obtained droplet shapes are compared with the results of 3D simulations, performed with a volume-of-fluid algorithm.

  16. Disturbed flow mediated modulation of shear forces on endothelial plane: A proposed model for studying endothelium around atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-06-01

    Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.

  17. Viscoelastic characterization of elliptical mechanical heterogeneities using a semi-analytical shear-wave scattering model for elastometry measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnon, Emmanuel; Hadj-Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical model of shear wave scattering by a viscoelastic elliptical structure embedded in a viscoelastic medium, and its application in the context of dynamic elastography imaging. The commonly used assumption of mechanical homogeneity in the inversion process is removed introducing a priori geometrical information to model physical interactions of plane shear waves with the confined mechanical heterogeneity. Theoretical results are first validated using the finite element method for various mechanical configurations and incidence angles. Secondly, an inverse problem is formulated to assess viscoelastic parameters of both the elliptic inclusion and its surrounding medium, and applied in vitro to characterize mechanical properties of agar–gelatin phantoms. The robustness of the proposed inversion method is then assessed under various noise conditions, biased geometrical parameters and compared to direct inversion, phase gradient and time-of-flight methods. The proposed elastometry method appears reliable in the context of estimating confined lesion viscoelastic parameters. (paper)

  18. MODELING OF NONLINEAR CYCLIC LOAD BEHAVIOR OF I-SHAPED COMPOSITE STEEL-CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMER ALI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years steel-concrete composite shear walls have been widely used in enormous high-rise buildings. Due to high strength and ductility, enhanced stiffness, stable cycle characteristics and large energy absorption, such walls can be adopted in the auxiliary building; surrounding the reactor containment structure of nuclear power plants to resist lateral forces induced by heavy winds and severe earthquakes. This paper demonstrates a set of nonlinear numerical studies on I-shaped composite steel-concrete shear walls of the nuclear power plants subjected to reverse cyclic loading. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed using ABAQUS by emphasizing on constitutive material modeling and element type to represent the real physical behavior of complex shear wall structures. The analysis escalates with parametric variation in steel thickness sandwiching the stipulated amount of concrete panels. Modeling details of structural components, contact conditions between steel and concrete, associated boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for the cyclic loading are explained. Later, the load versus displacement curves, peak load and ultimate strength values, hysteretic characteristics and deflection profiles are verified with experimental data. The convergence of the numerical outcomes has been discussed to conclude the remarks.

  19. Numerical prediction of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil using pans and improved shear stress transport k-omega model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.

  20. artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    testing. A total of 224 different architectural networks were tried, considering networks with one hidden layer as well as two hidden layers. Error measures of strength ratios were used to select ... The procedure has been automated ... Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete, Artificial Neural Network, design equations.

  1. artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 32, No. 2 (2012), pp 119-132 119. RESEARCH PAPER. Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete, Artificial Neural Network, design equations .... protruding from the crack faces play an impor- tant role.

  2. Shear rheology of lipid monolayers and insights on membrane fluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Gabriel; López-Montero, Iván; Monroy, Francisco; Langevin, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The concept of membrane fluidity usually refers to a high molecular mobility inside the lipid bilayer which enables lateral diffusion of embedded proteins. Fluids have the ability to flow under an applied shear stress whereas solids resist shear deformations. Biological membranes require both properties for their function: high lateral fluidity and structural rigidity. Consequently, an adequate account must include, in addition to viscosity, the possibility for a nonzero shear modulus. This knowledge is still lacking as measurements of membrane shear properties have remained incomplete so far. In the present contribution we report a surface shear rheology study of different lipid monolayers that model distinct biologically relevant situations. The results evidence a large variety of mechanical behavior under lateral shear flow. PMID:21444777

  3. 3-D flow characterization and shear stress in a stenosed carotid artery bifurcation model using stereoscopic PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L

    2010-01-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.

  4. Effect of bidirectional internal flow on fluid–structure interaction dynamics of conveying marine riser model subject to shear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Shou Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward on fluid–structure interaction (FSI dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid–structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.

  5. A finite element model to study the effect of tissue anisotropy on ex vivo arterial shear wave elastography measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, D A; Debusschere, N; Caenen, A; Iannaccone, F; Pernot, M; Swillens, A; Segers, P

    2017-07-07

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an ultrasound (US) diagnostic method for measuring the stiffness of soft tissues based on generated shear waves (SWs). SWE has been applied to bulk tissues, but in arteries it is still under investigation. Previously performed studies in arteries or arterial phantoms demonstrated the potential of SWE to measure arterial wall stiffness-a relevant marker in prediction of cardiovascular diseases. This study is focused on numerical modelling of SWs in ex vivo equine aortic tissue, yet based on experimental SWE measurements with the tissue dynamically loaded while rotating the US probe to investigate the sensitivity of SWE to the anisotropic structure. A good match with experimental shear wave group speed results was obtained. SWs were sensitive to the orthotropy and nonlinearity of the material. The model also allowed to study the nature of the SWs by performing 2D FFT-based and analytical phase analyses. A good match between numerical group velocities derived using the time-of-flight algorithm and derived from the dispersion curves was found in the cross-sectional and axial arterial views. The complexity of solving analytical equations for nonlinear orthotropic stressed plates was discussed.

  6. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  7. The MMS Dayside Magnetic Reconnection Locations During Phase 1 and Their Relation to the Predictions of the Maximum Magnetic Shear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R.; Eriksson, S.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Gomez, R. G.; Grimes, E. W.; Lewis, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Petrinec, S. M.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Trenchi, L.; Wilder, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have validated the accuracy of the maximum magnetic shear model to predict the location of the reconnection site at the dayside magnetopause. These studies found agreement between model and observations for 74% to 88% of events examined. It should be noted that, of the anomalous events that failed the prediction of the model, 72% shared a very specific parameter range. These events occurred around equinox for an interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle of about 240°. This study investigates if this remarkable grouping of events is also present in data from the recently launched MMS. The MMS magnetopause encounter database from the first dayside phase of the mission includes about 4,500 full and partial magnetopause crossings and flux transfer events. We use the known reconnection line signature of switching accelerated ion beams in the magnetopause boundary layer to identify encounters with the reconnection region and identify 302 events during phase 1a when the spacecraft are at reconnection sites. These confirmed reconnection locations are compared with the predicted location from the maximum magnetic shear model and revealed an 80% agreement. The study also revealed the existence of anomalous cases as mentioned in an earlier study. The anomalies are concentrated for times around the equinoxes together with IMF clock angles around 140° and 240°. Another group of anomalies for the same clock angle ranges was found during December events.

  8. Modeling, design, packing and experimental analysis of liquid-phase shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas B

    Recent advances in microbiology, computational capabilities, and microelectromechanical-system fabrication techniques permit modeling, design, and fabrication of low-cost, miniature, sensitive and selective liquid-phase sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems. Such devices are expected to replace expensive, time-consuming, and bulky laboratory-based testing equipment. Potential applications for devices include: fluid characterization for material science and industry; chemical analysis in medicine and pharmacology; study of biological processes; food analysis; chemical kinetics analysis; and environmental monitoring. When combined with liquid-phase packaging, sensors based on surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) technology are considered strong candidates. For this reason such devices are focused on in this work; emphasis placed on device modeling and packaging for liquid-phase operation. Regarding modeling, topics considered include mode excitation efficiency of transducers; mode sensitivity based on guiding structure materials/geometries; and use of new piezoelectric materials. On packaging, topics considered include package interfacing with SAW devices, and minimization of packaging effects on device performance. In this work novel numerical models are theoretically developed and implemented to study propagation and transduction characteristics of sensor designs using wave/constitutive equations, Green's functions, and boundary/finite element methods. Using developed simulation tools that consider finite-thickness of all device electrodes, transduction efficiency for SAW transducers with neighboring uniform or periodic guiding electrodes is reported for the first time. Results indicate finite electrode thickness strongly affects efficiency. Using dense electrodes, efficiency is shown to approach 92% and 100% for uniform and periodic electrode guiding, respectively; yielding improved sensor detection limits. A numerical sensitivity analysis is presented targeting viscosity

  9. Determination of the Orthokinetic Coalescence Efficiency of Droplets in Simple Shear Flow Using Mobile, Partially Mobile and Immobile Drainage Models and Trajectory Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousa, H.A.H.; Agterof, W.G.M.; Mellema, J.

    2002-01-01

    The orthokinetic coalescence efficiency, of two Newtonian droplets submerged in a Newtonian fluid in simple shear flow, was theoretically investigated. The investigation considered three drainage models: immobile, partially mobile and mobile interfaces. The coalescence efficiency was also determined

  10. Two-dimensional strain-hardening membrane model for large deformation behavior of multiple red blood cells in high shear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Swe Soe; Ng, Yan Cheng; Tan, Justin; Leo, Hwa Liang; Kim, Sangho

    2014-05-13

    Computational modeling of Red Blood Cell (RBC) flow contributes to the fundamental understanding of microhemodynamics and microcirculation. In order to construct theoretical RBC models, experimental studies on single RBC mechanics have presented a material description for RBC membranes based on their membrane shear, bending and area moduli. These properties have been directly employed in 3D continuum models of RBCs but practical flow analysis with 3D models have been limited by their computationally expensive nature. As such, various researchers have employed 2D models to efficiently and qualitatively study microvessel flows. Currently, the representation of RBC dynamics using 2D models is a limited methodology that breaks down at high shear rates due to excessive and unrealistic stretching. We propose a localized scaling of the 2D elastic moduli such that it increases with RBC local membrane strain, thereby accounting for effects such as the Poisson effect and membrane local area incompressibility lost in the 2D simplification. Validation of our 2D Large Deformation (2D-LD) RBC model was achieved by comparing the predicted RBC deformation against the 3D model from literature for the case of a single RBC in simple shear flow under various shear rates (dimensionless shear rate G = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5). The multi-cell flow of RBCs (38% Hematocrit) in a 20 μm width microchannel under varying shear rates (50, 150, 150 s-1) was then simulated with our proposed model and the popularly-employed 2D neo-Hookean model in order to evaluate the efficacy of our proposed 2D-LD model. The validation set indicated similar RBC deformation for both the 2D-LD and the 3D models across the studied shear rates, highlighting the robustness of our model. The multi-cell simulation indicated that the 2D neo-Hookean model predicts noodle-like RBC shapes at high shear rates (G = 0.5) whereas our 2D-LD model maintains sensible RBC deformations. The ability of the 2D-LD model to

  11. Hemodynamic analysis in an idealized artery tree: differences in wall shear stress between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared C Weddell

    Full Text Available Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.

  12. Evaluating winds and vertical wind shear from Weather Research and Forecasting model forecasts using seven planetary boundary layer schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    with different PBL parameterizations at one coastal site over western Denmark. The evaluation focuses on determining which PBL parameterization performs best for wind energy forecasting, and presenting a validation methodology that takes into account wind speed at different heights. Winds speeds at heights...... regarding wind energy at these levels partly depends on the formulation and implementation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in these models. This study evaluates wind speeds and vertical wind shears simulated by theWeather Research and Forecasting model using seven sets of simulations...

  13. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  14. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heecheul Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spacing ratio increased. Also, we used the experimental results to evaluate whether the shear strength equations of ACI 318-14 and ACI 440.1R can be applied to the design of GFRP shear reinforcement. In the results, the ACI 440 equation underestimated the experimental results more than that of ACI 318.

  15. On modelling of shear fracture in deep drawing of a high-strength dual-phase sheet steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bonk, C.; Peshekhodov, I.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents application of fracture behaviour characterisation results of a dual-phase sheet steel DP600 to an FEA of its deep-drawing for shear fracture prediction. The characterisation results were obtained with the help of a characterisation method based on a tensile test on a novel butterfly specimen and published previously by the authors. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate that characterisation method on a deep-drawing process. Based on the previous results of the authors, the fracture behaviour is modelled here with the help of the modified Mohr-Coloumb fracture model. The obtained FEA results reveal that shear fracture of the studied material is predicted too early by the used MMC fracture model. A novel adjustment of the model is proposed yielding infinitely high fracture strains at strongly pressure-superimposed stress states. As it is often the case in the state-of-the-art fracture characterisation of high-strenght sheet steels, such stress states were not tested during the previously performed fracture characterisation but occur during the studied deep drawing process. With the help of the adjusted MMC fracture model, it is possible to predict the crack initiation moment very accurately and the crack initiation location sufficiently accurately.

  16. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra

    2009-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Length-scales of Slab-induced Asthenospheric Deformation from Geodynamic Modeling, Mantle Deformation Fabric, and Synthetic Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear

  18. Intimal hyperplasia and wall shear in arterial bypass graft distal anastomoses: an in vivo model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynton, R S; Evancho, M M; Sims, R L; Rodway, N V; Gobin, A; Rittgers, S E

    2001-10-01

    The observation of intimal hyperplasia at bypass graft anastomoses has suggested a potential interaction between local hemodynamics and vascular wall response. Wall shear has been particularly implicated because of its known effects upon the endothelium of normal vessels and, thus, was examined as to its possible role in the development of intimal hyperplasia in arterial bypass graft distal anastomoses. Tapered (4-7 mm I.D.) e-PTFE synthetic grafts 6 cm long were placed as bilateral carotid artery bypasses in six adult, mongrel dogs weighing between 25 and 30 kg with distal anastomotic graft-to-artery diameter ratios (DR) of either 1.0 or 1.5. Immediately following implantation, simultaneous axial velocity measurements were made in the toe and artery floor regions in the plane of the anastomosis at radial increments of 0.35 mm, 0.70 mm, and 1.05 mm using a specially designed 20 MHz triple crystal ultrasonic wall shear rate transducer Mean, peak, and pulse amplitude wall shear rates (WSRs), their absolute values, the spatial and temporal wall shear stress gradients (WSSG), and the oscillatory shear index (OSI) were computed from these velocity measurements. All grafts were harvested after 12 weeks implantation and measurements of the degree of intimal hyperplasia (IH) were made along the toe region and the artery floor of the host artery in 1 mm increments. While some IH occurred along the toe region (8.35+/-23.1 microm) and was significantly different between DR groups (p<0.003), the greatest amount occurred along the artery floor (81.6+/-106.5 microm, mean +/- S.D.) (p < 0.001) although no significant differences were found between DR groups. Linear regressions were performed on the paired IH and mean, peak, and pulse amplitude WSR data as well as the absolute mean, peak, and pulse amplitude WSR data from all grafts. The mean and absolute mean WSRs showed a modest correlation with IH (r = -0.406 and -0.370, respectively) with further improvements seen (r = -0

  19. Simulation of nonlinear transient elastography: finite element model for the propagation of shear waves in homogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M

    2018-01-01

    In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identification process based on shear wave propagation within a phantom using finite element modelling and magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Gwladys E; Charleux, Fabrice; Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), based on shear wave propagation generated by a specific driver, is a non-invasive exam performed in clinical practice to improve the liver diagnosis. The purpose was to develop a finite element (FE) identification method for the mechanical characterisation of phantom mimicking soft tissues investigated with MRE technique. Thus, a 3D FE phantom model, composed of the realistic MRE liver boundary conditions, was developed to simulate the shear wave propagation with the software ABAQUS. The assumptions of homogeneity and elasticity were applied to the FE phantom model. Different ranges of mesh size, density and Poisson's ratio were tested in order to develop the most representative FE phantom model. The simulated wave displacement was visualised with a dynamic implicit analysis. Subsequently, an identification process was performed with a cost function and an optimisation loop provided the optimal elastic properties of the phantom. The present identification process was validated on a phantom model, and the perspective will be to apply this method on abdominal tissues for the set-up of new clinical MRE protocols that could be applied for the follow-up of the effects of treatments.

