A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.
Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H J
2005-01-01
Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes.
Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean Baptiste; Tvergaard, Viggo
2016-01-01
An extension of Gurson's famous model (Gurson, 1977) of porous plastic solids, incorporating void shape effects, has recently been proposed by Madou and Leblond (Madou and Leblond, 2012a, 2012b, 2013; Madou et al., 2013). In this extension the voids are no longer modelled as spherical but ellipso......An extension of Gurson's famous model (Gurson, 1977) of porous plastic solids, incorporating void shape effects, has recently been proposed by Madou and Leblond (Madou and Leblond, 2012a, 2012b, 2013; Madou et al., 2013). In this extension the voids are no longer modelled as spherical...... and coworkers (Tvergaard, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2015a; Dahl et al., 2012; Nielsen et al., 2012) involving the shear loading of elementary porous cells, where softening due to changes of the void shape and orientation was very apparent. It is found that with a simple, heuristic modelling of the phenomenon...
Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Tvergaard, Viggo
2016-09-01
An extension of Gurson's famous model (Gurson, 1977) of porous plastic solids, incorporating void shape effects, has recently been proposed by Madou and Leblond (Madou and Leblond, 2012a, 2012b, 2013; Madou et al., 2013). In this extension the voids are no longer modelled as spherical but ellipsoidal with three different axes, and changes of the magnitude and orientation of these axes are accounted for. The aim of this paper is to show that the new model is able to predict softening due essentially to such changes, in the absence of significant void growth. This is done in two steps. First, a numerical implementation of the model is proposed and incorporated into the SYSTUS® and ABAQUS® finite element programmes (through some freely available UMAT (Leblond, 2015) in the second case). Second, the implementation in SYSTUS® is used to simulate previous "numerical experiments" of Tvergaard and coworkers (Tvergaard, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2015a; Dahl et al., 2012; Nielsen et al., 2012) involving the shear loading of elementary porous cells, where softening due to changes of the void shape and orientation was very apparent. It is found that with a simple, heuristic modelling of the phenomenon of mesoscopic strain localization, the model is indeed able to reproduce the results of these numerical experiments, in contrast to Gurson's model disregarding void shape effects.
Statistical Model of Extreme Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose
2004-01-01
In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....
Statistical Model of Extreme Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
2005-01-01
In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Yong-an; WANG Fan; LIU Ren-huai
2008-01-01
The nonlinear thermal buckling of symmetrically laminated cylindrically orthotropic shallow spherical shell under temperature field and uniform pressure including transverse shear is studied.Also the analytic formulas for determining the critical buckling loads under different temperature fields are obtained by using the modified iteration method.The effect of transverse shear deformation and different temperature fields on critical buckling load is discussed.
International Organization for Standardization. Geneva
1997-01-01
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method
Wind Shear Target Echo Modeling and Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyang Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wind shear is a dangerous atmospheric phenomenon in aviation. Wind shear is defined as a sudden change of speed or direction of the wind. In order to analyze the influence of wind shear on the efficiency of the airplane, this paper proposes a mathematical model of point target rain echo and weather target signal echo based on Doppler effect. The wind field model is developed in this paper, and the antenna model is also studied by using Bessel function. The spectrum distribution of symmetric and asymmetric wind fields is researched by using the mathematical model proposed in this paper. The simulation results are in accordance with radial velocity component, and the simulation results also confirm the correctness of the established model of antenna.
Shear-Driven Reconnection in Kinetic Models
Black, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Germaschewski, K.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Bessho, N.
2015-12-01
The explosive energy release in solar eruptive phenomena is believed to be due to magnetic reconnection. In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field countered by a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance; therefore, it is critical for understanding CME/flare initiation, to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are dominant in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is challenging, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. Plasma instabilities can arise nonetheless. In the work presented here, we show that we can control this instability and generate a predicted out-of-plane magnetic flux. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.
Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included – FEM calculated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics ul. Jana Pawła II No. 24, 60-138 Poznań POLAND (Poland)
2016-06-08
The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.
Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included - FEM calculated
Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy
2016-06-01
The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.
Simple models for shear flow transition
Barkley, Dwight
2011-11-01
I will discuss recent developments in modeling transitional shear flows with simple two-variable models. Both pipe flow and plane Couette flow are considered. The essential insight is that most large-scale features of these shear flows can be traced to a change from excitability to bistability in the local dynamics. Models are presented in two variables, turbulence intensity and mean shear. A PDE model of pipe flow captures the essence of the puff-slug transition as a change from excitability to bistability. Extended models with turbulence as deterministic transient chaos or multiplicative noise reproduce almost all large-scale features of transitional pipe flow. In particular they capture metastable localized puffs, puff splitting, slugs, localized edge states, a continuous transition to sustained turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency (directed percolation), and a subsequent increase in turbulence fraction towards uniform, featureless turbulence. A model that additionally takes into account the symmetries of plane Couette flow reproduces localized turbulence and periodic turbulent-laminar bands.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.
2015-01-01
the model to simulate the build-up of turbulence over a row of turbines in a physically consistent manner. The performance of the modified model is validated against actuator line (AL) model results and field data from the Lillgrund offshore wind farm. Qualitatively, the modified DWM model is in fair......%, respectively, by including the proposed corrections for a row of eight turbines. Furthermore, it is found that the root-mean-square difference between the AL model and the modified DWM model in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity does not increase over a row of turbines compared with the root...
Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models
Muronga, A
2004-01-01
The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green--Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend o...
Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models
Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis
2016-04-01
The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.
Modeling dynamic recrystallization of olivine aggregates deformed in simple shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wenk, H.-R. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Tome, C. N. [Materials, Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)
1999-11-10
Experiments by Zhang and Karato [1995] have shown that in simple shear dislocation creep of olivine at low strains, an asymmetric texture develops with a [100] maximum rotated away from the shear direction against the sense of shear. At large strain where recrystallization is pervasive, the texture pattern is symmetrical, and [100] is parallel to the shear direction. The deformation texture can be adequately modeled with a viscoplastic self-consistent polycrystal plasticity theory. This model can be expanded to include recrystallization, treating the process as a balance of boundary migration (growth of relatively underformed grains at the expense of highly deformed grains) and nucleation (strain-free nuclei replacing highly deformed grains). If nucleation dominates over growth, the model predicts a change from the asymmetric to the symmetric texture as recrystallization proceeds and stabilization in the ''easy slip'' orientation for the dominant (010)[100] slip system. This result is in accordance with the experiments and suggests that the most highly deformed orientation components dominate the recrystallization texture. The empirical model will be useful to simulate more adequately the development of anisotropy in the mantle where olivine is largely recrystallized. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.
1985-09-01
shear effects began with Pryor and Barker [133. Their model was based on Reissner’s plate theory and was applied to the cylindrical bending of a...Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1974. 6. Dym, Clive L. and Irving H. Shames. Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill...13. Pryor, Jr., C. W. and Barker , R. M. "A Finite Element Analysis Including Transverse Shear Effects for Applications to Laminated Plates,’ AIAA J
A void coalescence model for combined tension and shear
Butcher, C.; Chen, Z. T.
2009-03-01
The influence of shear loading on damage development in Gurson-based models has long been neglected resulting in inadequate fracture strain predictions at low triaxiality where shear effects become significant. The plastic limit-load fracture criterion used in advanced Gurson models neglects the influence of shear loading and overestimates the fracture strain and porosity at low triaxiality. In this paper, we extend the recently proposed shear damage model of Xue [1] to provide a stronger physical foundation by removing the simplifying assumptions. Then we directly modify the plastic limit-load fracture criterion by coupling with the extended shear damage model to account for shear weakening and failure of the intervoid ligament in void coalescence. We apply the modified plastic limit-load criterion to predict the necking of sheet tensile specimens and find very good agreement with the available experimental results.
Modeling shear band interaction in 1D torsion
Partom, Yehuda; Hanina, Erez
2017-01-01
When two shear bands are being formed at close distance from each other they interact, and further development of one of them may be quenched down. As a result there should be a minimum distance between shear bands. In the literature there are at least three analytical models for this minimum distance. Predictions of these models do not generally agree with each other and with test results. Recently we developed a 1D numerical scheme to predict the formation of shear bands in a torsion test of a thin walled pipe. We validated our code by reproducing results of the pioneering experiments of Marchand and Duffy, and then used it to investigate the mechanics of shear localization and shear band formation. We describe our shear band code in a separate publication, and here we use it only as a tool to investigate the interaction between two neighboring shear bands during the process of their formation. We trigger the formation of shear bands by specifying two perturbations of the initial strength. We vary the perturbations in terms of their amplitude and/or their width. Usually, the stronger perturbation triggers a faster developing shear band, which then prevails and quenches the development of the other shear band. We change the distance between the two shear bands and find, that up to a certain distance one of the shear bands becomes fully developed, and the other stays only partially developed. Beyond this distance the two shear bands are both fully developed. Finally, we check the influence of certain material and loading parameters on the interaction between the two shear bands, and compare the results to predictions of the analytical models from the literature.
IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Lopez
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.
Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiho Moon
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.
The instantaneous shear modulus in the shoving model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.; Wang, W. H.
2012-01-01
We point out that the instantaneous shear modulus G∞ of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of viscous liquids’ relaxation time is the experimentally accessible highfrequency plateau modulus, not the idealized instantaneous affine shear modulus that cannot be measured...
Modeling Effects on Forces in Shear Wall-Frame Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adang Surahman
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Shear walls are added to a structural system to reduce lateral deformations in moment resisting frames and are designed to carry a major portion of lateral load induced by an earthquake. A small percentage error in the shear wall calculation will have a significant effect on the frame forces. The results show that even a slight difference in structural assumption, or modeling, results in significant differences. Some of these differences are beyond the values that are covered by safety factors for errors in modeling. The differences are more obvious in the upper stories. It is not recommended to overestimate shear wall stiffness, nor underestimate frame stiffness.
SHEARING AND WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF UNSATURATED LOAM WITH MODELING
Kiyohara, Yukoh; Kazama, Motoki
Unsaturated triaxial tests were carried out to study deformation behavior, effective stress path and water retention property of consolidated loam during consolidation and shearing processes. Initial matric suction was set as 0, 50, and 90 kPa, and confining pressures (net normal stresses) were set as 100 kPa. Then shearing processes were done under undrained and drained conditions. We clarified the relation between void ratio and Van Genuchten model parameter by using water retention curve. To predict the unsaturated shearing behavior, a modified Cam Clay model considering void ratio dependent Van Genuchten parameter was proposed. Those numerical test results were agreed well with laboratory tests results.
Foam rheology: A model of viscous effects in shear flow
Kraynik, Andrew M.; Reinelt, Douglas A.
Foams consisting of gas bubbles dispersed in a continuous network of thin liquid films display a remarkable range of rheological characteristics that include a finite shear modulus, yield stress, non-Newtonian viscosity, and slip at the wall. Progress in developing micromechanical theories to describe foam rheology has depended upon two-dimensional models, which in most cases are assumed to have perfectly ordered structure. Princen accounted for surface tension and geometrical effects, and analyzed the nonlinear elastic response of a spatially periodic foam in simple shear. His analysis has been extended to account for more general deformations. Khan and Armstrong and Kraynik and Hansen have proposed ad hoc models for viscous effects in foam rheology. Their models capture numerous qualitative phenomena but incorporate relaxation mechanisms based upon overly simplified assumptions of liquid flow in the thin films. Mysels, Shinoda, and Frankel considered soap films with interfaces that are inextensible due to the presence of surfactants. They analyzed the primary flow that occurs when such films are slowly withdrawn from or recede into essentially static junction regions such as the Plateau borders in a foam. Adopting this mechanism, Schwartz and Princen considered small periodic deformations of a foam and calculated the energy dissipation due to viscous flow in the thin films. In the following, we also adopt the basic interfacial and viscous mechanisms introduced by Mysels et al. and analyze simple shearing deformations of finite amplitude. The configuration and effective stress of the foam are determined. Under these deformation conditions, the foam is a nonlinear viscoelastic material. Results for the uniform expansion of a foam are also presented.
Measurement and modeling of bed shear stress under solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Jayakumar, S.; Guard, P.A.; Baldock, T.E.
convolution integration methods forced with the free stream velocity and incorporating a range of eddy viscosity models. Wave friction factors were estimated from skin shear stress at different instances over the wave (viz., time of maximum positive total...
Masked areas in shear peak statistics. A forward modeling approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.
2016-03-09
The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.
Extending the LCDM model through shear-free anisotropies
Pereira, Thiago S
2016-01-01
If the spacetime metric has anisotropic spatial curvature, one can afford to expand the universe isotropically, provided that the energy-momentum tensor satisfy a certain con- straint. This leads to the so-called shear-free metrics, which have the interesting property of violating the cosmological principle while still preserving the isotropy of the cosmic mi- crowave background (CMB) radiation. In this work we show that shear-free cosmologies correspond to an attractor solution in the space of models with anisotropic spatial curva- ture. Through a rigorous definition of linear perturbation theory in these spacetimes, we show that shear-free models represent a viable alternative to describe the large-scale evo- lution of the universe, leading, in particular, to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Alternatively, we discuss some specific signatures that shear-free models would imprint on the temperature spectrum of CMB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravinder Kumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned with the study of propagation of shear waves in an anisotropic fluid saturated porous layer over a semi-infinite homogeneous elastic half-space lying under an elastic homogeneous layer with irregularity present at the interface with rigid boundary. The rectangular irregularity has been taken in the half-space. The dispersion equation for shear waves is derived by using the perturbation technique followed by Fourier transformation. Numerically, the effect of irregularity present is analysed. It is seen that the phase velocity is significantly influenced by the wave number and the depth of the irregularity. The variations of dimensionless phase velocity against dimensionless wave number are shown graphically for the different size of rectangular irregularities with the help of MATLAB.
2008-03-01
fabrics treated with STFs. STFs are materials that are flowable at low stress levels but transition to a solid-like state when subjected to higher...Treated Fabrics. Composites Science and Technology 2007, 67, 565–578. 4. Decker, M. J.; Egres, R. G.; Wetzel, E. D.; Wagner, N. J. Low Velocity...Ballistic Properties of Shear Thickening Fluid (Stf)-Fabric Composites . Proceedings of the 22nd International Symposium on Ballistics, Vancouver, BC
Modeling liquefaction of water saturated granular material under undrained cyclic shearing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Juhua Zhang
2005-01-01
The tendency of particles in a water-saturated granular mass to re-arrange into a denser state during cyclic shearing under pressure results in an increase in pore water pressure. The increase in the pore water pressure causes a reduction in the inner particle contact forces, and in turn easier re-arrangement of the particles. Eventually, the material loses its shear strength, partially or almost completely. In this paper, a general three-dimensional continuum mechanics model is presented for the deformation of granular materials.A physically based model is also presented for characterization of liquefaction of the water saturated granular material under undrained cyclic shearing. The model incorporates the fabric of the granular mass, which develops as the frictional granular mass is deformed in shear. It includes the coupling between shearing and excess pore water pressure. The model parameters are estimated, based on the results of cyclic shearing experiments on large hollow cylindrical samples of silica sand. Basically, the calculation results utilizing this model can embody liquefaction phenomena of the water saturated granular material under undrained cyclic shearing.
One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nabarro, FRN
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The analysis of thermal activation under shear stress in three- and even two-dimensional models presents unresolved problems. The analysis of one-dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model...
Mehrishal, Seyedahmad; Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Shahriar, Korosh; Song, Jae-Jon
2017-04-01
In relation to the shearing of rock joints, the precise and continuous evaluation of asperity interlocking, dilation, and basic friction properties has been the most important task in the modeling of shear strength. In this paper, in order to investigate these controlling factors, two types of limestone joint samples were prepared and CNL direct shear tests were performed on these joints under various shear conditions. One set of samples were travertine and another were onyx marble with slickensided surfaces, surfaces ground to #80, and rough surfaces were tested. Direct shear experiments conducted on slickensided and ground surfaces of limestone indicated that by increasing the applied normal stress, under different shearing rates, the basic friction coefficient decreased. Moreover, in the shear tests under constant normal stress and shearing rate, the basic friction coefficient remained constant for the different contact sizes. The second series of direct shear experiments in this research was conducted on tension joint samples to evaluate the effect of surface roughness on the shear behavior of the rough joints. This paper deals with the dilation and roughness interlocking using a method that characterizes the surface roughness of the joint based on a fundamental combined surface roughness concept. The application of stress-dependent basic friction and quantitative roughness parameters in the continuous modeling of the shear behavior of rock joints is an important aspect of this research.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
With the idea of the phononic crystals, the beams with periodic structure are designed.Flexural vibration through such periodic beams composed of two kinds of materials is studied. The emphasis is laid on the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation. Based on the vibration equation, plane wave expansion method is provided. The acceleration frequency responses of such beams with finite structure are simulated by the finite element method. The frequency ranges of sharp drops in the calculated acceleration frequency response curves are in good agreement with those in the band structures. The findings will be significant in the application of the periodic beams.
Mena, B.
2012-08-08
Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.
Numerical Modelling of Double-Steel Plate Composite Shear Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michaela Elmatzoglou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Double-steel plate concrete composite shear walls are being used for nuclear plants and high-rise buildings. They consist of thick concrete walls, exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement and shear connectors, which guarantee the composite action between the two different materials. Several researchers have used the Finite Element Method to investigate the behaviour of double-steel plate concrete walls. The majority of them model every element explicitly leading to a rather time-consuming solution, which cannot be easily used for design purposes. In the present paper, the main objective is the introduction of a three-dimensional finite element model, which can efficiently predict the overall performance of a double-steel plate concrete wall in terms of accuracy and time saving. At first, empirical formulations and design relations established in current design codes for shear connectors are evaluated. Then, a simplified finite element model is used to investigate the nonlinear response of composite walls. The developed model is validated using results from tests reported in the literature in terms of axial compression and monotonic, cyclic in-plane shear loading. Several finite element modelling issues related to potential convergence problems, loading strategies and computer efficiency are also discussed. The accuracy and simplicity of the proposed model make it suitable for further numerical studies on the shear connection behaviour at the steel-concrete interface.
Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim
2015-07-01
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.
A General Shear-Dependent Model for Thrombus Formation.
Yazdani, Alireza; Li, He; Humphrey, Jay D; Karniadakis, George Em
2017-01-01
Modeling the transport, activation, and adhesion of platelets is crucial in predicting thrombus formation and growth following a thrombotic event in normal or pathological conditions. We propose a shear-dependent platelet adhesive model based on the Morse potential that is calibrated by existing in vivo and in vitro experimental data and can be used over a wide range of flow shear rates ([Formula: see text]). We introduce an Eulerian-Lagrangian model where hemodynamics is solved on a fixed Eulerian grid, while platelets are tracked using a Lagrangian framework. A force coupling method is introduced for bidirectional coupling of platelet motion with blood flow. Further, we couple the calibrated platelet aggregation model with a tissue-factor/contact pathway coagulation cascade, representing the relevant biology of thrombin generation and the subsequent fibrin deposition. The range of shear rates covered by the proposed model encompass venous and arterial thrombosis, ranging from low-shear-rate conditions in abdominal aortic aneurysms and thoracic aortic dissections to thrombosis in stenotic arteries following plaque rupture, where local shear rates are extremely high.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2007-01-01
To consider the effects of the interactions and interplay among microstructures, gradient-dependent models of second- and fourth-order are included in the widely used phenomenological Johnson-Cook model where the effects of strain-hardening, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal-softening are successfully described. The various parameters for 1006 steel, 4340 steel and S-7 tool steel are assigned. The distributions and evolutions of the local plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band (ASB) are predicted. The calculated results of the second- and fourth-order gradient plasticity models are compared. S-7 tool steel possesses the steepest profile of local plastic shear strain in ASB, whereas 1006 steel has the least profile. The peak local plastic shear strain in ASB for S-7 tool steel is slightly higher than that for 4340 steel and is higher than that for 1006 steel. The extent of the nonlinear distribution of the local plastic shear deformation in ASB is more apparent for the S-7 tool steel, whereas it is the least apparent for 1006 steel. In fourth-order gradient plasticity model, the profile of the local plastic shear strain in the middle of ASB has a pronounced plateau whose width decreases with increasing average plastic shear strain, leading to a shrink of the portion of linear distribution of the profile of the local plastic shear deformation. When compared with the second-order gradient plasticity model, the fourth-order gradient plasticity model shows a lower peak local plastic shear strain in ASB and a higher magnitude of plastic shear deformation at the top or base of ASB, which is due to wider ASB. The present numerical results of the second- and fourth-order gradient plasticity models are consistent with the previous numerical and experimental results at least qualitatively.
Vertical shear instability in accretion disc models with radiation transport
Stoll, Moritz H R
2014-01-01
The origin of turbulence in accretion discs is still not fully understood. While the magneto-rotational instability is considered to operate in sufficiently ionized discs, its role in the poorly ionized protoplanetary disc is questionable. Recently, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has been suggested as a possible alternative. Our goal is to study the characteristics of this instability and the efficiency of angular momentum transport, in extended discs, under the influence of radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. We use multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to model a larger section of an accretion disc. First we study inviscid and weakly viscous discs using a fixed radial temperature profile in two and three spatial dimensions. The simulations are then extended to include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. In agreement with previous studies we find for the isothermal disc a sustained unstable state with a weak positive angular momentum transport of the o...
Mathematical modelling on instability of shear fault
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范天佑
1996-01-01
A study on mathematical modelling on instability of fault is reported.The fracture mechanics and fracture dynamics as a basis of the discussion,and the method of complex variable function (including the conformal mapping and approximate conformal mapping) are employed,and some analytic solutions of the problem in closed form are found.The fault body concept is emphasized and the characteristic size of fault body is introduced.The effect of finite size of the fault body and the effect of the fault propagating speed (especially the effect of the high speed) and their influence on the fault instability are discussed.These results further explain the low-stress drop phenomena observed in earthquake source.
An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow
Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.
2010-01-01
The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the re
A Non - Singular Cosmological Model with Shear and Rotation
Goswami, G K; 10.1134/S0202289311040062
2011-01-01
We have investigated a non-static and rotating model of the universe with an imperfect fluid distribution. It is found that the model is free from singularity and represents an ever expanding universe with shear and rotation vanishing for large value of time.
DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION
Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio
It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.
A Predictive Model of High Shear Thrombus Growth.
Mehrabadi, Marmar; Casa, Lauren D C; Aidun, Cyrus K; Ku, David N
2016-08-01
The ability to predict the timescale of thrombotic occlusion in stenotic vessels may improve patient risk assessment for thrombotic events. In blood contacting devices, thrombosis predictions can lead to improved designs to minimize thrombotic risks. We have developed and validated a model of high shear thrombosis based on empirical correlations between thrombus growth and shear rate. A mathematical model was developed to predict the growth of thrombus based on the hemodynamic shear rate. The model predicts thrombus deposition based on initial geometric and fluid mechanic conditions, which are updated throughout the simulation to reflect the changing lumen dimensions. The model was validated by comparing predictions against actual thrombus growth in six separate in vitro experiments: stenotic glass capillary tubes (diameter = 345 µm) at three shear rates, the PFA-100(®) system, two microfluidic channel dimensions (heights = 300 and 82 µm), and a stenotic aortic graft (diameter = 5.5 mm). Comparison of the predicted occlusion times to experimental results shows excellent agreement. The model is also applied to a clinical angiography image to illustrate the time course of thrombosis in a stenotic carotid artery after plaque cap rupture. Our model can accurately predict thrombotic occlusion time over a wide range of hemodynamic conditions.
Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl
1990-01-01
A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.
Wall Orientation and Shear Stress in the Lattice Boltzmann Model
Matyka, Maciej; Mirosław, Łukasz
2013-01-01
The wall shear stress is a quantity of profound importance for clinical diagnosis of artery diseases. The lattice Boltzmann is an easily parallelizable numerical method of solving the flow problems, but it suffers from errors of the velocity field near the boundaries which leads to errors in the wall shear stress and normal vectors computed from the velocity. In this work we present a simple formula to calculate the wall shear stress in the lattice Boltzmann model and propose to compute wall normals, which are necessary to compute the wall shear stress, by taking the weighted mean over boundary facets lying in a vicinity of a wall element. We carry out several tests and observe an increase of accuracy of computed normal vectors over other methods in two and three dimensions. Using the scheme we compute the wall shear stress in an inclined and bent channel fluid flow and show a minor influence of the normal on the numerical error, implying that that the main error arises due to a corrupted velocity field near ...
Modelling the effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments
Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary
2017-01-01
Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 - 102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-2 GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength compared with a model based purely on hydrodynamics.
Shear creep characteristics and constitutive model of limestone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Mei; Mao Xianbiao; Hu Xinyu
2016-01-01
The characters of limestone in weak interlayer of a high rocky slope in Xuzhou, China, are studied by shear static test and shear creep test. The results show that limestone specimens have attenuation creep properties and constant rate creep properties, almost have no accelerated creep properties. The exponen-tial type empirical formula is selected to fit creep grading curves by polynomial regression analysis method, and the square sums of the fitting results residual are in the order of 10-7. Then grade creep curves at every shear loads are set up. Combining creep rate-time curve, the creep properties of limestone are analyzed. As the physical meaning of component model is clearer, the Poytin–Thomson model is set up. Through the least square method, the optimal parameters of Poytin–Thomson model are obtained, and the sums of squared residuals belong to 10-3 order of magnitude, which can meet the accuracy requirements of engineering calculation. So the Poytin–Thomson model can reflect the shear creep char-acteristics of limestone very well.
Halo abundances and shear in void models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels
2012-01-01
We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all ...
Halo abundances and shear in void models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels;
2012-01-01
We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...
Shear-flexible finite-element models of laminated composite plates and shells
Noor, A. K.; Mathers, M. D.
1975-01-01
Several finite-element models are applied to the linear static, stability, and vibration analysis of laminated composite plates and shells. The study is based on linear shallow-shell theory, with the effects of shear deformation, anisotropic material behavior, and bending-extensional coupling included. Both stiffness (displacement) and mixed finite-element models are considered. Discussion is focused on the effects of shear deformation and anisotropic material behavior on the accuracy and convergence of different finite-element models. Numerical studies are presented which show the effects of increasing the order of the approximating polynomials, adding internal degrees of freedom, and using derivatives of generalized displacements as nodal parameters.
Modeling and analysis of electrorheological suspensions in shear flow.
Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok
2012-02-14
A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material are in an undeformed state, while aligned structures reform under the shear force. The model's predictions were compared with the experimental data of some ER fluids as well as the CCJ (Cho-Choi-Jhon) model. This simple model's predictions of suspension flow behavior with subsequent aligned structure reformation agreed well with the experimental data, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The proposed model plausibly predicted the static yield stress, whereas the CCJ model and the Bingham model predicted only the dynamic yield stress. The master curve describing the apparent viscosity was obtained by appropriate scaling both axes, which showed that a combination of dimensional analysis and flow curve analysis using the proposed model yielded a quantitatively and qualitatively precise description of ER fluid rheological behavior based on relatively few experimental measurements.
Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Definition
1977-03-01
Fichtl, "Rough to Smooth Transition of an Equilibrium Neutral Constant Stress Layer," NASA TM X-3322, (1975). 5-36 Geiger, Rudolf , The Climate Near the...Roy Steiner , and K. G. Pratt. "Dynamic Response of Airplanes to Atmospheric Turbulence Including Flight Data on Input and Response," NASA TR R-199
Ductile shear failure or plug failure of spot welds modelled by modified Gurson model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo
2010-01-01
For resistance spot welded shear-lab specimens, interfacial failure under ductile shearing or ductile plug failure are analyzed numerically, using a shear modified Gurson model. The interfacial shear failure occurs under very low stress triaxiality, where the original Gurson model would predict...... void nucleation and very limited void growth. Void coalescence would therefore be largely postponed. However, using the shear modification of the Gurson model, recently introduced by Nahshon and Hutchinson (2008) [1], failure prediction is possible at zero or even negative mean stress. Since......, this shear modification has too large effect in some cases where the stress triaxiality is rather high, an extension is proposed in the present study to better represent the damage development at moderate to high stress triaxiality, which is known to be well described by the Gurson model. Failure prediction...
Application of a shear-modified GTN model to incremental sheet forming
Smith, Jacob; Malhotra, Rajiv; Liu, W. K.; Cao, Jian
2013-12-01
This paper investigates the effects of using a shear-modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model, which is based on the mechanics of voids, for simulating material behavior in the incremental forming process. The problem chosen for analysis is a simplified version of the NUMISHEET 2014 incremental forming benchmark test. The implications of the shear-modification of the model specifically for incremental sheet forming processes are confirmed using finite element analysis. It is shown that including the shear term has a significant effect on fracture timing in incremental forming, which is not well reflected in the observed tensile test simulations for calibration. The numerical implementation and the need for comprehensive calibration of the model are briefly discussed.
Advanced System Identification for High-rise Building Using Shear-Bending Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Fujita
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In order to identify physical model parameters of a high-rise building, a new story stiffness identification method is presented based on a shear-bending model and the identification function. Although a shear building model may be the simplest conventional model for representing tall buildings, the system identification (SI method using that model is not necessarily appropriate. This is because the influence of bending deformation is predominant in such high-rise buildings. For this reason, a shear-bending model is used where the shear and bending stiffnesses are unknown. In the previous researches using the shear-bending model, it was difficult to identify the bending stiffnesses stably and reliably. In this paper, to overcome such instability of bending stiffness identification of the shear-bending model, a new SI algorithm using both the shear model and the shear-bending model is presented. The proposed SI algorithm is based on the observation that the fundamental-mode shape of the identified shear model is similar to that of the shear-bending model identified in the previous SI method. In order to verify the advanced SI method, two different 20-story building models are investigated in the numerical simulations. From the results of the simulations, both the shear and bending stiffnesses of the shear-bending model are identified reliably and stably in the proposed SI method.
Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.
Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P
2015-03-01
Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.
Microscopic origin of shear relaxation in a model viscoelastic liquid.
Ashwin, J; Sen, Abhijit
2015-02-01
An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τ(M)(ex) of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γ(c) of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τ(LC) converges to τ(M)(ex) and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ≫Γ(c), i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τ(M)(ex)→τ(M) (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.
Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in a Model Viscoelastic Liquid
Ashwin, J.; Sen, Abhijit
2015-02-01
An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τMex of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γc of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τLC converges to τMex and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ ≫Γc, i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τMex→τM (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.
Nazemnezhad, Reza; Shokrollahi, Hassan; Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh
2014-05-01
In this study, sandwich beam model (SM) is proposed for free vibration analysis of bilayer graphene nanoribbons (BLGNRs) with interlayer shear effect. This model also takes into account the intralayer (in-plane) stretch of graphene nanoribbons. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the software LAMMPS and Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential are done to validate the accuracy of the sandwich model results. The MD simulation results include the two first frequencies of cantilever BLGNRs with different lengths and two interlayer shear moduli, i.e., 0.25 and 4.6 GPa. These two interlayer shear moduli, 0.25 and 4.6 GPa, can be obtained by sliding a small flake of graphene on a large graphene substrate when the parameter of E_LJ term in AIREBO potential, epsilon_CC, is set to be 2.84 and 45.44 meV, respectively. The SM results for a wide range of bending rigidity values show that the proposed model, i.e., the SM, predicts much better than the previous beam model in which the intralayer stretch is ignored. In addition, it is observed that the model can properly predict the natural frequencies of BLGNRs for various values of the bending rigidity and the interlayer shear modulus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazemnezhad, Reza, E-mail: rnazemnezhad@iust.ac.ir, E-mail: rnazemnezhad@du.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Hassan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh [School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Railway Transportation, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-07
In this study, sandwich beam model (SM) is proposed for free vibration analysis of bilayer graphene nanoribbons (BLGNRs) with interlayer shear effect. This model also takes into account the intralayer (in-plane) stretch of graphene nanoribbons. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the software LAMMPS and Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential are done to validate the accuracy of the sandwich model results. The MD simulation results include the two first frequencies of cantilever BLGNRs with different lengths and two interlayer shear moduli, i.e., 0.25 and 4.6 GPa. These two interlayer shear moduli, 0.25 and 4.6 GPa, can be obtained by sliding a small flake of graphene on a large graphene substrate when the parameter of E-LJ term in AIREBO potential, epsilon-CC, is set to be 2.84 and 45.44 meV, respectively. The SM results for a wide range of bending rigidity values show that the proposed model, i.e., the SM, predicts much better than the previous beam model in which the intralayer stretch is ignored. In addition, it is observed that the model can properly predict the natural frequencies of BLGNRs for various values of the bending rigidity and the interlayer shear modulus.
Nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints using a linearized implementation of the Barton–Bandis model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Heru Prassetyo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Experiments on rock joint behaviors have shown that joint surface roughness is mobilized under shearing, inducing dilation and resulting in nonlinear joint shear strength and shear stress vs. shear displacement behaviors. The Barton–Bandis (BB joint model provides the most realistic prediction for the nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints. The BB model accounts for asperity roughness and strength through the joint roughness coefficient (JRC and joint wall compressive strength (JCS parameters. Nevertheless, many computer codes for rock engineering analysis still use the constant shear strength parameters from the linear Mohr–Coulomb (M−C model, which is only appropriate for smooth and non-dilatant joints. This limitation prevents fractured rock models from capturing the nonlinearity of joint shear behavior. To bridge the BB and the M−C models, this paper aims to provide a linearized implementation of the BB model using a tangential technique to obtain the equivalent M−C parameters that can satisfy the nonlinear shear behavior of rock joints. These equivalent parameters, namely the equivalent peak cohesion, friction angle, and dilation angle, are then converted into their mobilized forms to account for the mobilization and degradation of JRC under shearing. The conversion is done by expressing JRC in the equivalent peak parameters as functions of joint shear displacement using proposed hyperbolic and logarithmic functions at the pre- and post-peak regions of shear displacement, respectively. Likewise, the pre- and post-peak joint shear stiffnesses are derived so that a complete shear stress-shear displacement relationship can be established. Verifications of the linearized implementation of the BB model show that the shear stress-shear displacement curves, the dilation behavior, and the shear strength envelopes of rock joints are consistent with available experimental and numerical results.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kanat Burak Bozdogan; Duygu Ozturk
2010-06-01
This study presents an approximate method based on the continuum approach and transfer matrix method for lateral stability analysis of buildings. In this method, the whole structure is idealized as an equivalent sandwich beam which includes all deformations. The effect of shear deformations of walls has been taken into consideration and incorporated in the formulation of the governing equations. Initially the stability differential equation of this equivalent sandwich beam is presented, and then shape functions for each storey is obtained by the solution of the differential equations. By using boundary conditions and stability storey transfer matrices obtained by shape functions, system buckling load can be calculated. To verify the presented method, four numerical examples have been solved. The results of the samples demonstrate the agreement between the presented method and the other methods given in the literature.
Shear Stress Transmission Model for the Flagellar Rotary Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroyuki Ohshima
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the charasteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation.
Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau
2010-01-01
Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro-cracks, w......Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro......-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression...... for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models...
Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness
Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt
2015-11-01
Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.
An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling
Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.
1996-11-01
) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay
Component-Based Model for Single-Plate Shear Connections with Pretension and Pinched Hysteresis.
Weigand, Jonathan M
2017-02-01
Component-based connection models provide a natural framework for modeling the complex behaviors of connections under extreme loads by capturing both the individual behaviors of the connection components, such as the bolt, shear plate, and beam web, and the complex interactions between those components. Component-based models also provide automatic coupling between the in-plane flexural and axial connection behaviors, a feature that is essential for modeling the behavior of connections under column removal. This paper presents a new component-based model for single-plate shear connections that includes the effects of pre-tension in the bolts and provides the capability to model standard and slotted holes. The component-based models are exercised under component-level deformations calculated from the connection demands via a practical rigid-body displacement model, so that the results of the presented modeling approach remains hand-calculable. Validation cases are presented for connections subjected to both seismic and column removal loading. These validation cases show that the component-based model is capable of predicting the response of single-plate shear connections for both seismic and column removal loads.