  1. Towards a new technique to construct a 3D shear-wave velocity model based on converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.; Colavitti, L.

    2017-12-01

    A 3D model is essential in all branches of solid Earth sciences because geological structures can be heterogeneous and change significantly in their lateral dimension. The main target of this research is to build a crustal S-wave velocity structure in 3D. The currently popular methodologies to construct 3D shear-wave velocity models are Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) and Local Earthquake Tomography (LET). Here we propose a new technique to map Earth discontinuities and velocities at depth based on the analysis of receiver functions. The 3D model is obtained by simultaneously inverting P-to-S converted waveforms recorded at a dense array. The individual velocity models corresponding to each trace are extracted from the 3D initial model along ray paths that are calculated using the shooting method, and the velocity model is updated during the inversion. We consider a spherical approximation of ray propagation using a global velocity model (iasp91, Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) for the teleseismic part, while we adopt Cartesian coordinates and a local velocity model for the crust. During the inversion process we work with a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity, with a flexible mesh for the depth of the interfaces. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter space. Depending on the studied area, this method can accommodate possible independent and complementary geophysical data (gravity, active seismics, LET, ANT, etc.), helping to reduce the non-linearity of the inversion. Our first focus of application is the Central Alps, where a 20-year long dataset of

  2. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model is b...

  3. Brief communication: On the influence of vertical wind shear on the combined power output of two model wind turbines in yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical wind shear on the total power output of two aligned model wind turbines as a function of yaw misalignment of the upstream turbine is studied experimentally. It is shown that asymmetries of the power output of the downstream turbine and the combined power of both with respect to the upstream turbine's yaw misalignment angle can be linked to the vertical wind shear of the inflow.

  4. Fracture Mechanics Models for Brittle Failure of Bottom Rails due to Uplift in Timber Frame Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen L. Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In partially anchored timber frame shear walls, hold-down devices are not provided; hence the uplift forces are transferred by the fasteners of the sheathing-to-framing joints into the bottom rail and via anchor bolts from the bottom rail into the foundation. Since the force in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail is subjected to tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. This paper presents simple analytical models based on fracture mechanics for the analysis of such bottom rails. An existing model is reviewed and several alternative models are derived and compared qualitatively and with experimental data. It is concluded that several of the fracture mechanics models lead to failure load predictions which seem in sufficiently good agreement with the experimental results to justify their application in practical design.

  5. Numerical simulation of turbulent shear flow using a cascade model; Numerische Simulation turbulenter Scherstroemungen mit einem Kaskadenmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, V.

    1998-01-01

    Homogeneous stratified turbulent shear flow was simulated numerically using the cascade model of Eggers and Grossmann (1991). The model is made applicable to homogeneous shear flow by transformation into a coordinate system that moves along with a basic flow with a constant vertical velocity gradient. The author simulated cases of stable thermal stratification with Richardson numbers in the range of 0{<=}Ri{<=}1. The simulation data were evaluated with particular regard to the anisotropic characteristics of the turbulence field. Further, the results are compared with some common equation systems up to second order. (orig.) [Deutsch] Thema der vorliegenden Dissertation ist die numerische Simulation homogener geschichteter turbulenter Scherstroemungen. Grundlage der Simulation ist das von Eggers and Grossmann (1991) entwickelte Kaskadenmodell. Dieses Modell wird durch Transformation in ein Koordinatensystem, das mit einem Grundstrom mit konstantem vertikalen Geschwindigkeitsgradienten mitbewegt wird, auf homogene Scherstroemungen angewendet. Simuliert werden Faelle mit stabiler thermischer Schichtung mit Richardsonzahlen im Bereich von 0{<=}Ri{<=}1. Der Schwerpunkt bei der Auswertung der Simulationsdaten liegt auf der Untersuchung der Anisotropie-Eigenschaften des Turbulenzfeldes. Darueber hinaus wird ein Vergleich mit einigen gaengigen Schliessungsansaetzen bis zur zweiten Ordnung gezogen. (orig.)

  6. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  7. In-situ tracer tests and models developed to understand flow paths in a shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, I.; Martin, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Grimsel Test Site (www.grimsel.com) is an international underground research laboratory excavated at a depth of 450m below the surface in the crystalline Aare Massif of southern Switzerland in 1984. It is operated and owned by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland (NAGRA) which is the organization responsible for managing and researching the geological disposal of all types of radioactive wastes originating in Switzerland. One experiment, the Colloid Formation and Migration test (CFM*), is an ongoing in-situ migration test started in 2004 to study colloid facilitated transport behavior of radionuclides through a shear zone. The importance of colloid transport in the context of a radioactive waste repository is that it provides a mechanism for potentially enhancing the advective transport of radionuclides. The montmorillonite clays that are planned to be used as an engineered barrier around the radioactive waste in many repository concepts may be a source of such colloids under specific hydraulic and/or chemical boundary conditions. The CFM project includes an integrated programme of field testing, laboratory studies and modelling/interpretation. The field tests are performed in a shear zone where the natural outflow has been controlled by a tunnel packer system and flow is monitored with an array of boreholes drilled for CFM and previous experiments at the site. The flow field is controlled by a low-rate extraction from a surface packer. The controlled low-rate extraction creates a region of low hydraulic gradients and fluid velocity within the shear zone, suitable for study under repository-relevant or other geo-resource relevant conditions. Here we present a summary of the migration tracer tests carried out so far to understand the hydraulic properties and transport characteristics of the shear zone using both stable and radioactive (Na-22, Cs-137, Ba-133, Th-232, Np-237, Am-243, Pu-242) tracers as well as colloids, and

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of Spatially Developing Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers with the One-Dimensional Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffie, Andreas Frank

    Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky

  9. Towards a new tool to develop a 3-D shear-wave velocity model from converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavitti, Leonardo; Hetényi, György

    2017-04-01

    The main target of this work is to develop a new method in which we exploit converted waves to construct a fully 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust. A reliable 3-D model is very important in Earth sciences because geological structures may vary significantly in their lateral dimension. In particular, shear-waves provide valuable complementary information with respect to P-waves because they usually guarantee a much better correlation in terms of rock density and mechanical properties, reducing the interpretation ambiguities. Therefore, it is fundamental to develop a new technique to improve structural images and to describe different lithologies in the crust. In this study we start from the analysis of receiver functions (RF, Langston, 1977), which are nowadays largely used for structural investigations based on passive seismic experiments, to map Earth discontinuities at depth. The RF technique is also commonly used to invert for velocity structure beneath single stations. Here, we plan to combine two strengths of RF method: shear-wave velocity inversion and dense arrays. Starting from a simple 3-D forward model, synthetic RFs are obtained extracting the structure along a ray to match observed data. During the inversion, thanks to a dense stations network, we aim to build and develop a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity. The initial model should be chosen simple to make sure that the inversion process is not influenced by the constraints in terms of depth and velocity posed at the beginning. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999a, b), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter

  10. An interfacial shear term evaluation study for adiabatic dispersed air–water two-phase flow with the two-fluid model using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two

  11. Transient Droplet Behavior and Droplet Breakup during Bulk and Confined Shear Flow in Blends with One Viscoelastic Component: Experiments, Modelling and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinaels, Ruth; Verhulst, Kristof; Renardy, Yuriko; Moldenaers, Paula

    2008-07-01

    The transient droplet deformation and droplet orientation after inception of shear, the shape relaxation after cessation of shear and droplet breakup during shear, are microscopically studied, both under bulk and confined conditions. The studied blends contain one viscoelastic Boger fluid phase. A counter rotating setup, based on a Paar Physica MCR300, is used for the droplet visualisation. For bulk shear flow, it is shown that the droplet deformation during startup of shear flow and the shape relaxation after cessation of shear flow are hardly influenced by droplet viscoelasticity, even at moderate to high capillary and Deborah numbers. The effects of droplet viscoelasticity only become visible close to the critical conditions and a novel break-up mechanism is observed. Matrix viscoelasticity has a more pronounced effect, causing overshoots in the deformation and significantly inhibiting relaxation. However, different applied capillary numbers prior to cessation of shear flow, with the Deborah number fixed, still result in a single master curve for shape retraction, as in fully Newtonian systems. The long tail in the droplet relaxation can be qualitatively described with a phenomenological model for droplet deformation, when using a 5-mode Giesekus model for the fluid rheology. It is found that the shear flow history significantly affects the droplet shape evolution and the breakup process in blends with one viscoelastic component. Confining a droplet between two plates accelerates the droplet deformation kinetics, similar to fully Newtonian systems. However, the increased droplet deformation, due to wall effects, causes the steady state to be reached at a later instant in time. Droplet relaxation is less sensitive to confinement, leading to slower relaxation kinetics only for highly confined droplets. For the blend with a viscoelastic droplet, a non-monotonous trend is found for the critical capillary number as a function of the confinement ratio. Finally

  12. Transient Droplet Behavior and Droplet Breakup during Bulk and Confined Shear Flow in Blends with One Viscoelastic Component: Experiments, Modelling and Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinaels, Ruth; Verhulst, Kristof; Moldenaers, Paula; Renardy, Yuriko

    2008-01-01

    The transient droplet deformation and droplet orientation after inception of shear, the shape relaxation after cessation of shear and droplet breakup during shear, are microscopically studied, both under bulk and confined conditions. The studied blends contain one viscoelastic Boger fluid phase. A counter rotating setup, based on a Paar Physica MCR300, is used for the droplet visualisation. For bulk shear flow, it is shown that the droplet deformation during startup of shear flow and the shape relaxation after cessation of shear flow are hardly influenced by droplet viscoelasticity, even at moderate to high capillary and Deborah numbers. The effects of droplet viscoelasticity only become visible close to the critical conditions and a novel break-up mechanism is observed. Matrix viscoelasticity has a more pronounced effect, causing overshoots in the deformation and significantly inhibiting relaxation. However, different applied capillary numbers prior to cessation of shear flow, with the Deborah number fixed, still result in a single master curve for shape retraction, as in fully Newtonian systems. The long tail in the droplet relaxation can be qualitatively described with a phenomenological model for droplet deformation, when using a 5-mode Giesekus model for the fluid rheology. It is found that the shear flow history significantly affects the droplet shape evolution and the breakup process in blends with one viscoelastic component. Confining a droplet between two plates accelerates the droplet deformation kinetics, similar to fully Newtonian systems. However, the increased droplet deformation, due to wall effects, causes the steady state to be reached at a later instant in time. Droplet relaxation is less sensitive to confinement, leading to slower relaxation kinetics only for highly confined droplets. For the blend with a viscoelastic droplet, a non-monotonous trend is found for the critical capillary number as a function of the confinement ratio. Finally

  13. Modeling and phantom studies of ultrasonic wall shear rate measurements using coded pulse excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Jean K; Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F

    2006-04-01

    Wall shear rate (WSR) is the derivative of blood velocity with respect to vessel radius at the endothelial cell (EC) surface. The product of WSR and blood viscosity is the wall shear stress (WSS) that has been identified as an important factor for atherosclerosis development. High echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) and high spatial resolution are crucial for minimizing the errors in WSR estimates. By transmitting coded pulses with time-bandwidth product greater than one, high eSNR from weak blood scatter can be achieved without increasing instantaneous power or sacrificing spatial resolution. This paper summarizes a series of measurements in a straight tube (5-mm diameter), constant velocity flow phantom using a 10 MHz transducer (60% bandwidth, f/1.5) imaged with a 72 degrees Doppler angle, 125 MHz sampling frequency and 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Measurements were made using a frequency-modulated (FM) code, phase-modulated (PM) codes, and uncoded broadband and narrow band pulse transmissions. Both simulation and experimental results show that coded-pulse excitation increases accuracy and precision in WSR estimation for laminar flow over a broad range of peak velocity values when compared to standard pulsing techniques in noise-limited conditions (eSNR < 30 dB). The code sequence and its length are selected to balance range lobe suppression with eSNR and echo coherence enhancements to minimize WSR errors. In our study, the combination of an eight bit Optimal coded pulse with a Wiener compression filter yielded the highest WSR estimation performance.