New shear-free relativistic models with heat flow
Msomi, A M; Maharaj, S D
2013-01-01
We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic models with heat flow. Our analysis is based on Lie's theory of extended groups applied to the governing field equations. In particular, we generate a five-parameter family of transformations which enables us to map existing solutions to new solutions. All known solutions of Einstein equations with heat flow can therefore produce infinite families of new solutions. In addition, we provide two new classes of solutions utilising the Lie infinitesimal generators. These solutions generate an infinite class of solutions given any one of the two unknown metric functions.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Li; C. Tsang
2000-12-20
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in
An improved turbulence model for rotating shear flows*
Nagano, Yasutaka; Hattori, Hirofumi
2002-01-01
In the present study, we construct a turbulence model based on a low-Reynolds-number non-linear k e model for turbulent flows in a rotating channel. Two-equation models, in particular the non-linear k e model, are very effective for solving various flow problems encountered in technological applications. In channel flows with rotation, however, the explicit effects of rotation only appear in the Reynolds stress components. The exact equations for k and e do not have any explicit terms concerned with the rotation effects. Moreover, the Coriolis force vanishes in the momentum equation for a fully developed channel flow with spanwise rotation. Consequently, in order to predict rotating channel flows, after proper revision the Reynolds stress equation model or the non-linear eddy viscosity model should be used. In this study, we improve the non-linear k e model so as to predict rotating channel flows. In the modelling, the wall-limiting behaviour of turbulence is also considered. First, we evaluated the non-linear k e model using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) database for a fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. Next, we assessed the non-linear k e model at various rotation numbers. Finally, on the basis of these assessments, we reconstruct the non-linear k e model to calculate rotating shear flows, and the proposed model is tested on various rotation number channel flows. The agreement with DNS and experiment data is quite satisfactory.
Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear
Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau
2010-09-01
Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models show a strong dependence on the level of hydrostatic tension. Even though the reason for this pressure dependence is different in the two models, as the shear-extended Gurson model does not describe voids flattening out and the associated failure mechanism by micro-cracks interacting with neighbouring micro-cracks, it is shown that the trends of the predictions are in good agreement.
Enhanced battery model including temperature effects
Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.
2013-01-01
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy
Enhanced battery model including temperature effects
Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.
2013-01-01
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy
Enhanced battery model including temperature effects
Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.
2013-01-01
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2006-01-01
By using the widely used JOHNSON-COOK model and the gradient-dependent plasticity to consider microstmctural effect beyond the occurrence of shear strain localization, the distributions of local plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band(ASB) were analyzed. The peak local plastic shear strain is proportional to the average plastic shear strain, while it is inversely proportional to the critical plastic shear strain corresponding to the peak flow shear stress. The relative plastic shear deformation between the top and base of ASB depends on the thickness of ASB and the average plastic shear strain. A parametric study was carried out to study the influence of constitutive parameters on shear strain localization. Higher values of static shear strength and work to heat conversion factor lead to lower critical plastic shear strain so that the shear localization is more apparent at the same average plastic shear strain. Higher values of strain-hardening exponent, strain rate sensitive coefficient, melting point,thermal capacity and mass density result in higher critical plastic shear strain, leading to less apparent shear localization at the same average plastic shear strain. The strain rate sensitive coefficient has a minor influence on the critical plastic shear strain, the distributions of local plastic shear strain and deformation in ASB. The effect of strain-hardening modulus on the critical plastic shear strain is not monotonous. When the maximum critical plastic shear strain is reached, the least apparent shear localization occurs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2006-01-01
Gradient-dependent plasticity considering interactions and interplay among microstructures was included into JOHNSON-COOK model to calculate the temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band(ASB), the peak and average temperatures as well as their evolutions. The differential local plastic shear strain was derived to calculate the differential local plastic work and the temperature rise due to the microstructural effect. The total temperature in ASB is the sum of initial temperature, temperature rise at strain-hardening stage and non-uniform temperature due to the microstructural effect beyond the peak shear stress. The flow shear stress-average plastic shear strain curve, the temperature distribution, the peak and average temperatures in ASB are computed for Ti-6Al-4V. When the imposed shear strain is less than 2 and the shear strain rate is 1 000 s-1, the dynamic recovery and recrystallization processes occur. However, without the microstructural effect, the processes might have not occurred since heat diffusion decreases the temperature in ASB. The calculated maximum temperature approaches 1 500 K so that phase transformation might take place. The present predictions support the previously experimental results showing that the transformed and deformed ASBs are observed in Ti-6Al-4V. Higher shear strain rate enhances the possibility of dynamic recrystallization and phase transformation.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2010-04-14
Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.
Lin, Kanhui; Latterman, Paul; Koch, Trystan; Hu, Vincent; Ho, Joyce; Mata, Matthew; Murisic, Nebojsa; Bertozzi, Andrea
2009-11-01
Different flow regimes observed in our experimental study of particle-laden thin film flows are characterized by differing particle concentration profiles. We develop a theoretical model for particle concentration in order to capture our experimental observations. Our model is based on equilibrium assumption and it incorporates all relevant physical mechanisms, including shear-induced particle migration and settling due to gravity. It leads to a coupled system of ordinary differential equations for particle volume fraction and shear, which are solved numerically for various parameter sets. We find excellent agreement between our numerical results and experimental data. Our model is not only successful in reproducing the experimentally observed regimes, but also in capturing the connection between these regimes and the experimental parameters.
The microchannel flow model under shear stress and higher frequencies.
Parker, Kevin J
2017-02-24
The microchannel flow model provides a framework for considering the effect of the vascular bed on the time domain and frequency domain response of soft tissues. The derivation originates with a single small fluid filled vessel in an elastic medium under uniaxial compression. A fractal branching vasculature is also assumed to be present in the tissue under consideration. This short technical note considers two closely related issues. First, the response of the element under compression or shear as a function of the orientation of the fluid-filled vessel is considered. Second, the transition from quasistatic (Poiseuille's Law) to dynamic (Womersley equations) fluid flow is examined to better predict the evolution of behavior at higher frequencies. These considerations expand the conceptual framework of the microchannel flow model, particularly the range and limits of validity.
The microchannel flow model under shear stress and higher frequencies
Parker, K. J.
2017-04-01
The microchannel flow model provides a framework for considering the effect of the vascular bed on the time domain and frequency domain response of soft tissues. The derivation originates with a single small fluid-filled vessel in an elastic medium under uniaxial compression. A fractal branching vasculature is also assumed to be present in the tissue under consideration. This note considers two closely related issues. First, the response of the element under compression or shear as a function of the orientation of the fluid-filled vessel is considered. Second, the transition from quasistatic (Poiseuille’s Law) to dynamic (Womersley equations) fluid flow is examined to better predict the evolution of behavior at higher frequencies. These considerations expand the conceptual framework of the microchannel flow model, particularly the range and limits of validity.
Modelling the Shear-Tension Coupling of Woven Engineering Fabrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Abdiwi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An approach to incorporate the coupling between the shear compliance and in-plane tension of woven engineering fabrics, in finite-element-based numerical simulations, is described. The method involves the use of multiple input curves that are selectively fed into a hypoelastic constitutive model that has been developed previously for engineering fabrics. The selection process is controlled by the current value of the in-plane strain along the two fibre directions using a simple algorithm. Model parameters are determined from actual experimental data, measured using the Biaxial Bias Extension test. An iterative process involving finite element simulations of the experimental test is used to normalise the test data for use in the code. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is evaluated and shown to provide qualitatively good predictions.
Second Order Model for Strongly Sheared Compressible Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
marzougui hamed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a model designed to describe a strongly sheared compressible homogeneous turbulent flows. Such flows are far from equilibrium and are well represented by the A3 and A4 cases of the DNS of Sarkar. Speziale and Xu developed a relaxation model in incompressible turbulence able to take into account significant departures from equilibrium. In a previous paper, Radhia et al. proposed a relaxation model similar to that of Speziale and Xu .This model is based on an algebraic representation of the Reynolds stress tensor, much simpler than that of Speziale and Xu and it gave a good result for rapid axisymetric contraction. In this work, we propose to extend the Radhia et al’s. model to compressible homogenous turbulence. This model is based on the pressure-strain model of Launder et al., where we incorporate turbulent Mach number in order to take into account compressibility effects. To assess this model, two numerical simulations were performed which are similar to the cases A3 and A4 of the DNS of Sarkar.
Impact of blood rheology on wall shear stress in a model of the middle cerebral artery
Bernabeu, Miguel O.; Nash, Rupert W.; Groen, Derek; Carver, Hywel B.; Hetherington, James; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V.
2013-01-01
Perturbations to the homeostatic distribution of mechanical forces exerted by blood on the endothelial layer have been correlated with vascular pathologies, including intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerosis. Recent computational work suggests that, in order to correctly characterize such forces, the shear-thinning properties of blood must be taken into account. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been compared against experimentally observed pathological thresholds. In this work, we apply the three-band diagram (TBD) analysis due to Gizzi et al. (Gizzi et al. 2011 Three-band decomposition analysis of wall shear stress in pulsatile flows. Phys. Rev. E 83, 031902. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.83.031902)) to assess the impact of the choice of blood rheology model on a computational model of the right middle cerebral artery. Our results show that, in the model under study, the differences between the wall shear stress predicted by a Newtonian model and the well-known Carreau–Yasuda generalized Newtonian model are only significant if the vascular pathology under study is associated with a pathological threshold in the range 0.94–1.56 Pa, where the results of the TBD analysis of the rheology models considered differs. Otherwise, we observe no significant differences. PMID:24427534
Vascular wall shear stress in zebrafish model of early atherosclerosis
Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon
2016-11-01
Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic force has strong influence on the outbreak of the disease. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Many researchers have investigated relationships between WSS and the occurrence of atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo models. However, these models possess technological limitations in mimicking real biophysiological conditions and monitoring the temporal progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model was established as a novel model to resolve these technical limitations. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro PIV technique, and the spatial distribution of lipids inside blood vessels was quantitatively visualized using a confocal microscopy. As a result, lipids are mainly deposited in the regions of low WSS. The oscillating WSS is not induced by blood flows in the zebrafish disease model. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model would be useful for understanding the effect of WSS on the early stage of atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under a Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).
Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Laín
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.
Kaminski, K.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Warren, J. M.; Kurz, M. D.; Kumamoto, K.
2015-12-01
Recent studies of ductile peridotite shear zones in the Josephine Peridotite in SW Oregon find higher helium concentrations in whole rock samples located where total strain is greatest and recrystallized grain sizes are smallest. Based upon these results, previous workers suggest that dynamic recrystallization may lead to increased storage of He on grain boundaries. To assess the feasibility of this mechanism for enhanced He storage, we utilize a combined set of new and previous data from Shear Zone A (SZA) and B (SZB) of the Fresno Bench of the Josephine Peridotite to constrain a 1D numerical model of a ductile shear zone; the combined data set includes both He concentrations as well as measured total strain across the shear zone. Existing data within the region of highest strain (0 to ~2.5 m from the center of each shear zone) are sparse and, thus, we strategically sampled locations within this zone to maximize data resolution across a range of total strain. In each sample, we measure helium concentrations in unserpentinized harzburgite bulk rock using mass spectrometry. Analysis of the orientation of pyroxene foliation planes compared to shear planes provides an estimation of shear strain during deformation. Numerically, our model is discretized using finite differences and incorporates a non-linear, temperature-dependent viscosity, shear heating, and dynamic recrystallization. Here, we present our newly compiled collection of helium concentrations relative to total strain within SZA and SZB and measured grain sizes, which are used to constrain the modeled equilibrium grain size and quantitatively test dynamic recrystallization as a mechanism for concentrating He within peridotite shear zones.
New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux
Nyonyi, Y; Govinder, K S
2014-01-01
We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conform...
New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux
Nyonyi, Y.; Maharaj, S. D.; Govinder, K. S.
2013-11-01
We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conformally flat metrics.
Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza
2016-11-01
Free vibration analysis is presented for a simply supported, functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) nanobeam embedded on elastic foundation in the framework of third-order parabolic shear deformation beam theory. Effective electro-mechanical properties of FGP nanobeam are supposed to be variable throughout the thickness based on power-law model. To incorporate the small size effects into the local model, Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. Analytical solution is implemented to solve the size-dependent buckling analysis of FGP nanobeams based upon a higher-order shear deformation beam theory where coupled equations obtained using Hamilton's principle exist for such beams. Some numerical results for natural frequencies of the FGP nanobeams are prepared, which include the influences of elastic coefficients of foundation, electric voltage, material and geometrical parameters and mode number. This study is motivated by the absence of articles in the technical literature and provides beneficial results for accurate FGP structures design.
Shen, Hui-Shen
2010-06-01
Buckling and postbuckling analysis is presented for axially compressed microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic matrix of cytoplasm. The microtubule is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell which contains small scale effects. The surrounding elastic medium is modeled as a Pasternak foundation. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include the extension-twist and flexural-twist couplings. The thermal effects are also included and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The small scale parameter e (0) a is estimated by matching the buckling load from their vibrational behavior of MTs with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical results show that buckling load and postbuckling behavior of MTs are very sensitive to the small scale parameter e (0) a. The results reveal that the MTs under axial compressive loading condition have an unstable postbuckling path, and the lateral constraint has a significant effect on the postbuckling response of a microtubule when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large.
Shear wave prediction using committee fuzzy model constrained by lithofacies, Zagros basin, SW Iran
Shiroodi, Sadjad Kazem; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Lashkaripour, Golamreza; Ghanadian, Mostafa
2017-02-01
The main purpose of this study is to introduce the geological controlling factors in improving an intelligence-based model to estimate shear wave velocity from seismic attributes. The proposed method includes three main steps in the framework of geological events in a complex sedimentary succession located in the Persian Gulf. First, the best attributes were selected from extracted seismic data. Second, these attributes were transformed into shear wave velocity using fuzzy inference systems (FIS) such as Sugeno's fuzzy inference (SFIS), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS) and optimized fuzzy inference (OFIS). Finally, a committee fuzzy machine (CFM) based on bat-inspired algorithm (BA) optimization was applied to combine previous predictions into an enhanced solution. In order to show the geological effect on improving the prediction, the main classes of predominate lithofacies in the reservoir of interest including shale, sand, and carbonate were selected and then the proposed algorithm was performed with and without lithofacies constraint. The results showed a good agreement between real and predicted shear wave velocity in the lithofacies-based model compared to the model without lithofacies especially in sand and carbonate.
Notes on shear viscosity bound violation in anisotropic models
Ge, Xian-Hui
2015-01-01
The shear viscosity bound violation in Einstein gravity for anisotropic black branes is discussed, with the aim of constraining the deviation of the shear viscosity-entropy density ratio from the shear viscosity bound using causality and thermodynamics analysis. The results show that no stringent constraints can be imposed. The diffusion bound in anisotropic phases is also studied. Ultimately, it is concluded that shear viscosity violation always occurs in cases where the equation of motion of the metric fluctuations cannot be written in a form identical to that of the minimally coupled massless scalar fields.
Perepelyuk, Maryna; Chin, LiKang; Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B; Janmey, Paul A; Wells, Rebecca G
2016-01-01
Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.
Aldrin, John C.; Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David S.; Buynak, Charlie; Lindgren, Eric A.
2017-02-01
For model benchmark studies, the accuracy of the model is typically evaluated based on the change in response relative to a selected reference signal. The use of a side drilled hole (SDH) in a plate was investigated as a reference signal for angled beam shear wave inspection for aircraft structure inspections of fastener sites. Systematic studies were performed with varying SDH depth and size, and varying the ultrasonic probe frequency, focal depth, and probe height. Increased error was observed with the simulation of angled shear wave beams in the near-field. Even more significant, asymmetry in real probes and the inherent sensitivity of signals in the near-field to subtle test conditions were found to provide a greater challenge with achieving model agreement. To achieve quality model benchmark results for this problem, it is critical to carefully align the probe with the part geometry, to verify symmetry in probe response, and ideally avoid using reference signals from the near-field response. Suggested reference signals for angled beam shear wave inspections include using the `through hole' corner specular reflection signal and the full skip' signal off of the far wall from the side drilled hole.
Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales
Ghan, S. J.
1984-01-01
An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.
Buckling and postbuckling of radially loaded microtubules by nonlocal shear deformable shell model.
Shen, Hui-Shen
2010-05-21
This paper presents an investigation on the buckling and postbuckling of microtubules (MTs) subjected to a uniform external radial pressure in thermal environments. The microtubule is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell which contains small scale effects. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include the extension-twist and flexural-twist couplings. The thermal effects are also included and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. A singular perturbation technique is employed to determine the buckling pressure and postbuckling equilibrium paths. The small scale parameter e(0)a is estimated by matching the buckling pressure of MTs measured from the experiments with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical results show that buckling pressure and postbuckling behavior of MTs are very sensitive to the small scale parameter e(0)a. The results reveal that the 13_3 microtubule has a stable postbuckling path, whereas the 13_2 microtubule has an unstable postbuckling behavior due to the presence of skew angles.
A model for shear-band formation and high-explosive initiation in a hydrodynamics code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerrisk, J.F.
1996-03-01
This report describes work in progress to develop a shear band model for MESA-2D. The object of this work is (1) to predict the formation of shear bands and their temperature in high explosive (HE) during a MESA-2D calculation, (2) to then assess whether the HE would initiate, and (3) to allow a detonation wave initiated from a shear band to propagate. This requires developing a model that uses average cell data to estimate the size and temperature of narrow region (generally much narrower than the cell size) that is undergoing shear within the cell. The shear band temperature (rather than the average cell temperature) can be used to calculate the flow stress of the material in the cell or to calculate heat generation from reactive materials. Modifications have been made to MESA-2D to calculate shear band size and temperature, and to initiate HE detonation when conditions warrant. Two models have been used for shear-band size and temperature calculation, one based on an independent estimate of the shear band width and a second based on the temperature distribution around the shear band. Both models have been tested for calculations in which shear band formation occurs in steel. A comparison of the measured and calculated local temperature rise in a shear band has been made. A model for estimating the time to initiation of the HE based on the type of HE and the temperature distribution in a shear band has also been added to MESA-2D. Calculations of conditions needed to initiate HE in projectile-impact tests have been done and compared with experimental data. Further work is d to test the model.
Fiber bundle models for stress release and energy bursts during granular shearing
Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani; Cohen, Denis
2012-12-01
Fiber bundle models (FBMs) offer a versatile framework for representing transitions from progressive to abrupt failure in disordered material. We report a FBM-based description of mechanical interactions and associated energy bursts during shear deformation of granular materials. For strain-controlled shearing, where elements fail in a sequential order, we present analytical expressions for strain energy release and failure statistics. Results suggest that frequency-magnitude characteristics of fiber failure vary considerably throughout progressive shearing. Predicted failure distributions were in good agreement with experimentally observed shear stress fluctuations and associated bursts of acoustic emissions. Experiments also confirm a delayed release of acoustic emission energy relative to shear stress buildup, as anticipated by the model. Combined with data-rich acoustic emission measurements, the modified FBM offers highly resolved contact-scale insights into granular media dynamics of shearing processes.
Effects of vertical shear in modelling horizontal oceanic dispersion
Lanotte, A. S.; Corrado, R.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Schipa, I.; Santoleri, R.
2016-02-01
The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of the South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observation and model data. In situ current measurements reveal that vertical gradients of horizontal velocities in the upper mixing layer decorrelate quite fast ( ˜ 1 day), whereas an eddy-permitting ocean model, such as the Mediterranean Forecasting System, tends to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispersion, simulated by the Mediterranean sea Forecasting System, is mostly affected by: (1) unresolved scale motions, and mesoscale motions that are largely smoothed out at scales close to the grid spacing; (2) poorly resolved time variability in the profiles of the horizontal velocities in the upper layer. For the case study we have analysed, we show that a suitable use of deterministic kinematic parametrizations is helpful to implement realistic statistical features of tracer dispersion in two and three dimensions. The approach here suggested provides a functional tool to control the horizontal spreading of small organisms or substance concentrations, and is thus relevant for marine biology, pollutant dispersion as well as oil spill applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng-ge Liu; Wei Yu; Chi-xing Zhou
2006-01-01
The kinetic model for diffusion-controlled intermolecular reaction of homogenous polymer under steady shear was theoretically studied. The classic formalism and the concept of conformation ellipsoids were integrated to get a new equation, which directly correlates the rate constant with shear rate. It was found that the rate constant is not monotonic with shear rate. The scale of rate constant is N-1.5 (N is the length of chains), which is in consistent with de Gennes's result.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuebin Wang
2006-01-01
Gradient-dependent plasticity is introduced into the phenomenological Johnson-Cook model to study the effects of strainhardening, strain rate sensitivity, thermal-softening, and microstructure. The microstructural effect (interactions and interplay among microstructures) due to heterogeneity of texture plays an important role in the process of development or evolution of an adiabatic shear band with a certain thickness depending on the grain diameter. The distributed plastic shear strain and deformation in the shear band are derived and depend on the critical plastic shear strain corresponding to the peak flow shear stress, the coordinate or position, the internal length parameter, and the average plastic shear strain or the flow shear stress. The critical plastic shear strain, the distributed plastic shear strain, and deformation in the shear band are numerically predicted for a kind of steel deformed at a constant shear strain rate.Beyond the peak shear stress, the local plastic shear strain in the shear band is highly nonuniform and the local plastic shear deformation in the band is highly nonlinear. Shear localization is more apparent with the increase of the average plastic shear strain. The calculated distributions of the local plastic shear strain and deformation agree with the previous numerical and experimental results.
FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Floriana Petrone
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.
Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zergua Abdesselam
2015-02-01
The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress concentration of FRP–concrete interface. Understanding the cause and mechanism of the debonding of the FRP plate and the prediction of the stress distribution at the concrete–FRP interface are important for more effective strengthening technique. This paper presents an analytical solution, based on Smith and Teng’s equations, for interfacial shear and normal stresses in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate. However, the shear stress–strain relationship is considered to be bilinear curve. The effects of the shear deformations are calculated in an RC beam, an adhesive layer, and an FRP plate. The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses.
Pellegrino, C.; Modena, C.
2008-05-01
This paper deals with the shear strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) flexural members with externally bonded Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The interaction between an external FRP and an internal transverse steel reinforcement is not considered in actual code recommendations, but it strongly influences the efficiency of the shear strengthening rehabilitation technique and, as a consequence, the computation of interacting contributions to the nominal shear strength of beams. This circumstance is also discussed on the basis of the results of an experimental investigation of rectangular RC beams strengthened in shear with "U-jacketed" carbon FRP sheets. Based on experimental results of the present and other investigations, a new analytical model for describing the shear capacity of RC beams strengthened according to the most common schemes (side-bonded and "U-jacketed"), taking into account the interaction between steel and FRP shear strength contributions, is proposed.
Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.
2015-01-01
We analyse high-frequency wind velocity measurements from two test stations over a period of several years and at heights ranging from 60 to 200 m, with the objective to validate wind shear predictions as used in load simulations for wind turbine design. A validated wind shear model is thereby...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...
Modelling shear bands in a volcanic conduit: Implications for over-pressures and extrusion-rates
Hale, Alina J.; Mühlhaus, Hans-B.
2007-11-01
Shear bands in a volcanic conduit are modelled for crystal-rich magma flow using simplified conditions to capture the fundamental behaviour of a natural system. Our simulations begin with magma crystallinity in equilibrium with an applied pressure field and isothermal conditions. The viscosity of the magma is derived using existing empirical equations and is dependent upon temperature, water content and crystallinity. From these initial conduit conditions we utilize the Finite Element Method, using axi-symmetric coordinates, to simulate shear bands via shear localisation. We use the von Mises visco-plasticity model with constant magma shear strength for a first look into the effects of plasticity. The extent of shear bands in the conduit is explored with a numerical model parameterized with values appropriate for Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, although the model is generic in nature. Our model simulates shallow (up to approximately 700 m) shear bands that occur within the upper conduit and probably govern the lava extrusion style due to shear boundaries. We also model the change in the over-pressure field within the conduit for flow with and without shear bands. The pressure change can be as large as several MPa at shallow depths in the conduit, which generates a maximum change in the pressure gradient of 10's of kPa/m. The formation of shear bands could therefore provide an alternative or additional mechanism for the inflation/deflation of the volcano flanks as measured by tilt-metres. Shear bands are found to have a significant effect upon the magma ascent rate due to shear-induced flow reducing conduit friction and altering the over-pressure in the upper conduit. Since we do not model frictional controlled slip, only plastic flow, our model calculates the minimum change in extrusion rate due to shear bands. However, extrusion rates can almost double due to the formation of shear bands, which may help suppress volatile loss. Due to the paucity of data and
Modelling study of challenges in sinkhole detection with shear wave reflection seismics
Burschil, Thomas; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.
2016-04-01
The detection of cavities with reflection seismics is a difficult task even if high impedance contrasts are assumed. Especially the shear wave reflection method with a higher resolution potential trough lower velocities and short wavelength has come into focus of investigation. But shear wave propagation fails if material exists that partially has no shear strength. The shear wave does not propagate into or through those voids. Here, we evaluate the influence of a possible fracture zone above a cavity. We simulate shear wave propagation with finite difference modelling for two reference models, with and without cavity, and various sets of input models with a fracture zone above the cavity. Reflections and multiples of the reference models image the subsidence structure and the cavity. For the fracture input models, we implemented a fracture network, derived from numerical crack propagation modelling (Schneider-Löbens et al., 2015). The cracks possess the minimum possible aperture of one grid point (i.e. 0.1 m) and no shear stiffness. The seismic modelling exhibits that the shear wave does not pass through the fracture zone and shadows the subjacent cavity. Sequences of randomly discontinuous cracks, cf. displacement discontinuity model with zero crack stiffness, approximate partially seismic connected rock on both sides of the crack. The amount of these seismic pathways determines whether a reflection of the cavity can be detected at the surface or not. Cracks with higher aperture, e.g. two or three grid points, need a higher amount of intact rock/defective cracks, since more connected grid points are necessary to create seismic pathways. Furthermore, it turns out that the crack filling is important for shear wave transmission. While a mineralized fracture zone, implemented with high velocity, facilitate shear wave propagation, water or air-filled cracks avoid shear wave transmission. Crack orientation affects the shear wave propagation through the geometry. A
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zhou, Annan; Sheng, Daichao
2009-01-01
The model recently presented by Sheng, Fredlund, and Gens, known as the SFG model, provides a consistent explanation of yield stress, shear strength, and volume change behaviour of unsaturated soils...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sas, G.; Täljsten, Björn; Barros, J.;
2009-01-01
In this paper the trustworthiness of the existing theory for predicting the fiber-reinforced plastic contribution to the shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams is discussed. The most well-known shear models for external bonded reinforcement are presented, commented on, and compared...
A Fault Evolution Model Including the Rupture Dynamic Simulation
Wu, Y.; Chen, X.
2011-12-01
We perform a preliminary numerical simulation of seismicity and stress evolution along a strike-slip fault in a 3D elastic half space. Following work of Ben-Zion (1996), the fault geometry is devised as a vertical plane which is about 70 km long and 17 km wide, comparable to the size of San Andreas Fault around Parkfield. The loading mechanism is described by "backslip" method. The fault failure is governed by a static/kinetic friction law, and induced stress transfer is calculated with Okada's static solution. In order to track the rupture propagation in detail, we allow induced stress to propagate through the medium at the shear wave velocity by introducing a distance-dependent time delay to responses to stress changes. Current simulation indicates small to moderate earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter law and quasi-periodical characteristic large earthquakes, which are consistent with previous work by others. Next we will consider introducing a more realistic friction law, namely, the laboratory-derived rate- and state- dependent law, which can simulate more realistic and complicated sliding behavior such as the stable and unstable slip, the aseismic sliding and the slip nucleation process. In addition, the long duration of aftershocks is expected to be reproduced due to this time-dependent friction law, which is not available in current seismicity simulation. The other difference from previous work is that we are trying to include the dynamic ruptures in this study. Most previous study on seismicity simulation is based on the static solution when dealing with failure induced stress changes. However, studies of numerical simulation of rupture dynamics have revealed lots of important details which are missing in the quasi-static/quasi- dynamic simulation. For example, dynamic simulations indicate that the slip on the ground surface becomes larger if the dynamic rupture process reaches the free surface. The concentration of stress on the propagating crack
Numerical model for the shear rheology of two-dimensional wet foams with deformable bubbles.
Kähärä, T; Tallinen, T; Timonen, J
2014-09-01
Shearing of two-dimensional wet foam is simulated using an introduced numerical model, and results are compared to those of experiments. This model features realistically deformable bubbles, which distinguishes it from previously used models for wet foam. The internal bubble dynamics and their contact interactions are also separated in the model, making it possible to investigate the effects of the related microscale properties of the model on the macroscale phenomena. Validity of model assumptions was proved here by agreement between the simulated and measured Herschel-Bulkley rheology, and shear-induced relaxation times. This model also suggests a relationship between the shear stress and normal stress as well as between the average degree of bubble deformation and applied shear stress. It can also be used to analyze suspensions of bubbles and solid particles, an extension not considered in this work.
A microstructure- and surface energy-dependent third-order shear deformation beam model
Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.
2015-08-01
A new non-classical third-order shear deformation model is developed for Reddy-Levinson beams using a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle. A modified couple stress theory and a surface elasticity theory are employed. The equations of motion and complete boundary conditions for the beam are obtained simultaneously. The new model contains a material length scale parameter to account for the microstructure effect and three surface elastic constants to describe the surface energy effect. Also, Poisson's effect is incorporated in the new beam model. The current non-classical model recovers the classical elasticity-based third-order shear deformation beam model as a special case when the microstructure, surface energy and Poisson's effects are all suppressed. In addition, the newly developed beam model includes the models considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect alone as limiting cases and reduces to two existing models for Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beams incorporating the microstructure and surface energy effects. To illustrate the new model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported beam loaded by a concentrated force are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulas derived. For the static bending problem, the numerical results reveal that both the deflection and rotation of the simply supported beam predicted by the current model are smaller than those predicted by the classical model. Also, it is observed that the differences in the deflection and rotation predicted by the two beam models are very large when the beam thickness is sufficiently small, but they are diminishing with the increase in the beam thickness. For the free vibration problem, it is found that the natural frequency predicted by the new model is higher than that predicted by the classical beam model, and the difference is significant for very thin beams. These predicted trends of the size effect at the
Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow.
Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra
2017-04-01
Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.
Analytical modeling for the heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids
Ferrari, Claudio; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; Boonkkamp, J H M ten Thije; Toschi, Federico
2012-01-01
We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nano- particles in sheared laminar flows of nano-fluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect, it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnet limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead which should lead towards robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement is discussed.
Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O
2009-12-16
Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the
Large shear rate behavior for the Hébraud-Lequeux model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
OLIVIER; Julien
2012-01-01
The Hébraud-Lequeux model is a model describing the flow of soft glassy material in a simple shear flow configuration.It is given by a kinetic/Fokker-Planck-type equation whose coefficients depend on the shear rate of the experiment.In this paper we want to study what happens to the stationary solutions of this model when the shear rate is asymptotically large.In order to do that,we expand the solution of the equation using singular perturbation tools.In the end,we rigorously prove the estimate of Hébraud and Lequeux that the material asymptotically behaves as a Newtonian fluid.
Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik
2012-01-01
There seems to be a significant uncertainty in aerodynamic and aeroelastic simulations on megawatt turbines operating in inflow with considerable shear, in particular with the engineering blade element momentum (BEM) model, commonly implemented in the aeroelastic design codes used by industry....... Computations with advanced vortex and computational fluid dynamics models are used to provide improved insight into the complex flow phenomena and rotor aerodynamics caused by the sheared inflow. One consistent result from the advanced models is the variation of induced velocity as a function of azimuth when...... a higher power than in uniform flow. On the basis of the consistent azimuthal induction variations seen in the advanced model results, three different BEM implementation methods are discussed and tested in the same aeroelastic code. A full local BEM implementation on an elemental stream tube in both...
Flow properties of particles in a model annular shear cell
Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.
2012-05-01
In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and rheological properties of solid flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell, we performed a series of discrete particle simulations of slightly polydispersed spheres from quasi-static to intermediate flow regimes. It is shown that the average values of stress tensor components are uniformly distributed in the cell space away from the stationary walls; however, some degree of inhomogeneity in their spatial distributions does exist. A linear relationship between the (internal/external) shear and normal stresses prevails in the shear cell and the internal and external friction coefficients can compare well with each other. It is confirmed that annular shear cells are reasonably effective as a method of measuring particle flow properties. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is rigorously tested in this cell system. The results unambiguously display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime with a high correlation coefficient. However, significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime, which corresponds to very small values of inertial number.
Prescribed wind shear modelling with the actuator line technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Troldborg, Niels
2007-01-01
A method for prescribing arbitrary steady atmospheric wind shear profiles combined with CFD is presented. The method is furthermore combined with the actuator line technique governing the aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine. Computation are carried out on a wind turbine exposed to a representative...
A global shear velocity model of the mantle from normal modes and surface waves
durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.; Lambotte, S.
2013-12-01
We present a new global shear wave velocity model of the mantle based on the inversion of all published normal mode splitting functions and the large surface wave dataset measured by Debayle & Ricard (2012). Normal mode splitting functions and surface wave phase velocity maps are sensitive to lateral heterogeneities of elastic parameters (Vs, Vp, xi, phi, eta) and density. We first only consider spheroidal modes and Rayleigh waves and restrict the inversion to Vs, Vp and the density. Although it is well known that Vs is the best resolved parameter, we also investigate whether our dataset allows to extract additional information on density and/or Vp. We check whether the determination of the shear wave velocity is affected by the a priori choice of the crustal model (CRUST2.0 or 3SMAC) or by neglecting/coupling poorly resolved parameters. We include the major discontinuities, at 400 and 670 km. Vertical smoothing is imposed through an a priori gaussian covariance matrix on the model and we discuss the effect of coupling/decoupling the inverted structure above and below the discontinuities. We finally discuss the large scale structure of our model and its geodynamical implications regarding the amount of mass exchange between the upper and lower mantle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Hashemiyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
Loredo, Alexandre
2013-01-01
A multilayered plate theory which uses transverse shear warping functions issued from three-dimensional elasticity is presented. Two methods to obtain these transverse shear warping functions are detailed. The warping functions are issued from the variations of transverse shear stresses computed at special location points for a simply supported bending problem. The first method considers an exact 3D solution of the problem. The second method uses the solution provided by the model itself: the transverse shear stresses are computed by the integration of equilibrium equations. Hence, an iterative process is applied, the model being updated with the new warping functions, and so on. These two models are compared to other models and to analytical solutions for the bending of simply supported plates. Four different laminates and a sandwich are considered, length-to-thickness values varying from 2 to 100. An additional analytical solution that simulates the behavior of laminates under the plane stress hypothesis - ...
Liu, Peng; Sun, Jianning; Shen, Lidu
2016-10-01
Following the parameterization of sheared entrainment obtained in the companion paper, Liu et al. (2016), the present study aims to further investigate the characteristics of entrainment, and develop a simple model for predicting the growth rate of a well-developed and sheared CBL. The relative stratification, defined as the ratio of the stratification in the free atmosphere to that in the entrainment zone, is found to be a function of entrainment flux ratio ( A e). This leads to a simple expression of the entrainment rate, in which A e needs to be parameterized. According to the results in Liu et al. (2016), A e can be simply expressed as the ratio of the convective velocity scale in the sheared CBL to that in the shear-free CBL. The parameterization of the convective velocity scale in the sheared CBL is obtained by analytically solving the bulk model with several assumptions and approximations. Results indicate that the entrainment process is influenced by the dynamic effect, the interaction between mean shear and environmental stratification, and one other term that includes the Coriolis effect. These three parameterizations constitute a simple model for predicting the growth rate of a well-developed and sheared CBL. This model is validated by outputs of LESs, and the results show that it performs satisfactorily. Compared with bulk models, this model does not need to solve a set of equations for the CBL. It is more convenient to apply in numerical models.
Interfaces in driven Ising models: shear enhances confinement.
Smith, Thomas H R; Vasilyev, Oleg; Abraham, Douglas B; Maciołek, Anna; Schmidt, Matthias
2008-08-08
We use a phase-separated driven two-dimensional Ising lattice gas to study fluid interfaces exposed to shear flow parallel to the interface. The interface is stabilized by two parallel walls with opposing surface fields, and a driving field parallel to the walls is applied which (i) either acts locally at the walls or (ii) varies linearly with distance across the strip. Using computer simulations with Kawasaki dynamics, we find that the system reaches a steady state in which the magnetization profile is the same as that in equilibrium, but with a rescaled length implying a reduction of the interfacial width. An analogous effect was recently observed in sheared phase-separated colloidal dispersions. Pair correlation functions along the interface decay more rapidly with distance under drive than in equilibrium and for cases of weak drive, can be rescaled to the equilibrium result.
Modeling an elastic beam with piezoelectric patches by including magnetic effects
Ozer, A O
2014-01-01
Models for piezoelectric beams using Euler-Bernoulli small displacement theory predict the dynamics of slender beams at the low frequency accurately but are insufficient for beams vibrating at high frequencies or beams with low length-to-width aspect ratios. A more thorough model that includes the effects of rotational inertia and shear strain, Mindlin-Timoshenko small displacement theory, is needed to predict the dynamics more accurately for these cases. Moreover, existing models ignore the magnetic effects since the magnetic effects are relatively small. However, it was shown recently \\cite{O-M1} that these effects can substantially change the controllability and stabilizability properties of even a single piezoelectric beam. In this paper, we use a variational approach to derive models that include magnetic effects for an elastic beam with two piezoelectric patches actuated by different voltage sources. Both Euler-Bernoulli and Mindlin-Timoshenko small displacement theories are considered. Due to the magne...
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader
2016-07-01
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)
2016-07-15
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Hysteretic MDOF Model to Quantify Damage for RC Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, Ahmet S.
A hysteretic mechanical formulation is derived to quantify local, modal and overall damage in reinforced concrete (RC) shear frames subject to seismic excitation. Each interstorey is represented by a Clough and Johnston (1966) hysteretic constitutive relation with degrading elastic fraction of th...... shear frame is subject to simulated earthquake excitations, which are modelled as a stationary Gaussian stochastic process with Kanai-Tajimi spectrum, multiplied by an envelope function. The relationship between local, modal and overall damage indices is investigated statistically....
Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Qin, Kai-Rong
2015-10-01
The calcium signaling plays a vital role in flow-dependent vascular endothelial cell (VEC) physiology. Variations in fluid shear stress and ATP concentration in blood vessels can activate dynamic responses of cytosolic-free [Formula: see text] through various calcium channels on the plasma membrane. In this paper, a novel dynamic model has been proposed for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 [Formula: see text]-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in VECs induced by fluid shear stress and ATP. Our model includes [Formula: see text] signaling pathways through P2Y receptors and [Formula: see text] channels (indirect mechanism) and captures the roles of the [Formula: see text] compound channels in VEC [Formula: see text] signaling in response to fluid shear stress (direct mechanism). In particular, it takes into account that the [Formula: see text] compound channels are regulated by intracellular [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] concentrations. The simulation studies have demonstrated that the dynamic responses of calcium concentration produced by the proposed model correlate well with the existing experimental observations. We also conclude from the simulation studies that endogenously released ATP may play an insignificant role in the process of intracellular [Formula: see text] response to shear stress.
Probabilistic model of waiting times between large failures in sheared media.
Brinkman, Braden A W; LeBlanc, Michael P; Uhl, Jonathan T; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Dahmen, Karin A
2016-01-01
Using a probabilistic approximation of a mean-field mechanistic model of sheared systems, we analytically calculate the statistical properties of large failures under slow shear loading. For general shear F(t), the distribution of waiting times between large system-spanning failures is a generalized exponential distribution, ρ_{T}(t)=λ(F(t))P(F(t))exp[-∫_{0}^{t}dτλ(F(τ))P(F(τ))], where λ(F(t)) is the rate of small event occurrences at stress F(t) and P(F(t)) is the probability that a small event triggers a large failure. We study the behavior of this distribution as a function of fault properties, such as heterogeneity or shear rate. Because the probabilistic model accommodates any stress loading F(t), it is particularly useful for modeling experiments designed to understand how different forms of shear loading or stress perturbations impact the waiting-time statistics of large failures. As examples, we study how periodic perturbations or fluctuations on top of a linear shear stress increase impact the waiting-time distribution.
Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Van Zyl, Lourens H
2008-01-01
Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...
Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.
2014-01-01
A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...
Modelling the Shear Behaviour of Clean Rock Discontinuities Using Artificial Neural Networks
Dantas Neto, Silvrano Adonias; Indraratna, Buddhima; Oliveira, David Américo Fortuna; de Assis, André Pacheco
2017-07-01
Since the mechanical behaviour of rock masses is influenced by the shear behaviour of their discontinuities, analytical models are being developed to describe the shear behaviour of rock discontinuities. The aim of this paper is to present a model to predict the shear behaviour of clean rock discontinuities developed by using artificial neural networks (ANN), as an alternative to the existing analytical models which sometimes require certain parameters obtained from large-scale laboratory tests which are not always available. Results from direct shear tests on different boundary conditions and types of discontinuities have been used to develop this ANN model, whose input parameters contain the boundary normal stiffness, the initial normal stress, the joint roughness coefficient, the compressive strength of the intact rock, the basic friction angle and the horizontal displacement of a joint. This proposed ANN model fits the experimental data better than some existing analytical models, and it can satisfactorily describe how governing parameters influence the shear behaviour of clean rock discontinuities. This paper also presents a practical application where the proposed ANN model is used to analyse the stability of a rock slope.
Arora, Sanchi; Laha, Animesh; Majumdar, Abhijit; Butola, Bhupendra Singh
2017-08-01
Prediction models for the viscosity curve of a shear thickening fluid (STF) over a wide range of shear rate at different temperatures were developed using phenomenological and artificial neural network (ANN) models. STF containing 65% (w/w) silica nanoparticles was prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as dispersion medium, and tested for rheological behavior at different temperatures. The experimental data set was divided into training data and testing data for the model development and validation, respectively. For both the models, the viscosity of STF was estimated for all the zones with good fit between experimental and predicted viscosity, for both training and testing data sets.
A modified model of a single rock joint shear behavior in limestone specimens
Dindarloo, Saeid R
2016-01-01
The shear behavior of a single rock joint in limestone specimens, under a constant normal load (CNL), was analyzed in this study. Test specimens with different asperity roughness were prepared and tested. The Goodman model of a rock joint shear behavior, under CNL, was modified to render a better representation of the data obtained. The model applicability was validated. The proposed model shows better correlation with experimental data. It also, requires fewer variables. The steps to calculate all the necessary variables for the model are discussed.
Circuit Modeling of a MEMS Varactor Including Dielectric Charging Dynamics
Giounanlis, P.; Andrade-Miceli, D.; Gorreta, S.; Pons-Nin, J.; Dominguez-Pumar, M.; Blokhina, E.
2016-10-01
Electrical models for MEMS varactors including the effect of dielectric charging dynamics are not available in commercial circuit simulators. In this paper a circuit model using lumped ideal elements available in the Cadence libraries and a basic Verilog-A model, has been implemented. The model has been used to simulate the dielectric charging in function of time and its effects over the MEMS capacitance value.
Including investment risk in large-scale power market models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.
2003-01-01
can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...
Muller, W J; Gerjarusek, S; Scherer, P W
1990-01-01
The problem of endotracheal erosion associated with neonatal high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is investigated through measurement of air velocity profiles in a scaled up model of the system. Fluid mechanical scaling principles are applied in order to construct a model within which velocity profiles are measured by hot-wire anemometry. The effects of two different jet geometries are investigated. Velocity gradients measured near the tracheal wall are used to measure the shear stresses caused by the jet flow on the wall. The Chilton-Colburn analogy between the transport of momentum and mass is applied to investigate tracheal drying caused by the high shear flow. Shear forces are seen to be more than two times higher for jets located near the endotracheal tube wall than for those located axisymmetrically in the center of the tube. Since water vapor fluxes are dependent on these shears, they are also higher for the asymmetric case. Fluxes are shown to be greatly dependent on the temperature and relative humidity of the inspired gas. Water from the tracheal surface may be depleted within one second if inspired gases are inadequately heated and humidified. It is recommended that the design of neonatal HFJV devices include delivery of heated (near body temperature), humidified (as close to 100% humidity as possible) gases through an axisymmetric jet to best avoid the problem of endotracheal erosion.
A Multiparameter Damage Constitutive Model for Rock Based on Separation of Tension and Shear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YanHui Yuan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available By analysis of the microscopic damage mechanism of rock, a multiparameter elastoplastic damage constitutive model which considers damage mechanism of tension and shear is established. A revised general form of elastoplastic damage model containing damage internal variable of tensor form is derived by considering the hypothesis that damage strain is induced by the degeneration of elastic modulus. With decomposition of plastic strain introduced, the forms of tension damage variable and shear damage variable are derived, based on which effects of tension and shear damage on material’s stiffness and strength are considered simultaneously. Through the utilizing of Zienkiewicz-Pande criterion with tension limit, the specific form of the multiparameter damage model is derived. Numerical experiments show that the established model can simulate damage behavior of rock effectively.
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N., E-mail: beris@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)
2014-05-15
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.
Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiping Zhu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.
Testing and modeling dowel and catenary action in rebars crossing shear joints in RC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Harrild; Hoang, Linh Cao; Olesen, John Forbes
2017-01-01
presents a simple, second order plasticity model to describe the non-linear regime of the load-displacement relationship. In the model, kinematic relations and the normality condition of plastic theory are utilized to establish a unique link between the imposed shear displacement and combinations of moment...
A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones
Yin, A.; Meng, L.
2016-12-01
Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends
Magnetic Field Shear in Kinetic Models Steps Toward Understanding Magnetic Reconnection Drivers
Black, Carrie; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, Rick; Karpen, Judith
2015-11-01
In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the eruptive event resides in a strongly sheared magnetic. A pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field and a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance; therefore, it is critical for understanding CME/flare initiation, to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are dominant in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is challenging, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. Plasma instabilities can arise nonetheless. Here, we show that we can control this instability and generate a predicted out-of-plane magnetic flux. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Barbara Luke; Helena Murvosh; Wanda Taylor; Jeff Wagoner
2009-01-01
A three-dimensional model of near-surface shear-wave velocity in the deep alluvial basin underlying the metropolitan area of Las Vegas, Nevada (USA), is being developed for earthquake site response projections. The velocity dataset, which includes 230 measurements, is interpolated across the model using depth-dependent correlations of velocity with sediment type. The sediment-type database contains more than 1 400 well and borehole logs. Sediment sequences reported in logs are assigned to one of four units. A characteristic shear-wave velocity profile b developed for each unit by analyzing closely spaced pairs of velocity profiles and well or borehole logs. The resulting velocity model exhibits reasonable values and patterns, although it does not explicitly honor the measured shear-wave velocity profiles. Site response investigations that applied a preliminary version of the velocity model support a two-zone ground-shaking hazard model for the valley. Areas in which clay predominates in the upper 30 m are predicted to have stronger ground motions than the rest of the basin.
Zhou, C L; Fang, D Q; Zhang, G Q
2013-01-01
Thermodynamic and transport properties of nuclear fireball created in the central region of heavy-ion collisions below 200 MeV/nucleon are investigated within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamic (IQMD) model. These properties include time evolutions of the density, temperature, chemical potential, entropy density ($s$) and shear viscosity ($\\eta$) as well as density and temperature dependencies of the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density ($\\eta/s$) etc. Based on the shear viscosity parametrization developed by Danilewicz and entropy density which is obtained by a generalized hot Thomas Fermi formalism, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density is calculated in the whole collision process as well as in the freeze-out stage. With the collision goes on, a transient minimal $\\eta/s$ with the value around 5/$4\\pi$ occurs in the largest compression stage. While, the relationship of $\\eta/s$ to tempertaure ($T$) in the freeze-out stage displays a local minimum which is about 9-10 times $...
Soto-Aquino, D; Rosso, D; Rinaldi, C
2011-11-01
Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles that exhibit normal liquid behavior in the absence of magnetic fields but respond to imposed magnetic fields by changing their viscosity without loss of fluidity. The response of ferrofluids to constant shear and magnetic fields has received a lot of attention, but the response of ferrofluids to oscillatory shear remains largely unexplored. In the present work we used rotational Brownian dynamics to study the dynamic properties of ferrofluids with thermally blocked nanoparticles under oscillatory shear and constant magnetic fields. Comparisons between simulations and modeling using the ferrohydrodynamics equations were also made. Simulation results show that, for small rotational Péclet number, the in-phase and out-of-phase components of the complex viscosity depend on the magnitude of the magnetic field and frequency of the shear, following a Maxwell-like model with field-dependent viscosity and characteristic time equal to the field-dependent transverse magnetic relaxation time of the nanoparticles. Comparison between simulations and the numerical solution of the ferrohydrodynamic equations shows that the oscillatory rotational magnetoviscosity for an oscillating shear field obtained using the kinetic magnetization relaxation equation quantitatively agrees with simulations for a wide range of Péclet number and Langevin parameter but has quantitative deviations from the simulations at high values of the Langevin parameter. These predictions indicate an apparent elastic character to the rheology of these suspensions, even though we are considering the infinitely dilute limit in which there are negligible particle-particle interactions and, as such, chains do not form. Additionally, an asymptotic analytical solution of the ferrohydrodynamics equations, valid for Pe<2, was used to demonstrate that the Cox-Merz rule applies for dilute ferrofluids under conditions of small shear rates. At higher shear
Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages
Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan
2016-02-01
We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.
A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.
2007-01-01
We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, A.M.; Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, K.M.; Wei, W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Fleming, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Cruikshank, K.M. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Geology; Martosudarmo, S.Y. [BPP Technologi, Jakarta (Indonesia)
1997-12-31
The June 28, 1992, M{sub s} 7.5 earthquake at Landers, California, which occurred about 10 km north of the community of Yucca Valley, California, produced spectacular ground rupturing more than 80 km in length (Hough and others, 1993). The ground rupturing, which was dominated by right-lateral shearing, extended along at least four distinct faults arranged broadly en echelon. The faults were connected through wide transfer zones by stepovers, consisting of right-lateral fault zones and tension cracks. The Landers earthquakes occurred in the desert of southeastern California, where details of ruptures were well preserved, and patterns of rupturing were generally unaffected by urbanization. The structures were varied and well-displayed and, because the differential displacements were so large, spectacular. The scarcity of vegetation, the aridity of the area, the compactness of the alluvium and bedrock, and the relative isotropy and brittleness of surficial materials collaborated to provide a marvelous visual record of the character of the deformation zones. The authors present a series of analecta -- that is, verbal clips or snippets -- dealing with a variety of structures, including belts of shear zones, segmentation of ruptures, rotating fault block, en echelon fault zones, releasing duplex structures, spines, and ramps. All of these structures are documented with detailed maps in text figures or in plates (in pocket). The purpose is to describe the structures and to present an understanding of the mechanics of their formation. Hence, most descriptions focus on structures where the authors have information on differential displacements as well as spatial data on the position and orientation of fractures.
Numerical modelling of the evolution of conglomerate deformation up to high simple-shear strain
Ran, Hao; Bons, Paul D.; Wang, Genhou; Steinbach, Florian; Finch, Melanie; Ran, Shuming; Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Jie
2017-04-01
Deformed conglomerates have been widely used to investigate deformation history and structural analysis, using strain analyses techniques, such as the Rf-Φ and Fry methods on deformed pebbles. Although geologists have focused on the study of deformed conglomerates for several decades, some problems of the process and mechanism of deformation, such as the development of structures in pebbles and matrix, are still not understand well. Numerical modelling provides a method to investigate the process of deformation, as a function of different controlling parameters, up to high strains at conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. We use the 2D numerical modelling platform Elle coupled to the full field crystal visco-plasticity code (VPFFT) to simulate the deformation of conglomerates under simple shear conditions, achieving high finite strains of ≥10. Probably for the first time, we included the effect of an anisotropy, i.e. mica-rich matrix. Our simulations show the deformation of pebbles not only depends on the viscosity contrast between pebbles and matrix but emphasises the importance of interaction between neighbouring pebbles. Under the same finite strain shearing the pebbles of conglomerates with high pebble densities show higher Rf and lower Φ than those of conglomerates with a low density pebbles. Strain localisation can be observed at both the margin of strong pebbles and in the bridging area between the pebbles. At low to medium finite strain, local areas show the opposite (antithetic) shear sense because of the different relative rotation and movement of pebbles or clusters of pebbles. Very hard pebbles retain their original shape and may rotate, depending on the anisotropy of the matrix. σ-clasts are formed by pebbles with moderate viscosity contrast between pebble and a softer matrix. By contrast, δ-clasts are not observed in our simulations with both isotropic and anisotropic matrices, which is consistent with their relative scarcity in
A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects
Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad
2017-06-01
The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.
Synaptic channel model including effects of spike width variation
2015-01-01
Synaptic Channel Model Including Effects of Spike Width Variation Hamideh Ramezani Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT An accu...
A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects
Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.
2012-09-01
This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.
Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P
2016-03-01
We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over
Prediction of shear bands in sand based on granular flow model and two-phase equilibrium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张义同; 齐德瑄; 杜如虚; 任述光
2008-01-01
In contrast to the traditional interpretation of shear bands in sand as a bifurcation problem in continuum mechanics,shear bands in sand are considered as high-strain phase(plastic phase) of sand and the materials outside the bands are still in low-strain phase(elastic phase),namely,the two phases of sand can coexist under certain condition.As a one-dimensional example,the results show that,for materials with strain-softening behavior,the two-phase solution is a stable branch of solutions,but the method to find two-phase solutions is very different from the one for bifurcation analysis.The theory of multi-phase equilibrium and the slow plastic flow model are applied to predict the formation and patterns of shear bands in sand specimens,discontinuity of deformation gradient and stress across interfaces between shear bands and other regions is considered,the continuity of displacements and traction across interfaces is imposed,and the Maxwell relation is satisfied.The governing equations are deduced.The critical stress for the formation of a shear band,both the stresses and strains inside the band and outside the band,and the inclination angle of the band can all be predicted.The predicted results are consistent with experimental measurements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen Huishen, E-mail: hsshen@mail.sjtu.edu.c [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)
2010-08-30
A nonlocal shear deformable shell model is developed for buckling of microtubules embedded in an elastic matrix of cytoplasm under bending in thermal environments. The results reveal that the lateral constraint has a significant effect on the buckling moments of a microtubule when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large.
Kim, S.W.; Park, S.U.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2006-01-01
Basic entrainment equations applicable to the sheared convective boundary layer (CBL) are derived by assuming an inversion layer with a finite depth, i.e., the first-order jump model. Large-eddy simulation data are used to determine the constants involved in the parameterizations of the entrainment
Shear banding analysis of plastic models formulated for incompressible viscous flows
Lemiale, V.; Mühlhaus, H.-B.; Moresi, L.; Stafford, J.
2008-12-01
We investigate shear band orientations for a simple plastic formulation in the context of incompressible viscous flow. This type of material modelling has been introduced in literature to enable the numerical simulation of the deformation and failure of the lithosphere coupled with the mantle convection. In the present article, we develop a linear stability analysis to determine the admissible shear band orientations at the onset of bifurcation. We find that the so-called Roscoe angle and Coulomb angle are both admissible solutions. We present numerical simulations under plane strain conditions using the hybrid particle-in-cell finite element code Underworld. The results both in compressional and extensional stress conditions show that the variation of the numerical shear bands angle with respect to the internal friction angle follows closely the evolution of the Coulomb angle.
Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces
Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.
2017-09-01
This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.
ON THE EDDY VISCOSITY MODEL OF PERIODIC TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王新军; 罗纪生; 周恒
2003-01-01
Physical argument shows that eddy viscosity is essentially different from molecular viscosity. By direct numerical simulation, it was shown that for periodic turbulent flows, there is phase difference between Reynolds stress and rate of strain. This finding posed great challenge to turbulence modeling, because most turbulence modeling, which use the idea of eddy viscosity, do not take this effect into account.
Firpo, Marie-Christine; 10.1063/1.3562493
2011-01-01
The issue of magnetic confinement in magnetic fusion devices is addressed within a purely magnetic approach. Using some Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines, the dual impact of low magnetic shear is shown in a unified way. Away from resonances, it induces a drastic enhancement of magnetic confinement that favors robust internal transport barriers (ITBs) and stochastic transport reduction. When low-shear occurs for values of the winding of the magnetic field lines close to low-order rationals, the amplitude thresholds of the resonant modes that break internal transport barriers by allowing a radial stochastic transport of the magnetic field lines may be quite low. The approach can be applied to assess the robustness versus magnetic perturbations of general (almost) integrable magnetic steady states, including non-axisymmetric ones such as the important single helicity steady states. This analysis puts a constraint on the tolerable mode amplitudes compatible with ITBs and may be proposed as a possibl...
Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
JayaKumar, S.
to combined waves and current. Ocean Engineering, 29(7): 753-768. Coussot, P., 1997. Mudflow rheology and dynamics, xvi, Balkema, Rotterdam, 255 pp. DHI, 2009. Mike21 flow model - hydrodynamic module - scientific documentation. DHI, Denmark, 60 pp...
Calculation of benchmarks with a shear beam model
Ferreira, D.
2015-01-01
Fiber models for beam and shell elements allow for relatively rapid finite element analysis of concrete structures and structural elements. This project aims at the development of the formulation of such elements and a pilot implementation. Standard nonlinear fiber beam formulations do not account
Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.
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Joseph S Uzarski
Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.
Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.
1999-01-01
We develop and test a 1-point closure turbulence model with the following features: 1) we include the salinity field and derive the expression for the vertical turbulent diffusivities of momentum K(sub m) , heat K(sub h) and salt K(sub s) as a function of two stability parameters: the Richardson number R(sub i) (stratification vs. shear) and the Turner number R(sub rho) (salinity gradient vs. temperature gradient). 2) to describe turbulent mixing below the mixed layer (ML), all previous models have adopted three adjustable "background diffusivities" for momentum, heat and salt. We propose a model that avoids such adjustable diffusivities. We assume that below the ML, the three diffusivities have the same functional dependence on R( sub i) and R(sub rho) as derived from the turbulence model. However, in order to compute R(sub i) below the ML, we use data of vertical shear due to wave-breaking.measured by Gargett et al. The procedure frees the model from adjustable background diffusivities and indeed we employ the same model throughout the entire vertical extent of the ocean. 3) in the local model, the turbulent diffusivities K(sub m,h,s) are given as analytical functions of R(sub i) and R(sub rho). 5) the model is used in an O-GCM and several results are presented to exhibit the effect of double diffusion processes. 6) the code is available upon request.
Longtime behavior of one-dimensional biofilm models with shear dependent detachment rates.
Abbas, Fazal; Sudarsan, Rangarajan; Eberl, Hermann J
2012-04-01
We investigate the role of non shear stress and shear stressed based detachment rate functions for the longterm behavior of one-dimensional biofilm models. We find that the particular choice of a detachment rate function can affect the model prediction of persistence or washout of the biofilm. Moreover, by comparing biofilms in three settings: (i) Couette flow reactors, (ii) Poiseuille flow with fixed flow rate and (iii) Poiseuille flow with fixed pressure drop, we find that not only the bulk flow Reynolds number but also the particular mechanism driving the flow can play a crucial role for longterm behavior. We treat primarily the single species-case that can be analyzed with elementary ODE techniques. But we show also how the results, to some extent, can be carried over to multi-species biofilm models, and to biofilm models that are embedded in reactor mass balances.
Piecewise Function Hysteretic Model for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Walls with Reinforced End Studs
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Jihong Ye
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cold-formed steel (CFS shear walls with concrete-filled rectangular steel tube (CFRST columns as end studs can upgrade the performance of mid-rise CFS structures, such as the vertical bearing capacity, anti-overturning ability, shear strength, and fire resistance properties, thereby enhancing the safety of structures. A theoretical hysteretic model is established according to a previous experimental study. This model is described in a simple mathematical form and takes nonlinearity, pinching, strength, and stiffness deterioration into consideration. It was established in two steps: (1 a discrete coordinate method was proposed to determine the load-displacement skeleton curve of the wall, by which governing deformations and their corresponding loads of the hysteretic loops under different loading cases can be obtained; afterwards; (2 a piecewise function was adopted to capture the hysteretic loop relative to each governing deformation, the hysteretic model of the wall was further established, and additional criteria for the dominant parameters of the model were stated. Finally, the hysteretic model was validated by experimental results from other studies. The results show that elastic lateral stiffness Ke and shear capacity Fp are key factors determining the load-displacement skeleton curve of the wall; hysteretic characteristics of the wall with reinforced end studs can be fully reflected by piecewise function hysteretic model, moreover, the model has intuitional expressions with clear physical interpretations for each parameter, paving the way for predicting the nonlinear dynamic responses of mid-rise CFS structures.
Shear-free axial model in massive Brans-Dicke gravity
Sharif, M.; Manzoor, Rubab
2017-01-01
This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.
Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab, E-mail: rubab.manzoor@umt.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town Campus, Lahore-54782 (Pakistan)
2017-01-15
This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans–Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BANDEY, HELEN L.; BROWN, MARK J.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; HILLMAN, A. ROBERT; MARTIN, STEPHEN J.
1999-09-16
We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of {pi}/2 radians. This model predicts accurately the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. The elements of the model are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and the Sauerbrey models.
Effect of Fluid Shear Stress on Portal Vein Remodeling in a Rat Model of Portal Hypertension
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Bin Wen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aims. To explore the effects and mechanisms of fluid shear stress on portal vein remodeling in a rat model of portal hypertension. Methods. Subcutaneous injections of CCl4 were given to establish a rat model of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Biomechanical technology was adopted to determine the dynamic changes of haemodynamic indices and fluid shear stress. Nitric oxide (NO, synthase (NOS, and endothelin-1 (ET-1 of the portal vein blood were measured. Changes in geometric structure and ultrastructure of the portal vein were observed using optical and electron microscopy. Results. After the CC14 injections, rat haemodynamics were notably altered. From week 4 onwards, PVP, PVF, and PVR gradually and significantly increased (P<0.05 versus baseline. The fluid shear stress declined from week 4 onwards (P<0.01 versus control group. NO, NOS, and ET-1 increased after repeated CCI4 injections. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed thickened portal vein walls, with increased inside and outside diameters. Electron microscopy revealed different degrees of endothelial cell degeneration, destruction of basement membrane integrity, proliferating, and hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Conclusions. Fluid shear stress not only influenced the biomechanical environment of the portal vein but also participated in vascular remodeling.
Modeling the relaxation of polymer glasses under shear and elongational loads
Fielding, S. M.; Moorcroft, R. L.; Larson, R. G.; Cates, M. E.
2013-03-01
Glassy polymers show "strain hardening": at constant extensional load, their flow first accelerates, then arrests. Recent experiments under such loading have found this to be accompanied by a striking dip in the segmental relaxation time. This can be explained by a minimal nonfactorable model combining flow-induced melting of a glass with the buildup of stress carried by strained polymers. Within this model, liquefaction of segmental motion permits strong flow that creates polymer-borne stress, slowing the deformation enough for the segmental (or solvent) modes then to re-vitrify. Here, we present new results for the corresponding behavior under step-stress shear loading, to which very similar physics applies. To explain the unloading behavior in the extensional case requires introduction of a "crinkle factor" describing a rapid loss of segmental ordering. We discuss in more detail here the physics of this, which we argue involves non-entropic contributions to the polymer stress, and which might lead to some important differences between shear and elongation. We also discuss some fundamental and possibly testable issues concerning the physical meaning of entropic elasticity in vitrified polymers. Finally, we present new results for the startup of steady shear flow, addressing the possible role of transient shear banding.
In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation.
Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M
2016-01-01
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models.
In vitro bone cell models: Impact of fluid shear stress on bone formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Wittkowske
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodelling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g. due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodelling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signalling factors such as nitric oxide and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signalling, collagen deposition and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibres which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models.
Shear Modification of long-chain branched polymers : a theoretical approach using POM-POM model
Bourrigault, S.; Marin, Gérard; Poitou, Arnaud
2003-01-01
International audience; “Shear modification” is a strong modification of rheological properties which affects mainly long-chain branched polymers like LDPE. The aim of this work is to explain this effect using recent advances in molecular dynamics and especially the pom-pom model which was designed for branched polymers. The original model was slightly modified in order to take into account the change in molecular topology related to the branch point withdrawal mechanism without introducing a...
Damping Models for Shear-Deformable Beam with Applications to Spacecraft Wiring Harness
2014-10-28
and modified for application to Timoshenko beams. The inclusion of rotary inertia does add some frequency- dependence; however, careful selection of...behavior of wiring harnesses. The emphasis in this project will be on the extension of the shear-beam damping model to the Timoshenko beam, a beam model...approaches) are extended and modified for application to Timoshenko beams. The inclusion of rotary inertia does add some frequency-dependence
Validation of gyrokinetic modelling of light impurity transport including rotation in ASDEX Upgrade
Casson, F J; Angioni, C; Camenen, Y; Dux, R; Fable, E; Fischer, R; Geiger, B; Manas, P; Menchero, L; Tardini, G
2013-01-01
Upgraded spectroscopic hardware and an improved impurity concentration calculation allow accurate determination of boron density in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. A database of boron measurements is compared to quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations including Coriolis and centrifugal rotational effects over a range of H-mode plasma regimes. The peaking of the measured boron profiles shows a strong anti-correlation with the plasma rotation gradient, via a relationship explained and reproduced by the theory. It is demonstrated that the rotodiffusive impurity flux driven by the rotation gradient is required for the modelling to reproduce the hollow boron profiles at higher rotation gradients. The nonlinear simulations validate the quasilinear approach, and, with the addition of perpendicular flow shear, demonstrate that each symmetry breaking mechanism that causes momentum transport also couples to rotodiffusion. At lower rotation gradients, the parallel compressive convection is required to match the mos...
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M. Riemer
2010-11-01
Full Text Available A major contribution to intensity changes of tropical cyclones (TCs is believed to be associated with interaction with dry environmental air. However, the conditions under which pronounced TC-environment interaction takes place are not well understood. As a step towards improving our understanding of this problem we analyze the flow topology of a TC in vertical wind shear in an idealized, three-dimensional, convection-permitting numerical experiment. A set of distinct streamlines, the so-called separatrices, can be identified under the assumptions of steady and layer-wise horizontal flow. The separatrices are shown to divide the flow around the TC into distinct regions.
The separatrix structure in our numerical experiment is more complex than the well-known flow topology of a non-divergent point vortex in uniform background flow. In particular, one separatrix spirals inwards and ends in a limit cycle, a meso-scale dividing streamline encompassing the eyewall above the inflow and below the outflow layer. Air with the highest values of moist entropy resides within this limit cycle supporting the notion that the eyewall is well protected from intrusion of dry environmental air despite the adverse impact of the vertical wind shear. This "moist envelope" is distorted considerably by the vertical wind shear, and the shape of the moist envelope is closely related to the shape of the limit cycle.
A simple kinematic model based on a weakly divergent point vortex in background flow is presented. The model is shown to capture the essence of many salient features of the flow topology in the idealized experiment. A regime diagram representing realistic values of TC intensity and vertical wind shear can be constructed for this simple model. The results indicate distinct scenarios of environmental interaction depending on the ratio of storm intensity and shear magnitude. Further implications of the new results derived from the flow topology
Goldilocks Models of Higher-Dimensional Inflation (including modulus stabilization)
Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P
2016-01-01
We explore the mechanics of inflation in simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like in that they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size, yet simple enough to solve the full 6D field equations using basic tools. The solutions are not limited to the effective 4D regime with H m_KK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict eta ~ 0 hence n_s ~ 0.96 and r ~ 0.096 and so are ruled out if tensor modes remain unseen. Analysis of general parameters is difficult without a full 6D fluctuation calculation.
Salvucci, Fernando P; Perazzo, Carlos A; Barra, Juan G; Armentano, Ricardo L
2009-01-01
There is evidence that wall shear stress (WSS) is associated with vascular disease. In particular, it is widely accepted that vascular segments with low or oscillatory values of WSS are more probable to develop vascular disease. It is then necessary to establish a realistic model of the blood flow in blood vessels in order to determine precisely WSS. We proposed a numerical 1D model which takes into account the pulsatile nature of blood flow, the elasticity of the vessel, and its geometry. The model allows the calculation of shear stress. It was validated for stationary situations. Then, we computed the time-dependent WSS distribution from experimental data in the sheep thoracic aorta. Results showed that mean WSS calculated through steady flow and rigid walls models is overestimated. Peak WSS values for pulsatile flow must be considered since they resulted to be at least one order higher than mean values. Oscillations in shear stress in a period showed to be approximately of 40%. These findings show that the proposed model is suitable for estimating time-dependent WSS distributions, and confirm the need of using this kind of model when trying to evaluate realistic WSS in blood vessels.
Dynamic hysteresis modelling of entangled cross-linked fibres in shear
Piollet, Elsa; Poquillon, Dominique; Michon, Guilhem
2016-11-01
The objective of this paper is to characterize and model the vibration behaviour of entangled carbon fibres cross-linked with epoxy resin. The material is tested in shear, in a double lap configuration. Experimental testing is carried out for frequencies varying from 1 Hz to 80 Hz and for shear strain amplitudes ranging from 5 ·10-4 to 1 ·10-2. Measured shear stress-strain hysteresis loops show a nonlinear behaviour with a low frequency dependency. The hysteresis loops are decomposed in a linear part and three nonlinear parts: a dry friction hysteresis, a stiffening term and a stiction-like overshoot term. The Generalized Dahl Model is used in conjunction with other hysteresis models to develop an appropriate description of the measured hysteresis loops, based on the three nonlinear parts. In particular, a new one-state formulation of the Bliman-Sorine model is developed. A new identification procedure is also introduced for the Dahl model, based on the so-called backbone curve. The model is shown to capture well the complex shapes of the measured hysteresis loops at all amplitudes.
Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs
Zhdanov, Vladimir P.
2011-03-01
In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.
Shear-free Anisotropic Cosmological Models in f(R) Gravity
Abebe, Amare; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2015-01-01
We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f(R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f(R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in $f(R)$ gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f(R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.
Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi
2017-01-24
We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p materials (p materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.
Adnan Elshafei, M.; Alraiess, Fuzy
2013-03-01
In the current work, a finite element formulation is developed for modeling and analysis of isotropic as well as orthotropic composite beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators subjected to both mechanical and electrical loads. The proposed model is developed based on a simple higher order shear deformation theory where the displacement field equations in the model account for a parabolic distribution of the shear strain and the nonlinearity of in-plane displacements across the thickness and subsequently the shear correction factor is not involved. The virtual displacement method is used to formulate the equations of motion of the structure system. The model is valid for both segmented and continuous piezoelectric elements, which can be either surface bonded or embedded in the laminated beams. A two-node element with four mechanical degrees of freedom in addition to one electrical degree of freedom for each node is used in the finite element formulation. The electric potential is considered as a function of the thickness and the length of the beam element. A MATLAB code is developed to compute the static deformation and free vibration parameters of the beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results from the proposed model are compared with the available analytical results and the finite element results of other researchers.