  14. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The s-α diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, ω A =V A /qR. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Shear-induced inflation of coronal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchuk, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Using numerical models of force-free magnetic fields, the shearing of footprints in arcade geometries leading to an inflation of the coronal magnetic field was examined. For each of the shear profiles considered, all of the field lines become elevated compared with the potential field. This includes cases where the shear is concentrated well away from the arcade axis, such that B(sub z), the component of field parallel to the axis, increases outward to produce an inward B(sub z) squared/8 pi magnetic pressure gradient force. These results contrast with an earlier claim, shown to be incorrect, that field lines can sometimes become depressed as a result of shear. It is conjectured that an inflation of the entire field will always result from the shearing of simple arcade configurations. These results have implications for prominence formation, the interplanetary magnetic flux, and possibly also coronal holes. 38 refs

  16. Direct Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al-Quraishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the accuracy of load-deformation behavior, failure mode, and ultimate load capacity for reinforced concrete members subjected to in-plane loadings such as corbels, wall to foundation connections and panels need shear strength behavior to be included. Shear design in reinforced concrete structures depends on crack width, crack slippage and roughness of the surface of cracks. This paper illustrates results of an experimental investigation conducted to investigate the direct shear strength of fiber normal strength concrete (NSC and reactive powder concrete (RPC. The tests were performed along a pre-selected shear plane in concrete members named push-off specimens. The effectiveness of concrete compressive strength, volume fraction of steel fiber, and shear reinforcement ratio on shear transfer capacity were considered in this study. Furthermore, failure modes, shear stress-slip behavior, and shear stress-crack width behavior were also presented in this study. Tests’ results showed that volume fraction of steel fiber and compressive strength of concrete in NSC and RPC play a major role in improving the shear strength of concrete. As expectedly, due to dowel action, the shear reinforcement is the predominant factor in resisting the shear stress. The shear failure of NSC and RPC has the sudden mode of failure (brittle failure with the approximately linear behavior of shear stress-slip relationship till failure. Using RPC instead of NSC with the same amount of steel fibers in constructing the push-off specimen result in high shear strength. In NSC, shear strength influenced by the three major factors; crack surface friction, aggregate interlock and steel fiber content if present. Whereas, RPC has only steel fiber and cracks surface friction influencing the shear strength. Due to cementitious nature of RPC in comparisons with NSC, the RPC specimen shows greater cracks width. It is observed that the Mattock model gives very satisfactory

  17. A Mesoscopic Analytical Model to Predict the Onset of Wrinkling in Plain Woven Preforms under Bias Extension Shear Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mesoscopic analytical model of wrinkling of Plain-Woven Composite Preforms (PWCPs under the bias extension test is presented, based on a new instability analysis. The analysis is aimed to facilitate a better understanding of the nature of wrinkle formation in woven fabrics caused by large in-plane shear, while it accounts for the effect of fabric and process parameters on the onset of wrinkling. To this end, the mechanism of wrinkle formation in PWCPs in mesoscale is simplified and an equivalent structure composed of bars and different types of springs is proposed, mimicking the behavior of a representative PWCP element at the post-locking state. The parameters of this equivalent structure are derived based on geometric and mechanical characteristics of the PWCP. The principle of minimum total potential energy is employed to formluate the model, and experimental validation is carried out to reveal the effectiveness of the derived wrinkling prediction equation.

  18. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production - A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    continuous production line is still hampered by complex steps such as granulation and drying which are considered to be too inflexible to handle potential product change-overs. Granulation is necessary in order to achieve good flowability properties and better control of drug content uniformity. This paper...... reviews modelling and supporting measurement tools for the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process, which is an important granulation technique due to the inherent benefits and the suitability of this unit operation for the desired switch to continuous mode. For gaining improved insight...... into the complete system, particle-level mechanisms are required to be better understood, and linked with an appropriate meso- or macro-scale model. A brief review has been provided to understand the mechanisms of the granulation process at micro- or particle-level such as those involving wetting and nucleation...

  19. Modeling and analysis of dual-output piezoelectric transformer operating at the thickness-shear vibration mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinlong; Hu, Junhui; Tseng, King-Jet; Kai, Chen Shu; Siong, Goh Chee

    2006-03-01

    In our previous study, the multioutput piezoelectric transformer operating at the thickness-shear vibration mode was proposed and experimentally investigated. By designing a new construction of support and lead wire connection, a power density of 52.7 W/cm3 and a total output power of 169.8 W were achieved at a temperature rise less than 20 degrees C. In this work, a theoretical model was developed for the dual-output piezoelectric transformer operating at the thickness-shear vibration mode. The equivalent circuit parameters of the piezoelectric transformer were derived. Based on this, the impedance characteristics, equivalent inductance, capacitance ratio, voltage gain, and efficiency of the piezoelectric transformer were calculated. The theoretical results were verified by experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of the transformer size on the voltage gain, efficiency, output power and power density, and the effect of the load of one output on the voltage gain of another output were analyzed. Some useful guidelines were achieved by these analyses.

  20. Impact of competitive flow on wall shear stress in coronary surgery: computational fluid dynamics of a LIMA-LAD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgaard, Håvard; Swillens, Abigail; Nordhaug, Dag; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Van Loo, Denis; Vitale, Nicola; Segers, Patrick; Haaverstad, Rune; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2010-12-01

    Competitive flow from native coronary vessels is considered a major factor in the failure of coronary bypass grafts. However, the pathophysiological effects are not fully understood. Low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, like atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The aim was to investigate the impact of competitive flow on WSS in mammary artery bypass grafts. Using computational fluid dynamics, WSS was calculated in a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery in a three-dimensional in vivo porcine coronary artery bypass graft model. The following conditions were investigated: high competitive flow (non-significant coronary lesion), partial competitive flow (significant coronary lesion), and no competitive flow (totally occluded coronary vessel). Time-averaged WSS of LIMA at high, partial, and no competitive flow were 0.3-0.6, 0.6-3.0, and 0.9-3.0 Pa, respectively. Further, oscillatory WSS quantified as the oscillatory shear index (OSI) ranged from (maximum OSI = 0.5 equals zero net WSS) 0.15 to 0.35, OSI similar to the no competitive flow condition. Graft flow is highly dependent on the degree of competitive flow. High competitive flow was found to produce unfavourable WSS consistent with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent graft narrowing and failure. Partial competitive flow, however, may be better tolerated as it was found to be similar to the ideal condition of no competitive flow.

  1. Phase Aberration and Attenuation Effects on Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Wave Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Carolina; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue elasticity is measured by shear wave elasticity imaging methods using acoustic radiation force to create the shear waves. Phase aberration and tissue attenuation can hamper the generation of shear waves for in vivo applications. In this study effects of phase aberration and attenuation in ultrasound focusing for creating shear waves were explored. This includes the effects of phase shifts and amplitude attenuation on shear wave characteristics such as shear wave amplitude, shear wave speed, shear wave center frequency and bandwidth. Two samples of swine belly tissue were used to create phase aberration and attenuation experimentally. To explore the phase aberration and attenuation effects individually, tissue experiments were complemented with ultrasound beam simulations using FOCUS and shear wave simulations using Finite Element Model (FEM) analysis. The ultrasound frequency used to generate shear waves was varied from 3.0 to 4.5 MHz. Results The measured acoustic pressure and resulting shear wave amplitude decreased approximately 40% to 90% with the introduction of the tissue samples. Acoustic intensity and shear wave displacement were correlated for both tissue samples, the resulting Pearson’s correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.97. Analysis of shear wave generation with tissue samples (Phase Aberration and Attenuation case), measured phase screen (Only Phase Aberration case) and FOCUS/FEM model (Only Attenuation case) showed that tissue attenuation affected the shear wave generation more than tissue aberration. Decreasing the ultrasound frequency helped maintain a focused beam for creation of shear waves in the presence of both phase aberration and attenuation. PMID:26742131

  2. Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1991-11-01

    Results of seismic and other geophysical investigations suggest that strike-slip processes controlled the break-up of the Arabian plate from Africa and initiated the Red Sea Rift. Early oceanisation was facilitated by nucleation of pull apart basins and massive intrusives. The evolution of the Red Sea has gone through different stages. It was a zone of structural weakness already during the Pan-African orogeny approximately 600 Ma. A major reactivation, however, that gradually led to the present-day configuration was initiated during the late Oligocene with intense magmatic activity and the development of a continental rift. Wrench faulting played a key role in the early evolution of the Red Sea, as it shaped most of its western flank as a sharp plate boundary and resulted in the generation and rapid oceanisation of linearly arranged pull apart basins. Spatial distribution of these basins reflects the geometry of the strike-slip zone, which was controlled by pre-existing fault systems like the Najd Shear System, the Central African Fault Zone or the Onib-Hamisana and Baraka suture zones. Strike-slip motion along the latter zones of weakness influenced mainly the Egyptian and Sudanese coastal areas. Arabia was therefore separated from Africa by oceanisation in those regions, where pull apart basins developed. They were still connected in the in-between segments by stretched continental crust. With Arabia as the "moving" and Africa as the "stable" plate the eastern Red Sea flank was formed by pure shear through stretching, thinning and diffuse extension. As a consequence, the eastern and western flanks of the Red Sea are asymmetrical. The acceleration of the movement of Arabia in early/middle Miocene could no longer be accommodated by the opening in the Gulf of Suez and consequently the Dead Sea strike-slip fault developed approximately 14 Ma ago. Since plate motion was still oblique to the major structural trends, the pull apart evolution on the western flank

  3. The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.

  4. Modelling and Simulating the Adhesion and Detachment of Chondrocytes in Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Rosenstrauch, Doreen

    Chondrocytes are typically studied in the environment where they normally reside such as the joints in hips, intervertebral disks or the ear. For example, in [SKE+99], the effect of seeding duration on the strength of chondrocyte adhesion to articulate cartilage has been studied in shear flow chamber since such adhesion may play an important role in the repair of articular defects by maintaining cells in positions where their biosynthetic products can contribute to the repair process. However, in this investigation, we focus mainly on the use of auricular chondrocytes in cardiovascular implants. They are abundant, easily and efficiently harvested by a minimally invasive technique. Auricular chondrocytes have ability to produce collagen type-II and other important extracellular matrix constituents; this allows them to adhere strongly to the artificial surfaces. They can be genetically engineered to act like endothelial cells so that the biocompatibility of cardiovascular prothesis can be improved. Actually in [SBBR+02], genetically engineered auricular chondrocytes can be used to line blood-contacting luminal surfaces of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and a chondrocyte-lined LVAD has been planted into the tissue-donor calf and the results in vivo have proved the feasibility of using autologous auricular chondrocytes to improve the biocompatibility of the blood-biomaterial interface in LVADs and cardiovascular prothesis. Therefore, cultured chondrocytes may offer a more efficient and less invasive means of covering artificial surface with a viable and adherent cell layer.

  5. The Peano-series solution for modeling shear horizontal waves in piezoelectric plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ghozlen M.H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The shear horizontal (SH wave devices have been widely used in electroacoustic. To improve their performance, the phase velocity dispersion and the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly in the design. Therefore, this work is to analyze exactly the Lamb waves polarized in the SH direction in homogeneous plate pie.zoelectric material (PZT-5H. An alternative method is proposed to solve the wave equation in such a structure without using the standard method based on the electromechanical partial waves. This method is based on an analytical solution, the matricant explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Two types of configuration have been addressed, namely the open circuited and the short circuited. Results confirm that the SH wave provides a number of attractive properties for use in sensing and signal processing applications. It has been found that the phase velocity remains nearly constant for all values of h/λ (h is the plate thickness, λ the acoustic wavelength. Secondly the SH0 wave mode can provide very high electromechanical coupling. Graphical representations of electrical and mechanical amounts function of depth are made, they are in agreement with the continuity rules. The developed Peano technique is in agreement with the classical approach, and can be suitable with cylindrical geometry.

  6. BioModels: expanding horizons to include more modelling approaches and formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glont, Mihai; Nguyen, Tung V N; Graesslin, Martin; Hälke, Robert; Ali, Raza; Schramm, Jochen; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Kothamachu, Varun B; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Swat, Maciej J; Eils, Jurgen; Eils, Roland; Laibe, Camille; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-01-04

    BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels. This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Model for the alpha and beta shear-mechanical properties of supercooled liquids and its comparison to squalane data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents data for supercooled squalane’s frequency-dependent shear modulus covering frequencies from 10 mHz to 30 kHz and temperatures from 168 K to 190 K; measurements are also reported for the glass phase down to 146 K. The data reveal a strong mechanical beta process. A model...... with the angular frequency as ω−1/2ω−1/2, has seven parameters. Assuming time-temperature superposition for the alpha and beta processes separately, the number of parameters varying with temperature is reduced to four. The model provides a better fit to the data than an equally parametrized Havriliak-Negami type...... model. From the temperature dependence of the best-fit model parameters, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) the alpha relaxation time conforms to the shoving model; (2) the beta relaxation loss-peak frequency is almost temperature independent; (3) the alpha compliance magnitude, which in the model...

  8. Hydrodynamic modeling of juvenile mussel dispersal in a large river: The potential effects of bed shear stress and other parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Because unionid mussels have a parasitic larval stage, they are able to disperse upstream and downstream as larvae while attached to their host fish and with flow as juveniles after excystment from the host. Understanding unionid population ecology requires knowledge of the processes that affect juvenile dispersal prior to establishment. We examined presettlement (transport and dispersion with flow) and early postsettlement (bed shear stress) hydraulic processes as negative censoring mechanisms. Our approach was to model dispersal using particle tracking through a 3-dimensional flow field output from hydrodynamic models of a reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We tested the potential effects of bed shear stress (??b) at 5 flow rates on juvenile mussel dispersal and quantified the magnitude of these effects as a function of flow rate. We explored the reach-scale relationships of Froude number (Fr), water depth (H), local bed slope (S), and unit stream power (QS) with the likelihood of juvenile settling (??). We ran multiple dispersal simulations at each flow rate to estimate ??, the parameter of a Poisson distribution, from the number of juveniles settling in each grid cell, and calculated dispersal distances. Virtual juveniles that settled in areas of the river where b > critical shear stress (c) were resuspended in the flow and transported further downstream, so we ran simulations at 3 different conditions for ??c (??c = ??? no resuspension, 0.1, and 0.05 N/m2). Differences in virtual juvenile dispersal distance were significantly dependent upon c and flow rate, and effects of b on settling distribution were dependent upon c. Most simulations resulted in positive correlations between ?? and ??b, results suggesting that during early postsettlement, ??b might be the primary determinant of juvenile settling distribution. Negative correlations between ?? and ??b occurred in some simulations, a result suggesting that physical or biological presettlement processes

  9. Out-of-plane buckling of pantographic fabrics in displacement-controlled shear tests: experimental results and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Emilio; Ganzosch, Gregor; Liebold, Christian; Placidi, Luca; Grygoruk, Roman; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2018-01-01

    Due to the latest advancements in 3D printing technology and rapid prototyping techniques, the production of materials with complex geometries has become more affordable than ever. Pantographic structures, because of their attractive features, both in dynamics and statics and both in elastic and inelastic deformation regimes, deserve to be thoroughly investigated with experimental and theoretical tools. Herein, experimental results relative to displacement-controlled large deformation shear loading tests of pantographic structures are reported. In particular, five differently sized samples are analyzed up to first rupture. Results show that the deformation behavior is strongly nonlinear, and the structures are capable of undergoing large elastic deformations without reaching complete failure. Finally, a cutting edge model is validated by means of these experimental results.

  10. Baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: PCA parametrization and importance of extreme baryonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2017-07-07

    Baryonic effects are amongst the most severe systematics to the tomographic analysis of weak lensing data which is the principal probe in many future generations of cosmological surveys like LSST, Euclid etc.. Modeling or parameterizing these effects is essential in order to extract valuable constraints on cosmological parameters. In a recent paper, Eifler et al. (2015) suggested a reduction technique for baryonic effects by conducting a principal component analysis (PCA) and removing the largest baryonic eigenmodes from the data. In this article, we conducted the investigation further and addressed two critical aspects. Firstly, we performed the analysis by separating the simulations into training and test sets, computing a minimal set of principle components from the training set and examining the fits on the test set. We found that using only four parameters, corresponding to the four largest eigenmodes of the training set, the test sets can be fitted thoroughly with an RMS $\\sim 0.0011$. Secondly, we explored the significance of outliers, the most exotic/extreme baryonic scenarios, in this method. We found that excluding the outliers from the training set results in a relatively bad fit and degraded the RMS by nearly a factor of 3. Therefore, for a direct employment of this method to the tomographic analysis of the weak lensing data, the principle components should be derived from a training set that comprises adequately exotic but reasonable models such that the reality is included inside the parameter domain sampled by the training set. The baryonic effects can be parameterized as the coefficients of these principle components and should be marginalized over the cosmological parameter space.

  11. Rheometry-PIV of shear-thickening wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Santibañez, Benjamín M; Pérez-Gonzalez, José; de Vargas, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Huelsz, Guadalupe

    2006-04-25

    The shear-thickening behavior of an equimolar semidilute aqueous solution of 40 mM/L cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was studied in this work by using a combined method of rheometry and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were conducted at 27.5 degrees C with Couette, vane-bob, and capillary rheometers in order to explore a wide shear stress range as well as the effect of boundary conditions and time of flow on the creation and destruction of shear-induced structures (SIS). The use of the combined method of capillary rheometry with PIV allowed the detection of fast spatial and temporal variations in the flow kinematics, which are related to the shear-thickening behavior and the dynamics of the SIS but are not distinguished by pure rheometrical measurements. A rich-in-details flow curve was found for this solution, which includes five different regimes. Namely, at very low shear rates a Newtonian behavior was found, followed by a shear thinning one in the second regime. In the third, shear banding was observed, which served as a precursor of the SIS and shear-thickening. The fourth and fifth regimes in the flow curve were separated by a spurtlike behavior, and they clearly evidenced the existence of shear-thickening accompanied by stick-slip oscillations at the wall of the rheometer, which subsequently produced variations in the shear rate under shear stress controlled flow. Such a stick-slip phenomenon prevailed up to the highest shear stresses used in this work and was reflected in asymmetric velocity profiles with spatial and temporal variations linked to the dynamics of creation and breakage of the SIS. The presence of apparent slip at the wall of the rheometer provides an energy release mechanism which leads to breakage of the SIS, followed by their further reformation during the stick part of the cycles. In addition, PIV measurements allowed the detection of apparent slip at the wall, as well as mechanical failures in the bulk of the

  12. Joint model to simulate inelastic shear behavior of poorly detailed exterior and interior beam-column connections reinforced with deformed bars under seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Akanshu; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2009-12-01

    A model for predicting the nonlinear shear behaviour of reinforced concrete beam column joints based on principal stresses reaching limits is proposed. The joint model proposes shear springs for the column region and rotational spring for the beam region of the joint. This is based on the actual displacement behaviour of the shear buildings. The spring characteristics are calculated based on well-known principal of mechanics using the principal stresses as the failure criteria. The model reasonably accurately predicts the shear behaviour of the joint and also can consider the effect of axial loads on the column. The model does not need any special element or special program for implementation and can be used for nonlinear static pushover analysis of RC framed structures giving due consideration to joint deformations. The model is therefore extremely useful for practical displacement based analysis of old RC buildings where the joints were not designed and detailed as per current codal requirements, invariably making them the weakest link in the structure. The background theory, assumptions followed and the complete formulations for generating the joint characteristics are given in this report. The model is validated with experimental results of tests on exterior and interior beam-column connections given in the published literature having substandard detailing using deformed bars. (author)

  13. Development of Shear Deformable Laminated Shell Element and Its Application to ANCF Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    DEFORMABLE LAMINATED SHELL ELEMENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO ANCF TIRE MODEL Hiroki Yamashita Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering...for application to the modeling of fiber-reinforced rubber (FRR) structure of the physics-based ANCF tire model. The complex deformation coupling...cornering forces. Since a tire consists of layers of plies and steel belts embedded in rubber , the tire structure needs to be modeled by cord- rubber

  14. Flexibility of three differential constitutive models evaluated by large amplitude oscillatory shear and Fourier transform rheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2016), s. 171-178 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * fourier transform rheology * Giesekus model * PTT model * modified XPP model * poly( ethylene oxide ) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  15. Flexibility of three differential constitutive models evaluated by large amplitude oscillatory shear and Fourier transform rheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2016), s. 171-178 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * fourier transform rheology * Giesekus model * PTT model * modified XPP model * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  16. Viscoelastic-damage interface model formulation with friction to simulate the delamination growth in mode II shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.

  17. Shear velocity model for the westernmost Mediterranean from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.

  18. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of shear stress distribution during neotissue growth in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Y; Luyten, F P; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I; Geris, L

    2015-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering strategies use flow through perfusion bioreactors to apply mechanical stimuli to cells seeded on porous scaffolds. Cells grow on the scaffold surface but also by bridging the scaffold pores leading a fully filled scaffold following the scaffold's geometric characteristics. Current computational fluid dynamic approaches for tissue engineering bioreactor systems have been mostly carried out for empty scaffolds. The effect of 3D cell growth and extracellular matrix formation (termed in this study as neotissue growth), on its surrounding fluid flow field is a challenge yet to be tackled. In this work a combined approach was followed linking curvature driven cell growth to fluid dynamics modeling. The level-set method (LSM) was employed to capture neotissue growth driven by curvature, while the Stokes and Darcy equations, combined in the Brinkman equation, provided information regarding the distribution of the shear stress profile at the neotissue/medium interface and within the neotissue itself during growth. The neotissue was assumed to be micro-porous allowing flow through its structure while at the same time allowing the simulation of complete scaffold filling without numerical convergence issues. The results show a significant difference in the amplitude of shear stress for cells located within the micro-porous neo-tissue or at the neotissue/medium interface, demonstrating the importance of taking along the neotissue in the calculation of the mechanical stimulation of cells during culture.The presented computational framework is used on different scaffold pore geometries demonstrating its potential to be used a design as tool for scaffold architecture taking into account the growing neotissue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2591-2600. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of a multi-cycle shear-compression testing for the modeling of severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.; Lokotunina, N.

    2017-12-01

    The mechanism of severe plastic deformation comes from very significant shear strain. Shear-compression testing of materials is complicated by the fact that a state of large equivalent strain with dominant shear strain is not easily achievable. This paper presents the novel technique of laboratory simulation of severe plastic deformation by multi-cycle shear-compression testing at room temperature with equivalent strain e=1…5. The specimen consisted of a parallelepiped having an inclined gauge section created by two diametrically opposed semi-circular slots which were machined at 45°. Height of the specimen was 50 mm, section dimensions were 25×25 mm, gauge thickness was 5.0 mm and gauge width was 6.0 mm. The specimen provided dominant shear strain in an inclined gauge-section. The level of shear strain and equivalent strain was controlled through adjustment of the height reduction of the specimen, load application direction and number of cycles of shear-compression. Aluminium alloy Al-6.2Mg-0.7Mn was used as a material for specimen. FE simulation and analysis of the stress-strain state were performed. The microstructure of the specimen after multi-cycle shear-compression testing with equivalent strain e=1…5 was examined by optical and scanning electron microscope.

  20. Experimental Study of the Composition and Structure of Granular Media in the Shear Bands Based on the HHC-Granular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers cannot control the composition and structure of coarse grained soil in the indoor experiment because the granular particles of different size have the characteristics of random distribution and no sorting. Therefore, on the basis of the laboratory tests with the coarse grained soil, the HHC-Granular model, which could simulate the no sorting and random distribution of different size particles in the coarse-grained soil, was developed by use of cellular automata method. Meanwhile, the triaxial numerical simulation experiments of coarse grained soil were finished with the different composition and structure soil, and the variation of shear strength was discussed. The results showed that the internal friction angle was likely to reduce with the increasing of gravel contents in the coarse-grained soil, but the mean internal friction angle significantly increased with the increment of gravel contents. It indicated that the gravel contents of shear bands were the major factor affecting the shear strength.

  1. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  2. Shear viscosity of the quark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Hiromasa; Fukutome, Takahiko

    2007-01-01

    We discuss shear viscosity of the quark matter by using Kubo formula. The shear viscosity is calculated in the framework of the quasi-particle RPA for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We obtain a formula that the shear viscosity is expressed by the quadratic form of the quark spectral function in the chiral symmetric phase. The magnitude of the shear viscosity is discussed assuming the Breit-Wigner type for the spectral function.

  3. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  4. Mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, M.; Szychta, E.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with the aid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  5. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslaw Luft; Elzbieta Szychta

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  6. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  7. A visco-elasto-plastic model for granular materials under simple shear conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redaelli, I.; di Prisco, C.; Vescovi, Dalila

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation of rapid landslides is quite complex mainly because constitutive models capable of simulating the mechanical behaviour of granular materials in the pre-collapse and post-collapse regimes are still missing. The goal of this paper is to introduce a constitutive model capable

  8. Modelling and simulation of the compressible turbulence in supersonic shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezengar, Dominique

    1997-02-01

    This research thesis addresses the modelling of some specific physical problems of fluid mechanics: compressibility (issue of mixing layers), large variations of volumetric mass (boundary layers), and anisotropy (compression ramps). After a presentation of the chosen physical modelling and numerical approximation, the author pays attention to flows at the vicinity of a wall, and to boundary conditions. The next part addresses existing compressibility models and their application to the calculation of supersonic mixing layers. A critical assessment is also performed through calculations of boundary layers and of compression ramps. The next part addresses problems related to large variations of volumetric mass which are not taken by compressibility models into account. A modification is thus proposed for the diffusion term, and is tested for the case of supersonic boundary layers and of mixing layers with high density rates. Finally, anisotropy effects are addressed through the implementation of Explicit Algebraic Stress k-omega Turbulence models (EARSM), and their tests on previously studied cases [fr

  9. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  10. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  11. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  12. Combining prior knowledge with data driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, PF; Betlem, BHL; Roffel, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  13. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  14. A One-Dimensional Atmospheric Boundary Layer Model: Intermittent Wind Shears and Thermal Stability at Night

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnick, Arnold

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent computer model of the atmospheric boundary layer was developed to simulate intermittent turbulence and the near-ground microclimate under nighttime stable conditions...

  15. Characterization of the relationship between systolic shear strain and early diastolic shear strain rates: insights into torsional recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B; Paterson, Ian; Chow, Kelvin; Cheng-Baron, June; Scott, Jessica M; Esch, Ben T; Ennis, Daniel B; Haykowsky, Mark J

    2010-09-01

    Early diastolic left ventricular (LV) untwisting has been evaluated as a manifestation of LV recoil, reflecting the release of elastic energy stored during systole. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between systolic strain (e.g., circumferential strain and the shear strains that comprise twist) with the resulting early diastolic shear strain rates, including the rate of untwisting. A further goal was to characterize these relationships regionally from apical to basal locations. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging tissue tagging was used to measure circumferential strain, global and regional (apex, mid, basal) twist (theta), and circumferential-longitudinal (epsilon(CL)) and circumferential-radial (epsilon(CR)) shear strains along with the corresponding untwisting rates (dtheta/dt) and diastolic shear strain rates (depsilon/dt) in 32 healthy males (33 +/- 7 yr). LV untwisting rates and shear strain rates measured during early diastole varied significantly with the measurement location from apex to base (P 0.05). Normalization of the untwisting rates to the peak twist (dtheta/dt(Norm) = -13.6 +/- 2.1 s(-1)) or shear strain rates to peak systolic shear strain (depsilon(CL)/dt(Norm) = -15.0 +/- 5.4 s(-1), and depsilon(CR)/dt(Norm) = -14.2 +/- 7.7 s(-1)) yielded a uniform measure of early diastolic function that was similar for all shear strain and twist components and for all locations from apex to base. These findings support a linear model of torsional recoil in the healthy heart, where diastolic shear strain rates (e.g., untwisting rates) are linearly related to the corresponding preceding systolic shear stain component. Furthermore, these findings suggest that torsional recoil is uncoupled from end-systolic volumes or the associated strains, such as circumferential strain.

  16. Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle

    2009-03-01

    A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).

  17. Mathematical modeling of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal gland (HPA) axis, including hippocampal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the HPA axis. The HPA axis consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands in which the three hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol interact through receptor dynamics. Furthermore, it has been suggested that receptors in the hippocampus have...... an influence on the axis.A model is presented with three coupled, non-linear differential equations, with the hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol as variables. The model includes the known features of the HPA axis, and includes the effects from the hippocampus through its impact on CRH in the hypothalamus...

  18. An Insight to High Humidity-Caused Friction Modulation of Brake by Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Meniscus under Shearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbiao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain an insight to high humidity-caused friction modulation in brake pad-rotor interface, the adhesion phenomenon due to a liquid bridge is simulated using an advanced particle method by varying the shearing speed of the interface. The method, called generalized interpolation material point for fluid-solid interactions (GIMP-FSI, was recently developed from the material point method (MPM for fluid-solid interactions at small scales where surface tension dominates, thus suitable for studying the partially wet brake friction due to high humidity at a scale of 10 m. Dynamic capillary effects due to surface tension and contact angles are simulated. Adhesion forces calculated by GIMP-FSI are consistent with those from the existing approximate meniscus models. Moreover, the numerical results show that capillary effects induce modulations of adhesion as slip speed changes. In particular, the adhesion modulation could be above 30% at low speed. This finding provides insights into how the high humidity-caused friction could cause modulations of brake, which are unable to be achieved by conventional models. Therefore, the numerical analysis helps to elucidate the complex friction mechanisms associated with brakes that are exposed to high humidity environments.

  19. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant Part 1: Characterization of uncertainty in concrete constitutive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Sammiuddin [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 426 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 413 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    hence its direct use in a simulation based fragility assessment is addressed. A methodology to overcome these limitations by combining the damage plasticity based constitutive model with some existing closed-form expressions is presented in this study. A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework that incorporates the damage plasticity model and the closed-form expressions for evaluating damage variables and application of this framework to an experimentally tested shear wall is presented in the Part-II companion paper.

  20. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant Part 1: Characterization of uncertainty in concrete constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, Sammiuddin; Gupta, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    hence its direct use in a simulation based fragility assessment is addressed. A methodology to overcome these limitations by combining the damage plasticity based constitutive model with some existing closed-form expressions is presented in this study. A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework that incorporates the damage plasticity model and the closed-form expressions for evaluating damage variables and application of this framework to an experimentally tested shear wall is presented in the Part-II companion paper.