Characterization of Escherichia coli MG1655 grown in a low-shear modeled microgravity environment
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Pierson Duane L
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Extra-cellular shear force is an important environmental parameter that is significant both medically and in the space environment. Escherichia coli cells grown in a low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG environment produced in a high aspect rotating vessel (HARV were subjected to transcriptional and physiological analysis. Results Aerobic LSMMG cultures were grown in rich (LB and minimal (MOPS + glucose medium with a normal gravity vector HARV control. Reproducible changes in transcription were seen, but no specific LSMMG responsive genes were identified. Instead, absence of shear and a randomized gravity vector appears to cause local extra-cellular environmental changes, which elicit reproducible cellular responses. In minimal media, the majority of the significantly up- or down-regulated genes of known function were associated with the cell envelope. In rich medium, most LSMMG down-regulated genes were involved in translation. No observable changes in post-culture stress responses and antibiotic sensitivity were seen in cells immediately after exposure to LSMMG. Comparison with earlier studies of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium conducted under similar growth conditions, revealed essentially no similarity in the genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated. Conclusion Comparison of these results to previous studies suggests that different organisms may dramatically differ in their responses to medically significant low-shear and space environments. Depending on their specific response, some organisms, such as Salmonella, may become preadapted in a manner that predisposes them to increased virulence.
Geoff Tanner, P. W.
2016-03-01
The main conclusion of this study is that non-coaxial strain acting parallel to a flat-lying D1 spaced cleavage was responsible for the formation of the D2 spaced crenulation (shear band) cleavage in Dalradian rocks of Neoproterozoic-Lower Ordovician age in the SW Highlands, Scotland. The cm-dm-scale D2 microlithons are asymmetric; have a geometrically distinctive nose and tail; and show a thickened central portion resulting from back-rotation of the constituent D1 microlithons. The current terminology used to describe crenulation cleavages is reviewed and updated. Aided by exceptional 3D exposures, it is shown how embryonic D2 flexural-slip folds developed into a spaced cleavage comprising fold-pair domains wrapped by anastomosing cleavage seams. The bulk strain was partitioned into low-strain domains separated by zones of high non-coaxial strain. This new model provides a template for determining the sense of shear in both low-strain situations and in ductile, higher strain zones where other indicators, such as shear folds, give ambiguous results. Analogous structures include tectonic lozenges in shear zones, and flexural-slip duplexes. Disputes over the sense and direction of shear during emplacement of the Tay Nappe, and the apparently intractable conflict between minor fold asymmetry and shear sense, appear to be resolved.
Gray, J. D.; Owen, I.; Escudier, M. P.
2007-10-01
Dimensional analysis has been applied to an unsteady pulsatile flow of a shear-thinning power-law non-Newtonian liquid. An experiment was then designed in which both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were used to model blood flow through a large-scale (38.5 mm dia.), simplified, rigid arterial junction (a distal anastomosis of a femorodistal bypass). The flow field within the junction was obtained by Particle Imaging Velocimetry and near-wall velocities were used to calculate the wall shear stresses. Dimensionless wall shear stresses were obtained at different points in the cardiac cycle for two different but dynamically similar non-Newtonian fluids; the good agreement between the measured dimensionless wall shear stresses confirm the validity of the dimensional analysis. However, blood exhibits a constant viscosity at high-shear rates and to obtain complete dynamic similarity between large-scale experiments and life-scale flows, the high-shear viscosity also needs to be included in the analysis. How this might be done is discussed in the paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panatchai Chetchotisak
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Because of nonlinear strain distributions caused either by abrupt changes in geometry or in loading in deep beam, the approach for conventional beams is not applicable. Consequently, strut-and-tie model (STM has been applied as the most rational and simple method for strength prediction and design of reinforced concrete deep beams. A deep beam is idealized by the STM as a truss-like structure consisting of diagonal concrete struts and tension ties. There have been numerous works proposing the STMs for deep beams. However, uncertainty and complexity in shear strength computations of deep beams can be found in some STMs. Therefore, improvement of methods for predicting the shear strengths of deep beams are still needed. By means of a large experimental database of 406 deep beam test results covering a wide range of influencing parameters, several shapes and geometry of STM and six state-of-the-art formulation of the efficiency factors found in the design codes and literature, the new STMs for predicting the shear strength of simply supported reinforced concrete deep beams using multiple linear regression analysis is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, the regression diagnostics and the validation process are included in this study. Finally, two numerical examples are also provided for illustration.
Barcos, L.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.; Balanyá, J. C.; Expósito, I.; Jiménez-Bonilla, A.; Faccenna, C.
2016-07-01
The combination of analytical and analogue models gives new opportunities to better understand the kinematic parameters controlling the evolution of transpression zones. In this work, we carried out a set of analogue models using the kinematic parameters of transpressional deformation obtained by applying a general triclinic transpression analytical model to a tabular-shaped shear zone in the external Betic Chain (Torcal de Antequera massif). According to the results of the analytical model, we used two oblique convergence angles to reproduce the main structural and kinematic features of structural domains observed within the Torcal de Antequera massif (α = 15° for the outer domains and α = 30° for the inner domain). Two parallel inclined backstops (one fixed and the other mobile) reproduce the geometry of the shear zone walls of the natural case. Additionally, we applied digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to calculate the velocity field of the incremental deformation. Our results suggest that the spatial distribution of the main structures observed in the Torcal de Antequera massif reflects different modes of strain partitioning and strain localization between two domain types, which are related to the variation in the oblique convergence angle and the presence of steep planar velocity - and rheological - discontinuities (the shear zone walls in the natural case). In the 15° model, strain partitioning is simple and strain localization is high: a single narrow shear zone is developed close and parallel to the fixed backstop, bounded by strike-slip faults and internally deformed by R and P shears. In the 30° model, strain partitioning is strong, generating regularly spaced oblique-to-the backstops thrusts and strike-slip faults. At final stages of the 30° experiment, deformation affects the entire model box. Our results show that the application of analytical modelling to natural transpressive zones related to upper crustal deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spong, Donald A [ORNL
2013-01-01
The dynamics of energetic particle destabilized Alfve n frequency sweeping modes in tokamak reversed-shear safety factor discharges are modelled using a new Landau-closure model that includes coupling to geodesic acoustic wave dynamics and closure relations optimized for energetic particle Alfve n mode resonances. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of a DIII-D discharge (#142111) in which a long sequence of frequency sweeping modes were observed. This model (TAEFL) has recently been included in a verification and validation study of n = 3 frequency sweeping modes for this case along with two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO. This paper provides a more detailed documentation of the equations and methods used in the TAEFL model and extends the earlier calculation to a range of toroidal mode numbers: n = 2 to 6. By considering a range of toroidal mode numbers and scanning over a range of safety factor profiles with varying qmin, both up-sweeping frequency (reversed-shear Alfve n eigenmode) and down-sweeping frequency (toriodal Alfve n eigenmode) modes are present in the results and show qualitative similarity with the frequency variations observed in the experimental spectrograms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, S.A.; Cochran, H.D.; Cummings, P.T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)]|[Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6268 (United States)
1997-12-01
In this three part study, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of the rheology of confined films is used to explore the microscopic properties and response of model lubricants under shear. The rheological behavior of two alkanes that differ in molecular structural complexity is examined: tetracosane (C{sub 24}H{sub 50}), which is a linear alkane, and squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}), which has six symmetrically placed methyl branches along a 24 carbon backbone. The model lubricants are confined between model walls that have short chains tethered to them, thus screening the wall details. Shear flow is generated by moving the walls at constant velocity, and various properties are calculated after attainment of steady state. Heat generated by viscous dissipation is removed by thermostatting the first two atoms of the tethered molecules at 300 K, which allows a temperature profile to develop across the width of the lubricant layer. This paper details the molecular model and simulation method, and examines interfacial slip at the interface between the tethered chains and the fluid alkane. The effects of various parameters on the slip behavior are presented. Two subsequent papers respectively address the structural features of these liquid alkanes under shear flow and compare the viscosities from independent calculations of the bulk and confined fluids. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Shear flow induced vibrations of long slender cylinders with a wake oscillator model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fei Ge; Wei Lu; Lei Wang; You-Shi Hong
2011-01-01
A time domain model is presented to study the vibrations of long slender cylinders placed in shear flow. Long slender cylinders such as risers and tension legs are widely used in the field of ocean engineering. They are subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) when placed within a transverse incident flow. A three dimensional model coupled with wake oscillators is formulated to describe the response of the slender cylinder in cross-flow and in-line directions.The wake oscillators are distributed along the cylinder and the vortex-shedding frequency is derived from the local current velocity. A non-linear fluid force model is accounted for the coupled effect between cross-flow and in-line vibrations. The comparisons with the published experimental data show that the dynamic features of VIV of long slender cylinder placed in shear flow can be obtained by the proposed model, such as the spanwise average displacement, vibration frequency, dominant mode and the combination of standing and traveling waves. The simulation in a uniform flow is also conducted and the result is compared with the case of nonuniform flow. It is concluded that the flow shear characteristic has significantly changed the cylinder vibration behavior.
Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating
Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.
It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.
Modeling shear-induced CHO cell damage in a rotary positive displacement pump.
Kamaraju, Hari; Wetzel, Kenneth; Kelly, William J
2010-01-01
Rotary lobe pumps are commonly used in the biotechnology industry for a variety of purposes. Shear damage to animal cells within the rotary lobe pump can adversely affect the product yield or purity during, for example, cell concentration via cross-flow filtration. In this research, CHO cells grown in 20-L bioreactors were fed to a rotary lobe pump in both single pass and recycle experiments were conducted at different RPMs and "slip" conditions. The results indicate that the slip flow rate more severely impacts the viability of the CHO cells than the pump RPM. A novel mathematical modeling approach is presented that predicts shear rates in all of the positive displacement pump's slip regions, and then predicts cell death vs. operating conditions. This model accounts for the complex flow situation that results from changes to RPM, backpressure and pump geometry (i.e., clearances).
Shear-lag model of diffusion-induced buckling of core-shell nanowires
Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian
2016-07-01
The lithiation and de-lithiation during the electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can introduce local deformation in the active materials of electrodes, resulting in the evolution of local stress and strain in the active materials. Understanding the structural degradation associated with lithiation-induced deformation in the active materials is one of the important steps towards structural optimization of the active materials used in LIBs. There are various degradation modes, including swelling, cracking, and buckling especially for the nanowires and nanorods used in LIBs. In this work, a shear-lag model and the theory of diffusion-induced stress are used to investigate diffusion-induced buckling of core-shell nanowires during lithiation. The critical load for the onset of the buckling of a nanowire decreases with the increase of the nanowire length. The larger the surface current density, the less the time is to reach the critical load for the onset of the buckling of the nanowire.
A Multi-Scale Modeling Framework for Shear Initiated Reactions in Energetic Materials
2013-07-01
of the dissipative particle dynamics method ( DPD -E) is used for the mesoscale modeling portion of this study. DPD -E is a particle-based mesoscale...method that conserves both momentum and energy, while allowing the mesoparticles to exchange both viscous and thermal energy [11,12]. In the DPD -E...Figure 3. Fig. 3. Sample DPD -E simulation configuration of sheared material just prior to release of elastic energy. Verification of Approach
Experiments assigned to determine the acceleration of 8000kN shear laboratory model elements
Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.; Abrudean, C.
2017-01-01
In this paper presents an experimental kinetics study by measuring accelerations using a bi-axial accelerometer constructed in the basis of a miniature integrated circuit, included in the class of micro-electrical and mechanical systems - MMA6261Q on the experimental installation reduced to the 1:5 dividing rule by comparison with the shear existent in exploitation, conceived and projected at the Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara.
Liu, Y.; Bhamji, I.; Withers, P. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Motta, A. T.; Preuss, M.
2015-11-01
This paper investigates the residual stresses and interfacial shear strength of a TiAlN coating on Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe alloy (ZIRLO™) substrate designed to improve corrosion resistance of fuel cladding used in water-cooled nuclear reactors, both during normal and exceptional conditions, e.g. a loss of coolant event (LOCA). The distribution and maximum value of the interfacial shear strength has been estimated using a modified shear-lag model. The parameters critical to this analysis were determined experimentally. From these input parameters the interfacial shear strength between the TiAlN coating and ZIRLO™ substrate was inferred to be around 120 MPa. It is worth noting that the apparent strength of the coating is high (∼3.4 GPa). However, this is predominantly due to the large compressive residuals stress (3 GPa in compression), which must be overcome for the coating to fail in tension, which happens at a load just 150 MPa in excess of this.
Goldilocks models of higher-dimensional inflation (including modulus stabilization)
Burgess, C. P.; Enns, Jared J. H.; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P.
2016-08-01
We explore the mechanics of inflation within simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like inasmuch as they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size (or modulus), yet simple enough to solve explicitly the full extra-dimensional field equations using only simple tools. The solutions are not restricted to the effective 4D regime with H ll mKK (the latter referring to the characteristic mass splitting of the Kaluza-Klein excitations) because the full extra-dimensional Einstein equations are solved. This allows an exploration of inflationary physics in a controlled calculational regime away from the usual four-dimensional lamp-post. The inclusion of modulus stabilization is important because experience with string models teaches that this is usually what makes models fail: stabilization energies easily dominate the shallow potentials required by slow roll and so open up directions to evolve that are steeper than those of the putative inflationary direction. We explore (numerically and analytically) three representative kinds of inflationary scenarios within this simple setup. In one the radion is trapped in an inflaton-dependent local minimum whose non-zero energy drives inflation. Inflation ends as this energy relaxes to zero when the inflaton finds its own minimum. The other two involve power-law scaling solutions during inflation. One of these is a dynamical attractor whose features are relatively insensitive to initial conditions but whose slow-roll parameters cannot be arbitrarily small; the other is not an attractor but can roll much more slowly, until eventually transitioning to the attractor. The scaling solutions can satisfy H > mKK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict η simeq 0 and so r simeq 0.11 when ns simeq 0.96 and so
Sheared magnetospheric plasma flows and discrete auroral arcs: a quasi-static coupling model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Echim
2007-02-01
Full Text Available We consider sheared flows in magnetospheric boundary layers of tangential discontinuity type, forming a structure that is embedded in a large-scale convergent perpendicular electric field. We construct a kinetic model that couples the magnetospheric structure with the topside ionosphere. The contribution of magnetospheric electrons and ionospheric electrons and ions is taken into account into the current-voltage relationship derived for an electric potential monotonically decreasing with the altitude. The solution of the current continuity equation gives the distribution of the ionospheric potential consistent with the given magnetospheric electric potential. The model shows that a sheared magnetospheric flow generates current sheets corresponding to upward field-aligned currents, field-aligned potential drops and narrow bands of precipitating energy, as in discrete auroral arcs. Higher velocity magnetospheric sheared flows have the tendency to produce brighter and slightly broader arcs. An increase in arc luminosity is also associated with enhancements of magnetospheric plasma density, in which case the structures are narrower. Finally, the model predicts that an increase of the electron temperature of the magnetospheric flowing plasma corresponds to slightly wider arcs but does not modify their luminosity.
Measurements of gap pressure and wall shear stress of a blood pump model.
Chua, L P; Akamatsu, T
2000-04-01
The centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller has shown its superiority as compared to other artificial hearts. However, there is still insufficient understanding of fluid mechanics related issues in the clearance gap. The design nature of the pump requires sufficient washout in the clearance between the impeller and stationary surfaces. As the gap is only 0.2 mm in width, it is very difficult to conduct measurements with present instrumentation. An enlarged model with 5:1 ratio of the pump has been designed and constructed according to specifications. Dimensionless gap pressure measurements of the model are very close to the prototype. The measurements of wall shear stress of the fluid flow in the clearance gap between the impeller face and inlet casing of a blood pump model were accomplished through hot-wire anemometry and rotating disk apparatus. Regions of relatively high and low shear stresses are identified. These correspond to spots where the likelihood of hemolysis and thrombus formation is high. With the use of dimensional analysis, it is found that the highest wall shear stress is equivalent to 146 Pa which is much lower than the threshold value of 400 Pa for hemolysis reported in the literature.
A global horizontal shear velocity model of the upper mantle from multimode Love wave measurements
Ho, Tak; Priestley, Keith; Debayle, Eric
2016-10-01
Surface wave studies in the 1960s provided the first indication that the upper mantle was radially anisotropic. Resolving the anisotropic structure is important because it may yield information on deformation and flow patterns in the upper mantle. The existing radially anisotropic models are in poor agreement. Rayleigh waves have been studied extensively and recent models show general agreement. Less work has focused on Love waves and the models that do exist are less well-constrained than are Rayleigh wave models, suggesting it is the Love wave models that are responsible for the poor agreement in the radially anisotropic structure of the upper mantle. We have adapted the waveform inversion procedure of Debayle & Ricard to extract propagation information for the fundamental mode and up to the fifth overtone from Love waveforms in the 50-250 s period range. We have tomographically inverted these results for a mantle horizontal shear wave-speed model (βh(z)) to transition zone depths. We include azimuthal anisotropy (2θ and 4θ terms) in the tomography, but in this paper we discuss only the isotropic βh(z) structure. The data set is significantly larger, almost 500 000 Love waveforms, than previously published Love wave data sets and provides ˜17 000 000 constraints on the upper-mantle βh(z) structure. Sensitivity and resolution tests show that the horizontal resolution of the model is on the order of 800-1000 km to transition zone depths. The high wave-speed roots beneath the oldest parts of the continents appear to extend deeper for βh(z) than for βv(z) as in previous βh(z) models, but the resolution tests indicate that at least parts of these features could be artefacts. The low wave speeds beneath the mid-ocean ridges fade by ˜150 km depth except for the upper mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise which remains slow to ˜250 km depth. The resolution tests suggest that the low wave speeds at deeper depths beneath the East Pacific Rise are not solely due
Including Flocculation in a Numerical Sediment Transport Model for a Partially-Mixed Estuary
Tarpley, D.; Harris, C. K.; Friedrichs, C. T.
2016-12-01
Particle settling velocity impacts the transport of suspended sediment to the first order but fine-grained material like muds tend to form loosely bound aggregates (flocs) whose settling velocity can vary widely. Properties of flocculated sediment such as settling velocity and particle density are difficult to predict because they change in response to several factors including salinity, suspended sediment concentration, turbulent mixing, and organic content. Knowledge of the mechanisms governing flocculation of cohesive sediment is rapidly expanding; especially in response to recent technical advances. As the understanding of particle dynamics progresses, numerical models describing flocculation and break-up are being developed with varying degrees of complexity. While complex models capture the dynamics of the system, their computational costs may prohibit their incorporation into larger model domains. It is important to determine if the computational costs of intricate floc models are justifiable compared to simpler formulations. For this study, we implement an idealized two-dimensional model designed to represent a longitudinal section of a partially mixed estuary that neglects across-channel variation but exhibits salinity driven estuarine circulation. The idealized domain is designed to mimic the primary features of the York River, VA. Suspended load, erosion and deposition are calculated within the sediment transport routines of the COAWST modeling system. We compare different methods for prescribing settling velocity of fine-grained material. The simplest, standard model neglects flocculation dynamics while the complex treatment is a size-class-based flocculation model (FLOCMOD). Differences in tidal and daily averages of suspended load, bulk settling velocity and bed deposition are compared between the standard and FLOCMOD runs, to examine the relative impact of flocculation on sediment transport patterns. We expect FLOCMOD to have greater variability and
Bernabeu, Miguel O; Groen, Derek; Carver, Hywel B; Hetherington, James; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V
2012-01-01
Perturbations to the homeostatic distribution of mechanical forces exerted by blood on the endothelial layer have been correlated with vascular pathologies including intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerosis. Recent computational work suggests that in order to correctly characterise such forces, the shear-thinning properties of blood must be taken into account. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been compared against experimentally observed pathological thresholds. In the current work, we apply the three-band diagram (TBD) analysis due to Gizzi et al. to assess the impact of the choice of blood rheology model on a computational model of the right middle cerebral artery. Our results show that the differences between the wall shear stress predicted by a Newtonian model and the well known Carreau-Yasuda generalized Newtonian model are only significant if the vascular pathology under study is associated with a pathological threshold in the range 0.94 Pa to 1.56 Pa, where the results of the T...
Characterizing and Modeling Brittle Bi-material Interfaces Subjected to Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Berggreen, Christian
2014-01-01
was subjected to shear with debonding occurring under Mode II conditions. The study of the debonding process and thus failure of the joints was based both on stress and energy considerations. Analytical formulas were utilized for the derivation of the respective shear strength and fracture toughness measures...... in a finite element simulation environment. It was concluded that interfacial fracture in the considered joints was driven by the fracture toughness and not by strength considerations, and that LEFM is well suited to analyze the failure of the joint. Additionally, the double strap joint geometry...... which characterize the bi-material interface, by considering the joint’s failure load, geometry and involved materials. The derived stress and toughness magnitudes were further utilized as the parameters of an extrinsic cohesive law, applied in connection with the modeling the bi-material interface...
Dynamic analysis of polymeric fluid in shear flow for dumbbell model with internal viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨晓东; R.V.N.MELNIK
2008-01-01
The dynamic analysis of semi-flexible polymers,such as DNA molecules,is an important multiscale problem with a wide range of applications in science and bioengineering.In this contribution,a dumbbell model with internal viscosity was studied in steady shear flows of polymeric fluid.The tensors with moments other than second moment were approximated in the terms of second moment tensor.Then,the nonlinear algebraic equation of the second moment conformation tensor was calculated in closed form.Finally,substituting the resulting conformation tensor into the Kramers equation of Hookean spring force,the constitutive equations were obtained.The shear material properties were discussed for different internal viscosities and compared with the results of Brownian dynamics simulation.
A review of shear strength models for rock joints subjected to constant normal stiffness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivanathan Thirukumaran
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The typical shear behaviour of rough joints has been studied under constant normal load/stress (CNL boundary conditions, but recent studies have shown that this boundary condition may not replicate true practical situations. Constant normal stiffness (CNS is more appropriate to describe the stress–strain response of field joints since the CNS boundary condition is more realistic than CNL. The practical implications of CNS are movements of unstable blocks in the roof or walls of an underground excavation, reinforced rock wedges sliding in a rock slope or foundation, and the vertical movement of rock-socketed concrete piles. In this paper, the highlights and limitations of the existing models used to predict the shear strength/behaviour of joints under CNS conditions are discussed in depth.
Large deviation statistics of non-equilibrium fluctuations in a sheared model-fluid
Dolai, Pritha; Simha, Aditi
2016-08-01
We analyse the statistics of the shear stress in a one dimensional model fluid, that exhibits a rich phase behaviour akin to real complex fluids under shear. We show that the energy flux satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen FT across all phases in the system. The theorem allows us to define an effective temperature which deviates considerably from the equilibrium temperature as the noise in the system increases. This deviation is negligible when the system size is small. The dependence of the effective temperature on the strain rate is phase-dependent. It doesn’t vary much at the phase boundaries. The effective temperature can also be determined from the large deviation function of the energy flux. The local strain rate statistics obeys the large deviation principle and satisfies a fluctuation relation. It does not exhibit a distinct kink near zero strain rate because of inertia of the rotors in our system.
Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms
van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke
2017-04-01
The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies
Nonlinear model calibration of a shear wall building using time and frequency data features
Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Barbosa, Andre R.; Chatzi, Eleni
2017-02-01
This paper investigates the effects of different factors on the performance of nonlinear model updating for a seven-story shear wall building model. The accuracy of calibrated models using different data features and modeling assumptions is studied by comparing the time and frequency responses of the models with the exact simulated ones. Simplified nonlinear finite element models of the shear wall building are calibrated so that the misfit between the considered response data features of the models and the structure is minimized. A refined FE model of the test structure, which was calibrated manually to match the shake table test data, is used instead of the real structure for this performance evaluation study. The simplified parsimonious FE models are composed of simple nonlinear beam-column fiber elements with nonlinearity infused in them by assigning generated hysteretic nonlinear material behaviors to uniaxial stress-strain relationship of the fibers. Four different types of data features and their combinations are used for model calibration: (1) time-varying instantaneous modal parameters, (2) displacement time histories, (3) acceleration time histories, and (4) dissipated hysteretic energy. It has been observed that the calibrated simplified FE models can accurately predict the nonlinear structural response in the absence of significant modeling errors. In the last part of this study, the physics-based models are further simplified for casting into state-space formulation and a real-time identification is performed using an Unscented Kalman filter. It has been shown that the performance of calibrated state-space models can be satisfactory when reasonable modeling assumptions are used.
Modeling of Wall-Bounded Complex Flows and Free Shear Flows
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.
1994-01-01
Various wall-bounded flows with complex geometries and free shear flows have been studied with a newly developed realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The model development is based on the invariant theory in continuum mechanics. This theory enables us to formulate a general constitutive relation for the Reynolds stresses. Pope was the first to introduce this kind of constitutive relation to turbulence modeling. In our study, realizability is imposed on the truncated constitutive relation to determine the coefficients so that, unlike the standard k-E eddy viscosity model, the present model will not produce negative normal stresses in any situations of rapid distortion. The calculations based on the present model have shown an encouraging success in modeling complex turbulent flows.
Elliptic model for space-time correlations in turbulent shear flows.
He, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Bai
2006-05-01
An elliptic model for space-time correlations in turbulent shear flows is proposed based on a second order approximation to the iso-correlation contours, while Taylor's hypothesis implies a first-order approximation. It is shown that the space-time correlations are mainly determined by their space correlations and the convection and sweeping velocities. This model accommodates two extreme cases: Taylor's hypothesis at vanishing sweeping velocity and the sweeping hypothesis at vanishing convection velocity. The result is supported by the data from the direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montazeri, A. [Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, M. [Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghdabadi, R., E-mail: naghdabd@sharif.ed [Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, H. [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and Research Centre for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-04-04
A combination of molecular dynamics (MD), continuum elasticity and FEM is used to predict the effect of CNT orientation on the shear modulus of SWCNT-polymer nanocomposites. We first develop a transverse-isotropic elastic model of SWCNTs based on the continuum elasticity and MD to compute the transverse-isotropic elastic constants of SWCNTs. These constants are then used in an FEM-based simulation to investigate the effect of SWCNT alignment on the shear modulus of nanocomposites. Furthermore, shear stress distributions along the nanotube axis and over its cross-sectional area are investigated to study the effect of CNT orientation on the shear load transfer. - Highlights: A transverse-isotropic elastic model of SWCNTs is presented. A hierarchical MD/FEM multiscale model of SWCNT-polymer composites is developed. Behavior of these nanocomposites under shear deformation is studied. A symmetric shear stress distribution occurs only in SWCNTs with 45{sup o} orientation. The total shear load sustained is greatest in the case of 45{sup o} orientation.
Wang, Peitao; Cai, Meifeng; Ren, Fenhua; Li, Changhong; Yang, Tianhong
2017-07-01
This paper develops a numerical approach to determine the mechanical behavior of discrete fractures network (DFN) models based on digital image processing technique and particle flow code (PFC2D). A series of direct shear tests of jointed rocks were numerically performed to study the effect of normal stress, friction coefficient and joint bond strength on the mechanical behavior of joint rock and evaluate the influence of micro-parameters on the shear properties of jointed rocks using the proposed approach. The complete shear stress-displacement curve of the DFN model under direct shear tests was presented to evaluate the failure processes of jointed rock. The results show that the peak and residual strength are sensitive to normal stress. A higher normal stress has a greater effect on the initiation and propagation of cracks. Additionally, an increase in the bond strength ratio results in an increase in the number of both shear and normal cracks. The friction coefficient was also found to have a significant influence on the shear strength and shear cracks. Increasing in the friction coefficient resulted in the decreasing in the initiation of normal cracks. The unique contribution of this paper is the proposed modeling technique to simulate the mechanical behavior of jointed rock mass based on particle mechanics approaches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berryman, J G
2005-03-23
To provide quantitative measures of the importance of fluid effects on shear waves in heterogeneous reservoirs, a model material called a ''random polycrystal of porous laminates'' is introduced. This model poroelastic material has constituent grains that are layered (or laminated), and each layer is an isotropic, microhomogeneous porous medium. All grains are composed of exactly the same porous constituents, and have the same relative volume fractions. The order of lamination is not important because the up-scaling method used to determine the transversely isotropic (hexagonal) properties of the grains is Backus averaging, which--for quasi-static or long-wavelength behavior--depends only on the volume fractions and layer properties. Grains are then jumbled together totally at random, filling all space, and producing an overall isotropic poroelastic medium. The poroelastic behavior of this medium is then analyzed using the Peselnick-Meister-Watt bounds (of Hashin-Shtrikman type). We study the dependence of the shear modulus on pore fluid properties and determine the range of behavior to be expected. In particular we compare and contrast these results to those anticipated from Gassmann's fluid substitution formulas, and to the predictions of Mavko and Jizba for very low porosity rocks with flat cracks. This approach also permits the study of arbitrary numbers of constituents, but for simplicity the numerical examples are restricted here to just two constituents. This restriction also permits the use of some special exact results available for computing the overall effective stress coefficient in any two-component porous medium. The bounds making use of polycrystalline microstructure are very tight. Results for the shear modulus demonstrate that the ratio of compliance differences R (i.e., shear compliance changes over bulk compliance changes when going from drained to undrained behavior, or vice versa) is usually nonzero and can take a wide
A Discrete Velocity Traffic Kinetic Model Including Desired Speed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shoufeng Lu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce the desired speed variable into the table of games and formulate a new table of games and the corresponding discrete traffic kinetic model. We use the hybrid programming technique of VB and MATLAB to develop the program. Lastly, we compared the proposed model result and the detector data. The results show that the proposed model can describe the traffic flow evolution.
Semi-holographic model including the radiation component
del Campo, Sergio; Magaña, Juan; Villanueva, J R
2014-01-01
In this letter we study the semi holographic model which corresponds to the radiative version of the model proposed by Zhang et al. (Phys. Lett. B 694 (2010), 177) and revisited by C\\'ardenas et al. (Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 438 (2014), 3603). This inclusion makes the model more realistic, so allows us to test it with current observational data and then answer if the inconsistency reported by C\\'ardenas et al. is relaxed.
Evacuation modeling including traveler information and compliance behavior
Pel, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Bliemer, M.C.J.
2010-01-01
Traffic simulation models are often used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. Scenario analyses based on these models then typically focus on traffic dynamics and the effect of traffic control measures in order to locate possible bottlenecks and predict evacuation times. A clear approac
Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. D. Holmes
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg^{0} to Hg^{II} and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg^{0} oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg^{0} oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O_{3} model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O_{3} models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of Hg^{II} in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O_{3} models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of Hg^{II} deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a^{−1}. Summertime events of depleted Hg^{0} at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by
Pilot Wave model that includes creation and annihilation of particles
Sverdlov, Roman
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to come up with a Pilot Wave model of quantum field theory that incorporates particle creation and annihilation without sacrificing determinism. This has been previously attempted in an article by the same author titled "Incorporating particle creation and annihilation in Pilot Wave model", in a much less satisfactory way. In this paper I would like to "clean up" some of the things. In particular, I would like to get rid of a very unnatural concept of "visibility" of particles, which makes the model much simpler. On the other hand, I would like to add a mechanism for decoherence, which was absent in the previous version.
Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. D. Holmes
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg^{0} to Hg^{II} and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg^{0} oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming Br to be the sole Hg^{0} oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O_{3} model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O_{3} models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of Hg^{II} in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O_{3} models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of Hg^{II} deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux of 60 Mg a^{−1}. Summertime events of depleted Hg^{0} at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by the Hg + Br model. Model
An Intracellular Calcium Oscillations Model Including Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Xiao-Min; LIU Zeng-Rong
2005-01-01
@@ Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger. Mitochondria contributes significantly to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.The experiment of Kaftan et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 275(2000) 25465] demonstrated that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake can reduce the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration oscillations of gonadotropes. By considering the mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling we develop a three-variable model of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations based on the models of Atri et al. [Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1727] and Falcke et al. [Biophys. J. 77 (1999) 37]. The model reproduces the fact that mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling increases the frequency of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations, which accords with Kaftan's results. Moreover the model predicts that when the mitochondria overload with Ca2+, the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations vanish, which may trigger apoptosis.
Analytical and Numerical Modelling of FRP Debonding from Concrete Substrate under Pure Shearing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Jinlong; XU Zhun; C K Y Leung; LI Zongjin
2012-01-01
External bonding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites on the concrete structures has been proved to be an effective and efficient way to strengthen concrete structures.For a FRP strengthened concrete beam,it is usually observed that the failure occurs in the concrete and a thin layer of concrete is attached on the surface of the debonded FRP plate.To study the debond behavior between concrete and FRP composites,an analytical model based on the three-parameter model is developed to study the debonding behavior for the FRP-to-concrete joint under pure shearing.Then,nonlinear FEM analysis is conducted to verify the proposed analytical model.The FEM results shows good agreement with the results from the model.Finally,with the analytical model,sensitivity analyses are performed to study the effect of the interfacial parameters or the geometric parameters on the debonding behavior.
Chan, Pei-Chen; Wong, Pei-Syuan; Lin, Ming-Lang
2015-04-01
According to the investigations of well-known disastrous earthquakes in recent years, ground deformation (ground strain and surface rupture) induced by faulting is one of the causes for engineering structure damages in addition to strong ground motion. However, development and propagation of shear zone were effect of increasing amounts of basal slip faulting. Therefore, mechanisms of near ground deformation due to faulting, and its effect on engineering structures within the influenced zone are worthy of further study. In strike-slip faults model, type of rupture propagation and width of shear zone (W) are primary affecting by material properties (M) and depth (H) of overburden layer, distances of fault slip (Sy) (Lin, A., and Nishikawa, M.,2011, Narges K. et al, 2014). There are few research on trace of development and propagation of trace tip, trace length, and rupture spacing. In this research, we used sandbox model to study the progressive development of riedel-shear on overburden soil by strike-slip faulting. The model can be used to investigate the control factors of the deformation characteristics (such as the evolution of surface rupture). To understand the deformation characteristics (including development and propagation of trace tip(Tt), trace length(Tl), rupture spacing(Ts)) during the early stages of deformation by faulting. We found that an increase in fault slip Sy could result in a greater W, trace length, rupture density and proposed a Tl/H versus Sy/H relationship. Progressive development of riedel-shear showed a similar trend as in the literature that the increase of fault slip resulted in the reduction of Ts, however, the increasing trend became opposite after a peak value of W was reached. The above approaches benefit us in enhancing our understanding on how propagation of fault-tip affects the width of deformation zone near the ground of the soil/rock mass, the spatial distribution of strain and stress within the influenced zone, and the
Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to bending and shear
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Sudarsana Rao; B Ramesh Babu
2007-10-01
There is no direct method for design of beams. In general the dimensions of the beam and reinforcement are initially assumed and then the interaction formula is used to verify the suitability of chosen dimensions. This approach necessitates few trials for coming up with an economical and safe design. This paper demonstrates the applicability of Artiﬁcial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) for the design of beams subjected to moment and shear. A hybrid neural network model which combines the features of feed forward neural networks and genetic algorithms has been developed for the design of beam subjected to moment and shear. The network has been trained with design data obtained from design experts in the ﬁeld. The hybrid neural network model learned the design of beam in just 1000 training cycles. After successful learning, the model predicted the depth of the beam, area of steel, spacing of stirrups required for new problems with accuracy satisfying all design constraints. The various stages involved in the development of a genetic algorithm based neural network model are addressed at length in this paper.
Arterial waveguide model for shear wave elastography: implementation and in vitro validation
Vaziri Astaneh, Ali; Urban, Matthew W.; Aquino, Wilkins; Greenleaf, James F.; Guddati, Murthy N.
2017-07-01
Arterial stiffness is found to be an early indicator of many cardiovascular diseases. Among various techniques, shear wave elastography has emerged as a promising tool for estimating local arterial stiffness through the observed dispersion of guided waves. In this paper, we develop efficient models for the computational simulation of guided wave dispersion in arterial walls. The models are capable of considering fluid-loaded tubes, immersed in fluid or embedded in a solid, which are encountered in in vitro/ex vivo, and in vivo experiments. The proposed methods are based on judiciously combining Fourier transformation and finite element discretization, leading to a significant reduction in computational cost while fully capturing complex 3D wave propagation. The developed methods are implemented in open-source code, and verified by comparing them with significantly more expensive, fully 3D finite element models. We also validate the models using the shear wave elastography of tissue-mimicking phantoms. The computational efficiency of the developed methods indicates the possibility of being able to estimate arterial stiffness in real time, which would be beneficial in clinical settings.