  1. Optimization of the High-Shear Wet Granulation Wetting Process Using Fuzzy Logic Modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Kalčíková, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Tomášek, V.; Palatová, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2007), s. 345-352 ISSN 1083-7450 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fuzzy logic * mathematical model * granulation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2007

  2. Mesoscale Modeling of Nonlinear Elasticity and Fracture in Ceramic Polycrystals Under Dynamic Shear and Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 24 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON J. D. Clayton a. REPORT...elsewhere for SiC (Lee et al., 2005), follows from a cap plasticity model formulated in the context of geomechanics (Sandler and Rubin, 1979):rections, and

  3. Modification of TOUGH2 to Include the Dusty Gas Model for Gas Diffusion; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.

    2001-01-01

    The GEO-SEQ Project is investigating methods for geological sequestration of CO(sub 2). This project, which is directed by LBNL and includes a number of other industrial, university, and national laboratory partners, is evaluating computer simulation methods including TOUGH2 for this problem. The TOUGH2 code, which is a widely used code for flow and transport in porous and fractured media, includes simplified methods for gas diffusion based on a direct application of Fick's law. As shown by Webb (1998) and others, the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) is better than Fick's Law for modeling gas-phase diffusion in porous media. In order to improve gas-phase diffusion modeling for the GEO-SEQ Project, the EOS7R module in the TOUGH2 code has been modified to include the Dusty Gas Model as documented in this report. In addition, the liquid diffusion model has been changed from a mass-based formulation to a mole-based model. Modifications for separate and coupled diffusion in the gas and liquid phases have also been completed. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's law behavior for TCE and PCE diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences are small due to the relatively high permeability (k= 10(sup -11) m(sup 2)) of the problem and the small mole fraction of the gases. Additional comparisons for lower permeabilities and higher mole fractions may be useful

  4. a Global Shear Velocity Model of the Upper Mantle from New Fundamental and Higher Rayleigh Mode Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present a global SV-wave tomographic model of the upper mantle, built from a new dataset of fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waveforms. We use an extension of the automated waveform inversion approach of Debayle (1999) designed to improve the extraction of fundamental and higher mode information from a single surface wave seismogram. The improvement is shown to be significant in the transition zone structure which is constrained by the higher modes. The new approach is fully automated and can be run on a Beowulf computer to process massive surface wave dataset. It has been used to match successfully over 350 000 fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waveforms, corresponding to about 20 millions of new measurements extracted from the seismograms. For each seismogram, we obtain a path average shear velocity and quality factor model, and a set of fundamental and higher mode dispersion and attenuation curves compatible with the recorded waveform. The set of dispersion curves provides a global database for future finite frequency inversion. Our new 3D SV-wave tomographic model takes into account the effect of azimuthal anisotropy and is constrained with a lateral resolution of several hundred kilometers and a vertical resolution of a few tens of kilometers. In the uppermost 200 km, our model shows a very strong correlation with surface tectonics. The slow velocity signature of mid-oceanic ridges extend down to ~100 km depth while the high velocity signature of cratons vanishes below 200 km depth. At depth greater than 400 km, the pattern of seismic velocities appear relatively homogeneous at large scale, except for high velocity slabs which produce broad high velocity regions within the transition zone. Although resolution is still good, the region between 200 and 400 km is associated with a complex pattern of seismic heterogeneities showing no simple correlation with the shallower or deeper structure.

  5. Effect of a shear modified Gurson model on damage development in a FSW tensile specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    For a friction stir welded aluminum plate the resistance to ductile failure is studied by analyzing tensile test specimens cut out across the weldline. As the stress triaxiality is rather low in these tests, the Gurson material model is not expected to give a very accurate description of the void....... It is found that the modification does provide additional damage development in the friction stir weld, which may help to fit experimental data. But the suggested modification depends strongly on the overall stress state, and may have a too strong effect in some cases where the stress triaxiality is rather......, such that the damage parameter does not really represent the void volume fraction. Various amounts of the additional damage evolution are compared with predictions of the original Gurson model. The analyses are carried out for different yield stress profiles transverse to the weld and for different specimen widths...

  6. Response of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 to low-shear modeled microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Wallace, Sarah; Stahl, Sarah; Voorhies, Alexander; Lorenzi, Hernan; Douglas, Grace L.

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and gene expression of probiotic bacteria must be investigated to confirm that benefits of selected strains will still be conveyed under microgravity conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in a microgravity analog environment. L. acidophilus was cultured anaerobically under modeled microgravity conditions and assessed for differences in growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression compared to control cultures. No significant differences were observed between the modeled microgravity and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that this strain will behave similarly in spaceflight.

  7. Numerical Acoustic Models Including Viscous and Thermal losses: Review of Existing and New Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Risby; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Aage, Niels

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an updated overview of numerical methods including acoustic viscous and thermal losses. Numerical modelling of viscothermal losses has gradually become more important due to the general trend of making acoustic devices smaller. Not including viscothermal acoustic losses...... in such numerical computations will therefore lead to inaccurate or even wrong results. Both, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM), formulations are available that incorporate these loss mechanisms. Including viscothermal losses in FEM computations can be computationally very demanding, due...... and BEM method including viscothermal dissipation are compared and investigated....

  8. Span-to-depth ratio effect on shear strength of steel fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete deep beams using ANN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Uday; Kute, Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The paper predicts the shear strength of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete deep beams. It studies the effect of clear span-to-overall depth ratio on shear capacity of steel fiber high-strength deep beams using artificial neural network (ANN8). The three-layered model has eight input nodes which represent width, effective depth, volume fraction, fiber aspect ratio and shear span-to-depth ratio, longitudinal steel, compressive strength of concrete, and clear span-to-overall depth ratio. The model predicts the shear strength of high-strength steel fiber deep beams to be reasonably good when compared with the results of proposed equations by researchers as well as the results obtained by neural network (ANN7) which is developed for seven inputs excluding span-to-depth ratio. The developed neural network ANN8 proves the versatility of artificial neural networks to establish the relations between various parameters affecting complex behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete deep beams and costly experimental processes.

  9. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

  10. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  11. Theoretical model and computacional procedure to evaluate the NSM FRP strips shear strength contribution to a RC beam

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Bianco, V.; Monti, G.

    2011-01-01

    Documento submetido para revisão pelos pares. A publicar em Journal of Structural Engineering. ISSN 0733-9445 This paper presents a closed-form procedure to evaluate the shear strength contribution provided to a Reinforced Concrete (RC) beam by a system of Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) strips. This procedure is based on the evaluation of: a) the constitutive law of the average-available-bond-length NSM FRP strip effectively crossing the shear crack and ...

  12. Development of a Cartilage Shear-Damage Model to Investigate the Impact of Surface Injury on Chondrocytes and Extracellular Matrix Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert L; Pacione, Carol A; Malfait, Anne-Marie; Chubinskaya, Susan; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-10-01

    Background Many i n vitro damage models investigate progression of cartilage degradation after a supraphysiologic, compressive impact at the surface and do not model shear-induced damage processes. Models also neglect the response to uninterrupted tribological stress after damage. It was hypothesized that shear-induced removal of the superficial zone would accelerate matrix degradation when damage was followed by continued load and articulation. Methods Bovine cartilage underwent a 5-day test. Shear-damaged samples experienced 2 days of damage induction with articulation against polyethylene and then continued articulation against cartilage (CoC), articulation against metal (MoC), or rest as free-swelling control (FSC). Surface-intact samples were randomized to CoC, MoC, or FSC for the entire 5-day test. Samples were evaluated for chondrocyte viability, GAG (glycosaminoglycan) release (matrix wear surrogate), and histological integrity. Results Shear induction wore away the superficial zone. Damaged samples began continued articulation with collagen matrix disruption and increased cell death compared to intact samples. In spite of the damaged surface, these samples did not exhibit higher GAG release than intact samples articulating against the same counterface ( P = 0.782), contrary to our hypothesis. Differences in GAG release were found to be due to tribological testing against metal ( P = 0.003). Conclusion Shear-induced damage lowers chondrocyte viability and affects extracellular matrix integrity. Continued motion of either cartilage or metal against damaged surfaces did not increase wear compared with intact samples. We conjecture that favorable reorganization of the surface collagen fibers during articulation protected the underlying matrix. This finding suggests a potential window for clinical interventions to slow matrix degradation after traumatic incidents.

  13. Offshore vertical wind shear: Final report on NORSEWInD’s work task 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mikkelsen, Torben; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    This document reports on the analysis performed by the work task 3.1 of the EU NORSEWInD project and includes the following deliverables: 3.2 Calculated vertical wind shears 3.3 Multi-variational correlation analysis 3.4 NWP data for wind shear model 3.5 Vertical extrapolation methodology 3...... of power outputs. Background related to the parametrization of the vertical wind speed profile and the behavior of the vertical wind shear in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer is presented together with the application of the long-term atmospheric stability parameters for the analysis of the long......-term vertical wind speed profile. Observed vertical wind shears are illustrated for all NORSEWInD wind lidar and meteorological stations in terms of wind shear roses, distributions, and diurnal and monthly evolutions. A multi-variational correlation analysis is performed to study the vertical wind shear...

  14. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system , the loss in weight feeder system , the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...process equipment sprinkler protection systems , and the 5 psig steam supply serving the building heating and make-up air systems . It also included

  15. Multi-channel analysis of surface waves MASW of models with high shear-wave velocity contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Peterie, S.; Zeng, C.; Xia, J.; Schwenk, T.

    2011-01-01

    We use the multi-channel analysis of surface waves MASW method to analyze synthetic seismic data calculated using models with high shear-wave velocity Vs contrast. The MASW dispersion-curve images of the Rayleigh wave are obtained using various sets of source-offset and spread-size configurations from the synthetic seismic data and compared with the theoretically calculated fundamental- and higher-mode dispersion-curves. Such tests showed that most of the dispersion-curve images are dominated by higher-mode energy at the low frequencies, especially when analyzing data from long receiver offsets and thus significantly divert from numerically expected dispersion-curve trends, which can lead to significant Vs overestimation. Further analysis showed that using data with relatively short spread lengths and source offsets can image the desired fundamental-mode of the Rayleigh wave that matches the numerically expected dispersion-curve pattern. As a result, it was concluded that it might be possible to avoid higher-mode contamination at low frequencies at sites with high Vs contrast by appropriate selection of spread size and seismic source offset. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anandan, P.; Malathi, N.; Mohankumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resi...

  17. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q2's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q 2 values of 3.5 GeV 2 to the highest values of Q 2 =250 GeV 2 . To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  18. SAVANI2: towards a waveform-based image of shear-velocity variations underneath Europe embedded in a global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Ludwig; Boschi, Lapo; van Driel, Martin; Becker, Thorsten; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Sigloch, Karin; Hosseini-zad, Kasra; Giardini, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    In a recent study (Auer et al. 2013, in revision) we have devised a novel tomography approach to image radially anisotropic shear-velocity variations in the Earth's mantle. By applying our tomography toolbox to a comprehensive compilation of surface-wave phase delays from fundamental modes up to the 6th overtone and cross-correlation traveltimes of major body-wave phases, we derived the multi-resolution tomography model SAVANI, which is one of the first whole-mantle models of radial S-wave anisotropy. Here we illustrate the first steps towards the second iteration of our model ("SAVANI2"), in which we define Europe and the surrounding regions as the target area for a higher-resolution regional revision of our initial model. To this end, we augment our global database with additional teleseismic and regional broadband measurements recorded within the last five years. We download raw waveforms from the Orfeus and IRIS data centers in a fully automated way with a python based toolbox and extract multiple-frequency traveltime delays in the period range between 5 and 25 s employing the method of Sigloch et al. (2006). Furthermore, we replace the crustal model CRUST2.0 with its successor CRUST1. Importantly, waveform observations will be interpreted using Fréchet sensitivity kernels computed with AxiSEM (Nissen-Meyer et al., 2007), which is an efficient visco-elastic spectral element solver for axisymmetric background models. The main idea behind SAVANI2 is to keep semi-approximate (ray) theory where appropriate (global long-wavelength structure, surface wave dispersion), but to revert to a full-waveform interpretation where necessary (regional scale, non-geometrical wave phenomena). Our hybrid approach to waveform inversion has multi-scale capabilities and is essentially equivalent to the first iteration step of a Gauss-Newton type inverse problem, thus allowing full access to the model resolution matrix. The set of algorithms we are developing represent a

  19. Laminar-turbulent patterning in wall-bounded shear flows: a Galerkin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshasayanan, K [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, CNRS UMR 8550, École Normale Supérieure, F-75005 Paris (France); Manneville, P, E-mail: paul.manneville@polytechnique.edu [Laboratoire d’Hydrodynamique, CNRS UMR7646, École Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau (France)

    2015-06-15

    On its way to turbulence, plane Couette flow–the flow between counter-translating parallel plates–displays a puzzling steady oblique laminar-turbulent pattern. We approach this problem via Galerkin modelling of the Navier–Stokes equations. The wall-normal dependence of the hydrodynamic field is treated by means of expansions on functional bases fitting the boundary conditions exactly. This yields a set of partial differential equations for spatiotemporal dynamics in the plane of the flow. Truncating this set beyond the lowest nontrivial order is numerically shown to produce the expected pattern, therefore improving over what was obtained at the cruder effective wall-normal resolution. Perspectives opened by this approach are discussed. (paper)

  20. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  1. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  3. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  4. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  5. Developments in Plasticity Approach to Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with plastic methods applied to shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Emphasis is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced and lightly shear reinforced beams and slabs. The model, which is an upper bound plasticity approach, takes...... into account the mechanism of crack formation followed by crack sliding. Comparisons between the model and test results are carried out. Good agreement has been found over a wide range of cases....

  6. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  7. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites With Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.

  8. The Effective Rheology of Natural Subduction Shear Zones: Insights from Numerical Simple Shear Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidi, Paraskevi Io; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Moreno, Marcos; Agard, Philippe; Oncken, Onno; Angiboust, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the subduction interface rheological parameters is an interesting aspect of geodynamics since it can help better understand the physical nature of plate locking and its relation to surface deformation patterns observed at different time scales (GPS displacements during the seismic cycle). Since direct rheological measurements are not possible, unfortunately, we herein try to determine the effective rheological parameters of a subduction interface using finite element modelling. We use the open source finite element code pTatin to create 2D models, starting with a homogeneous medium representing shearing at the subduction interface. We tested several boundary conditions trying to find the one that can best mimic simple shear experiments performed on rock samples. After examining different parameters including the shearing velocity, the temperature and the viscosity, we added complexity to the geometry by including a second phase. This complexity arose from field observations, where composite shear zone outcrops often characterize the subduction interface. Stronger crustal blocks embedded within a sedimentary and/or serpentinized matrix have been reported for several exhumed subduction zones. We implemented a simplified model to simulate simple shearing of a two-phase medium in order to quantify the effect of heterogeneous rheology on stress and strain localization. Preliminary results show different strength in the models depending on the block-to-matrix ratio. In order to test our methodology, we first use clast-in-matrix geometries from thin sections taken through lab experiments. In a second stage, we upscale the method to outcrop scale clast-in-matrix geometries. By sampling at different depths along exhumed former subduction interfaces, we expect to be able to provide effective friction of a natural interface. In a next step, these effective frictions will be used as input into seismic cycle deformation models in an attempt to assess the

  9. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  10. MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proksch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.