Hathaway, David
2011-01-01
Models of the photospheric flows due to supergranulation are generated using an evolving spectrum of vector spherical harmonics up to spherical harmonic wavenumber l1500. Doppler velocity data generated from these models are compared to direct Doppler observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. The models are adjusted to match the observed spatial power spectrum as well as the wavenumber dependence of the cell lifetimes, differential rotation velocities, meridional flow velocities, and relative strength of radial vs. horizontal flows. The equatorial rotation rate as a function of wavelength matches the rotation rate as a function of depth as determined by global helioseismology. This leads to the conclusions that the cellular structures are anchored at depths equal to their widths, that the surface shear layer extends to at least 70 degrees latitude, and that the poleward meridional flow decreases in amplitude and reverses direction at the base of the surface shear layer (approx.35 Mm below the surface). Using the modeled flows to passively transport magnetic flux indicates that the observed differential rotation and meridional flow of the magnetic elements are directly related to the differential rotation and meridional flow of the convective pattern itself. The magnetic elements are transported by the evolving boundaries of the supergranule pattern (where the convective flows converge) and are unaffected by the weaker flows associated with the differential rotation or meridional flow of the photospheric plasma.
Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Lagroix, F.; Thomason, J.F.
2008-01-01
Wet-based portions of ice sheets may move primarily by shearing their till beds, resting in high sediment fluxes and the development of subglacial landforms. This model of glacier movement, which requires high bed shear strains, can be tested using till microstructural characteristics that evolve during till deformation. Here we examine the development of magnetic fabric using a ring shear device to defom two Wisconsin-age basal tills to shear strains as high as 70. Hysteresis experiments and the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of these tills on temperature demonstrate that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) develops during shear due to the rotation of primarily magnetite particles that are silt sized or smaller. At moderate shear strains (???6-25), principal axes of maximum magnetic susceptibility develop a strong fabric (S1 eignevalues of 0.83-0.96), without further strengthening at higher strains, During deformation, directions of maximum susceptibility cluster strongly in the direction of shear and plunge 'up-glacier,' consistent with the behavior of pebbles and sand particles studied in earlier experiments. In contrast, the magnitude of AMS does not vary systematically with strain and is small relative to its variability among samples; this is because most magnetite grains are contained as inclusions in larger particles and hence do not align during shear. Although processes other than pervasive bed deformation may result in strong flow parallel fabrics, AMS fabrics provide a rapid and objective means of identifying basal tills that have not been sheared sufficiently to be compatible with the bed deformation model. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Groebner basis methods for stationary solutions of a low-dimensional model for a shear flow
Pausch, Marina; Eckhardt, Bruno; Romanovski, Valery G
2014-01-01
We use Groebner basis methods to extract all stationary solutions for the 9-mode shear flow model that is described in Moehlis et al, New J. Phys. 6, 54 (2004). Using rational approximations to irrational wave numbers and algebraic manipulation techniques we reduce the problem of determining all stationary states to finding roots of a polynomial of order 30. The coefficients differ by 30 powers of 10 so that algorithms for extended precision are needed to extract the roots reliably. We find that there are eight stationary solutions consisting of two distinct states that each appear in four symmetry-related phases. We discuss extensions of these results for other flows.
Fuzzified Data Based Neural Network Modeling for Health Assessment of Multistorey Shear Buildings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepti Moyi Sahoo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present study intends to propose identification methodologies for multistorey shear buildings using the powerful technique of Artificial Neural Network (ANN models which can handle fuzzified data. Identification with crisp data is known, and also neural network method has already been used by various researchers for this case. Here, the input and output data may be in fuzzified form. This is because in general we may not get the corresponding input and output values exactly (in crisp form, but we have only the uncertain information of the data. This uncertain data is assumed in terms of fuzzy number, and the corresponding problem of system identification is investigated.
MICROMECHANICAL DAMAGE MODEL FOR ROCKS AND CONCRETES SUBJECTED TO COUPLED TENSILE AND SHEAR STRESSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhongjun Ren; Xianghe Peng; Chunhe Yang
2008-01-01
Based on the analysis of the deformation in an infinite isotropic elastic matrix with an embedded elliptic crack under far field coupled tensile and shear stresses,the energy release rate and a mixed fracture criterion are obtained using an energy balance approach.The additional compliance tensor induced by a single opening elliptic microcrack in a representative volume element is derived,and the effect of microcracks with random orientations is analyzed with the Taylor's scheme by introducing an appropriate probability density function.A micromechanical damage model for rocks and concretes is obtained and is verified with experimental results.
Evolution of compactive shear localization bands: geological data and numerical models
Ambre, J.; Saillet, E.; Chemenda, A. I.; Wibberley, C.
2011-12-01
Compactive shear bands with different ratio of compactive to shear inelastic deformation were recently studied in detail in different regions within the porous rocks. Among them are nicely exposed networks of conjugate cataclastic bands formed in a single tectonic event in the "Bassin du Sud-Est" (Provence, France) in Cretaceous sandstones. Microanalysis of the material within the bands shows that they underwent mainly thrust-sense shearing with a minor compactive component. The most striking feature of the evolution of these bands is their thickening at the flanks by incorporation of the intact host rock into the deformation bands and formation of new strands. This feature as well as the general band pattern was reproduced in 2-D finite-difference models where the hardening modulus h grew with inelastic deformation. This growth causes strengthening of the material within the initial bands (resulting from deformation bifurcation) and considerably slows down its inelastic deformation after it reaches a maximal value defined by all the constitutive parameters and most of all by the rate of increase in h. The strengthening above a certain level results in the band widening due to the accretion at its edges of material not yet deformed as it becomes involved in compactive shearing. The inelastic deformation is therefore the most rapid along the band flanks, while the thickening with time of the band core part mainly undergoes elastic unloading starting from some stage. The initial band spacing depends on the initial h value h0 and increases with h0 in accordance with predictions from bifurcation theory. During deformation, the spacing reduces due to the propagation of bands that largely saturate the model/layer, resulting in a band pattern that resembles the natural band networks. The increase of h imposed in the models appears therefore as both an important and realistic property that can also be derived from available experimental rock testing data. On the other hand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Riemer
2011-09-01
Full Text Available A major impediment to the intensity forecast of tropical cyclones (TCs is believed to be associated with the interaction of TCs with dry environmental air. However, the conditions under which pronounced TC-environment interaction takes place are not well understood. As a step towards improving our understanding of this problem, we analyze here the flow topology of a TC immersed in an environment of vertical wind shear in an idealized, three-dimensional, convection-permitting numerical experiment. A set of distinct streamlines, the so-called manifolds, can be identified under the assumptions of steady and layer-wise horizontal flow. The manifolds are shown to divide the flow around the TC into distinct regions.
The manifold structure in our numerical experiment is more complex than the well-known manifold structure of a non-divergent point vortex in uniform background flow. In particular, one manifold spirals inwards and ends in a limit cycle, a meso-scale dividing streamline encompassing the eyewall above the layer of strong inflow associated with surface friction and below the outflow layer in the upper troposphere. From the perspective of a steady and layer-wise horizontal flow model, the eyewall is well protected from the intrusion of environmental air. In order for the environmental air to intrude into the inner-core convection, time-dependent and/or vertical motions, which are prevalent in the TC inner-core, are necessary. Air with the highest values of moist-entropy resides within the limit cycle. This "moist envelope" is distorted considerably by the imposed vertical wind shear, and the shape of the moist envelope is closely related to the shape of the limit cycle. In a first approximation, the distribution of high- and low-θ_{e} air around the TC at low to mid-levels is governed by the stirring of convectively modified air by the steady, horizontal flow.
Motivated by the results from the
Cement-aggregate compatibility and structure property relationships including modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jennings, H.M.; Xi, Y.
1993-07-15
The role of aggregate, and its interface with cement paste, is discussed with a view toward establishing models that relate structure to properties. Both short (nm) and long (mm) range structure must be considered. The short range structure of the interface depends not only on the physical distribution of the various phases, but also on moisture content and reactivity of aggregate. Changes that occur on drying, i.e. shrinkage, may alter the structure which, in turn, feeds back to alter further drying and shrinkage. The interaction is dynamic, even without further hydration of cement paste, and the dynamic characteristic must be considered in order to fully understand and model its contribution to properties. Microstructure and properties are two subjects which have been pursued somewhat separately. This review discusses both disciplines with a view toward finding common research goals in the future. Finally, comment is made on possible chemical reactions which may occur between aggregate and cement paste.
Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina
2007-01-01
In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Lifeng; HUANG Qingxue; LI Jinbao; WANG Jianmei; LI Yugui
2006-01-01
According to revised Cailikefu's rolling shear force formula, motion path equation of spatial seven-bar path is built, and mechanical model, with such new structural features as negative offset, is thus successfully established for 2 800 mm heavy shear of some Iron&Steel Company. Shear force and bar force of steel plate, before and after adoption of negative offset structure, are analyzed, as well as horizontal force component of mechanism that influences pure rolling shear and back-wall push force that keeps blade clearance. The discovery is that back-wall push force could be kept large enough at rolling start-up (i.e. the time that the maximum rolling shear produces), meanwhile, back-wall push force is the most approximate to side forces with adoption of 60 mm-100 mm offset. Theoretical results and on-site shear quality both indicate that new structural features such as negative offset plays an important role in ensuring pure rolling shear and keeping blade clearance constant, which provide an effective means to improve quality of steel plate.
Effect of Upward Internal Flow on Dynamics of Riser Model Subject to Shear Current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zheng-shou; KIM Wu-joan; XIONG Cong-bo
2012-01-01
Numerical study about vortex-induced vibration (VIV) related to a flexible riser model in consideration of internal flow progressing inside has been performed.The main objective of this work is to investigate the coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) taking place between tensioned riser model,external shear current and upward-progressing internal flow (from ocean bottom to surface).A CAE technology behind the current research which combines structural softwàre with the CFD technology has been proposed.According to the result from dynamic analysis,it has been found that the existence of upward-progressing internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency),vibration intensity and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude,when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external current is relatively high.As a rule,the larger the velocity of internal flow is,the more it contributes to the dynamic vibration response of the flexible riser model.In addition,multi-modal vibration phenomenon has been widely observed,for asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current being imposed.
Chan, R W; Titze, I R
2000-01-01
The viscoelastic shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa (cover) were previously measured as a function of frequency [Chan and Titze, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2008-2021 (1999)], but data were obtained only in a frequency range of 0.01-15 Hz, an order of magnitude below typical frequencies of vocal fold oscillation (on the order of 100 Hz). This study represents an attempt to extrapolate the data to higher frequencies based on two viscoelastic theories, (1) a quasilinear viscoelastic theory widely used for the constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic properties of biological tissues [Fung, Biomechanics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), pp. 277-292], and (2) a molecular (statistical network) theory commonly used for the rheological modeling of polymeric materials [Zhu et al., J. Biomech. 24, 1007-1018 (1991)]. Analytical expressions of elastic and viscous shear moduli, dynamic viscosity, and damping ratio based on the two theories with specific model parameters were applied to curve-fit the empirical data. Results showed that the theoretical predictions matched the empirical data reasonably well, allowing for parametric descriptions of the data and their extrapolations to frequencies of phonation.
Neighboring extremal optimal control design including model mismatch errors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, D.G. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
1994-11-01
The mismatch control technique that is used to simplify model equations of motion in order to determine analytic optimal control laws is extended using neighboring extremal theory. The first variation optimal control equations are linearized about the extremal path to account for perturbations in the initial state and the final constraint manifold. A numerical example demonstrates that the tuning procedure inherent in the mismatch control method increases the performance of the controls to the level of a numerically-determined piecewise-linear controller.
Double pendulum model for tennis stroke including a collision process
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2015-01-01
By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. It is possible that the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket, and higher angular velocity sometimes gives lower ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time lagged racket rotation increases the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, K.; Jakobsen, B.; Olsen, N.B.
2005-01-01
The Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model, which connects the frequency-dependent shear modulus to the frequency-dependent dielectric constant, is reviewed and a new consistent macroscopic formulation is derived. It is moreover shown that this version of the model can be tested without fitting parameters...... that the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model is correct on a qualitative level. The quantitative agreement between the model and the data is on the other hand moderate to poor. It is discussed if a model-free comparison between the dielectric and shear mechanical relaxations is relevant, and it is concluded...... that the shear modulus should be compared with the rotational dielectric modulus, 1/(epsilon(omega)–n^2), which is extracted from the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model, rather than to the dielectric susceptibility or the conventional dielectric modulus M=1/epsilon(omega)...
The WRF Model Forecast-Derived Low-Level Wind Shear Climatology over the United States Great Plains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sukanta Basu
2010-02-01
Full Text Available For wind resource assessment projects, it is common practice to use a power-law relationship (U(z ~ zα and a fixed shear exponent (α = 1=7 to extrapolate the observed wind speed from a low measurement level to high turbine hub-heights. However, recent studies using tall-tower observations have found that the annual average shear exponents at several locations over the United States Great Plains (USGP are significantly higher than 1=7. These findings highlight the critical need for detailed spatio-temporal characterizations of wind shear climatology over the USGP, where numerous large wind farms will be constructed in the foreseeable future. In this paper, a new generation numerical weather prediction model—the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, a fast and relatively inexpensive alternative to time-consuming and costly tall-tower projects, is utilized to determine whether it can reliably estimate the shear exponent and the magnitude of the directional shear at any arbitrary location over the USGP. Our results indicate that the WRF model qualitatively captures several low-level wind shear characteristics. However, there is definitely room for physics parameterization improvements for the WRF model to reliably represent the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heidenreich, Sebastian
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Shear thickening, i.e. the increase of the viscosity with increasing shear rate as it occurs in dense colloidal dispersions and polymeric fluids is an intriguing phenomenon with a considerable potential for technical applications. The theoretical description of this phenomenon is patterned after the thermodynamic and mesoscopic modeling of the orientational dynamics and the flow behavior of liquid crystals in the isotropic and nematic phases, where the theoretical basis is well-established. Even there the solutions of the relevant equations recently yielded surprises: not only stable flow alignment and a periodic behavior (tumbling are found as response to an imposed stationary shear flow but also irregular and chaotic dynamics occurs for certain parameter ranges. To treat shear-thickening fluids, a non-linear Maxwell model equation for the symmetric traceless part of the stress tensor has been proposed in analogy to the equations obeyed by the alignment tensor of nematics. The fluid-solid transition is formally analogous to the isotropic-nematic transition. In addition to shear-thickening and shear-thinning fluids, substances with yield stress can be modeled. Furthermore, periodic stick-slip-like motions and also chaotic behavior are found. In the latter cases, the instantaneous entropy production is not always positive. Yet it is comforting that its long-time average is in accord with the second law.
Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelaziz Amine
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.
Human sperm chromatin stabilization: a proposed model including zinc bridges.
Björndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik
2010-01-01
The primary focus of this review is to challenge the current concepts on sperm chromatin stability. The observations (i) that zinc depletion at ejaculation allows a rapid and total sperm chromatin decondensation without the addition of exogenous disulfide cleaving agents and (ii) that the human sperm chromatin contains one zinc for every protamine for every turn of the DNA helix suggest an alternative model for sperm chromatin structure may be plausible. An alternative model is therefore proposed, that the human spermatozoon could at ejaculation have a rapidly reversible zinc dependent chromatin stability: Zn(2+) stabilizes the structure and prevents the formation of excess disulfide bridges by a single mechanism, the formation of zinc bridges with protamine thiols of cysteine and potentially imidazole groups of histidine. Extraction of zinc enables two biologically totally different outcomes: immediate decondensation if chromatin fibers are concomitantly induced to repel (e.g. by phosphorylation in the ooplasm); otherwise freed thiols become committed into disulfide bridges creating a superstabilized chromatin. Spermatozoa in the zinc rich prostatic fluid (normally the first expelled ejaculate fraction) represent the physiological situation. Extraction of chromatin zinc can be accomplished by the seminal vesicular fluid. Collection of the ejaculate in one single container causes abnormal contact between spermatozoa and seminal vesicular fluid affecting the sperm chromatin stability. There are men in infertile couples with low content of sperm chromatin zinc due to loss of zinc during ejaculation and liquefaction. Tests for sperm DNA integrity may give false negative results due to decreased access for the assay to the DNA in superstabilized chromatin.
Global model including multistep ionizations in helium plasmas
Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2016-12-01
Particle and power balance equations including stepwise ionizations are derived and solved in helium plasmas. In the balance equations, two metastable states (21S1 in singlet and 23S1 triplet) are considered and the followings are obtained. The plasma density linearly increases and the electron temperature is relatively in a constant value against the absorbed power. It is also found that the contribution to multi-step ionization with respect to the single-step ionization is in the range of 8%-23%, as the gas pressure increases from 10 mTorr to 100 mTorr. Compared to the results in the argon plasma, there is little variation in the collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created (ɛc) with absorbed power and gas pressure due to the small collision cross section and higher inelastic collision threshold energy.
Modelization of a water tank including a PCM module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibanez, Manuel [Dept. de Medi Ambient i Ciencies del Sol, Universitat de Lleida, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida (Spain); Cabeza, Luisa F.; Sole, Cristian; Roca, Joan; Nogues, Miquel [Dept. d' Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain)
2006-08-15
The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions is a key component for today's governments. Therefore, implementation of more and more systems with renewable energies is necessary. Solar systems for single family houses or residential buildings need a big water tank that many times is not easy to locate. This paper studies the modelization of a new technology where PCM modules are implemented in domestic hot water tanks to reduce their size without reducing the energy stored. A new TRNSYS component, based in the already existing TYPE 60, was developed, called TYPE 60PCM. After tuning the new component with experimental results, two more experiences were developed to validate the simulation of a water tank with two cylindrical PCM modules using type 60PCM, the cooldown and reheating experiments. Concordance between experimental and simulated data was very good. Since the new TRNSYS component was developed to simulate full solar systems, comparison of experimental results from a pilot plant solar system with simulations were performed, and they confirmed that the type 60PCM is a powerful tool to evaluate the performance of PCM modules in water tanks. (author)
A Fractal Model for the Shear Behaviour of Large-Scale Opened Rock Joints
Li, Y.; Oh, J.; Mitra, R.; Canbulat, I.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a joint constitutive model that represents the shear behaviour of a large-scale opened rock joint. Evaluation of the degree of opening is made by considering the ratio between the joint wall aperture and the joint amplitude. Scale dependence of the surface roughness is investigated by approximating a natural joint profile to a fractal curve patterned in self-affinity. Developed scaling laws show the slopes of critical waviness and critical unevenness tend to flatten with increased sampling length. Geometrical examination of four 400-mm joint profiles agrees well with the suggested formulations involving multi-order asperities and fractal descriptors. Additionally, a fractal-based formulation is proposed to estimate the peak shear displacements of rock joints at varying scales, which shows a good correlation with experimental data taken from the literature. Parameters involved in the constitutive law can be acquired by inspecting roughness features of sampled rock joints. Thus, the model can be implemented in numerical software for the stability analysis of the rock mass with opened joints.
Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system.
Rycroft, Chris H; Orpe, Ashish V; Kudrolli, Arshad
2009-09-01
We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity-driven sheared granular flow with a discrete-element simulation performed in the same geometry. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross section and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index-matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The simulations use a Cundall-Strack contact model between the grains using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. We then perform a detailed comparison of the particle fluctuation properties as measured by the displacement probability distribution function and the mean square displacement. All in all, our study suggests a high level of quantitative agreement between the simulations and experiments.
Model test of helical angle effect on coal loading performance of shear drum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kuidong Gao; Changlong Du; Songyong Liu; Lin Fu
2012-01-01
The work presented in this paper focuses on improving coal loading performance of shear drum.Employing the similarity theory,we carried out a dimensional analysis of the correlation parameters which influence coal loading performance of shear drum.On the basis of similarity criterion,proportional relationship between the model and the prototype was taken on the condition of taking 1/3 as the similarity coefficient.Besides taking 1600 mm drum as the prototype,four helical angle models of shearer drums (15°,18°,21°,24°) were developed.Simultaneously,based on an established cutting test-bed,coal loading performance tests for the four drums were carried out at the same drum rotational and haulage speeds.After analyzing the data of coal-loading performance and torque,we concluded that:both the coal loading performance and torque vary along the track of the parabola with the opening side facing downwards;the best coal loading performance arises when the helical angle is at 19.3°,while the biggest torque arises at 22.1°;and the coal loading performance had nonlinear relationship with the torque.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Draxl, Caroline; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
2014-01-01
The existence of vertical wind shear in the atmosphere close to the ground requires that wind resource assessment and prediction with numerical weather prediction (NWP) models use wind forecasts at levels within the full rotor span of modern large wind turbines. The performance of NWP models...... regarding wind energy at these levels partly depends on the formulation and implementation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in these models. This study evaluates wind speeds and vertical wind shears simulated by theWeather Research and Forecasting model using seven sets of simulations...
Discrete element modeling of sand behavior in a biaxial shear test
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhi-yi HUANG; Zhong-xuan YANG; Zhen-yu WANG
2008-01-01
The mechanical behavior of sand is very complex,and depends on factors including confining pressure,density,and drainage condition.A soil mass Call be contractive or dilative when subjected to shear loading,and eventually reaches an ultimate state,referred to as the critical state in soil mechanics.Conventional approach to explore the mechanical behavior of sand mainly relies on the experimental tests in laboratory.This paper gives an alternative view to this subject using discrete element method (DEM),which has attracted much attention in recent years.The implementation of the DEM is carried out by a series of numerical tests on granular assemblies with varying initial densities and confining pressures,under different test configurations.The results demonstrate that such numerical simulations can produce correct responses of the sand behavior in general,including the critical state response,as compared to experimental observations.In addition,the DEM can further provide details of the microstructure evolutions during shearing processes,and the resulting induced anisotropy can be fully captured and quantified in the particle scale.
Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.
2016-07-01
The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal-shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension-compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension-torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton-Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.
Minale, Mario; Caserta, Sergio; Guido, Stefano
2010-01-05
In this work, the microconfined shear deformation of a droplet in an equiviscous non-Newtonian immiscible fluid is investigated by modeling and experiments. A phenomenological model based on the assumption of ellipsoidal shape and taking into account wall effects is proposed for systems made of non-Newtonian second-order fluids. The model, without any adjustable parameters, is tested by comparison with experiments under simple shear flow performed in a sliding plate apparatus, where the ratio between the distance between the confining walls and the droplet radius can be varied. The agreement between model predictions and experimental data is good both in steady state shear and in transient drop retraction upon cessation of flow. The results obtained in this work are relevant for microfluidics applications where non-Newtonian fluids are used.
Wu, Jian; Tsanis, Ioannis K.
A three-dimensional model called VH13D is developed using the vertical/horizontal integration (VHI) approach. The double-logarithmic velocity profile including both the surface and bottom sublayer characteristic lengths is employed to accurately evaluate the bottom shear stress and depth-averaged advective terms. The model is verified using analytical solutions and laboratory data for shear-induced countercurrent flows and is compared with other two- and three-dimensional circulation models in a simplified basin. It is demonstrated that the newly developed model improves the conventional two-dimensional depth-averaged and Quasi-3D models and provides a new approach to the three-dimensional wind-induced circulation model. It can efficiently simulate the wind-induced 3D current structure in lakes and estuaries under isothermal conditions.
Shear wave dispersion behaviors of soft, vascularized tissues from the microchannel flow model.
Parker, K J; Ormachea, J; McAleavey, S A; Wood, R W; Carroll-Nellenback, J J; Miller, R K
2016-07-07
The frequency dependent behavior of tissue stiffness and the dispersion of shear waves in tissue can be measured in a number of ways, using integrated imaging systems. The microchannel flow model, which considers the effects of fluid flow in the branching vasculature and microchannels of soft tissues, makes specific predictions about the nature of dispersion. In this paper we introduce a more general form of the 4 parameter equation for stress relaxation based on the microchannel flow model, and then derive the general frequency domain equation for the complex modulus. Dispersion measurements in liver (ex vivo) and whole perfused placenta (post-delivery) correspond to the predictions from theory, guided by independent stress relaxation measurements and consideration of the vascular tree structure.
Dilute rigid dumbbell suspensions in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow: Shear stress response
Bird, R. B.; Giacomin, A. J.; Schmalzer, A. M.; Aumnate, C.
2014-02-01
We examine the simplest relevant molecular model for large-amplitude shear (LAOS) flow of a polymeric liquid: the suspension of rigid dumbbells in a Newtonian solvent. We find explicit analytical expressions for the shear rate amplitude and frequency dependences of the first and third harmonics of the alternating shear stress response. We include a detailed comparison of these predictions with the corresponding results for the simplest relevant continuum model: the corotational Maxwell model. We find that the responses of both models are qualitatively similar. The rigid dumbbell model relies entirely on the dumbbell orientation to explain the viscoelastic response of the polymeric liquid, including the higher harmonics in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Our analysis employs the general method of Bird and Armstrong ["Time-dependent flows of dilute solutions of rodlike macromolecules," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3680 (1972)] for analyzing the behavior of the rigid dumbbell model in any unsteady shear flow. We derive the first three terms of the deviation of the orientational distribution function from the equilibrium state. Then, after getting the "paren functions," we use these for evaluating the shear stress for LAOS flow. We find the shapes of the shear stress versus shear rate loops predicted to be reasonable.
Formation of parallel joint sets and shear band/fracture networks in physical models
Jorand, C.; Chemenda, A. I.; Petit, J.-P.
2012-12-01
Both oedometric and plane-strain tests were performed with parallelepipedic samples made of synthetic granular, cohesive, frictional and dilatant rock analogue material GRAM2. For the first time parallel sets of fractures that have all the characteristics of natural joints were reproduced in the laboratory. The fractures are regularly spaced, normal to σ3, and have plumose morphology very similar to that of natural joints. These fractures can form at tensile stress σ3 much smaller in magnitude than the tensile strength of material and even at slightly compressive σ3. When mean stress σ exceeds a certain value, the fractures become oblique to σ1 (the obliquity increases with σ), forming networks of conjugate shear bands/fractures. These results of plane-strain experiments are in good agreement with those of better controlled conventional axisymmetric tests on a similar material in Chemenda et al. (2011b) and are closer to real geological situations. Both types of experiments are complementary. Their results lead to the conclusion that at least certain categories of natural fractures (including joints, and conjugate shear fractures/bands) were initiated as deformation localization bands. The band orientation is defined by the constitutive properties/parameters (notably the dilatancy factor) that are sensitive to σ.
Near Surface Shear Wave Velocity Model of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta
Shuler, S.; Craig, M. S.; Hayashi, K.; Galvin, J. L.; Deqiang, C.; Jones, M. G.
2015-12-01
Multichannel analysis of surface wave measurements (MASW) and microtremor array measurements (MAM) were performed at twelve sites across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to obtain high resolution shear wave velocity (VS) models. Deeper surveys were performed at four of the sites using the two station spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method. For the MASW and MAM surveys, a 48-channel seismic system with 4.5 Hz geophones was used with a 10-lb sledgehammer and a metal plate as a source. Surveys were conducted at various locations on the crest of levees, the toe of the levees, and off of the levees. For MASW surveys, we used a record length of 2.048 s, a sample interval of 1 ms, and 1 m geophone spacing. For MAM, ambient noise was recorded for 65.536 s with a sampling interval of 4 ms and 1 m geophone spacing. VS was determined to depths of ~ 20 m using the MASW method and ~ 40 m using the MAM method. Maximum separation between stations in the two-station SPAC surveys was typically 1600 m to 1800 m, providing coherent signal with wavelengths in excess of 5 km and depth penetration of as much as 2000 m. Measured values of VS30 in the study area ranged from 97 m/s to 257 m/s, corresponding to NEHRP site classifications D and E. Comparison of our measured velocity profiles with available geotechnical logs, including soil type, SPT, and CPT, reveals the existence of a small number of characteristic horizons within the upper 40m in the Delta: levee fill material, peat, transitional silty sand, and eolian sand at depth. Sites with a peat layer at the surface exhibited extremely low values of VS. Based on soil borings, the thickness of peat layers were approximately 0 m to 8 m. The VS for the peat layers ranged from 42 m/s to 150 m/s while the eolian sand layer exhibited VS ranging from of 220 m/s to 370 m/s. Soft near surface soils present in the region pose an increased earthquake hazard risk due to the potential for high ground accelerations.
Turbulence Modeling for the Simulation of Transition in Wall Shear Flows
Crawford, Michael E.
2007-01-01
Our research involves study of the behavior of k-epsilon turbulence models for simulation of bypass-level transition over flat surfaces and turbine blades. One facet of the research has been to assess the performance of a multitude of k-epsilon models in what we call "natural transition", i.e. no modifications to the k-e models. The study has been to ascertain what features in the dynamics of the model affect the start and end of the transition. Some of the findings are in keeping with those reported by others (e.g. ERCOFTAC). A second facet of the research has been to develop and benchmark a new multi-time scale k-epsilon model (MTS) for use in simulating bypass-level transition. This model has certain features of the published MTS models by Hanjalic, Launder, and Schiestel, and by Kim and his coworkers. The major new feature of our MTS model is that it can be used to compute wall shear flows as a low-turbulence Reynolds number type of model, i.e. there is no required partition with patching a one-equation k model in the near-wall region to a two-equation k-epsilon model in the outer part of the flow. Our MTS model has been studied extensively to understand its dynamics in predicting the onset of transition and the end-stage of the transition. Results to date indicate that it far superior to the standard unmodified k-epsilon models. The effects of protracted pressure gradients on the model behavior are currently being investigated.
3D modelling of plug failure in resistance spot welded shear-lab specimens (DP600-steel)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2008-01-01
are based on uni-axial tensile testing of the basis material, while the modelled tensile response of the shear-lab specimens is compared to experimental results for the case of a ductile failure near the heat affected zone (HAZ). A parametric study for a range of weld diameters is carried out, which makes......Ductile plug failure of resistance spot welded shear-lab specimens is studied by full 3D finite element analysis, using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation that accounts for nucleation and growth of microvoids to coalescence (The Gurson model). Tensile properties and damage parameters...... it possible to numerically relate the weld diameter to the tensile shear force (TSF) and the associated displacement, u (TSF) , respectively. Main focus in the paper is on modelling the localization of plastic flow and the corresponding damage development in the vicinity of the spot weld, near the HAZ...
Sato, K; Yuan, X-F; Kawakatsu, T
2010-02-01
Numerous numerical and experimental evidence suggest that shear banding behavior looks like first-order phase transitions. In this paper, we demonstrate that this correspondence is actually established in the so-called non-local diffusive Johnson-Segalman model (the DJS model), a typical mechanical constitutive model that has been widely used for describing shear banding phenomena. In the neighborhood of the critical point, we apply the reduction procedure based on the center manifold theory to the governing equations of the DJS model. As a result, we obtain a time evolution equation of the flow field that is equivalent to the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations for modeling thermodynamic first-order phase transitions. This result, for the first time, provides a mathematical proof that there is an analogy between the mechanical instability and thermodynamic phase transition at least in the vicinity of the critical point of the shear banding of DJS model. Within this framework, we can clearly distinguish the metastable branch in the stress-strain rate curve around the shear banding region from the globally stable branch. A simple extension of this analysis to a class of more general constitutive models is also discussed. Numerical simulations for the original DJS model and the reduced TDGL equation is performed to confirm the range of validity of our reduction theory.
Rouze, Ned C; Wang, Michael H; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathy R
2013-11-15
Elastic properties of materials can be measured by observing shear wave propagation following localized, impulsive excitations and relating the propagation velocity to a model of the material. However, characterization of anisotropic materials is difficult because of the number of elasticity constants in the material model and the complex dependence of propagation velocity relative to the excitation axis, material symmetries, and propagation directions. In this study, we develop a model of wave propagation following impulsive excitation in an incompressible, transversely isotropic (TI) material such as muscle. Wave motion is described in terms of three propagation modes identified by their polarization relative to the material symmetry axis and propagation direction. Phase velocities for these propagation modes are expressed in terms of five elasticity constants needed to describe a general TI material, and also in terms of three constants after the application of two constraints that hold in the limit of an incompressible material. Group propagation velocities are derived from the phase velocities to describe the propagation of wave packets away from the excitation region following localized excitation. The theoretical model is compared to the results of finite element (FE) simulations performed using a nearly incompressible material model with the five elasticity constants chosen to preserve the essential properties of the material in the incompressible limit. Propagation velocities calculated from the FE displacement data show complex structure that agrees quantitatively with the theoretical model and demonstrates the possibility of measuring all three elasticity constants needed to characterize an incompressible, TI material.
Higher dimensional charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux
Nyonyi, Y; Govinder, K S
2014-01-01
We analyse shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic models of gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge defined on higher dimensional manifolds. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the pressure isotropy condition which depends on the spacetime dimension. We study this highly nonlinear partial differential equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are determined. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the first symmetry admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain the earlier results for the four-dimensional case. Using the other Lie generators, we are able to provide solutions to the gravitational potentials or reduce the order of the master equation to a first order nonlinear differential equation. We derive the temperature transport equation in higher dimensions and find expressions for the causal and Eckart temperatures showing their explicit dependance on the di...
Anisotropy of tracer dispersion in rough model fractures with sheared walls
Boschan, Alejandro; Ippolito, Irene; Chertcoff, Ricardo; Hulin, Jean-Pierre
2008-01-01
Dispersion experiments are compared for two transparent model fractures with identical complementary rough walls but with a relative shear displacement $\\vec{\\delta}$ parallel ($\\vec{\\delta}\\parallel \\vec{U}$) or perpendicular ($\\vec{\\delta} \\perp \\vec{U}$) to the flow velocity $\\vec{U}$. The structure of the mixing front is characterized by mapping the local normalized local transit time $\\bar t(x,y)$ and dispersivity $\\alpha(x,y)$. For $\\vec{\\delta} \\perp \\vec{U}$, displacement fronts display large fingers: their geometry and the distribution of $\\bar t(x,y)U/x$ are well reproduced by assuming parallel channels of hydraulic conductance deduced from the aperture field. For $\\vec{\\delta} \\parallel \\vec{U}$, the front is flatter and $\\alpha(x,y)$ displays a narrow distribution and a Taylor-like variation with $Pe$.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Fotouhi, M. M.; Permoon, M. R.; Haddadpour, H. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-02-15
The small-scale effect on the natural frequencies and buckling of pressurized nanotubes is investigated in this study. Based on the firstorder shear deformable shell theory, the nonlocal theory of elasticity is used to account for the small-scale effect and the governing equations of motion are obtained. Applying modal analysis technique and based on Galerkin's method a procedure is proposed to obtain natural frequencies of vibrations. For the case of nanotubes with simply supported boundary conditions, explicit expressions are obtained which establish the dependency of the natural frequencies and buckling loads of the nanotube on the small-scale parameter and natural frequencies obtained by local continuum mechanics. The obtained solutions generalize the results of nano-bar and -beam models and are verified by the literature. Based on several numerical studies some conclusions are drawn about the small-scale effect on the natural frequencies and buckling pressure of the nanotubes.
Identification of Torsionally Coupled Shear Buildings Models Using a Vector Parameterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Concha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A methodology to estimate the shear model of seismically excited, torsionally coupled buildings using acceleration measurements of the ground and floors is presented. A vector parameterization that considers Rayleigh damping for the building is introduced that allows identifying the stiffness/mass and damping/mass ratios of the structure, as well as their eccentricities and radii of gyration. This parameterization has the advantage that its number of parameters is smaller than that obtained with matrix parameterizations or when Rayleigh damping is not used. Thus, the number of spectral components of the excitation signal required to identity the structural parameters is reduced. To deal with constant disturbances and measurement noise that corrupt acceleration measurements, Linear Integral Filters are used that guarantee elimination of constant disturbances and attenuation of noise.
Wall shear stress measurement method based on parallel flow model near vascular wall in echography
Shimizu, Motochika; Tanaka, Tomohiko; Okada, Takashi; Seki, Yoshinori; Nishiyama, Tomohide
2017-07-01
A high-risk vessel of arteriosclerosis is detected by assessing wall shear stress (WSS), which is calculated from the distribution of velocity in a blood flow. A novel echographic method for measuring WSS, which aims to distinguish a normal vessel from a high-risk vessel, is proposed. To achieve this aim, the measurement error should be less than 28.8%. The proposed method is based on a flow model for the area near a vascular wall under a parallel-flow assumption to avoid the influences of error factors. This was verified by an in vitro experiment in which the WSS of a carotid artery phantom was measured. According to the experimental results, the WSS measured by the proposed method correlated with the ground truth measured by particle image velocimetry; in particular, the correlation coefficient and measurement error between them were respectively 0.70 and 27.4%. The proposed method achieved the target measurement performance.
Wang, Yiru; Yao, Binwei; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Hanjing; Gao, Yabin; Peng, Ruiyun; Tang, Jie
2017-05-01
To investigate the stiffness of human prostate cancer in a xenograft implantation model using shear wave elastography and compare the pathologic features of tumors with varying elasticity. Human prostate cancer DU-145 cells were injected into 24 nude male mice. The mice were divided into 3 groups according to the time of transplantation (6, 8, and 10 weeks). The volume, elasticity, and Young modulus of tumors were recorded by 2-dimensional sonography and shear wave elastography. The tumors were collected for pathologic analyses: hematoxylin-eosin staining, Ponceau S, and aniline staining were used to stain collagen and elastic fibers, and picric acid-sirius red staining was used to indicate type I and III collagen. The area ratios of collagen I/III were calculated. The correlation between the Young modulus of the tumor and area ratio of collagen I/III were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry of vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin was performed. Nineteen tumors in 3 groups were collected. The volume and mean Young modulus increased with the time of transplantation. There were more collagen fibers in the stiff tumors, and there were significant differences in the area ratios of collagen I/III between groups 1 (mean ± SD, 0.50 ± 0.17) and 3 (1.97 ± 0.56; P prostate cancer xenograft implantation tumors. Collagen fibers, especially collagen type I, play a crucial role in the elasticity in the human prostate cancer xenograft implantation model. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao He; He-Ming Wen; Xiao-Jun Guo
2011-01-01
A dynamic spherical cavity-expansion penetration model is suggested herein to predict the penetration and perforation of concrete targets struck normally by ogivalnosed projectiles.Shear dilatancy as well as compressibility of the material in comminuted region are considered in the paper by introducing a dilatant-kinematic relation.A procedure is first presented to compute the radial stress at the cavity surface and then a numerical method is used to calculate the results of penetration and perforation with friction being taken into account.The influences of various target parameters such as shear strength,bulk modulus,density,Poisson's ratio and tensile strength on the depth of penetration are delineated.It is shown that the model predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data.It is also shown that the shear strength plays a dominant role in the target resistance to penetration.
Wittmer, J. P.; Xu, H.; Polińska, P.; Weysser, F.; Baschnagel, J.
2013-03-01
The shear modulus G of two glass-forming colloidal model systems in d = 3 and d = 2 dimensions is investigated by means of, respectively, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Comparing ensembles where either the shear strain γ or the conjugated (mean) shear stress τ are imposed, we compute G from the respective stress and strain fluctuations as a function of temperature T while keeping a constant normal pressure P. The choice of the ensemble is seen to be highly relevant for the shear stress fluctuations μF(T) which at constant τ decay monotonously with T following the affine shear elasticity μA(T), i.e., a simple two-point correlation function. At variance, non-monotonous behavior with a maximum at the glass transition temperature Tg is demonstrated for μF(T) at constant γ. The increase of G below Tg is reasonably fitted for both models by a continuous cusp singularity, G(T)∝(1 - T/Tg)1/2, in qualitative agreement with recent theoretical predictions. It is argued, however, that longer sampling times may lead to a sharper transition.
Kaluzienski, L. M.; Hamilton, G. S.; Koons, P. O.; Arcone, S. A.; Ray, L.; Lever, J.; Fastook, J.; Walker, B.
2015-12-01
Sub-ice-shelf circulation plays a fundamental role in ice shelf mass budget. The shape of the underside of an ice shelf is important, such that the presence of basal crevasses can significantly modulate the transfer of heat at the ice-ocean interface. In situ observations of basal crevasses are challenging to obtain, but surface-based ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys can be used to determine crevasse location and orientation. Here, we use GPR methods to map the internal structures in the McMurdo Shear Zone (SZ) which marks the boundary between the Ross Ice Shelf and the slower-moving McMurdo Ice Shelf. Radar surveys with 200 MHz and 400 MHz antennas reveal the presence of crevasses both in the upper firn and within a zone of accreted marine ice at a depth of approximately 170 meters. A spatial correspondence between near-surface and basal crevasses suggests that both are formed locally by lateral shearing. A combination of three dimensional higher order and Shallow Shelf Approximation ice flow equations within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) are used to test this hypothesis. This model estimates the detailed velocity field of the SZ and is constrained by GPS-derived observations of surface motion. The distribution and orientations of surface crevasses is consistent with the gradients in velocity field predicted by the model. Though a wider range of orientation angles exists for crevasses within the basal regime, the average strike angle is consistent with firn crevassing and we conclude that the marine ice coevally fractured with the firn layer.
A coupled damage-plasticity model for the cyclic behavior of shear-loaded interfaces
Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.
2015-12-01
The present work proposes a novel thermodynamically consistent model for the behavior of interfaces under shear (i.e. mode-II) cyclic loading conditions. The interface behavior is defined coupling damage and plasticity. The admissible states' domain is formulated restricting the tangential interface stress to non-negative values, which makes the model suitable e.g. for interfaces with thin adherends. Linear softening is assumed so as to reproduce, under monotonic conditions, a bilinear mode-II interface law. Two damage variables govern respectively the loss of strength and of stiffness of the interface. The proposed model needs the evaluation of only four independent parameters, i.e. three defining the monotonic mode-II interface law, and one ruling the fatigue behavior. This limited number of parameters and their clear physical meaning facilitate experimental calibration. Model predictions are compared with experimental results on fiber reinforced polymer sheets externally bonded to concrete involving different load histories, and an excellent agreement is obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
On the numerical simulation of active scalar,a new explicit algebraic expression on active scalar flux was derived based on Wikstrm,Wallin and Johansson model (aWWJ model). Reynolds stress algebraic expressions were added by a term to account for the buoyancy effect. The new explicit Reynolds stress and active scalar flux model was then established. Governing equations of this model were solved by finite volume method with unstructured grids. The thermal shear stratified cylinder wake flow was computed by this new model. The computational results are in good agreement with laboratorial measurements. This work is the development on modeling of explicit algebraic Reynolds stress and scalar flux,and is also a further modification of the aWWJ model for complex situations such as a shear stratified flow.
Exploring German Bight coastal morphodynamics based on modelled bed shear stress
Kösters, Frank; Winter, Christian
2014-02-01
The prediction of large-scale coastal and estuarine morphodynamics requires a sound understanding of the relevant driving processes and forcing factors. Data- and process-based methods and models suffer from limitations when applied individually to investigate these systems and, therefore, a combined approach is needed. The morphodynamics of coastal environments can be assessed in terms of a mean bed elevation range (BER), which is the difference of the lowest to highest seabed elevation occurring within a defined time interval. In this study of the coastal sector of the German Bight, North Sea, the highly variable distribution of observed BER for the period 1984-2006 is correlated to local bed shear stresses based on hindcast simulations with a well-validated high-resolution (typically 1,000 m in coastal settings) process-based numerical model of the North Sea. A significant correlation of the 95th percentile of bed shear stress and BER was found, explaining between 49 % and 60 % of the observed variance of the BER under realistic forcing conditions. The model then was applied to differentiate the effects of three main hydrodynamic drivers, i.e. tides, wind-induced currents, and waves. Large-scale mapping of these model results quantify previous qualitative suggestions: tides act as main drivers of the East Frisian coast, whereas waves are more relevant for the morphodynamics of the German west coast. Tidal currents are the main driver of the very high morphological activity of the tidal channels of the Ems, Weser and Elbe estuaries, the Jade Bay, and tidal inlets between the islands. This also holds for the backbarrier tidal flats of the North Frisian Wadden Sea. The morphodynamics of the foreshore areas of the barrier island systems are mainly wave-driven; in the deeper areas tides, waves and wind-driven currents have a combined effect. The open tidal flats (outer Ems, Neuwerker Watt, Dithmarschen Bight) are affected by a combination of tides, wind
Physical test of a particle simulation model in a sheared granular system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, Chris; Orpe, Ashish; Kudrolli, Arshad
2009-01-15
We report a detailed comparison of a slow gravity driven sheared granular flow with a computational model performed with the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). To our knowledge, this is the first thorough test of the LAMMPS model with a laboratory granular flow. In the experiments, grains flow inside a silo with a rectangular cross-section, and are sheared by a rough boundary on one side and smooth boundaries on the other sides. Individual grain position and motion are measured using a particle index matching imaging technique where a fluorescent dye is added to the interstitial liquid which has the same refractive index as the glass beads. The boundary imposes a packing order, and the grains are observed to flow in layers which get progressively more disordered with distance from the walls. The computations use a Cundall--Strack contact model between the grains, using contact parameters that have been used in many other previous studies, and ignore the hydrodynamic effects of the interstitial liquid. Computations are performed to understand the effect of particle coefficient of friction, elasticity, contact model, and polydispersity on mean flow properties. After appropriate scaling, we find that the mean velocity of the grains and the number density as a function of flow cross-section observed in the experiments and the simulations are in excellent agreement. The mean flow profile is observed to be unchanged over a broad range of coefficient of friction, except near the smooth wall. We show that the flow profile is not sensitive to atleast 10\\percent polydispersity in particle size. Because the grain elasticity used is smaller in the computations as compared with glass grains, wave-like features can be noted over short time scales in the mean velocity and the velocity auto-correlations measured in the simulations. These wave features occur over an intermediate timescale larger than the particle interaction but smaller than the
Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.
Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N
2017-06-21
The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.
Critical Free Volume Concentration of Shear Banding Instability in Metallic Glasses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Long-Fei; CAI Zhi-Peng; LI Hui-Qiang; ZHANG Guang-Ye; GUO Shi-Bo
2011-01-01
We present a model which predicts the critical free volume concentration of shear banding instability in metallic glasses(MGs). Fl-om the stability map, this model demonstrates that the prediction of shear band thickness is valid only for a short time after shear instability, and the diffusion of defects should be included in the mature shear band in MGs. The results agree well with the experimental observations and simulations.
The role of protein content on the steady and oscillatory shear rheology of model synovial fluids.
Zhang, Z; Barman, S; Christopher, G F
2014-08-28
Recent studies have debated the role of protein content on the bulk rheology of synovial fluid; in particular, it has been questioned if proteins aggregate or interact with hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid to enhance bulk rheology, or if observed effects were due to systematic measurement error caused by interfacial rheology, stemming from protein adsorption to the interface. Utilizing several techniques to ensure results reflect only bulk rheology, an examination of the role of bovine serum albumin and γ-globulin on model synovial fluid rheology has been undertaken. When interfacial rheology caused by protein adsorption to the interface is abrogated, the bulk rheology of a model synovial fluid composed of bovine serum albumin, γ-globulin, and hyaluronic acid is found to be dominated solely by the hyaluronic acid over a wide range of shear rates, strains and frequencies. These results show that the previously reported enhanced rheological properties of model synovial fluids are solely due to interfacial rheology and not from any type of protein aggregation/interaction in bulk solution.
FEM model of flat-to-shear transition in a pipeline steel DWTT specimen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, G.; Xu, S.; Tyson, W.R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab
2009-07-01
This paper described a finite element method (FEM) model of a drop-weight tear test (DWTT) sample of a grade X52 steel pipeline. A quarter of the total geometry was simulated in order to characterize its 2-fold symmetry. Proper boundary conditions were set at all surfaces and lines. The Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) constitutive potential was used to define the initiation of voids as well as their growth and coalescence. A void volume fraction was used to determine the location of flat tunnelling and loss of stress triaxiality. The location of the transition from a flat to a slanted fracture surface was also identified. The study showed that triaxiality and tension both drove the straight notch root into a curvilinear tunnel which then narrowed down to a small point. The crack then advanced along a slanted surface inclined at a 45 degree angle. The model showed good agreement with results obtained from a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractographic analysis of a specimen. It was concluded that the FEM model accurately simulated the development of triaxiality and shear lips in the steel specimen. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shen, Yu-I.; Tan, Scott; Gerecht, Sharon
2014-05-01
Studying human vascular disease in conventional cell cultures and in animal models does not effectively mimic the complex vascular microenvironment and may not accurately predict vascular responses in humans. We utilized a microfluidic device to recapitulate both shear stress and O2 levels in health and disease, establishing a microfluidic vascular model (μVM). Maintaining human endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy-mimicking conditions resulted in conversion to a physiological phenotype namely cell elongation, reduced proliferation, lowered angiogenic gene expression and formation of actin cortical rim and continuous barrier. We next examined the responses of the healthy μVM to a vasotoxic cancer drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in comparison with an in vivo mouse model. We found that 5-FU does not induce apoptosis rather vascular hyperpermeability, which can be alleviated by Resveratrol treatment. This effect was confirmed by in vivo findings identifying a vasoprotecting strategy by the adjunct therapy of 5-FU with Resveratrol. The μVM of ischemic disease demonstrated the transition of ECs from a quiescent to an activated state, with higher proliferation rate, upregulation of angiogenic genes, and impaired barrier integrity. The μVM offers opportunities to study and predict human ECs with physiologically relevant phenotypes in healthy, pathological and drug-treated environments.
Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.
2016-09-01
Wind energy has become cost competitive in recent years for several reasons. Among them, wind turbines have become more efficient, increasing its size, both rotor diameter and tower height. This growth in size makes the prediction of the wind flow through wind turbines more challenging. To avoid the computational cost related to resolve the blade boundary layer as well as the atmospheric boundary layer, actuator models have been proposed in the past few years. Among them, the Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow in the wake of a wind turbine with moderately computational cost. However, its use to simulate the flow through wind farms requires a spatial resolution and a time step that makes it unaffordable in some cases. The present paper aims to assess the ALM with coarser resolution and larger time step than what is generally recommended, taking into account an atmospheric sheared and turbulent inflow condition and comparing the results with the Actuator Disk Model with Rotation (ADM-R) and experimental data. To accomplish this, a well known wind tunnel campaign is considered as validation case.
Simulations of a stretching bar using a plasticity model from the shear transformation zone theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, Chris H.; Gibou, Frederic
2010-06-05
An Eulerian simulation is developed to study an elastoplastic model of amorphous materials that is based upon the shear transformation zone theory developed by Langer and coworkers. In this theory, plastic deformation is controlled by an effective temperature that measures the amount of configurational disorder in the material. The simulation is used to model ductile fracture in a stretching bar that initially contains a small notch, and the effects of many of the model parameters are examined. The simulation tracks the shape of the bar using the level set method. Within the bar, a finite difference discretization is employed that makes use of the essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme. The system of equations is moderately stiff due to the presence of large elastic constants, and one of the key numerical challenges is to accurately track the level set and construct extrapolated field values for use in boundary conditions. A new approach to field extrapolation is discussed that is second order accurate and requires a constant amount of work per gridpoint.
Helzel, Christiane
2016-07-22
We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.
Zhevlakov, A. P.; Zatsepina, M. E.; Kirillovskii, V. K.
2014-06-01
The principles of transformation of a Foucault shadowgram into a quantitative map of wave-front deformation based on creation of a system of isophotes are unveiled. The presented studies and their results prove that there is a high degree of correspondence between a Foucault shadowgram and the geometrical model of a shear interferogram with respect to displaying wave-front deformations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik
2015-01-01
In this paper, the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was studied by using discrete element method. The dynamic properties of asphalt mixture were captured by implementing Burger’s contact model. Different ways of taking into account of the normal and shear material properties of asphalt mi...
Shear behavior of sand-expanded polystyrene beads lightweight fills
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓安; 肖杨
2008-01-01
Through direct shear and triaxial compression tests, effects of expanded polystyrene (EPS) mass ratios in sand-EPS mixtures and stress status on materials’ shear behavior were investigated. Hyperbolic curves were used to fit relationship between shear stress and shear displacement. The shear behavior is marginally associated with the EPS ratios and normal/confining stresses. Increases of EPS ratios and decreases of normal/confining stresses result in shear strength decreases. The shapes of Mohr-Coulomb’s envelope include linear and piecewise linear types, which are basically determined by the EPS ratio. Such difference is thought related to the embedding or apparent cohesion effect under relatively high EPS ratio conditions. Shear strength parameters can be used for further modeling and design purposes.
Raben, Jaime S; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P
2014-01-01
We present validation of benchmark experimental data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of medical devices using advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) processing and post-processing techniques. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Time-resolved PIV analysis was performed in five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2,000, 5,000, and 8,000. Images included a two-fold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were comput...
Stiffness matrix for beams with shear deformation and warping torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, K.; Pilkey, W. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
1995-12-31
A beam model which considers the warping effect in beams with arbitrary cross sections is discussed. This model takes into account bending, shear, and warping torsion. The derivation builds on a result in beam theory that, if shear is considered, for arbitrary cross sections the deflections in the different coordinate directions are not uncoupled as has been widely assumed. This conclusion follows from the calculation of the shear coefficients from an elasticity solution using an energy formulation. The shear coefficients form a symmetric tensor. The principal axes for this tensor are called principal shear axes. In Reference 2 structural matrices for the shear problem are derived using these shear coefficients. This paper extends these matrices to warping torsion. St. Venant`s semi-inverse method is applied to calculate warping shear stresses. The usual assumptions of the beam theory are made. The material is linear elastic. The loads may consist of shear forces, axial loads and twisting moments. Small deformations are considered. The cross section of the beam can be of arbitrary shape, thin-walled or solid. A deformation coefficient matrix is calculated which describes the relations between the deformations and the different load cases such as shear, torsion, and warping torsion. Numerical results for warping shear stresses and deformations are given. Also, a method to derive a stiffness matrix for a beam of arbitrary cross section under combined loading including warping torsion is presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jelena Jovanović
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.
Yu, Hesheng; Thé, Jesse
2017-05-01
The dispersion of gaseous pollutant around buildings is complex due to complex turbulence features such as flow detachment and zones of high shear. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are one of the most promising tools to describe the pollutant distribution in the near field of buildings. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are the most commonly used CFD techniques to address turbulence transport of the pollutant. This research work studies the use of [Formula: see text] closure model for the gas dispersion around a building by fully resolving the viscous sublayer for the first time. The performance of standard [Formula: see text] model is also included for comparison, along with results of an extensively validated Gaussian dispersion model, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model). This study's CFD models apply the standard [Formula: see text] and the [Formula: see text] turbulence models to obtain wind flow field. A passive concentration transport equation is then calculated based on the resolved flow field to simulate the distribution of pollutant concentrations. The resultant simulation of both wind flow and concentration fields are validated rigorously by extensive data using multiple validation metrics. The wind flow field can be acceptably modeled by the [Formula: see text] model. However, the [Formula: see text] model fails to simulate the gas dispersion. The [Formula: see text] model outperforms [Formula: see text] in both flow and dispersion simulations, with higher hit rates for dimensionless velocity components and higher "factor of 2" of observations (FAC2) for normalized concentration. All these validation metrics of [Formula: see text] model pass the quality assurance criteria recommended by The Association of German Engineers (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, VDI) guideline. Furthermore, these metrics are better than or the same as those
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tesoniero, Andrea; Auer, Ludwig; Boschi, Lapo;
2015-01-01
We present a new global model of shear and compressional wave speeds for the entire mantle, partly based on the data set employed for the shear velocity model savani. We invert Rayleigh and Love surface waves up to the sixth overtone in combination with major P and S body wave phases. Mineral...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chortis, D I; Chrysochoidis, N A; Saravanos, D A [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)
2007-07-15
The paper presents a brief description of composite damping mechanics for blade sections of arbitrary lamination and geometry. A damped 3-D shear beam element is presented enabling the assembly of damped structural dynamic models of blades with hollow multi-cell tubular laminated sections. Emphasis is placed to the inclusion of composite material coupling effects, first in the blade section stiffness and damping matrices and finally into the stiffness and damping matrices of the finite element. Evaluations of the beam element are presented, to quantify the material coupling effect on composite beams of simple box sections. Correlations between predicted and measured modal frequencies and damping values in small model Glass/Epoxy are also shown. Finally, the damped modal characteristics of a 35m realistic wind-turbine blade model design, are predicted.
Brands, D W; Bovendeerd, P H; Peters, G W; Wismans, J S
2000-11-01
The large strain dynamic behaviour of brain tissue and silicone gel, a brain substitute material used in mechanical head models, was compared. The non-linear shear strain behaviour was characterised using stress relaxation experiments. Brain tissue showed significant shear softening for strains above 1% (approximately 30% softening for shear strains up to 20%) while the time relaxation behaviour was nearly strain independent. Silicone gel behaved as a linear viscoelastic solid for all strains tested (up to 50%) and frequencies up to 461 Hz. As a result, the large strain time dependent behaviour of both materials could be derived for frequencies up to 1000 Hz from small strain oscillatory experiments and application of Time Temperature Superpositioning. It was concluded that silicone gel material parameters are in the same range as those of brain tissue. Nevertheless the brain tissue response will not be captured exactly due to increased viscous damping at high frequencies and the absence of shear softening in the silicone gel. For trend studies and benchmarking of numerical models the gel can be a good model material.
Low-shear modelled microgravity alters expression of virulence determinants of Staphylococcus aureus
Rosado, Helena; Doyle, Marie; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.
2010-02-01
Microbiological monitoring of air and surfaces within the ISS indicate that bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are found with high frequency. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen with the capacity to cause severe debilitating infection, constitutes a significant proportion of these isolates. Experiments conducted during short-term flight suggest that growth in microgravity leads to increases in bacterial antibiotic resistance and to cell wall changes. Growth under low-shear modelled microgravity (LSMMG) indicated that a reduced gravitational field acts as an environmental signal for expression of enhanced bacterial virulence in gram-negative pathogens. We therefore examined the effect of simulated microgravity on parameters of antibiotic susceptibility and virulence in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates RF1, RF6 and RF11; these strains were grown in a high aspect ratio vessel under LSMMG and compared with cells grown under normal gravity (NG). There were no significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci grown under LSMMG compared to NG. LSMMG-induced reductions in synthesis of the pigment staphyloxanthin and the major virulence determinant α-toxin were noted. Significant changes in global gene expression were identified by DNA microarray analysis; with isolate RF6, the expression of hla and genes of the regulatory system saeR/saeS were reduced approximately two-fold. These data provide strong evidence that growth of S. aureus under modelled microgravity leads to a reduction in expression of virulence determinants.
PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model
Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian
2012-11-01
The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.
Rajagopal, K. R.
2011-01-06
This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem
2016-09-18
Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.
Experimental scale model study of cracking in brick masonry under tensile and shear stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gálvez Ruiz, J. C.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the results of research conducted on the failure behaviour of brick masonry under tensile and shear stress. The study was designed to develop test models and generate experimental results able to provide greater insight into tensile and shear stresses cracking in brick masonry. The results of a campaign conducted with two types of specimens are discussed: 1 double-edge notched specimens under non-symmetrical compression stress, and 2 three point bending specimens under nonsymmetrical loading. Tests were run on specimens of similar size (similarity rate 2 and different bed joint orientation to determine how bed joint orientation affects crack propagation. The tests were conducted on scale models (1/4 of a single wythe, stretcher bond brickwork masonry wall one half foot thick.Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación realizada sobre el comportamiento en rotura de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo solicitaciones de tracción y cortante. La investigación está encaminada a proporcionar modelos de ensayo y resultados experimentales que permitan conocer mejor los procesos de agrietamiento de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo tensiones normales de tracción y tangenciales. Se presentan los resultados de una campaña experimental desarrollada con dos tipos de probeta: 1 la probeta compacta con doble entalla solicitada a compresión asimétrica, y 2 la probeta de flexión con entalla solicitada bajo carga asimétrica aplicada en tres puntos. Se han ensayado probetas de dos tamaños semejantes (razón de semejanza 2 y varias orientaciones de los tendeles, con el fin de ver cómo afecta la orientación de los tendeles en la propagación de las grietas. Los ensayos se han realizado con probetas a escala 1/4 de un muro de fábrica de ladrillo de una hoja a soga de medio pie de espesor.
Initiation and Propagation of Shear Bands in Antiplane Shear Deformation.
1984-03-01
hypoelastic ), and they examined the differences between the uniform deformation field under rising load and the nonuniform field due to the imperfection...approach to the study of the criteria for the onset of shear localization in one dimensional models has been considered by some authors, including...to simulate the phenomenon of thermal softening due to adiabatic heating, a material model is selected which shows a local maximum in the dependence
Alexander, C. S.; Ding, J. L.; Asay, J. R.
2016-03-01
Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPS experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. In addition, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material model for
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Skodborg
-plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... be altered to fit the surrounding boundary conditions. The effective cohesive law will then become a function of the investigated structural geometry. A simplified approach for the latter topic was used to predict the load capacity of concrete beams in shear. Results obtained were acceptable, but the model...
Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.
2016-07-01
Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.
artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
predicting the shear strength of 26 low strength RC beams. Even though ... research activity over the last 20 years. The ... 2012 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) ... art approach to computation procedures is the.
The development of a tensile-shear punch correlation for yield properties of model austenitic alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom); Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1997-08-01
The effective shear yield and maximum strengths of a set of neutron-irradiated, isotopically tailored austentic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The dependence on composition and neutron dose showed the same trends as were observed in the corresponding miniature tensile specimen study conducted earlier. A single tensile-shear punch correlation was developed for the three alloys in which the maximum shear stress or Tresca criterion was successfully applied to predict the slope. The correlation will predict the tensile yield strength of the three different austenitic alloys tested to within {+-}53 MPa. The accuracy of the correlation improves with increasing material strength, to within {+-} MPa for predicting tensile yield strengths in the range of 400-800 MPa.
Nonlocal model for the turbulent fluxes due to thermal convection in rectilinear shearing flow
Smolec, R; Gough, D O
2011-01-01
We revisit a phenomenological description of turbulent thermal convection along the lines proposed by Gough (1977) in which eddies grow solely by extracting energy from the unstably stratified mean state and are subsequently destroyed by internal shear instability. This work is part of an ongoing investigation for finding a procedure to calculate the turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum in the presence of a shearing background flow in stars.
Modelling turbulent fluxes due to thermal convection in rectilinear shearing flow
Smolec, R; Gough, D O
2010-01-01
We revisit a phenomenological description of turbulent thermal convection along the lines proposed originally by Gough (1965) in which eddies grow solely by extracting energy from the unstably stratified mean state and are subsequently destroyed by internal shear instability. This work is part of an ongoing investigation for finding a procedure to calculate the turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum in the presence of a shearing background flow in stars.
Dodson, W. R.; Dimitrakopoulos, P.
2010-01-01
We develop a computationally efficient cytoskeleton-based continuum erythrocyte algorithm. The cytoskeleton is modeled as a two-dimensional elastic solid with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance that follows a material law (Skalak, R., A. Tozeren, R. P. Zarda, and S. Chien. 1973. Strain energy function of red blood cell membranes. Biophys. J. 13:245–264). Our modeling enforces the global area-incompressibility of the spectrin skeleton (being enclosed beneath the lipid bilayer i...
Warren-Spring based model for the shear yield locus of cohesive biomass powders
Vanneste-Ibarcq, Clément; Melkior, Thierry; de Ryck, Alain
2017-06-01
The objectives of this work are to determine accurately the cohesion of biomass powders from simple measures and to propose a new method for the description of the yield locus of powders with easy to measure parameters. The cohesion of 32 powders (wood, other biomasses and inorganic powders) have been analysed with two methods. The first method is the determination of the yield locus from shear tests at 3 kPa, performed with a powder rheometer, which gives an access to parameters such as cohesion (Y-intercept) and traction (X-intercept). The second method is the measurement of avalanche angles in a rotating drum. A linear relation is found between this angle and the cohesion length, ratio of the cohesion derived from the yield locus and the aerated density. Finally, a model is proposed for the prediction of the cohesion and the yield locus at 3 kPa, using only 2 parameters easy to measure: the avalanche angle and the aerated density.
Jian, Xiang; Chen, Jiale; Chan, Vincent S.; Zhuang, Ge; Li, Guoqiang; Deng, Zhao; Shi, Nan; Xu, Guoliang; Staebler, Gary M.; Guo, Wenfeng
2017-04-01
The optimization of a CFETR baseline scenario (Chan et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 023017) with an electron cyclotron (EC) wave and neutral beam (NB) is performed using a multi-dimensional code suite. TGLF and NEO are used to calculate turbulent and neoclassical transport. The evaluation of sources and sinks, as well as the current evolution, are performed using ONETWO, and the equilibrium is updated using EFIT. The pedestal is consistent with the EPED model. Rotation shear is controlled using NB. It has been found that both fusion gain Q and NB power deposited in the edge increase with decreasing NB energy, with NB providing current drive, torque, energy and particle source simultaneously. By using an optimized combination of two NBs, Q can be kept at a high level while the NB edge power is reduced. Pedestal collisionality is controlled to find an optimization path for Q by trading off between the pedestal density and temperature with the pedestal pressure fixed. It has been found that Q increases with pedestal collisionality, while the density peaking factor (DPF) remains almost unchanged. The invariance of DPF can be explained by the change of the dominant type of turbulence from the core to the edge (i.e. trapped electron mode in the core and ion temperature gradient mode at the edge), and collisionality has the opposite effect on particle transport for these two modes. A weaker dependence of DPF on collisionality makes a higher density operation more favorable for fusion gain.
Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.
2016-01-01
The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.
MHD modeling of ATLAS experiments to study transverse shear interface interactions
Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Lindemuth, I R
2001-01-01
Summary form only given. The transverse shear established at the interface of two solids moving at differential velocities on the order of the sound speed is being studied in experiments on the ATLAS capacitor bank at Los Alamos, beginning in August 2001. The ATLAS bank has finished certification tests and has demonstrated peak currents of 27.5 MA with a 5 microsecond risetime into an inductive load. One- and two-dimensional MHD calculations have been performed in support of these "friction-like" ATLAS experiments. Current flowing along the outer surface of a thick aluminum liner, roughly 8 mm thick, accelerates the solid liner to velocities ~1 km/s. This cylindrically imploding liner then impacts a target assembly, composed of alternating regions of high and low density materials. The different shock speeds in the two materials leads to a differential velocity along the interface. Shock heating, elastic- plastic flow, and stress transport are included in the calculations. Material strength properties are tre...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2013-12-15
Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.
Localization of Shear in Saturated Granular Media: Insights from a Multi-Scaled Granular-Fluid Model
Aharonov, Einat; Sparks, David; Toussaint, Renaud
2013-01-01
The coupled mechanics of fluid-filled granular media controls the behavior of many natural systems such as saturated soils, fault gouge, and landslides. The grain motion and the fluid pressure influence each other: It is well established that when the fluid pressure rises, the shear resistance of fluid-filled granular systems decreases, and as a result catastrophic events such as soil liquefaction, earthquakes, and accelerating landslides may be triggered. Alternatively, when the pore pressure drops, the shear resistance of these systems increases. Despite the great importance of the coupled mechanics of grains-fluid systems, the basic physics that controls this coupling is far from understood. We developed a new multi-scaled model based on the discrete element method, coupled with a continuum model of fluid pressure, to explore this dynamical system. The model was shown recently to capture essential feedbacks between porosity changes arising from rearrangement of grains, and local pressure variations due to ...
A matrix projection method for on line stable estimation of 1D and 3D shear building models
Angel García-Illescas, Miguel; Alvarez-Icaza, Luis
2016-12-01
An estimation method is presented that combines the use of recursive least squares, a matrix parameterized model, Gershgorin circles and tridiagonal matrices properties to allow the identification of stable shear building models in the presence of low excitation or low damping. The resultant scheme yields a significant reduction on the number of calculations involved, when compared with the standard vector parameterization based schemes. As real buildings are always open loop stable, the use of an stable shear building model for vibration control purposes allows the design of more robust control laws. Extensive simulation results are presented for cases of low excitation comparing the results of using or not this matrix projection method with different sets of initial conditions. Results indicate that the use of this projection method does not have an influence in the recovery of natural frequencies, however, it significantly improves the recovery of mode shapes.
Simpson Chen, Abraham; Bergbreiter, Sarah
2017-02-01
Elastomer-based electroadhesion can be an effective method to provide tunable adhesion between robots and grasped objects or surfaces. However, there has been little work to develop models of electroadhesion and characterization of adhesive performance relative to these models. In this paper, a basic friction model is proposed to describe the critical shear force for a single electrode electroadhesive fabricated from conductive PDMS encased in parylene. The use of parylene results in thin dielectrics that require only tens of Volts to achieve shear pressures greater than 100 kPa. The experimental results gathered by characterizing voltage, dielectric thickness, adhesive area, and adhesive thickness follow the trends predicted by theory with some important deviations that are studied using high speed video capture of the soft adhesive failure.
2012-09-01
ATMOSPHERIC MODELS INCLUDING ENSEMBLE METHODS Scott E. Miller Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., University of South Carolina, 2000 B.S...Typical gas turbine fuel consumption curve and relationship to sea state .......51 Figure 16. DDG 58 speed reduction curves for bow seas...Day Time Group ECDIS-N Electronic Chart Display and Information System – Navy ECMWF European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts EFAS
Panien, Marion; Schreurs, Guido; Pfiffner, Adrian
2006-09-01
The mechanical behaviour of several dry granular materials is investigated through ring-shear tests, grain characterisation, and simple analogue experiments analysed by X-ray computed tomography. An improved knowledge of granular materials is essential to determine their suitability as analogues for upper crustal rocks in experimental models and to compare analogue and numerical experiments. The ring-shear tests show that the granular materials have an elastic/frictional plastic behaviour with strain-hardening preceding failure at peak strength, followed by strain softening until a dynamic-stable value is reached. This is similar to the behaviour exhibited by experimentally deformed rocks. The physical characteristics of the grains determine the amount of diffuse deformation before failure, the percentage of strain softening and act on the thickness of the shear zones before broadening. Initial shear zone width in extensional and contractional experiments is between 11 and 16 times the mean grain size. The angle of internal friction defining one of the mechanical properties of granular materials and thus fault dip is not only related to physical characteristics of the grains and to the handling technique used (e.g. sieving or pouring), but also to the overburden and to the experimental setup used.
Reddy, J. N.
1986-01-01
An improved plate theory that accounts for the transverse shear deformation is presented, and mixed and displacement finite element models of the theory are developed. The theory is based on an assumed displacement field in which the inplane displacements are expanded in terms of the thickness coordinate up to the cubic term and the transverse deflection is assumed to be independent of the thickness coordinate. The governing equations of motion for the theory are derived from the Hamilton's principle. The theory eliminates the need for shear correction factors because the transverse shear stresses are represented parabolically. A mixed finite element model that uses independent approximations of the displacements and moments, and a displacement model that uses only displacements as degrees of freedom are developed. A comparison of the numerical results for bending with the exact solutions of the new theory and the three-dimensional elasticity theory shows that the present theory (and hence the finite element models) is more accurate than other plate-theories of the same order.