  11. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of multi-sphere and superquadric particle representation for modelling shearing and flow characteristics of granular assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltanbeigi Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, complex-shaped particles are simulated with the Discrete Element Method (DEM using two different approaches, namely Multi-spheres (MS and Superquadrics (SQ. Both methods have been used by researchers to represent the shape of real particles. However, despite the growing popularity of utilizing MS and SQ particles in DEM simulations, few insights have been given on the comparison of the macro scale characteristics arising from the two methods. In this respect, initially the characteristics of the two shape representation methods are evaluated in a direct shear test simulation. The results suggest that controlling the sharpness of the edges for SQ particles can lead to a good agreement with the results of MS particles. This way, a set of SQ and MS particles, which are numerically calibrated in the shear tester, are obtained. Furthermore, the macro-scale responses of the numerically calibrated particles are assessed during a slow shearing scenario, which is achieved through simulating quasi-static flow of the particles from a flat-bottom silo. The results for mass discharge, flow profile and wall pressure show a good quantitative agreement. These findings suggest that the numerically calibrated MS and SQ particles in the shear tester can provide similar bulk-scale flow properties. Moreover, the results highlight that surface bumpiness for MS particles and corner sharpness for SQ particles change the characteristics of particles and play a significant role in the shear strength of the material composed of these particles.

  13. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  14. A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.

    2004-01-01

    as continuous force. The model of the roller-chain drive now proposed departs from an earlier model where two contact/impact methods are proposed to describe the contact between the rollers of the chain and the teeth of the sprockets. These different formulations are based on unilateral constraints....... In the continuous force method the roller-sprocket contact, is represented by forces applied on each seated roller and in the respective sprocket teeth. These forces are functions of the pseudo penetrations between roller and sprocket, impacting velocities and a restitution coefficient. In the continuous force......A model of a roller chain drive is developed and applied to the simulation and analysis of roller chain drives of large marine diesel engines. The model includes the impact with guide-bars that are the motion delimiter components on the chain strands between the sprockets. The main components...

  15. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  17. Global Reference Atmospheric Models, Including Thermospheres, for Mars, Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation. Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch has developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations. Mars-GRAM has been widely used for engineering applications including systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Preliminary results are presented, comparing Mars-GRAM with measurements from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during its aerobraking in Mars thermosphere. Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is suitable for similar engineering applications in the thermosphere or other altitude regions of the atmosphere of Venus. Until recently, the thermosphere in Earth-GRAM has been represented by the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. Earth-GRAM has recently been revised. In addition to including an updated version of MET, it now includes an option to use the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) as an alternate thermospheric model. Some characteristics and results from Venus-GRAM and Earth-GRAM thermospheres are also presented.

  18. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...

  19. A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

  20. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  1. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  2. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  3. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  4. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  5. Modeling and analysis of the affinity filtration process, including broth feeding, washing, and elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L Z; Dong, X Y; Sun, Y

    1998-01-01

    Affinity filtration is a developing protein purification technique that combines the high selectivity of affinity chromatography and the high processing speed of membrane filtration. In this work a lumped kinetic model was developed to describe the whole affinity filtration process, including broth feeding, contaminant washing, and elution steps. Affinity filtration experiments were conducted to evaluate the model using bovine serum albumin as a model protein and a highly substituted Blue Sepharose as an affinity adsorbent. The model with nonadjustable parameters agreed fairly to the experimental results. Thus, the performance of the affinity filtration in processing a crude broth containing contaminant proteins was analyzed by computer simulations using the lumped model. The simulation results show that there is an optimal protein loading for obtaining the maximum recovery yield of the desired protein with a constant purity at each operating condition. The concentration of a crude broth is beneficial in increasing the recovery yield of the desired protein. Using a constant amount of the affinity adsorbent, the recovery yield can be enhanced by decreasing the solution volume in the stirred tank due to the increase of the adsorbent weight fraction. It was found that the lumped kinetic model was simple and useful in analyzing the whole affinity filtration process.

  6. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  7. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  8. A 3D model of the oculomotor plant including the pulley system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegener, A.; Armentano, R. L.

    2007-11-01

    Early models of the oculomotor plant only considered the eye globes and the muscles that move them. Recently, connective tissue structures have been found enveloping the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and firmly anchored to the orbital wall. These structures act as pulleys; they determine the functional origin of the EOMs and, in consequence, their effective pulling direction. A three dimensional model of the oculomotor plant, including pulleys, has been developed and simulations in Simulink were performed during saccadic eye movements. Listing's law was implemented based on the supposition that there exists an eye orientation related signal. The inclusion of the pulleys in the model makes this assumption plausible and simplifies the problem of the plant noncommutativity.

  9. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  10. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface–atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of Acidifying Compounds, in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia lifetime and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extent. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  11. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  12. Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with

  13. Effect of sheared flows on neoclassical tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.; Chandra, D.; Kaw, P.; Bora, M.P.; Kruger, S.; Ramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of toroidal sheared equilibrium flows on the nonlinear evolution of classical and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is studied through numerical solutions of a set of reduced generalized MHD equations that include viscous force effects based on neoclassical closures. In general, differential flow is found to have a strong stabilizing influence leading to lower saturated island widths for the classical (m/n = 2/1) mode and reduced growth rates for the (m/n = 3/1) neoclassical mode. Velocity shear on the other hand is seen to make a destabilizing contribution. An analytic model calculation, consisting of a generalized Rutherford island evolution equation that includes shear flow effects is also presented and the numerical results are discussed in the context of this model. (author)

  14. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J; Pinsky, Peter M

    2015-08-06

    A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Posteriorly directed shear loads and disc degeneration affect the torsional stiffness of spinal motion segments; a biomechanical modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homminga, Jasper Johan; Lehr, A.M.; Meijer, Gerdine; Janssen, M.M.A.; Schlösser, T.P.C.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Castelein, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the effects of posterior shear loads, disc degeneration, and the combination of both on spinal torsion stiffness. Summary of Background Data. Scoliosis is a 3-dimensional deformity of the spine that presents itself mainly in adolescent girls and elderly patients. Our concept of

  17. Modelling tidal current-induced bed shear stress and palaeocirculation in an epicontinental seaway: the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitchell, A. J.; Uličný, David; Hampson, G. J.; Allison, P. A.; Gorman, G. J.; Piggott, M. D.; Wells, M. R.; Pain, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 359-388 ISSN 0037-0746 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : bed shear stress * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin * epicontinental sea * tidal circulation * Turonian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.229, year: 2010

  18. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2018-03-01

    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  19. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  20. General hypothesis and shell model for the synthesis of semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2010-09-01

    Semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes, have vast potential for new technology development. The fundamental physics and growth kinetics of these nanotubes are still obscured. Various models developed to elucidate the growth suffer from limited applicability. An in-depth investigation of the fundamentals of nanotube growth has, therefore, been carried out. For this investigation, various features of nanotube growth, and the role of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) in this growth, have been considered. Observed growth anomalies have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new shell model and a general hypothesis have been proposed for the growth. The essential element of the shell model is the seed generated from segregation during growth. The seed structure has been defined, and the formation of droplet from this seed has been described. A modified definition of the droplet exhibiting adhesive properties has also been presented. Various characteristics of the droplet, required for alignment and organization of atoms into tubular forms, have been discussed. Employing the shell model, plausible scenarios for the formation of carbon nanotubes, and the variation in the characteristics of these carbon nanotubes have been articulated. The experimental evidences, for example, for the formation of shell around a core, dipole characteristics of the seed, and the existence of nanopores in the seed, have been presented. They appear to justify the validity of the proposed model. The diversities of nanotube characteristics, fundamentals underlying the creation of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes, and the impurity generation on the surface of carbon nanotubes have been elucidated. The catalytic action of FECA on growth has been quantified. The applicability of the proposed model to the nanotube growth by a variety of mechanisms has been elaborated. These mechanisms include the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the oxide-assisted growth mechanism, the self

  1. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 2 – Including organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Kohler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5–6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. By comparison with electrodynamic balance data, it was also found that the model was capable of capturing the behaviour of aqueous aerosols containing Suwannee River Fulvic acid, a structure previously used to represent the functionality of complex oxidised macromolecules often found in atmospheric aerosols. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between model predictions and measurements increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly

  3. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 2 Including organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM) framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Kohler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5-6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. By comparison with electrodynamic balance data, it was also found that the model was capable of capturing the behaviour of aqueous aerosols containing Suwannee River Fulvic acid, a structure previously used to represent the functionality of complex oxidised macromolecules often found in atmospheric aerosols. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between model predictions and measurements increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly soluble in water

  4. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  5. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  6. A multiscale model for glioma spread including cell-tissue interactions and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwer, Christian; Knappitsch, Markus; Surulescu, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Glioma is a broad class of brain and spinal cord tumors arising from glia cells, which are the main brain cells that can develop into neoplasms. They are highly invasive and lead to irregular tumor margins which are not precisely identifiable by medical imaging, thus rendering a precise enough resection very difficult. The understanding of glioma spread patterns is hence essential for both radiological therapy as well as surgical treatment. In this paper we propose a multiscale model for glioma growth including interactions of the cells with the underlying tissue network, along with proliferative effects. Our current accounting for two subpopulations of cells to accomodate proliferation according to the go-or-grow dichtomoty is an extension of the setting in [16]. As in that paper, we assume that cancer cells use neuronal fiber tracts as invasive pathways. Hence, the individual structure of brain tissue seems to be decisive for the tumor spread. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to provide such information, thus opening the way for patient specific modeling of glioma invasion. Starting from a multiscale model involving subcellular (microscopic) and individual (mesoscale) cell dynamics, we perform a parabolic scaling to obtain an approximating reaction-diffusion-transport equation on the macroscale of the tumor cell population. Numerical simulations based on DTI data are carried out in order to assess the performance of our modeling approach.

  7. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  8. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  9. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  10. A viscoelastic model for the prediction of transcranial ultrasound propagation: application for the estimation of shear acoustic properties in the human skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Moreno-Hernández, Carlos; Drainville, Robert Andrew; Sin, Vivian; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    A better understanding of ultrasound transmission through the human skull is fundamental to develop optimal imaging and therapeutic applications. In this study, we present global attenuation values and functions that correlate apparent density calculated from computed tomography scans to shear speed of sound. For this purpose, we used a model for sound propagation based on the viscoelastic wave equation (VWE) assuming isotropic conditions. The model was validated using a series of measurements with plates of different plastic materials and angles of incidence of 0°, 15° and 50°. The optimal functions for transcranial ultrasound propagation were established using the VWE, scan measurements of transcranial propagation with an angle of incidence of 40° and a genetic optimization algorithm. Ten (10) locations over three (3) skulls were used for ultrasound frequencies of 270 kHz and 836 kHz. Results with plastic materials demonstrated that the viscoelastic modeling predicted both longitudinal and shear propagation with an average (±s.d.) error of 9(±7)% of the wavelength in the predicted delay and an error of 6.7(±5)% in the estimation of transmitted power. Using the new optimal functions of speed of sound and global attenuation for the human skull, the proposed model predicted the transcranial ultrasound transmission for a frequency of 270 kHz with an expected error in the predicted delay of 5(±2.7)% of the wavelength. The sound propagation model predicted accurately the sound propagation regardless of either shear or longitudinal sound transmission dominated. For 836 kHz, the model predicted accurately in average with an error in the predicted delay of 17(±16)% of the wavelength. Results indicated the importance of the specificity of the information at a voxel level to better understand ultrasound transmission through the skull. These results and new model will be very valuable tools for the future development of transcranial applications of

  11. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  12. Web-accessible molecular modeling with Rosetta: The Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pK a determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  13. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: 2 Including organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM) framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Köhler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5-6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between predicted and measured data increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly soluble in water, significant deviations from measured surface tension depression behaviour were predicted with both model formalisms tested. A Sensitivity analysis showed that such variation is likely to lead to predicted growth factors within the measurement uncertainty for growth factor taken in the sub-saturated regime. Greater

  14. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  15. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  16. Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

  17. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  18. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  19. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth includes potential pathogens in the carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Prado, Julio; Eades, Susan C; Mirza, Mustajab H; Fugaro, Michael N; Häggblom, Max M; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-10-12

    Carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis are used to study the development of lameness. It is hypothesized that a diet-induced shift in cecal bacterial communities contributes to the development of the pro-inflammatory state that progresses to laminar failure. It is proposed that vasoactive amines, protease activators and endotoxin, all bacterial derived bioactive metabolites, play a role in disease development. Questions regarding the oral bioavailability of many of the bacterial derived bioactive metabolites remain. This study evaluates the possibility that a carbohydrate-induced overgrowth of potentially pathogenic cecal bacteria occurs and that bacterial translocation contributes toward the development of the pro-inflammatory state. Two groups of mixed-breed horses were used, those with laminitis induced by cornstarch (n=6) or oligofructan (n=6) and non-laminitic controls (n=8). Cecal fluid and tissue homogenates of extra-intestinal sites including the laminae were used to enumerate Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Horses that developed Obel grade2 lameness, revealed a significant overgrowth of potentially pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal bacteria within the cecal fluid. Although colonization of extra-intestinal sites with potentially pathogenic bacteria was not detected, results of this study indicate that cecal/colonic lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia develop in horses progressing to lameness. It is hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory state in carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis is driven by an immune response to the rapid overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cecal bacterial communities in the gut. Further equine research is indicated to study the immunological response, involving the lymphatic system that develops in the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  1. Study of normal and shear material properties for viscoelastic model of asphalt mixture by discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    simulation under dynamic strain control loading. A sensitivity study was carried out, where the effects of different design parameters on the dynamic properties of asphalt mixture has been investigated, including the eight parameters of Burger’s model and the friction coefficient....

  2. Effects of shear coupling on shear properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Under pure shear loading, an off-axis element of orthotropic material such as pure wood undergoes both shear and normal deformations. The ratio of the shear strain to a normal strain is defined as the shear coupling coefficient associated with the direction of the normal strain. The effects of shear coupling on shear properties of wood as predicted by the orthotropic...