Montagnon, Emmanuel; Hadj-Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Cloutier, Guy
2013-04-07
This paper presents a semi-analytical model of shear wave scattering by a viscoelastic elliptical structure embedded in a viscoelastic medium, and its application in the context of dynamic elastography imaging. The commonly used assumption of mechanical homogeneity in the inversion process is removed introducing a priori geometrical information to model physical interactions of plane shear waves with the confined mechanical heterogeneity. Theoretical results are first validated using the finite element method for various mechanical configurations and incidence angles. Secondly, an inverse problem is formulated to assess viscoelastic parameters of both the elliptic inclusion and its surrounding medium, and applied in vitro to characterize mechanical properties of agar-gelatin phantoms. The robustness of the proposed inversion method is then assessed under various noise conditions, biased geometrical parameters and compared to direct inversion, phase gradient and time-of-flight methods. The proposed elastometry method appears reliable in the context of estimating confined lesion viscoelastic parameters.
Dörr, Aaron; Mehdizadeh, Amirfarhang
2012-01-01
Based on the notion of a construction process consisting of the stepwise addition of particles to the pure fluid, a discrete model for the apparent viscosity as well as for the maximum packing fraction of polydisperse suspensions of spherical, non-colloidal particles is derived. The model connects the approaches by Bruggeman and Farris and is valid for large size ratios of consecutive particle classes during the construction process. Furthermore, a new general form of the well-known Krieger equation allowing for the choice of a second-order Taylor coefficient for the volume fraction is proposed and then applied as a monodisperse reference equation in the course of polydisperse modeling. By applying the polydisperse viscosity model to two different particle size distributions (Rosin-Rammler and uniform distribution), the influence of polydispersity on the apparent viscosity is examined. The extension of the model to the case of small size ratios as well as to the inclusion of shear rate effects is left for fut...
Benjamin, Stan; Sun, Shan; Grell, Georg; Green, Benjamin; Bleck, Rainer; Li, Haiqin
2017-04-01
Extreme events for subseasonal duration have been linked to multi-week processes related to onset, duration, and cessation of blocking events or, more generally, quasi-stationary waves. Results will be shown from different sets of 32-day prediction experiments (3200 runs each) over a 16-year period for earth system processes key for subseasonal prediction for different resolution, numerics, and physics using the FIM-HYCOM coupled model. The coupled atmosphere (FIM) and ocean (HYCOM) modeling system is a relatively new coupled atmosphere-ocean model developed for subseasonal to seasonal prediction (Green et al. 2017 Mon.Wea.Rev. accepted, Bleck et al 2015 Mon. Wea. Rev.). Both component models operate on a common icosahedral horizontal grid and use an adaptive hybrid vertical coordinate (sigma-isentropic in FIM and sigma-isopycnic in HYCOM). FIM-HYCOM has been used to conduct 16 years of subseasonal retrospective forecasts following the NOAA Subseasonal (SubX) NMME protocol (32-day forward integrations), run with 4 ensemble members per week. Results from this multi-year FIM-HYCOM hindcast include successful forecasts out to 14-20 days for stratospheric warming events (from archived 10 hPa fields), improved MJO predictability (Green et al. 2017) using the Grell-Freitas (2014, ACP) scale-aware cumulus scheme instead of the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert scheme, and little sensitivity to resolution for blocking frequency. Forecast skill of metrics from FIM-HYCOM including 500 hPa heights and MJO index is at least comparable to that of the operational Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) used by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Subseasonal skill is improved with a limited multi-model (FIM-HYCOM and CFSv2), consistent with previous seasonal multi-model ensemble results. Ongoing work will also be reported on for adding inline aerosol/chemistry treatment to the coupled FIM-HYCOM model and for advanced approaches to subgrid-scale clouds to address regional biases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AHMER ALI
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In recent years steel-concrete composite shear walls have been widely used in enormous high-rise buildings. Due to high strength and ductility, enhanced stiffness, stable cycle characteristics and large energy absorption, such walls can be adopted in the auxiliary building; surrounding the reactor containment structure of nuclear power plants to resist lateral forces induced by heavy winds and severe earthquakes. This paper demonstrates a set of nonlinear numerical studies on I-shaped composite steel-concrete shear walls of the nuclear power plants subjected to reverse cyclic loading. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed using ABAQUS by emphasizing on constitutive material modeling and element type to represent the real physical behavior of complex shear wall structures. The analysis escalates with parametric variation in steel thickness sandwiching the stipulated amount of concrete panels. Modeling details of structural components, contact conditions between steel and concrete, associated boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for the cyclic loading are explained. Later, the load versus displacement curves, peak load and ultimate strength values, hysteretic characteristics and deflection profiles are verified with experimental data. The convergence of the numerical outcomes has been discussed to conclude the remarks.
Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions
Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco
2016-09-01
Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang De-Sheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.
Shear rheology of lipid monolayers and insights on membrane fluidity
Espinosa, Gabriel; López-Montero, Iván; Monroy, Francisco; Langevin, Dominique
2011-01-01
The concept of membrane fluidity usually refers to a high molecular mobility inside the lipid bilayer which enables lateral diffusion of embedded proteins. Fluids have the ability to flow under an applied shear stress whereas solids resist shear deformations. Biological membranes require both properties for their function: high lateral fluidity and structural rigidity. Consequently, an adequate account must include, in addition to viscosity, the possibility for a nonzero shear modulus. This knowledge is still lacking as measurements of membrane shear properties have remained incomplete so far. In the present contribution we report a surface shear rheology study of different lipid monolayers that model distinct biologically relevant situations. The results evidence a large variety of mechanical behavior under lateral shear flow. PMID:21444777
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng-Shou Chen
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward on fluid–structure interaction (FSI dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid–structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.
Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L
2010-01-01
The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.
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Sohail Nadeem
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have considered the blood flow in a curved channel with abnormal development of stenosis in an axis-symmetric manner. The constitutive equations for incompressible and steady non-Newtonian tangent hyperbolic fluid have been modeled under the mild stenosis case. A perturbation technique and homotopy perturbation technique have been used to obtain analytical solutions for the wall shear stress, resistance impedance to flow, wall shear stress at the stenosis throat and velocity profile. The obtained results have been discussed for different tapered arteries i.e., diverging tapering, converging tapering, non-tapered arteries with the help of different parameters of interest and found that tapering dominant the curvature of the curved channel.
Yang, Ming; Elkibbi, Maya; Rial, José A.
2005-03-01
Shear wave splitting polarization (p) and delay time (Δt) observations are used to invert for fracture orientation and intensity of fracturing, simultaneously. By addressing the different levels of uncertainty involved in measurements of these two parameters, as well as their dissimilar relationships to fracture configuration, we have developed an inversion algorithm which reduces the primary double-response inversion to two connected single-response ones. We show that its inherent non-linearity complicates this problem, which therefore requires a more sophisticated attack than conventional inversion schemes. It will be shown that the construction of residue function contours in the model plane and the generation of surrogate data by simulation process are essential to this approach. We illustrate the capabilities of this technique by inverting shear wave splitting data from The Geysers geothermal reservoir in California. In principle the method should be useful for characterizing fractured reservoirs, whether geothermal or hydrocarbon.
Pollard, Thomas B
Recent advances in microbiology, computational capabilities, and microelectromechanical-system fabrication techniques permit modeling, design, and fabrication of low-cost, miniature, sensitive and selective liquid-phase sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems. Such devices are expected to replace expensive, time-consuming, and bulky laboratory-based testing equipment. Potential applications for devices include: fluid characterization for material science and industry; chemical analysis in medicine and pharmacology; study of biological processes; food analysis; chemical kinetics analysis; and environmental monitoring. When combined with liquid-phase packaging, sensors based on surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) technology are considered strong candidates. For this reason such devices are focused on in this work; emphasis placed on device modeling and packaging for liquid-phase operation. Regarding modeling, topics considered include mode excitation efficiency of transducers; mode sensitivity based on guiding structure materials/geometries; and use of new piezoelectric materials. On packaging, topics considered include package interfacing with SAW devices, and minimization of packaging effects on device performance. In this work novel numerical models are theoretically developed and implemented to study propagation and transduction characteristics of sensor designs using wave/constitutive equations, Green's functions, and boundary/finite element methods. Using developed simulation tools that consider finite-thickness of all device electrodes, transduction efficiency for SAW transducers with neighboring uniform or periodic guiding electrodes is reported for the first time. Results indicate finite electrode thickness strongly affects efficiency. Using dense electrodes, efficiency is shown to approach 92% and 100% for uniform and periodic electrode guiding, respectively; yielding improved sensor detection limits. A numerical sensitivity analysis is presented targeting viscosity
Quantitative calculation of local shear deformation in adiabatic shear band for Ti-6Al-4V
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
JOHNSON-COOK(J-C) model was used to calculate flow shear stress-shear strain curve for Ti-6Al-4V in dynamic torsion test. The predicted curve was compared with experimental result. Gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP) was introduced into J-C model and GDP was involved in the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve, respectively, to calculate the distribution of local total shear deformation(LTSD) in adiabatic shear band(ASB). The predicted LTSDs at different flow shear stresses were compared with experimental measurements. J-C model can well predict the flow shear stress-shear strain curve in strain-hardening stage and in strain-softening stage where flow shear stress slowly decreases. Beyond the occurrence of ASB, with a decrease of flow shear stress, the increase of local plastic shear deformation in ASB is faster than the decrease of elastic shear deformation, leading to more and more apparent shear localization. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated LTSDs in ASB are lower than experimental results. At earlier stage of ASB, though J-C model overestimates the flow shear stress at the same shear strain, the model can reasonably assess the LTSDs in ASB. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated local plastic shear strains in ASB agree with experimental results except for the vicinity of shear fracture surface. In the strain-softening stage where flow shear stress sharply decreases, J-C model cannot be used. When flow shear stress decreases to a certain value, shear fracture takes place so that GDP cannot be used.
Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ
2009-07-14
One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.
Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement
Heecheul Kim; Min Sook Kim; Myung Joon Ko; Young Hak Lee
2015-01-01
This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spac...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G Appa Rao; R Sundaresan
2012-02-01
This paper reports on development of size-dependent shear strength expression for reinforced concrete deep beams using reﬁned strut-and-tie model. The generic form of the size effect law has been retained considering the merits of Siao’s model and modiﬁed Bazant’s size effect law using the large experimental data base reported in the literature. The proposed equation for predicting the shear strength of deep beams incorporates the compressive strength of concrete, ratios of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the effective depth.
Magnetohydrodynamic Shearing Waves
Johnson, B M
2006-01-01
I consider the nonaxisymmetric linear theory of an isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow. The analysis is performed in the shearing box, a local model appropriate for a thin disk geometry. Linear perturbations in this model can be decomposed in terms of shearing waves (shwaves), which appear spatially as plane waves in a frame comoving with the shear. The time dependence of these waves cannot in general be expressed in terms of a frequency eigenvalue as in a normal mode decomposition, and numerical integration of a set of first-order amplitude equations is required for a complete characterization of their behavior. Their generic time dependence, however, is oscillatory with slowly-varying frequency and amplitude, and one can construct accurate analytic solutions by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to the full set of amplitude equations. For the bulk of wavenumber space, therefore, the shwaves are well-approximated as modes with time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes. The incompressiv...
Weddell, Jared C; Kwack, JaeHyuk; Imoukhuede, P I; Masud, Arif
2015-01-01
Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF) constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jared C Weddell
Full Text Available Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.
Tarasov, B. G.; Sadovskii, V. M.
2016-10-01
Mathematical model of the equilibrium fan-structure formation between two elastic half-planes is constructed, simulating a shear rupture at stress conditions of seismogenic depths. The stress-strain state far from the fan-structure is analyzed with the help of solution of the problem on the Volterra edge dislocation resulted in estimation of the fan length. The model of formation of two differently directed fans due to the localized action of tangential stress, which pushes two edge dislocations with the antiparallel Burgers vectors, is proposed and analysed.
Nie, Guanjun; Shan, Yehua
2014-09-01
Quartz c-axis fabrics are widely used to determine the shear plane in ductile shear zones, based upon an assumption that the shear plane is perpendicular to both the central segment of quartz c-axis crossed girdle and single girdle. In this paper the development of quartz c-axis fabric under simple-pure shear deformation is simulated using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) model so as to re-examine this assumption. In the case of no or weak dynamic recrystallization, the simulated crossed girdles have a central segment perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the maximum principal finite strain direction (X) and the XY finite strain plane, and at a variable angle relative to the imposed kinematic framework that is dependent on the modeled flow vorticity and finite strain. These crossed girdles have a symmetrical skeleton with respect to the finite strain axes, regardless of the bulk strain and the kinematic vorticity, and rotate in a way similar to the shear sense with increasing bulk strain ratio. The larger the vorticity number the more asymmetrical their legs tend to be. In the case of strong dynamic recrystallization and large bulk strain, under simple shear the crossed girdle switches into single girdles, sub-perpendicular to the shear plane, by losing the weak legs. The numerical results in our models do not confirm the above-mentioned assumption.
Bayesian decision and mixture models for AE monitoring of steel-concrete composite shear walls
Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Epackachi, Siamak; Salamone, Salvatore; Whittaker, Andrew S.
2015-11-01
This paper presents an approach based on an acoustic emission technique for the health monitoring of steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls. SC composite walls consist of plain (unreinforced) concrete sandwiched between steel faceplates. Although the use of SC system construction has been studied extensively for nearly 20 years, little-to-no attention has been devoted to the development of structural health monitoring techniques for the inspection of damage of the concrete behind the steel plates. In this work an unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm based on probability theory is proposed to assess the soundness of the concrete infill, and eventually provide a diagnosis of the SC wall’s health. The approach is validated through an experimental study on a large-scale SC shear wall subjected to a displacement controlled reversed cyclic loading.
Bertollo, Nicky; Da Assuncao, Ruy; Hancock, Nicholas J; Lau, Abe; Walsh, William R
2012-09-01
Arthroplasty has evolved with the application of electron beam melting (EBM) in the manufacture of porous mediums for uncemented fixation. Osseointegration of EBM and plasma-sprayed titanium (Ti PS) implant dowels in adult sheep was assessed in graduated cancellous defects and under line-to-line fit in cortical bone. Shear strength and bony ingrowth (EBM) and ongrowth (Ti PS) were assessed after 4 and 12 weeks. Shear strength of EBM exceeded that for Ti PS at 12 weeks (P = .030). Ongrowth achieved by Ti PS in graduated cancellous defects followed a distinctive pattern that correlated to progressively decreasing radial distances between defect and implant, whereas cancellous ingrowth values at 12 weeks for the EBM were not different. Osteoconductive porous structures manufactured using EBM present a viable alternative to traditional surface treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Live imaging and modeling for shear stress quantification in the embryonic zebrafish heart.
Boselli, Francesco; Vermot, Julien
2016-02-01
Hemodynamic shear stress is sensed by the endocardial cells composing the inner cell layer of the heart, and plays a major role in cardiac morphogenesis. Yet, the underlying hemodynamics and the associated mechanical stimuli experienced by endocardial cells remains poorly understood. Progress in the field has been hampered by the need for high temporal resolution imaging allowing the flow profiles generated in the beating heart to be resolved. To fill this gap, we propose a method to analyze the wall dynamics, the flow field, and the wall shear stress of the developing zebrafish heart. This method combines live confocal imaging and computational fluid dynamics to overcome difficulties related to live imaging of blood flow in the developing heart. To provide an example of the applicability of the method, we discuss the hemodynamic frequency content sensed by endocardial cells at the onset of valve formation, and how the fundamental frequency of the wall shear stress represents a unique mechanical cue to endocardial, heart-valve precursors.
Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heecheul Kim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spacing ratio increased. Also, we used the experimental results to evaluate whether the shear strength equations of ACI 318-14 and ACI 440.1R can be applied to the design of GFRP shear reinforcement. In the results, the ACI 440 equation underestimated the experimental results more than that of ACI 318.
Duddu, Ravindra
2009-05-01
We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Plasticity Approach to Shear Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
1998-01-01
The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in no...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing.......The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...
Bridges, Craig; Rajagopal, K R
2010-01-01
We study the flow of a shear-thinning, chemically-reacting fluid that could be used to model the flow of the synovial fluid. The actual geometry where the flow of the synovial fluid takes place is very complicated, and therefore the governing equations are not amenable to simple mathematical analysis. In order to understand the response of the model, we choose to study the flow in a simple geometry. While the flow domain is not a geometry relevant to the flow of the synovial fluid in the human body it yet provides a flow which can be used to assess the efficacy of different models that have been proposed to describe synovial fluids. We study the flow in the annular region between two cylinders, one of which is undergoing unsteady oscillations about their common axis, in order to understand the quintessential behavioral characteristics of the synovial fluid. We use the three models suggested by Hron et al. [ J. Hron, J. M\\'{a}lek, P. Pust\\v{e}jovsk\\'{a}, K. R. Rajagopal, On concentration dependent shear-thinni...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endanus Harijanto
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Tooth crown restoration was made in a complex system consisting of several elements, namely tensile strength and shear strength bond between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating. The aim of this exemination was to find a model representing connection between tensile strength and shear strength in between copper alloy with acrylic resin in statistic method. In conclusion, this exemination utilizing a strength model = 0.645 + 1.237 × tensile strength resulted shear strength exemination. On the other hand, the utilization of a strength = –0.506 + 0.808 × shear strength resulted tensile strength exemination.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.
2012-02-15
The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)
Importance of global aerosol modeling including secondary organic aerosol formed from monoterpene
Goto, Daisuke; Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki
2008-01-01
A global three-dimensional aerosol transport-radiation model, coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), has been extended to improve the model process for organic aerosols, particularly secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and to estimate SOA contributions to direct and indirect radiative effects. Because the SOA formation process is complicated and unknown, the results in different model simulations include large differences. In this work, we simulate SOA production assuming v...
MODEL ANALYSIS AND PARAMETER EXTRACTION FOR MOS CAPACITOR INCLUDING QUANTUM MECHANICAL EFFECTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hai-yan Jiang; Ping-wen Zhang
2006-01-01
The high frequency CV curves of MOS capacitor have been studied. It is shown that semiclassical model is a good approximation to quantum model and approaches to classical model when the oxide layer is thick. This conclusion provides us an efficient (semiclassical) model including quantum mechanical effects to do parameter extraction for ultrathi noxide device. Here the effective extracting strategy is designed and numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the strategy.
Power Law of Shear Viscosity in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion model
Ling, Yi; Zhou, Zhenhua
2016-01-01
We construct charged black hole solutions with hyperscaling violation in the infrared(IR) region in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion theory and investigate the temperature behavior of the ratio of holographic shear viscosity to the entropy density. When translational symmetry breaking is relevant in the IR, the power law of the ratio is testified numerically at low temperature $T$, namely, $\\eta/s\\sim T^\\kappa$, where the values of exponent $\\kappa$ coincide with the analytical results. We also find that the exponent $\\kappa$ is not affected by irrelevant current, but is reduced by the relevant current.
Modeling of Shear-Induced Red Blood Cell Migration for Guiding Microfluidic Device Design
Durant, Eden; Higgins, Adam; Sharp, Kendra
2014-11-01
Through refinement and extension of a two-phase flow model previously reported for modeling blood in cylindrical flows (Gidaspow, 2009), we have developed a computational model for blood flow in complex microfluidic. Treating plasma as a Newtonian fluid and the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) as a granular phase, whose local concentrations are determined statistically, we have captured the migration of RBCs and concomitant formation of a cell free plasma layer at the channel walls. This model provides us with a three-dimensional distribution of RBCs and the development of the stead-state flow profile, and enables us to study the influence of complex microfluidic geometries, including flow obstacles and varying channel dimensions, on the rate and extent of RBC margination. Simulations on 50 and 100 micron square channels match observed trends including decreasing RBC margination rate in larger channels, increasing RBC margination rate with higher hematocrit, and decreasing cell free layer width with increasing hematocrit. This predictive capability will allow microfluidic devices to be tailored and optimized for specific biomedical applications such as separation of blood constituents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joergen L. Jensen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In partially anchored timber frame shear walls, hold-down devices are not provided; hence the uplift forces are transferred by the fasteners of the sheathing-to-framing joints into the bottom rail and via anchor bolts from the bottom rail into the foundation. Since the force in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail is subjected to tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. This paper presents simple analytical models based on fracture mechanics for the analysis of such bottom rails. An existing model is reviewed and several alternative models are derived and compared qualitatively and with experimental data. It is concluded that several of the fracture mechanics models lead to failure load predictions which seem in sufficiently good agreement with the experimental results to justify their application in practical design.
Eltoukhy, Moataz; Travascio, Francesco; Asfour, Shihab; Elmasry, Shady; Heredia-Vargas, Hector; Signorile, Joseph
2016-09-01
Loading during concurrent bending and compression associated with deadlift, hang clean and hang snatch lifts carries the potential for injury to the intervertebral discs, muscles and ligaments. This study examined the capacity of a newly developed spinal model to compute shear and compressive forces, and bending moments in lumbar spine for each lift. Five male subjects participated in the study. The spine was modeled as a chain of rigid bodies (vertebrae) connected via the intervertebral discs. Each vertebral reference frame was centered in the center of mass of the vertebral body, and its principal directions were axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral. The results demonstrated the capacity of this spinal model to assess forces and bending moments at and about the lumbar vertebrae by showing the variations among these variables with different lifting techniques. These results show the model's potential as a diagnostic tool.
Bacterial transport suppressed by fluid shear
Rusconi, Roberto; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman
2014-03-01
Bacteria often live in dynamic fluid environments and flow can affect fundamental microbial processes such as nutrient uptake and infection. However, little is known about the consequences of the forces and torques associated with fluid flow on bacteria. Through microfluidic experiments, we show that fluid shear produces strong spatial heterogeneity in suspensions of motile bacteria, characterized by up to 70% cell depletion from low-shear regions due to `trapping’ in high-shear regions. Two mathematical models and a scaling analysis accurately capture these observations, including the maximal depletion at mean shear rates of 2.5-10 s-1, and reveal that trapping by shear originates from the competition between the cell alignment with the flow and the stochasticity in the swimming orientation. We show that this shear-induced trapping directly impacts widespread bacterial behaviours, by hampering chemotaxis and promoting surface attachment. These results suggest that the hydrodynamic environment may directly affect bacterial fitness and should be carefully considered in the study of microbial processes.
Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao linh
1997-01-01
The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niemann, V.
1998-01-01
Homogeneous stratified turbulent shear flow was simulated numerically using the cascade model of Eggers and Grossmann (1991). The model is made applicable to homogeneous shear flow by transformation into a coordinate system that moves along with a basic flow with a constant vertical velocity gradient. The author simulated cases of stable thermal stratification with Richardson numbers in the range of 0{<=}Ri{<=}1. The simulation data were evaluated with particular regard to the anisotropic characteristics of the turbulence field. Further, the results are compared with some common equation systems up to second order. (orig.) [Deutsch] Thema der vorliegenden Dissertation ist die numerische Simulation homogener geschichteter turbulenter Scherstroemungen. Grundlage der Simulation ist das von Eggers and Grossmann (1991) entwickelte Kaskadenmodell. Dieses Modell wird durch Transformation in ein Koordinatensystem, das mit einem Grundstrom mit konstantem vertikalen Geschwindigkeitsgradienten mitbewegt wird, auf homogene Scherstroemungen angewendet. Simuliert werden Faelle mit stabiler thermischer Schichtung mit Richardsonzahlen im Bereich von 0{<=}Ri{<=}1. Der Schwerpunkt bei der Auswertung der Simulationsdaten liegt auf der Untersuchung der Anisotropie-Eigenschaften des Turbulenzfeldes. Darueber hinaus wird ein Vergleich mit einigen gaengigen Schliessungsansaetzen bis zur zweiten Ordnung gezogen. (orig.)
A finite element model of the face including an orthotropic skin model under in vivo tension.
Flynn, Cormac; Stavness, Ian; Lloyd, John; Fels, Sidney
2015-01-01
Computer models of the human face have the potential to be used as powerful tools in surgery simulation and animation development applications. While existing models accurately represent various anatomical features of the face, the representation of the skin and soft tissues is very simplified. A computer model of the face is proposed in which the skin is represented by an orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The in vivo tension inherent in skin is also represented in the model. The model was tested by simulating several facial expressions by activating appropriate orofacial and jaw muscles. Previous experiments calculated the change in orientation of the long axis of elliptical wounds on patients' faces for wide opening of the mouth and an open-mouth smile (both 30(o)). These results were compared with the average change of maximum principal stress direction in the skin calculated in the face model for wide opening of the mouth (18(o)) and an open-mouth smile (25(o)). The displacements of landmarks on the face for four facial expressions were compared with experimental measurements in the literature. The corner of the mouth in the model experienced the largest displacement for each facial expression (∼11-14 mm). The simulated landmark displacements were within a standard deviation of the measured displacements. Increasing the skin stiffness and skin tension generally resulted in a reduction in landmark displacements upon facial expression.
Xhu, Yiheng; Qian, Ming; Niu, Lili; Zheng, Hairong; Lu, Guangwen
2014-12-01
The development and progression of atherosclerosis and thrombosis are closely related to changes of hemodynamics parameters. Ultrasonic pulse wave Doppler technique is normally used for noninvasively blood flow imaging. However, this technique only provides one-dimensional velocity and depends on the angle between the ultrasound beam and the local velocity vector. In this study, ultrasonic particle image velocimetry method was used to assess whole field hemodynamic changes in normal blood vessels. By using the polynomial fitting method, we investigated the velocity gradient and assessed the shear in different blood flow velocity of 10 healthy rats. It was found that using four polynomial fitting could result in optimal measurement results. The results obtained by ultrasonic particle image velocimetry accorded with the results obtained using Doppler technique. The statistical average of cyclical vessel wall shear stress was positively related to the locational mean velocity. It is proven that ultrasonic particle image velocimetry method could be used to assess directly the real-time whole field hemodynamic changes in blood vessels and was non-invasively, and should be a good prosperous technique for monitoring complex blood flow in stenotic ar- teries.
Hoffie, Andreas Frank
Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky
Towards a new tool to develop a 3-D shear-wave velocity model from converted waves
Colavitti, Leonardo; Hetényi, György
2017-04-01
The main target of this work is to develop a new method in which we exploit converted waves to construct a fully 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust. A reliable 3-D model is very important in Earth sciences because geological structures may vary significantly in their lateral dimension. In particular, shear-waves provide valuable complementary information with respect to P-waves because they usually guarantee a much better correlation in terms of rock density and mechanical properties, reducing the interpretation ambiguities. Therefore, it is fundamental to develop a new technique to improve structural images and to describe different lithologies in the crust. In this study we start from the analysis of receiver functions (RF, Langston, 1977), which are nowadays largely used for structural investigations based on passive seismic experiments, to map Earth discontinuities at depth. The RF technique is also commonly used to invert for velocity structure beneath single stations. Here, we plan to combine two strengths of RF method: shear-wave velocity inversion and dense arrays. Starting from a simple 3-D forward model, synthetic RFs are obtained extracting the structure along a ray to match observed data. During the inversion, thanks to a dense stations network, we aim to build and develop a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity. The initial model should be chosen simple to make sure that the inversion process is not influenced by the constraints in terms of depth and velocity posed at the beginning. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999a, b), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter
Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: Including improved Ni PI cross sections
Preval, S P; Badnell, N R; Hubeny, I; Holberg, J B
2016-01-01
To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages needs to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni {\\sc iv}-{\\sc vi} bound-bound and bound-free atomic data has on model atmosphere calculations. Models including PICS calculated with {\\sc autostructure} show significant flux attenuation of up to $\\sim 80$\\% shortward of 180\\AA\\, in the EUV region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of this atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including {\\sc autostructure} PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as $\\sim 22$\\% compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaf...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two
Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miroslaw Luft
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah Kefayati
Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS and approximately double (4-36 Pa for wall shear stress (WSS. Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.
Kefayati, Sarah; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L
2014-01-01
Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry) and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases) were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration). The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged) shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS) and approximately double (4-36 Pa) for wall shear stress (WSS). Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms) through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent) shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.
A Verilog-A large signal model for InP DHBT including thermal effects
Yuxia, Shi; Zhi, Jin; Zhijian, Pan; Yongbo, Su; Yuxiong, Cao; Yan, Wang
2013-06-01
A large signal model for InP/InGaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistors including thermal effects has been reported, which demonstrated good agreements of simulations with measurements. On the basis of the previous model in which the double heterojunction effect, current blocking effect and high current effect in current expression are considered, the effect of bandgap narrowing with temperature has been considered in transport current while a formula for model parameters as a function of temperature has been developed. This model is implemented by Verilog-A and embedded in ADS. The proposed model is verified with DC and large signal measurements.
Luo, Meng; Li, Yaning; Gerlach, Joerg; Wierzbicki, Tomasz
2010-06-01
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) draws enormous attentions in automotive industry because it has great potential in reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency. Nonetheless, their relatively low formability also causes many problems in manufacturing processes, such as shear-induced fracture during deep drawing or stamping. This type of fracture could not be predicted using traditional necking-based Forming Limit Diagram (FLD), which is commonly used by the forming community. In the present paper, a recently developed Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC)[1] ductile fracture model is employed to make up the deficiency of FLD. In the limiting case of plane stress, the MMC fracture locus consists of four branches when represented on the plane of the equivalent strain to fracture and the stress triaxiality. A transformation of above 2D fracture locus to the space of principal strains was performed which revealed the existence of two new branches not known before. The existence of those branches explains the formation of shear-induced fracture. As an illustration of this new approach, initiation and propagation of cracks in a series of deep drawing tests is predicted and compared with the experimental observations. It was shown that the location of fracture as well as the magnitude of punch travel corresponding to first fracture was correctly predicted by MMC fracture model for both square and circular punch cases.
Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model
Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.
2015-11-01
In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.
Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Fader
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Climate and land use change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect natural and agricultural ecosystems by decreases in precipitation, increases in temperature as well as biodiversity loss and anthropogenic degradation of natural resources. Demographic growth in the Eastern and Southern shores will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (LPJmL: nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development pave the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry, and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments on the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.
Numerical Acoustic Models Including Viscous and Thermal losses: Review of Existing and New Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Risby; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Aage, Niels
2017-01-01
This work presents an updated overview of numerical methods including acoustic viscous and thermal losses. Numerical modelling of viscothermal losses has gradually become more important due to the general trend of making acoustic devices smaller. Not including viscothermal acoustic losses in such...
Power law of shear viscosity in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion model
Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuoyu; Zhou, Zhenhua
2017-02-01
We construct charged black hole solutions with hyperscaling violation in the infrared (IR) region in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion theory and investigate the temperature behavior of the ratio of holographic shear viscosity to the entropy density. When translational symmetry breaking is relevant in the IR, the power law of the ratio is verified numerically at low temperature T, namely, η/s ∼ T κ , where the values of exponent κ coincide with the analytical results. We also find that the exponent κ is not affected by irrelevant current, but is reduced by the relevant current. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275208, 11575195), Opening Project of Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors (14DZ2260700) and Jiangxi Young Scientists (JingGang Star) Program and 555 Talent Project of Jiangxi Province
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mohamed BALAH; Hamdan Naser AL-GHAMEDY
2004-01-01
The paper presents an approach for the formulation of general laminated shells based on a third order shear deformation theory. These shells undergo finite (unlimited in size) rotations and large overall motions but with small strains. A singularity-free parametrization of the rotation field is adopted. The constitutive equations, derived with respect to laminate curvilinear coordinates,are applicable to shell elements with an arbitrary number of orthotropic layers and where the material principal axes can vary from layer to layer. A careful consideration of the consistent linearization procedure pertinent to the proposed parametrization of finite rotations leads to symmetric tangent stiffness matrices. The matrix formulation adopted here makes it possible to implement the present formulation within the framework of the finite element method as a straightforward task.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Thermoplastics having various short and long-chain branches, characterized by the melt index measured at the processing temperature – according to their average molecular mass – can be processed using universal principles, independently of their chemical composition. The average molecular mass is the result of a molecular mass distribution, being the fingerprint of the chemical synthetic technology. The actual shape of the shear viscosity function aiming at the quantitative characterization of viscous flow, containing material-dependent parameters, depends on the ratio of high and low molecular mass fractions, the width of the molecular mass distribution function and on the number of short and long chain branches. This publication deals with the critical analysis of the mathematical methods of transforming these two curves of basic importance into each other.
Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui
2016-11-01
Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h‑1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.
Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.
Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle
2009-03-01
A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何雪松; 王旭永; 冯正进; 章志新; 杨钦廉
2003-01-01
A nonlinear mathematical model of the injection molding process for electrohydraulic servo injection molding machine (IMM) is developed.It was found necessary to consider the characteristics of asymmetric cylinder for electrohydraulic servo IMM.The model is based on the dynamics of the machine including servo valve,asymmetric cylinder and screw,and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of polymer melt in injection molding is also considered.The performance of the model was evaluated based on novel approach of molding - injection and compress molding,and the results of simulation and experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.
a Better Description of Liquid Jet Breakup Using a Spatial Model Including Viscous Effects.
Hammerschlag, William Brian
Theoretical models describing the operation and disintegration of a liquid jet are often based on an approximate solution of an inviscid jet in the temporal frame of reference. These models provide only a fair first order prediction of growth rate and breakoff length, and are based solely on a surface tension induced instability. A spatial model yielding jet growth rate and including both jet and surrounding atmosphere viscosity and density is now developed. This model is seen to reproduce all the features and limitations of the Weber viscous jet theory. When tested against experiments of water, water and glycerol mixes and binary eutectic tin/lead solder, only fair agreement is observed.
Lateral shear interferometry with holo shear lens
Joenathan, C.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sirohi, R. S.
1984-12-01
A simple method for obtaining lateral shear using holo shear lenses (HSL) has been discussed. This simple device which produces lateral shears in the orthogonal directions has been used for lens testing. The holo shear lens is placed at or near the focus of the lens to be tested. It has also been shown that HSL can be used in speckle shear interferometry as it performs both the functions of shearing and imaging.
Dunand, Matthieu; Mohr, Dirk
2011-07-01
The predictive capabilities of the shear-modified Gurson model [Nielsen and Tvergaard, Eng. Fract. Mech. 77, 2010] and the Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture model [Bai and Wierzbicki, Int. J. Fract. 161, 2010] are evaluated. Both phenomenological fracture models are physics-inspired and take the effect of the first and third stress tensor invariants into account in predicting the onset of ductile fracture. The MMC model is based on the assumption that the initiation of fracture is determined by a critical stress state, while the shear-modified Gurson model assumes void growth as the governing mechanism. Fracture experiments on TRIP-assisted steel sheets covering a wide range of stress states (from shear to equibiaxial tension) are used to calibrate and validate these models. The model accuracy is quantified based on the predictions of the displacement to fracture for experiments which have not been used for calibration. It is found that the MMC model predictions agree well with all experiments (less than 4% error), while less accurate predictions are observed for the shear-modified Gurson model. A comparison of plots of the strain to fracture as a function of the stress triaxiality and the normalized third invariant reveals significant differences between the two models except within the vicinity of stress states that have been used for calibration.
SU(3) Polyakov linear-sigma model: bulk and shear viscosity of QCD matter in finite magnetic field
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Hussein, T M
2016-01-01
Due to off-center relativistic motion of the charged spectators and the local momentum-imbalance of the participants, a short-lived huge magnetic field is likely generated, especially in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In determining the temperature dependence of bulk and shear viscosities of the QCD matter in vanishing and finite magnetic field, we utilize mean field approximation to the SU($3$) Polyakov linear-sigma model (PLSM). We compare between the results from two different approaches; Green-Kubo correlation and Boltzmann master equation with Chapman-Enskog expansion. We find that both approaches have almost identical results, especially in the hadron phase. In the temperature dependence of bulk and shear viscosities relative to thermal entropy at the critical temperature, there is a rapid decrease in the chiral phase-transition and in the critical temperature with increasing magnetic field. As the magnetic field strength increases, a peak appears at the critical temperature ($T_c$). This can be und...