  3. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    . The position of the crack in which sliding takes place is determined by the crack sliding model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The theoretical calculations are compared with test results reported in the literature. A good agreement has been found.A simplified method to calculate the shear capacity of T...

  4. Ultra Wideband (0.5 – 16 kHz) MR Elastography for Robust Shear Viscoelasticity Model Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Yasar, Temel K.; Royston, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the viscoelastic parameters of soft biological tissues often correlate with progression of disease, trauma or injury, and response to treatment. Identifying the most appropriate viscoelastic model, then estimating and monitoring the corresponding parameters of that model can improve insight into the underlying tissue structural changes. MR Elastography (MRE) provides a quantitative method of measuring tissue viscoelasticity. In a previous study of the authors [Mag. Res. Med. 70:479–89;2013. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24495], a silicone-based phantom material was examined over the frequency range of 200 Hz to 7.75 kHz using MRE, an unprecedented bandwidth at that time. Six viscoelastic models including four integer order models and two fractional order models, were fit to the wideband viscoelastic data (measured storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency). The “fractional Voigt” model (spring and springpot in parallel) exhibited the best fit and was even able to fit the entire frequency band well when it was identified based only on a small portion of the band. This paper is an extension of that study with a wider frequency range from 500 Hz to 16 kHz. Furthermore, more fractional order viscoelastic models are added to the comparison pool. It is found that added complexity of the viscoelastic model provides only marginal improvement over the “fractional Voigt” model. And, again, the fractional order models show significant improvement over integer order viscoelastic models that have as many or more fitting parameters. PMID:25419651

  5. Shear-Induced Brittle Failure along Grain Boundaries in Boron Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaokun; Coleman, Shawn P; Lasalvia, Jerry C; Goddard, William A; An, Qi

    2018-02-07

    The role that grain boundaries (GBs) can play on mechanical properties has been studied extensively for metals and alloys. However, for covalent solids such as boron carbide (B 4 C), the role of GB on the inelastic response to applied stresses is not well established. We consider here the unusual ceramic, boron carbide (B 4 C), which is very hard and lightweight but exhibits brittle impact behavior. We used quantum mechanics (QM) simulations to examine the mechanical response in atomistic structures that model GBs in B 4 C under pure shear and also with biaxial shear deformation that mimics indentation stress conditions. We carried out these studies for two simple GB models including also the effect of adding Fe atoms (possible sintering aid and/or impurity) to the GB. We found that the critical shear stresses of these GB models are much lower than that for crystalline and twinned B 4 C. The two GB models lead to different interfacial energies. The higher interfacial energy at the GB only slightly decreases the critical shear stress but dramatically increases the critical failure strain. Doping the GB with Fe decreases the critical shear stress of at the boundary by 14% under pure shear deformation. In all GBs studied here, failure arises from deconstructing the icosahedra within the GB region under shear deformation. We find that Fe dopant interacts with icosahedra at the GB to facilitate this deconstruction of icosahedra. These results provide significant insight into designing polycrystalline B 4 C with improved strength and ductility.

  6. Study of size effects in the Dugdale model through the case of a crack in a semi-infinite plane under anti-plane shear loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdjani, H.; Abdelmoula, R.; Marigo, J.-J.; El Borgi, S.

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of this work is to prove that, with the Dugdale model, the small size defects, comparatively to the material characteristic length, are practically without influence on the limit load of structures. For that, we treat the case of a crack in a semi-infinite plane under anti-plane shear loading. Using integral transforms, the elasticity equations are converted analytically into a singular integral equation. The singular integral equation is solved numerically using Chebychev polynomials. Special care is needed to take into account the presence of jump discontinuities in the loading distribution along the crack lips.

  7. A Finite-Element Model for the Lateral Stiffness and Vibration Characteristics of RC Shear Walls Strengthened with Composite Sheets: Creep and the Shrinkage Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghnem, R.; Meftah, S. A.; Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Adda Bedia, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    The effect of creep and shrinkage of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, strengthened with thin composite sheets, on their static and dynamic behavior is investigated. A finite-element model for their lateral stiffness and vibration characteristics is presented. Several test problems are examined to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the method proposed. Numerical results are obtained for four nonuniform distributions of graphite and boron fibers in epoxy matrices, and they demonstrate the significance of time-dependent effects on the lateral displacements and frequencies of the structures considered.

  8. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model follows

  9. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, J.H. de

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model

  10. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  11. Designing shear-thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Arif Z.; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2017-11-01

    Design in fluid mechanics often focuses on optimizing geometry (airfoils, surface textures, microfluid channels), but here we focus on designing fluids themselves. The dramatically shear-thinning ``yield-stress fluid'' is currently the most utilized non-Newtonian fluid phenomenon. These rheologically complex materials, which undergo a reversible transition from solid-like to liquid-like fluid flow, are utilized in pedestrian products such as paint and toothpaste, but also in emerging applications like direct-write 3D printing. We present a paradigm for yield-stress fluid design that considers constitutive model representation, material property databases, available predictive scaling laws, and the many ways to achieve a yield stress fluid, flipping the typical structure-to-rheology analysis to become the inverse: rheology-to-structure with multiple possible materials as solutions. We describe case studies of 3D printing inks and other flow scenarios where designed shear-thinning enables performance remarkably beyond that of Newtonian fluids. This work was supported by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1463203.

  12. Simple shear of deformable square objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao

    2003-12-01

    Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.

  13. On modelling of shear fracture in deep drawing of a high-strength dual-phase sheet steel

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bonk, C.; Peshekhodov, I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents application of fracture behaviour characterisation results of a dual-phase sheet steel DP600 to an FEA of its deep-drawing for shear fracture prediction. The characterisation results were obtained with the help of a characterisation method based on a tensile test on a novel butterfly specimen and published previously by the authors. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate that characterisation method on a deep-drawing process. Based on the previous results of the author...

  14. Squirming through shear thinning fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datt, Charu; Zhu, Lailai; Elfring, Gwynn J.; Pak, On Shun

    2015-11-01

    Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.

  15. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

  16. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  17. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  18. ETM documentation update – including modelling conventions and manual for software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    , it summarises the work done during 2013, and it also contains presentations for promotion of fusion as a future element in the electricity generation mix and presentations for the modelling community concerning model development and model documentation – in particular for TIAM collaboration workshops....

  19. Turbulent shear layers in confining channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Graham; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso; Hewitt, Ian; Please, Colin; Style, Rob; Bird, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The development of shear layers are ubiquitous in a wide range of situations, from diffusers, nozzles, turbines and ducts to urban air flow and geophysical flows. In this talk we present a simple model for the development of shear layers between flows that mix in confining channels. The model, comprising two plug flow regions separated by a linear shear layer, shows good agreement with both laboratory experiments and computational turbulence modelling (at a fraction of the computation time). Such efficient models, capable of capturing and exhibiting the main characteristics of the turbulent shear layers, are expected to be useful for both modelling and design purposes. We demonstrate the latter by showing how the model can be utilised to optimise pressure recovery in diffusers with non-uniform inflows. EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Industrially Focused Mathematical Modelling, VerdErg Renewable Energy Limited, John Fell Fund (Oxford University Press).

  20. Serverification of Molecular Modeling Applications: The Rosetta Online Server That Includes Everyone (ROSIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchúir, Shane Ó.; Der, Bryan S.; Drew, Kevin; Kuroda, Daisuke; Xu, Jianqing; Weitzner, Brian D.; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Sripakdeevong, Parin; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Kortemme, Tanja; Bonneau, Richard; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Das, Rhiju

    2013-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. PMID:23717507

  1. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    this shear failure mode boils down to the interaction between primary voids which rotate and elongate until coalescence occurs under severe plastic deformation of the internal ligaments. The objective of this paper is to analyze this failure mechanism of primary voids and to study the effect of smaller...... secondary damage that co-exists with or nucleation in the ligaments between larger voids that coalesce during intense shearing. A numerical cell-model study is carried out to gain a parametric understanding of the overall material response for different initial conditions of the two void populations......, subject to shear dominated loading. To account for both length scales involved in this study, a continuum model that includes the softening effect of damage evolution in shear is used to represent the matrix material surrounding the primary voids. Here, a recently extended Gurson-type model is used, which...

  2. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  3. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems, Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a model that allows the simulation of the static behavior of a transverse crack in a horizontal rotor under the action of weight and other possible static loads and the dynamic behavior of cracked rotating shaft. The crack breathes—that is, the mechanism of the crack's opening and closing is ruled by the stress on the cracked section exerted by the external loads. In a rotor, the stresses are time-dependent and have a period equal to the period of rotation; thus, the crack periodically breathes. An original, simplified model allows cracks of various shapes to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, as they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method was validated by using two criteria. First the crack's breathing mechanism, simulated by the model, was compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear, threedimensional finite element model calculation, and a good agreement in the results was observed. Then the proposed model allowed the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model were compared with those obtained by the three-dimensional finite element model. Also in this case, there was a good agreement in the results.

  4. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  5. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally pre-defined by experience with limited design flexibility. Consequently, a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical...

  6. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  7. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shear Thinning in Xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

  9. The lower bound violation of shear viscosity to entropy ratio due to logarithmic correction in STU model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a STU black hole. We observe that these thermal fluctuations can affect the stability of a STU black hole. We will also analyze the effects of these thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a STU black hole. Furthermore, in the Jacobson formalism such a modification will produce a deformation of the geometry of the STU black hole. Hence, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to analyze the effect of such a deformation on the dual quark-gluon plasma. So, we explicitly analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in the quark-gluon plasma, and we analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on this ratio. (orig.)

  10. A viscoplastic model including anisotropic damage for the time dependent behaviour of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, F.; Hajdu, A.; Deleruyelle, F.; Besnus, F.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a new constitutive model for the time dependent mechanical behaviour of rock which takes into account both viscoplastic behaviour and evolution of damage with respect to time. This model is built by associating a viscoplastic constitutive law to the damage theory. The main characteristics of this model are the account of a viscoplastic volumetric strain (i.e. contractancy and dilatancy) as well as the anisotropy of damage. The latter is described by a second rank tensor. Using this model, it is possible to predict delayed rupture by determining time to failure, in creep tests for example. The identification of the model parameters is based on experiments such as creep tests, relaxation tests and quasi-static tests. The physical meaning of these parameters is discussed and comparisons with lab tests are presented. The ability of the model to reproduce the delayed failure observed in tertiary creep is demonstrated as well as the sensitivity of the mechanical response to the rate of loading. The model could be used to simulate the evolution of the excavated damage zone around underground openings.

  11. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  12. A Two-Dimensional Modeling Procedure to Estimate the Loss Equivalent Resistance Including the Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Salas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modeling procedure specifically designed for a ferrite inductor excited by a waveform in time domain. We estimate the loss resistance in the core (parameter of the electrical model of the inductor by means of a Finite Element Method in 2D which leads to significant computational advantages over the 3D model. The methodology is validated for an RM (rectangular modulus ferrite core working in the linear and the saturation regions. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental data and the computational results.

  13. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our...

  14. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  15. Advanced Modeling of Ramp Operations including Departure Status at Secondary Airports, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses three modeling elements relevant to NASA's IADS research and ATD-2 project, two related to ramp operations at primary airports and one related...

  16. Extending the Scope of the Acculturation/Pidginization Model to Include Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines five cognitive models for second-language acquisition (SLA) and assesses how each might account for the Pidginized interlanguage found in the early stages of second-language acquisition. (23 references) (JL)

  17. An integrated computable general equilibrium model including multiple types and uses of water

    OpenAIRE

    Luckmann, Jonas Jens

    2015-01-01

    Water is a scarce resource in many regions of the world and competition for water is an increasing problem. To countervail this trend policies are needed regulating supply and demand for water. As water is used in many economic activities, water related management decisions usually have complex implications. Economic simulation models have been proven useful to ex-ante assess the consequences of policy changes. Specifically, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models are very suitable to ana...

  18. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model is described that allows one to simulate the static behavior of a transversal crack in a horizontal rotor, under the action of the weight and other possible static loads and the dynamical behavior of the rotating cracked shaft. The crack “breaths,” i.e., the mechanism of opening and closing of the crack, is ruled by the stress acting on the cracked section due to the external loads; in a rotor the stress is time-depending with a period equal to the period of rotation, thus the crack “periodically breaths.” An original simplified model is described that allows cracks of different shape to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, since they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method has been validated using two criteria. Firstly, the crack “breathing” mechanism, simulated with the model, has been compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear 3-D FEM calculation and a good agreement in the results has been observed. Secondly, the proposed model allows the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by the above-mentioned 3-D FEM. There is a good agreement in the results, of this case as well.

  19. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  20. Simplification and Validation of a Spectral-Tensor Model for Turbulence Including Atmospheric Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2018-02-01

    A spectral-tensor model of non-neutral, atmospheric-boundary-layer turbulence is evaluated using Eulerian statistics from single-point measurements of the wind speed and temperature at heights up to 100 m, assuming constant vertical gradients of mean wind speed and temperature. The model has been previously described in terms of the dissipation rate ɛ , the length scale of energy-containing eddies L , a turbulence anisotropy parameter Γ, the Richardson number Ri, and the normalized rate of destruction of temperature variance η _θ ≡ ɛ _θ /ɛ . Here, the latter two parameters are collapsed into a single atmospheric stability parameter z / L using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, where z is the height above the Earth's surface, and L is the Obukhov length corresponding to Ri,η _θ. Model outputs of the one-dimensional velocity spectra, as well as cospectra of the streamwise and/or vertical velocity components, and/or temperature, and cross-spectra for the spatial separation of all three velocity components and temperature, are compared with measurements. As a function of the four model parameters, spectra and cospectra are reproduced quite well, but horizontal temperature fluxes are slightly underestimated in stable conditions. In moderately unstable stratification, our model reproduces spectra only up to a scale ˜ 1 km. The model also overestimates coherences for vertical separations, but is less severe in unstable than in stable cases.

  1. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  2. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  3. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  4. Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrill, Carey S.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.

  5. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  6. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics; Kozel, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special `laminar-kinetic-energy` equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  7. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. (Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics); Kozel, K. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special 'laminar-kinetic-energy' equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  8. Spatially-resolved microstructure in shear banding wormlike micellar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgeson, Matthew E.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Wagner, Norman J.; Kaler, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Recently proposed theories for shear banding in wormlike micellar solutions (WLMs) rely on a shear-induced isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase separation as the mechanism for banding. Critical tests of such theories require spatially-resolved measurements of flow-kinematics and local mesoscale microstructure within the shear bands. We have recently developed such capabilities using a short gap Couette cell for flow-small angle neutron scattering (flow-SANS) measurements in the 1-2 plane of shear with collaborators at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. This work combines flow-SANS measurements with rheology, rheo-optics and velocimetry measurements to present the first complete spatially-resolved study of WLMs through the shear banding transition for a model shear banding WLM solution near the I-N phase boundary. The shear rheology is well-modeled by the Giesekus constitutive equation, with incorporated stress diffusion to predict shear banding. By fitting the stress diffusivity at the onset of banding, the model enables prediction of velocity profiles in the shear banded state which are in quantitative agreement with measured flow-kinematics. Quantitative analysis of the flow-SANS measurements shows a critical segmental alignment for banding and validates the Giesekus model predictions, linking segmental orientation to shear banding and providing the first rigorous evidence for the shear-induced I-N transition mechanism for shear banding

  9. Rheology resulting from shear-induced structure in associating polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, J.; Sinton, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polysaccharide with sodium borate (SB) are investigated as a model system for associating polymers which exhibit shear-induced fluid structure and shear-thickening rheology. Certain combinations of PVA and SB concentrations are shown to result in fluids that exhibit a viscosity maximum followed by shear thinning as shear rate is increased. Stress saturation is often observed in the shear-thinning region. A significant hysteresis is also reported in which higher viscosities and lower shear rate for the viscosity maximum are observed in steady-state measurements made while decreasing shear rate in a stepwise manner. Boron nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are shown to be useful for elucidating the nature of the borate/hydroxyl dyad complexes, including their stereoselectivity. Boron resonance peaks allow quantitative determination of the number of complexes and confirmation that only crosslinking complexes are present in most of the solutions studied. Dynamic mechanical properties are included, and a physical picture of network structure building and breaking during flow of associating polymers is discussed

  10. Beam dynamics in high intensity cyclotrons including neighboring bunch effects: Model, implementation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Yang (杨建俊

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Space-charge effects, being one of the most significant collective effects, play an important role in high intensity cyclotrons. However, for cyclotrons with small turn separation, other existing effects are of equal importance. Interactions of radially neighboring bunches are also present, but their combined effects have not yet been investigated in any great detail. In this paper, a new particle in the cell-based self-consistent numerical simulation model is presented for the first time. The model covers neighboring bunch effects and is implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. We discuss this model together with its implementation and validation. Simulation results are presented from the PSI 590 MeV ring cyclotron in the context of the ongoing high intensity upgrade program, which aims to provide a beam power of 1.8 MW (CW at the target destination.

  11. Finding practical phenomenological models that include both photoresist behavior and etch process effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunwook; Do, Thuy; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    For more than five decades, the semiconductor industry has overcome technology challenges with innovative ideas that have continued to enable Moore's Law. It is clear that multi-patterning lithography is vital for 20nm half pitch using 193i. Multi-patterning exposure sequences and pattern multiplication processes can create complicated tolerance accounting due to the variability associated with the component processes. It is essential to ensure good predictive accuracy of compact etch models used in multipatterning simulation. New modelforms have been developed to account for etch bias behavior at 20 nm and below. The new modeling components show good results in terms of global fitness and some improved predication capability for specific features. We've also investigated a new methodology to make the etch model aware of 3D resist profiles.

  12. A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.

  13. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... speed shutdowns and restarts are represented as on–off switching rules that govern the output of the wind turbine at extreme wind speed conditions. The model uses the concept of equivalent wind speed, estimated from the single point (hub height) wind speed using a second-order dynamic filter...... measurements available from the DONG Energy offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  15. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  16. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  17. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  18. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...... of safety barrier (passive, automated, or involving human action). Such models are valuable for many purposes, but are difficult to apply to more complex situations, as the influences are to be set individually for each barrier. The approach described in this paper is trying to improve the state...

  19. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.

    2017-12-01

    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  20. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  1. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  2. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. We decompose the problem into two subproblems. First, we show that all...

  3. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. First, we show that all production rates should be choosen in the interval...

  4. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  5. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  6. Description of the new version 4.0 of the tritium model UFOTRI including user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1993-08-01

    In view of the future operation of fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Because of its physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to the direct exposure and by the ingestion pathways. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, re-emission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium, are considered. The use of UFOTRI in its probabilistic mode shows the spectrum of the radiological impact together with the associated probability of occurrence. A first model version was established in 1991. As the ongoing work on investigating the main processes of the tritium behaviour in the environment shows up new results, the model has been improved in several points. The report describes the changes incorporated into the model since 1991. Additionally provides the up-dated user guide for handling the revised UFOTRI version which will be distributed to interested organizations. (orig.) [de

  7. Extending the formal model of a spatial data infrastructure to include volunteered geographical information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -to-date VGI, have led to the integration of VGI into some SDIs. Therefore it is necessary to rethink our formal model of an SDI to accommodate VGI. We started our rethinking process with the SDI stakeholders in an attempt to establish which changes...

  8. Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    pre-defined by experience with poor design flexibility. Consequently a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical loading but also the device rating as input variables. The quantified correlation between the power loss, thermal...

  9. Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2001-01-01

    In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a

  10. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    is considered as one or more fuzzy substructures that are known in some statistical sense only. Experiments have shown that such fuzzy substructures often introduce a damping in the master which is much higher than the structural losses account for. A special method for modeling fuzzy substructures with a one...

  11. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  12. Modeling the elastic behavior of ductile cast iron including anisotropy in the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    by means of a 3D periodic unit cell model. In this respect, an explicit procedure to enforce both periodic displacement and periodic traction boundary conditions in ABAQUS is presented, and the importance of fulfilling the traction continuity conditions at the unit cell boundaries is discussed. It is shown...

  13. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  14. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  15. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: pipe leakage, urban hydrogeology, catchment scale, OpenGeoSys, HYSTEM-EXTRAN Wastewater leakage from subsurface sewer pipe defects leads to contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater (Ellis, 2002; Wolf et al., 2004). Leakage rates at pipe defects have to be known in order to quantify contaminant input. Due to inaccessibility of subsurface pipe defects, direct (in-situ) measurements of leakage rates are tedious and associated with a high degree of uncertainty (Wolf, 2006). Proposed catchment-scale models simplify leakage rates by neglecting unsaturated zone flow or by reducing spatial dimensions (Karpf & Krebs, 2013, Boukhemacha et al., 2015). In the present study, we present a physically based 3-dimensional numerical model incorporating flow in the pipe network, in the saturated zone and in the unsaturated zone to quantify leakage rates on the catchment scale. The model consists of the pipe network flow model HYSTEM-EXTAN (itwh, 2002), which is coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). We also present the newly developed coupling scheme between the two flow models. Leakage functions specific to a pipe defect are derived from simulations of pipe leakage using spatially refined grids around pipe defects. In order to minimize computational effort, these leakage functions are built into the presented numerical model using unrefined grids around pipe defects. The resulting coupled model is capable of efficiently simulating spatially distributed pipe leakage coupled with subsurficial water flow in a 3-dimensional environment. References: Boukhemacha, M. A., Gogu, C. R., Serpescu, I., Gaitanaru, D., & Bica, I. (2015). A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(3), 437-450. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3. Ellis, J. B., & Revitt, D. M. (2002). Sewer losses and interactions with groundwater quality. Water Science and Technology, 45(3), 195

  16. Including Antenna Models in Microwave Imaging for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a tool for screening for breast cancer, but the lack of methods for including the characteristics of the antennas of the imaging systems in the imaging algorithms limits their performance. In this paper, a method for incorporating the full antenna characteristics...

  17. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    Negative index acoustic metamaterials are artificial structures made of subwavelength units arranged in a lattice, whose effective acoustic parameters, bulk modulus and mass density, can be negative. In these materials, sound waves propagate inside the periodic structure, assumed rigid, showing...... extraordinary properties. We are interested in two particular cases: a double-negative metamaterial, where both parameters are negative at some frequencies, and a single-negative metamaterial with negative bulk modulus within a broader frequency band. In previous research involving the double-negative...... detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  18. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  19. An earth outgoing longwave radiation climate model. II - Radiation with clouds included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Keng; Smith, G. Louis; Bartman, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    The model of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) of Yang et al. (1987) is modified by accounting for the presence of clouds and their influence on OLWR. Cloud top temperature was adjusted so that the calculation agreed with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Cloudy sky cases were calculated for global average, zonal average, and worldwide distributed cases. The results were found to agree well with satellite observations.

  20. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  1. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Creemers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the type of problems/difficulties the school is facing. Reference is made to the methods used to test this assumption of the dynamic model by measuring school effectiveness in mathematics, Greek language, and religious education over two consecutive school years. The main findings are as follows. School factors were found to have situational effects. Specifically, the development of a school policy for teaching and the school evaluation of policy for teaching were found to have stronger effects in schools where the quality of teaching at classroom level was low. Moreover, time stability in the effectiveness status of schools was identified and thereby changes in the functioning of schools were found not to have a significant impact on changes in the effectiveness status of schools. Implications of the findings for the development of the dynamic model and suggestions for further research are presented.

  2. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Michael Davis, J.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM 2.5 particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM 2.5 data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM 2.5 .samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM 2.5 data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for 'secondary smoke' (industry), 'soil', 'smoke' and 'seaspray'. Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from 'secondary industry', 'smoke', 'soil' and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer

  3. A patient-specific virtual stenotic model of the coronary artery to analyze the relationship between fractional flow reserve and wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Gook Tae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Chung, Ju-Hyun; Shin, Eun-Seok; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-11-01

    As the stenotic severity of a patient increases, fractional flow reserve (FFR) decreases, whereas the maximum wall shear stress (WSSmax) increases. However, the way in which these values can change according to stenotic severity has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study is to devise a virtual stenosis model to investigate variations in the coronary hemodynamic parameters of patients according to stenotic severity. To simulate coronary hemodynamics, a three-dimensional (3D) coronary artery model of computational fluid dynamics is coupled with a lumped parameter model of the coronary micro-vasculature and venous system. To validate the present method, we first simulated 13 patient-specific models of the coronary arteries and compared the results with those obtained clinically. Then, virtually narrowed coronary arterial models derived from the patient-specific cases were simulated to obtain the WSSmax and FFR values. The variations in FFR and WSSmax against the percentage of diameter stenosis in clinical cases were reproducible by the virtual stenosis models. We also found that the simulated FFR values were linearly correlated with the WSSmax values, but the linear slope varied by patient. We implemented 130 additional virtual models of stenosed coronary arteries based on data from 13 patients and obtained statistically meaningful results that were identical to the large-scale clinical studies. And the slope of the correlation line between FFR and WSSmax may help clinicians to design treatment plans for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparisons of physical experiment and discrete element simulations of sheared granular materials in an annular shear cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report a direct comparison between a physical test and a computer simulation of rapidly sheared granular materials. An annular shear cell experiment was conducted. All parameters were kept the same between the physical and the computational systems to the extent possible. Artificially softened particles were used in the simulation to reduce the computational time to a manageable level. Sensitivity study on the particle stiffness ensured such artificial modification was acceptable. In the experiment, a range of normal stress was applied to a given amount of particles sheared in an annular trough with a range of controlled shear speed. Two types of particles, glass and Delrin, were used in the experiment. Qualitatively, the required torque to shear the materials under different rotational speed compared well with those in the physical experiments for both the glass and the Delrin particles. However, the quantitative discrepancies between the measured and simulated shear stresses were nearly a factor of two. Boundary conditions, particle size distribution, particle damping and friction, including a sliding and rolling, contact force model, were examined to determine their effects on the computational results. It was found that of the above, the rolling friction between particles had the most significant effect on the macro stress level. This study shows that discrete element simulation is a viable method for engineering design for granular material systems. Particle level information is needed to properly conduct these simulations. However, not all particle level information is equally important in the study regime. Rolling friction, which is not commonly considered in many discrete element models, appears to play an important role. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Optimization of operating conditions in a high-shear mixer using dem model: determination of optimal fill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashita, Keijiro; Nishimura, Takehiko; Natsuyama, Susumu

    2002-12-01

    For the purpose of evaluating optimal fill level of starting materials in a high-shear mixer, discrete element method (DEM) simulation was conducted to visualize kinetic status between particles. The simulation results obtained by changing fill levels were used to determine solid fraction of particles, particle velocity, particle velocity vector, and kinetic energy and discuss the flow pattern. Optimal fill level was obtained from the information on these matters. It was pointed out that understanding the kinetic energy between particles in an agitating vessel was effective in determining the optimal fill level. Granulation experiment was conducted to validate the optimal fill level obtained by the simulation, confirming the good agreement between these two results. It was pointed out that determination of kinetic energy between particles through the simulation was effective in obtaining an index of the kinetic status of particles. Further, it was confirmed that the simulation could provide more information than conventional granulation experiments could provide and also helpful in optimizing the operating conditions.

  6. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  7. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  8. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  9. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  10. Description and Application of A Model of Seepage under A Weir Including Mechanical Clogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses seepage flow under a damming structure (a weir in view of mechanical clogging in a thin layer at the upstream site. It was assumed that in this layer flow may be treated as one-dimensional (perpendicular to the layer, while elsewhere flow was modelled as two-dimensional. The solution in both zones was obtained in the discrete form using the finite element method and the Euler method. The effect of the clogging layer on seepage flow was modelled using the third kind boundary condition. Seepage parameters in the clogging layer were estimated based on laboratory tests conducted by Skolasińska [2006]. Typical problem was taken to provide simulation and indicate how clogging affects the seepage rate and other parameters of the flow. Results showed that clogging at the upstream site has a significant effect on the distribution of seepage velocity and hydraulic gradients. The flow underneath the structure decreases with time, but these changes are relatively slow.

  11. Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts

  12. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  13. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  14. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Including temperature in a wavefunction description of the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Michael; Grossmann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    We present a wavefunction methodology to account for finite temperature initial conditions in the quantum Rabi model. The approach is based on the Davydov Ansatz together with a statistical sampling of the canonical harmonic oscillator initial density matrix. Equations of motion are gained from a variational principle and numerical results are compared to those of the thermal Hamiltonian approach. For a system consisting of a single spin and a single oscillator and for moderate coupling strength, we compare our new results with full quantum ones as well as with other Davydov-type results based on alternative sampling/summation strategies. All of these perform better than the ones based on the thermal Hamiltonian approach. The best agreement is shown by a Boltzmann weighting of individual eigenstate propagations. Extending this to a bath of many oscillators will, however, be very demanding numerically. The use of any one of the investigated stochastic sampling approaches will then be favorable.

  16. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  17. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  18. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  19. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  20. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R [Department of Medical Physics, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 111 Highland Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Schubert, Leah K [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Westerly, David C, E-mail: mwkissick@wisc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2010-05-21

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.