Phase Aberration and Attenuation Effects on Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Wave Generation.
Carrascal, Carolina Amador; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W
2016-02-01
Elasticity is measured by shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) methods using acoustic radiation force to create the shear waves. Phase aberration and tissue attenuation can hamper the generation of shear waves for in vivo applications. In this study, the effects of phase aberration and attenuation in ultrasound focusing for creating shear waves were explored. This includes the effects of phase shifts and amplitude attenuation on shear wave characteristics such as shear wave amplitude, shear wave speed, shear wave center frequency, and bandwidth. Two samples of swine belly tissue were used to create phase aberration and attenuation experimentally. To explore the phase aberration and attenuation effects individually, tissue experiments were complemented with ultrasound beam simulations using fast object-oriented C++ ultrasound simulator (FOCUS) and shear wave simulations using finite-element-model (FEM) analysis. The ultrasound frequency used to generate shear waves was varied from 3.0 to 4.5 MHz. Results: The measured acoustic pressure and resulting shear wave amplitude decreased approximately 40%-90% with the introduction of the tissue samples. Acoustic intensity and shear wave displacement were correlated for both tissue samples, and the resulting Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.97. Analysis of shear wave generation with tissue samples (phase aberration and attenuation case), measured phase screen, (only phase aberration case), and FOCUS/FEM model (only attenuation case) showed that tissue attenuation affected the shear wave generation more than tissue aberration. Decreasing the ultrasound frequency helped maintain a focused beam for creation of shear waves in the presence of both phase aberration and attenuation.
Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M
2017-02-15
The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on
Stability analysis of the extended ADI-FDTD technique including lumped models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN ZhiHui; CHU QingXin
2008-01-01
The numerical stability of the extended alternating-direction-implicit-finite-difference-time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method including lumped models is analyzed.Three common lumped models are investigated:resistor,capacitor,and inductor,and three different formulations for each model are analyzed:the explicit,semi-implicit and implicit schemes.Analysis results show that the extended ADI-FDTD algorithm is not unconditionally stable in the explicit scheme case,and the stability criterion depends on the value of lumped models,but in the semi-implicit and implicit cases,the algorithm is stable.Finally,two simple microstrip circuits including lumped elements are simulated to demonstrate validity of the theoretical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengxiang Jia
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic model of three shafts and two pair of gears in mesh, with 26 degrees of freedom, including the effects of variable tooth stiffness, pitch and profile errors, friction, and a localized tooth crack on one of the gears. The article also details howgeometrical errors in teeth can be included in a model. The model incorporates the effects of variations in torsional mesh stiffness in gear teeth by using a common formula to describe stiffness that occurs as the gears mesh together. The comparison between the presence and absence of geometrical errors in teeth was made by using Matlab and Simulink models, which were developed from the equations of motion. The effects of pitch and profile errors on the resultant input pinion angular velocity coherent-signal of the input pinion's average are discussed by investigating some of the common diagnostic functions and changes to the frequency spectra results.
SAMI2-PE: A model of the ionosphere including multistream interhemispheric photoelectron transport
Varney, R. H.; Swartz, W. E.; Hysell, D. L.; Huba, J. D.
2012-06-01
In order to improve model comparisons with recently improved incoherent scatter radar measurements at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory we have added photoelectron transport and energy redistribution to the two dimensional SAMI2 ionospheric model. The photoelectron model uses multiple pitch angle bins, includes effects associated with curved magnetic field lines, and uses an energy degradation procedure which conserves energy on coarse, non-uniformly spaced energy grids. The photoelectron model generates secondary electron production rates and thermal electron heating rates which are then passed to the fluid equations in SAMI2. We then compare electron and ion temperatures and electron densities of this modified SAMI2 model with measurements of these parameters over a range of altitudes from 90 km to 1650 km (L = 1.26) over a 24 hour period. The new electron heating model is a significant improvement over the semi-empirical model used in SAMI2. The electron temperatures above the F-peak from the modified model qualitatively reproduce the shape of the measurements as functions of time and altitude and quantitatively agree with the measurements to within ˜30% or better during the entire day, including during the rapid temperature increase at dawn.
Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model
Makris, J.; Rihm, R.
1991-11-01
Results of seismic and other geophysical investigations suggest that strike-slip processes controlled the break-up of the Arabian plate from Africa and initiated the Red Sea Rift. Early oceanisation was facilitated by nucleation of pull apart basins and massive intrusives. The evolution of the Red Sea has gone through different stages. It was a zone of structural weakness already during the Pan-African orogeny approximately 600 Ma. A major reactivation, however, that gradually led to the present-day configuration was initiated during the late Oligocene with intense magmatic activity and the development of a continental rift. Wrench faulting played a key role in the early evolution of the Red Sea, as it shaped most of its western flank as a sharp plate boundary and resulted in the generation and rapid oceanisation of linearly arranged pull apart basins. Spatial distribution of these basins reflects the geometry of the strike-slip zone, which was controlled by pre-existing fault systems like the Najd Shear System, the Central African Fault Zone or the Onib-Hamisana and Baraka suture zones. Strike-slip motion along the latter zones of weakness influenced mainly the Egyptian and Sudanese coastal areas. Arabia was therefore separated from Africa by oceanisation in those regions, where pull apart basins developed. They were still connected in the in-between segments by stretched continental crust. With Arabia as the "moving" and Africa as the "stable" plate the eastern Red Sea flank was formed by pure shear through stretching, thinning and diffuse extension. As a consequence, the eastern and western flanks of the Red Sea are asymmetrical. The acceleration of the movement of Arabia in early/middle Miocene could no longer be accommodated by the opening in the Gulf of Suez and consequently the Dead Sea strike-slip fault developed approximately 14 Ma ago. Since plate motion was still oblique to the major structural trends, the pull apart evolution on the western flank
Physical modelling of the effect of fractures on compressional and shear wave velocities
Gurevich, Boris; Lebedev, Maxim; Glubokovskikh, Stanislav; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Vialle, Stephanie
2016-04-01
Ultrasonic measurements were performed on a sample of polyester resin permeated by multiple fractures. The samples were prepared by mixing high doses of catalyst, about 7-10 % with the liquid resin base. The mix was then heated in an oven at 60° C for a period of 1 hour. This operation produced many shrinkage cracks varying in size from 8 mm to 20 mm (Sahouryeh et al., 2002). The produced samples were parallelepiped 50 mm x 50 mm in cross-section with height of 100 mm. Micro-CT scanning of the sample reveals many open fractures with apertures 0.2 - 0.4 mm. Elastic properties of the fractured samples were derived from ultrasonic measurements using piezo-electric transducers. These measurements give compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave velocities of 2450 and 1190 m/s, respectively, giving Vp/Vs = 2.04. At the same time the velocities in the intact resin are Vp=2460 and Vs=1504 m/s, respectively, with Vp/Vs = 1.63. Thus we see that the fractures have a negligible effect on the Vp (within the measurement error) but a dramatic effect on Vs (about 20%). This contradicts the common understanding that the effects of dry fractures on Vp and Vs are similar in magnitude. Indeed, assuming very roughly that the distribution of fractures is isotropic, we can estimate the cumulative normal fracture compliance from the difference between shear moduli of the intact and fractured resin to be 0.30 GPa-1 and fracture density of 0.41. This value can be used to estimate the effective bulk modulus of the fractured material. The corresponding p-wave velocity, Vp = 1860 m/s, is significantly lower that the observed value. The results suggest that an equivalent medium approximation is not applicable in this case, probably due to the fact that the long-wave approximation is inadequate. Indeed the fractures are larger than the wavelength that corresponds to the peak frequencies of the power spectrum of the signal. This suggests a strong influence of diffraction. Furthermore, the
Cappellari, Michele
2015-01-01
Cappellari (2008) presented a flexible and efficient method to model the stellar kinematics of anisotropic axisymmetric and spherical stellar systems. The spherical formalism could be used to model the line-of-sight velocity second moments allowing for essentially arbitrary radial variation in the anisotropy and general luminous and total density profiles. Here we generalize the spherical formalism by providing the expressions for all three components of the projected second moments, including the two proper motion components. A reference implementation is now included in the public JAM package available at http://purl.org/cappellari/software
Modeling Within-Host Dynamics of Influenza Virus Infection Including Immune Responses
Pawelek, Kasia A.; Huynh, Giao T; Michelle Quinlivan; Ann Cullinane; Libin Rong; Perelson, Alan S.
2012-01-01
Influenza virus infection remains a public health problem worldwide. The mechanisms underlying viral control during an uncomplicated influenza virus infection are not fully understood. Here, we developed a mathematical model including both innate and adaptive immune responses to study the within-host dynamics of equine influenza virus infection in horses. By comparing modeling predictions with both interferon and viral kinetic data, we examined the relative roles of target cell availability, ...
A lumped element transformer model including core losses and winding impedances
Ribbenfjärd, David
2007-01-01
In order to design a power transformer it is important to understand its internal electromagnetic behaviour. That can be obtained by measurements on physical transformers, analytical expressions and computer simulations. One benefit with simulations is that the transformer can be studied before it is built physically and that the consequences of changing dimensions and parameters easily can be tested. In this thesis a time-domain transformer model is presented. The model includes core losses ...
Target echo strength modelling at FOI, including results from the BeTSSi II workshop
Östberg, Martin
2016-01-01
An overview of the target echo strength (TS) modelling capacity at the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) is presented. The modelling methods described range from approximate ones, such as raytracing and Kirchhoff approximation codes, to high accuracy full field codes including boundary integral equation methods and finite elements methods. Illustrations of the applicability of the codes are given for a few simple cases tackled during the BeTTSi II (Benchmark Target Echo Strength Simulation) workshop held in Kiel 2014.
Including leakage in network models: an application to calibrate leak valves in EPANET
Cobacho Jordán, Ricardo; Arregui de la Cruz, Francisco; Soriano Olivares, Javier; Cabrera Rochera, Enrique
2015-01-01
EPANET is one of the most widely used software packages for water network hydraulic modelling, and is especially interesting for educational and research purposes because it is in the public domain. However, EPANET simulations are demand-driven, and the program does not include a specific functionality to model water leakage, which is pressure-driven. Consequently, users are required to deal with this drawback by themselves. As a general solution for this problem, this paper presents a method...
Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
2015-05-15
The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined
Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan
2014-06-01
Recently, a mathematical model of pandemic influenza was proposed including typical control strategies such as antivirals, vaccination and school closure; and considering explicitly the effects of immunity acquired from the early outbreaks on the ulterior outbreaks of the disease. In such model the algebraic expression for the basic reproduction number (without control strategies) and the effective reproduction number (with control strategies) were derived and numerically estimated. A drawback of this model of pandemic influenza is that it ignores the effects of the differential susceptibility due to immunosuppression and the effects of the complexity of the actual contact networks between individuals. We have developed a generalized model which includes such effects of heterogeneity. Specifically we consider the influence of the air network connectivity in the spread of pandemic influenza and the influence of the immunosuppresion when the population is divided in two immune classes. We use an algebraic expression, namely the Tutte polynomial, to characterize the complexity of the contact network. Until now, The influence of the air network connectivity in the spread of pandemic influenza has been studied numerically, but not algebraic expressions have been used to summarize the level of network complexity. The generalized model proposed here includes the typical control strategies previously mentioned (antivirals, vaccination and school closure) combined with restrictions on travel. For the generalized model the corresponding reproduction numbers will be algebraically computed and the effect of the contact network will be established in terms of the Tutte polynomial of the network.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sedaghatizadeh, N.; Atefi, G.; Fardad, A. A.
2011-01-01
In this investigation, semiempirical and numerical studies of blood flow in a viscoelastic artery were performed using the Cosserat continuum model. The large-amplitude oscillatory shear deformation model was used to quantify the nonlinear viscoelastic response of blood flow. The finite differenc...
The Peano-series solution for modeling shear horizontal waves in piezoelectric plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Ghozlen M.H.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The shear horizontal (SH wave devices have been widely used in electroacoustic. To improve their performance, the phase velocity dispersion and the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly in the design. Therefore, this work is to analyze exactly the Lamb waves polarized in the SH direction in homogeneous plate pie.zoelectric material (PZT-5H. An alternative method is proposed to solve the wave equation in such a structure without using the standard method based on the electromechanical partial waves. This method is based on an analytical solution, the matricant explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Two types of configuration have been addressed, namely the open circuited and the short circuited. Results confirm that the SH wave provides a number of attractive properties for use in sensing and signal processing applications. It has been found that the phase velocity remains nearly constant for all values of h/λ (h is the plate thickness, λ the acoustic wavelength. Secondly the SH0 wave mode can provide very high electromechanical coupling. Graphical representations of electrical and mechanical amounts function of depth are made, they are in agreement with the continuity rules. The developed Peano technique is in agreement with the classical approach, and can be suitable with cylindrical geometry.
The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM
Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M
2015-01-01
We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.
Developments in Plasticity Approach to Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
1999-01-01
The paper deals with plastic methods applied to shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Emphasis is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced and lightly shear reinforced beams and slabs. The model, which is an upper bound plasticity approach, takes...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Y W [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, L F [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, J P [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2007-07-20
By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property.
Dynamics Analysis of an HIV Infection Model including Infected Cells in an Eclipse Stage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengyu Zhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an HIV infection model including an eclipse stage of infected cells is considered. Some quicker cells in this stage become productively infected cells, a portion of these cells are reverted to the uninfected class, and others will be latent down in the body. We consider CTL-response delay in this model and analyze the effect of time delay on stability of equilibrium. It is shown that the uninfected equilibrium and CTL-absent infection equilibrium are globally asymptotically stable for both ODE and DDE model. And we get the global stability of the CTL-present equilibrium for ODE model. For DDE model, we have proved that the CTL-present equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable in a range of delays and also have studied the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the CTL-present equilibrium. Numerical simulations are carried out to support our main results.
Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio
2016-01-01
of power system studies, but the idea of the proposed wind turbine model is to include the main dynamic effects in order to have a better representation of the fluctuations in the output power and of the fast power ramping especially because of high wind speed shutdowns of the wind turbine. The high wind......This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... for power system studies. This paper focuses on describing and validating the single wind turbine model, and is therefore neither describing wind speed modeling nor aggregation of contributions from a whole wind farm or a power system area. The state-of-the-art is to use static power curves for the purpose...
A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.
Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J
2016-06-01
Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.
Shear and Turbulence Effects on Lidar Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Courtney, Michael; Sathe, Ameya; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai
Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. It is known that lidar wind speed measure-ments are affected by both turbulence and wind shear. This report explains the mechanisms behind these sensitivities. For turbulence, it is found that errors in the scalar mean speed...... are usually only small. However, particularly in re-spect of a lidar calibration procedure, turbulence induced errors in the cup anemometer speed are seen to be signifi-cantly larger. Wind shear is shown to induce measurement errors both due to possible imperfections in the lidar sensing height and due...... to the averaging of a non-linear speed profile. Both effects in combination have to be included when modelling the lidar error. Attempts to evaluate the lidar error from ex-perimental data have not been successful probably due to a lack of detailed knowledge of both the wind shear and the actual lidar sensing...
Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Newton, T.J.
2010-01-01
Because unionid mussels have a parasitic larval stage, they are able to disperse upstream and downstream as larvae while attached to their host fish and with flow as juveniles after excystment from the host. Understanding unionid population ecology requires knowledge of the processes that affect juvenile dispersal prior to establishment. We examined presettlement (transport and dispersion with flow) and early postsettlement (bed shear stress) hydraulic processes as negative censoring mechanisms. Our approach was to model dispersal using particle tracking through a 3-dimensional flow field output from hydrodynamic models of a reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We tested the potential effects of bed shear stress (??b) at 5 flow rates on juvenile mussel dispersal and quantified the magnitude of these effects as a function of flow rate. We explored the reach-scale relationships of Froude number (Fr), water depth (H), local bed slope (S), and unit stream power (QS) with the likelihood of juvenile settling (??). We ran multiple dispersal simulations at each flow rate to estimate ??, the parameter of a Poisson distribution, from the number of juveniles settling in each grid cell, and calculated dispersal distances. Virtual juveniles that settled in areas of the river where b > critical shear stress (c) were resuspended in the flow and transported further downstream, so we ran simulations at 3 different conditions for ??c (??c = ??? no resuspension, 0.1, and 0.05 N/m2). Differences in virtual juvenile dispersal distance were significantly dependent upon c and flow rate, and effects of b on settling distribution were dependent upon c. Most simulations resulted in positive correlations between ?? and ??b, results suggesting that during early postsettlement, ??b might be the primary determinant of juvenile settling distribution. Negative correlations between ?? and ??b occurred in some simulations, a result suggesting that physical or biological presettlement processes
Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Lee, Seung Soo; Cheong, Hyunhee; Hong, Seung Mo; Jang, Kiseok; Lee, Moon-Gyu
2015-12-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear wave elastography (SWE) as a method for determining the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the stage of hepatic fibrosis, as well as the major determinants of liver elasticity among the various histologic and biomolecular changes associated with NAFLD. Rat NAFLD models with various degrees of NAFLD severity were created and imaged using SWE. The explanted livers were subjected to histopathologic evaluation and RNA expression analysis. Among the histologic and biomolecular findings, the fibrosis stage and the collagen RNA level were significant independent factors associated with liver elasticity (p steatohepatitis (NASH) and in determining fibrosis stage, and the corresponding areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.963 and 0.927-0.997, respectively. In conclusion, SWE is a potential non-invasive method for the detection of NASH and staging of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.
Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris
2000-01-01
The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).
Fusion rules for the logarithmic $N=1$ superconformal minimal models II: including the Ramond sector
Canagasabey, Michael
2015-01-01
The Virasoro logarithmic minimal models were intensively studied by several groups over the last ten years with much attention paid to the fusion rules and the structures of the indecomposable representations that fusion generates. The analogous study of the fusion rules of the $N=1$ superconformal logarithmic minimal models was initiated in arXiv:1504.03155 as a continuum counterpart to the lattice explorations of arXiv:1312.6763. These works restricted fusion considerations to Neveu-Schwarz representations. Here, this is extended to include the Ramond sector. Technical advances that make this possible include a fermionic Verlinde formula applicable to logarithmic conformal field theories and a twisted version of the fusion algorithm of Nahm and Gaberdiel-Kausch. The results include the first construction and detailed analysis of logarithmic structures in the Ramond sector.
MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Proksch
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.
MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Proksch
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like and cross polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoids fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in MATLAB and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.
MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering
Proksch, M.; Mätzler, C.; Wiesmann, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Schwank, M.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.
2015-08-01
The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5-100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS) is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.
Diagnosing Lee Wave Rotor Onset Using a Linear Model Including a Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A. C. Teixeira
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A linear model is used to diagnose the onset of rotors in flow over 2D hills, for atmospheres that are neutrally stratified near the surface and stably stratified aloft, with a sharp temperature inversion in between, where trapped lee waves may propagate. This is achieved by coupling an inviscid two-layer mountain-wave model and a bulk boundary-layer model. The full model shows some ability to diagnose flow stagnation associated with rotors as a function of key input parameters, such as the Froude number and the height of the inversion, in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments carried out by previous authors. While calculations including only the effects of mean flow attenuation and velocity perturbation amplification within the surface layer represent flow stagnation fairly well in the more non-hydrostatic cases, only the full model, taking into account the feedback of the surface layer on the inviscid flow, satisfactorily predicts flow stagnation in the most hydrostatic case, although the corresponding condition is unable to discriminate between rotors and hydraulic jumps. Versions of the model not including this feedback severely underestimate the amplitude of trapped lee waves in that case, where the Fourier transform of the hill has zeros, showing that those waves are not forced directly by the orography.
Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B
2016-01-01
A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.
Nafar Sefiddashti, Mohammad Hadi; Edwards, Brian J.; Khomami, Bamin
2017-08-01
Recent simulation results of a moderately entangled linear polyethylene C700H1402 liquid have confirmed prior simulation and experimental evidence that individual polymer molecules experience periodic rotation and retraction cycles under steady shear flow at high Weissenberg number. With this insight, theoreticians have begun to grapple with this additional complicating physical phenomenon that needs to be incorporated into rheological models to help explain the data under conditions of high shear. In this paper we examine these recent efforts by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to provide insight into the requisite theoretical variables and their assigned evolution equations to evaluate the capability of these tube-based models to predict accurately the simulated data sets. This analysis reveals that the primary variables used in tube models to impart a conceptual basis to the theory, namely, the tube orientation tensor and the tube stretch, remain fundamental system properties even far away from equilibrium; however, the theory describing their evolution under flow is not well suited to quantitative prediction. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that key system properties, such as the entanglement number and disengagement time, should play a more significant role in model development since these quantities can change dramatically under flow, particularly at high Weissenberg number where the chain rotation and retraction cycles dominate the system physics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nan Liang; Pu-Xun Wua; Zong-Hong Zhu
2011-01-01
We constrain the Cardassian expansion models from the latest observations,including the updated Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs),which are calibrated using a cosmology independent method from the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia).By combining the GRB data with the joint observations from the Union2SNe Ia set,along with the results from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation observation from the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the baryonic acoustic oscillation observation galaxy sample from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release,we find significant constraints on the model parameters of the original Cardassian model ΩM0=n 282+0.015-0.014,n=0.03+0.05-0.05;and n = -0.16+0.25-3.26,β=-0.76+0.34-0.58 of the modified polytropic Cardassian model,which are consistent with the ACDM model in a l-σ confidence region.From the reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in Cardassian models,we obtain the transition redshift ZT = 0.73 ± 0.04 for the original Cardassian model and ZT = 0.68 ± 0.04 for the modified polytropic Cardassian model.
Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis
Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin
2013-03-01
The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.
Dixon, Timothy; Farina, Fred; DeMets, Charles; Suarez-Vidal, Francisco; Fletcher, John; Marquez-Azua, Bertha; Miller, Meghan; Sanchez, Osvaldo; Umhoefer, Paul
2000-12-01
We use new models for present-day Pacific-North America motion to evaluate the tectonics of offshore regions west of the Californias. Vandenburg in coastal Alta California moves at the Pacific plate velocity within uncertainties (˜1 mm/yr) after correcting for strain accumulation on the San Andreas and San Gregorio-Hosgri faults with a model that includes a viscoelastic lower crust. Modeled and measured velocities at coastal sites in Baja California south of the Agua Blanca fault, a region that most previous models consider Pacific plate, differ by 3-8 mm/yr, with coastal sites moving slower that the Pacific plate. We interpret these discrepancies in terms of strain accumulation on known on-shore faults, combined with right lateral slip at a rate of 3-4 mm/yr on additional faults offshore peninsular Baja California in the Pacific. Offshore seismicity, offset Quaternary features along the west coast of Baja California, and a discrepancy between the magnetically determined spreading rate in the Gulf Rise and the total plate rate from a geological model provide independent evidence for a “Baja California shear zone.”
Rheometry-PIV of shear-thickening wormlike micelles.
Marín-Santibañez, Benjamín M; Pérez-Gonzalez, José; de Vargas, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Huelsz, Guadalupe
2006-04-25
The shear-thickening behavior of an equimolar semidilute aqueous solution of 40 mM/L cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate was studied in this work by using a combined method of rheometry and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were conducted at 27.5 degrees C with Couette, vane-bob, and capillary rheometers in order to explore a wide shear stress range as well as the effect of boundary conditions and time of flow on the creation and destruction of shear-induced structures (SIS). The use of the combined method of capillary rheometry with PIV allowed the detection of fast spatial and temporal variations in the flow kinematics, which are related to the shear-thickening behavior and the dynamics of the SIS but are not distinguished by pure rheometrical measurements. A rich-in-details flow curve was found for this solution, which includes five different regimes. Namely, at very low shear rates a Newtonian behavior was found, followed by a shear thinning one in the second regime. In the third, shear banding was observed, which served as a precursor of the SIS and shear-thickening. The fourth and fifth regimes in the flow curve were separated by a spurtlike behavior, and they clearly evidenced the existence of shear-thickening accompanied by stick-slip oscillations at the wall of the rheometer, which subsequently produced variations in the shear rate under shear stress controlled flow. Such a stick-slip phenomenon prevailed up to the highest shear stresses used in this work and was reflected in asymmetric velocity profiles with spatial and temporal variations linked to the dynamics of creation and breakage of the SIS. The presence of apparent slip at the wall of the rheometer provides an energy release mechanism which leads to breakage of the SIS, followed by their further reformation during the stick part of the cycles. In addition, PIV measurements allowed the detection of apparent slip at the wall, as well as mechanical failures in the bulk of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal distribution under long-term studies. Meanwhile the boundary conditions for the thermal analysis are modeled and included, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by FEM simulations...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal distribution under long-term studies. Meanwhile the boundary conditions for the thermal analysis are modeled and included, which can be adapted to different real-field applications of power electronic converters. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by FEM simulations...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three...
Ultrasonic characterization of shear thickening suspensions
Johnson, Benjamin Lenihan
This dissertation describes the characterization of an inherently inhomogeneous medium capable of shear thickening. An aqueous suspension of cornstarch represents an important exemplar of such physical systems. The physics underlying the behavior of such shear thickening suspensions is incompletely understood. Characterization of these suspensions may provide valuable clues into the underlying mechanisms that result in shear thickening behavior. The goal of this thesis is to characterize the acoustic properties of suspensions of cornstarch in density-matched cesium chloride aqueous solutions. A review of the literature indicated that almost no information concerning the ultrasonic characteristics of suspensions of starches had been reported other than studies monitoring the gelatinization of starches not relevant to the shear stiffening of ungelatinized suspensions. Each chapter began with a discussion and validation of the specific experimental techniques and methods of analysis necessary for each type of measurement. Ultrasonic measurement of the group velocity, the frequency-dependent attenuation properties, the frequency-dependent phase velocity, and the frequency-dependent backscatter properties of the suspensions of cornstarch are reported. Initially counterintuitive results including negative (phase velocity) dispersion and a decrease in the measured backscatter coefficient with increasing particle concentration are understood in terms of widely accepted physical models. In sum, these studies represent an advancement of the understanding of the physics underlying the interaction between ultrasound and suspensions and lay the groundwork for future studies probing the physics of the shear thickening.
Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation
Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko
2012-01-01
We report experimental observation of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. The shear thickening oscillation is caused by the interplay between the fluid dynamics and the shear thickening, and has been predicted theoretically by the present authors using a phenomenological fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid, but never been reported experimentally. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed strong vibrations of the frequency around 20 Hz, which is consistent with our theoretical prediction.
Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H
2016-03-01
This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers.
A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace
Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad
This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.
Duignan, Timothy T; Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W
2013-08-15
Physically accurate continuum solvent models that can calculate solvation energies are crucial to explain and predict the behavior of solute particles in water. Here, we present such a model applied to small spherical ions and neutral atoms. It improves upon a basic Born electrostatic model by including a standard cavity energy and adding a dispersion component, consistent with the Born electrostatic energy and using the same cavity size parameter. We show that the well-known, puzzling differences between the solvation energies of ions of the same size is attributable to the neglected dispersion contribution. This depends on dynamic polarizability as well as size. Generally, a large cancellation exists between the cavity and dispersion contributions. This explains the surprising success of the Born model. The model accurately reproduces the solvation energies of the alkali halide ions, as well as the silver(I) and copper(I) ions with an error of 12 kJ mol(-1) (±3%). The solvation energy of the noble gases is also reproduced with an error of 2.6 kJ mol(-1) (±30%). No arbitrary fitting parameters are needed to achieve this. This model significantly improves our understanding of ionic solvation and forms a solid basis for the investigation of other ion-specific effects using a continuum solvent model.
Model for resistance evolution in shape memory alloys including R-phase
Brammajyosula, Ravindra; Buravalla, Vidyashankar; Khandelwal, Ashish
2011-03-01
The electrical resistance behavior of a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire can be used for sensing the state of an SMA device. Hence, this study investigates the resistance evolution in SMAs. A lumped parameter model with cosine kinetics to capture the resistance variation during the phase transformation is developed. Several SMA materials show the presence of trigonal or rhombohedral (R) phase as an intermediate phase, apart from the commonly recognized austenite and martensite phases. Most of the SMA models ignore the R-phase effect in their prediction of thermomechanical response. This may be acceptable since the changes in thermomechanical response associated with the R-phase are relatively less. However, the resistivity related effects are pronounced in the presence of the R-phase and its appearance introduces non-monotonicity in the resistivity evolution. This leads to additional complexities in the use of resistance signal for sensing and control. Hence, a lumped model is developed here for resistance evolution including the R-phase effects. A phase-diagram-based model is proposed for predicting electro-thermomechanical response. Both steady state hysteretic response and transient response are modeled. The model predictions are compared with the available test data. Numerical studies have shown that the model is able to capture all the essential features of the resistance evolution in SMAs in the presence of the R-phase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyein Lim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.
Buckley, Lauren B; Waaser, Stephanie A; MacLean, Heidi J; Fox, Richard
2011-12-01
Thermal constraints on development are often invoked to predict insect distributions. These constraints tend to be characterized in species distribution models (SDMs) by calculating development time based on a constant lower development temperature (LDT). Here, we assessed whether species-specific estimates of LDT based on laboratory experiments can improve the ability of SDMs to predict the distribution shifts of six U.K. butterflies in response to recent climate warming. We find that species-specific and constant (5 degrees C) LDT degree-day models perform similarly at predicting distributions during the period of 1970-1982. However, when the models for the 1970-1982 period are projected to predict distributions in 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, species-specific LDT degree-day models modestly outperform constant LDT degree-day models. Our results suggest that, while including species-specific physiology in correlative models may enhance predictions of species' distribution responses to climate change, more detailed models may be needed to adequately account for interspecific physiological differences.
Modeling of single char combustion, including CO oxidation in its boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, C.H.; Longwell, J.P.; Sarofim, A.F.
1994-10-25
The combustion of a char particle can be divided into a transient phase where its temperature increases as it is heated by oxidation, and heat transfer from the surrounding gas to an approximately constant temperature stage where gas phase reaction is important and which consumes most of the carbon and an extinction stage caused by carbon burnout. In this work, separate models were developed for the transient heating where gas phase reactions were unimportant and for the steady temperature stage where gas phase reactions were treated in detail. The transient char combustion model incorporates intrinsic char surface production of CO and CO{sub 2}, internal pore diffusion and external mass and heat transfer. The model provides useful information for particle ignition, burning temperature profile, combustion time, and carbon consumption rate. A gas phase reaction model incorporating the full set of 28 elementary C/H/O reactions was developed. This model calculated the gas phase CO oxidation reaction in the boundary layer at particle temperatures of 1250 K and 2500 K by using the carbon consumption rate and the burning temperature at the pseudo-steady state calculated from the temperature profile model but the transient heating was not included. This gas phase model can predict the gas species, and the temperature distributions in the boundary layer, the CO{sub 2}/CO ratio, and the location of CO oxidation. A mechanistic heat and mass transfer model was added to the temperature profile model to predict combustion behavior in a fluidized bed. These models were applied to data from the fluidized combustion of Newlands coal char particles. 52 refs., 60 figs.
Including source uncertainty and prior information in the analysis of stable isotope mixing models.
Ward, Eric J; Semmens, Brice X; Schindler, Daniel E
2010-06-15
Stable isotope mixing models offer a statistical framework for estimating the contribution of multiple sources (such as prey) to a mixture distribution. Recent advances in these models have estimated the source proportions using Bayesian methods, but have not explicitly accounted for uncertainty in the mean and variance of sources. We demonstrate that treating these quantities as unknown parameters can reduce bias in the estimated source contributions, although model complexity is increased (thereby increasing the variance of estimates). The advantages of this fully Bayesian approach are particularly apparent when the source geometry is poor or sample sizes are small. A second benefit to treating source quantities as parameters is that prior source information can be included. We present findings from 9 lake food-webs, where the consumer of interest (fish) has a diet composed of 5 sources: aquatic insects, snails, zooplankton, amphipods, and terrestrial insects. We compared the traditional Bayesian stable isotope mixing model with fixed source parameters to our fully Bayesian model-with and without an informative prior. The informative prior has much less impact than the choice of model-the traditional mixing model with fixed source parameters estimates the diet to be dominated by aquatic insects, while the fully Bayesian model estimates the diet to be more balanced but with greater importance of zooplankton. The findings from this example demonstrate that there can be stark differences in inference between the two model approaches, particularly when the source geometry of the mixing model is poor. These analyses also emphasize the importance of investing substantial effort toward characterizing the variation in the isotopic characteristics of source pools to appropriately quantify uncertainties in their contributions to consumers in food webs.
Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf
2014-08-01
The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.
Codigestion of solid wastes: a review of its uses and perspectives including modeling.
Mata-Alvarez, Joan; Dosta, Joan; Macé, Sandra; Astals, Sergi
2011-06-01
The last two years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of papers published on the subject of codigestion, highlighting the relevance of this topic within anaerobic digestion research. Consequently, it seems appropriate to undertake a review of codigestion practices starting from the late 1970s, when the first papers related to this concept were published, and continuing to the present day, demonstrating the exponential growth in the interest shown in this approach in recent years. Following a general analysis of the situation, state-of-the-art codigestion is described, focusing on the two most important areas as regards publication: codigestion involving sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (including a review of the secondary advantages for wastewater treatment plant related to biological nutrient removal), and codigestion in the agricultural sector, that is, including agricultural - farm wastes, and energy crops. Within these areas, a large number of oversized digesters appear which can be used to codigest other substrates, resulting in economic and environmental advantages. Although the situation may be changing, there is still a need for good examples on an industrial scale, particularly with regard to wastewater treatment plants, in order to extend this beneficial practice. In the last section, a detailed analysis of papers addressing the important aspect of modelisation is included. This analysis includes the first codigestion models to be developed as well as recent applications of the standardised anaerobic digestion model ADM1 to codigestion. (This review includes studies ranging from laboratory to industrial scale.).
Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.
2005-01-01
In this paper we propose a SISO UWB radio channel model for short-range radio link scenarios between a fixed device and a dynamic user hand-held device. The channel model is derived based on novel experimental UWB radio propagation investigations carried out in typical indoor PAN scenarios...... including realistic device and user terminal antenna configurations. The radio channel measurements have been performed in the lower UWB frequency band of 3GHz to 5GHz with a 2x4 MIMO antenna configuration. Several environments, user scenarios and two types of user terminals have been used. The developed...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy logic controller (FLC is a heuristic method by If-Then Rules which resembles human intelligence and it is a good method for designing Non-linear control systems. In this paper, an arbitrary helicopter model includes articulated manipulators has been simulated with Matlab SimMechanics toolbox. Due to the difficulties of modeling this complex system, a fuzzy controller with simple fuzzy rules has been designed for its yaw and roll angles in order to stabilize the helicopter while it is in the presence of disturbances or its manipulators are moving for a task. Results reveal that a simple FLC can appropriately control this system.
Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models
Brown, Clifford A.
2016-01-01
The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.
Fuller, C. R.
1986-01-01
A simplified analytical model of transmission of noise into the interior of propeller-driven aircraft has been developed. The analysis includes directivity and relative phase effects of the propeller noise sources, and leads to a closed form solution for the coupled motion between the interior and exterior fields via the shell (fuselage) vibrational response. Various situations commonly encountered in considering sound transmission into aircraft fuselages are investigated analytically and the results obtained are compared to measurements in real aircraft. In general the model has proved successful in identifying basic mechanisms behind noise transmission phenomena.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco J. Molina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The response of 13 reinforced concrete shear walls submitted to successive seismic tests has been postprocessed to produce time histories of secant stiffness and displacement oscillation amplitude. For every wall an envelope curve of displacement amplitude versus stiffness is identified which is fairly modelled by a straight line in double logarithmic scale. This relatively simple model, when used as a capacity line in combination with the demand response spectrum, is able to predict in an approximate manner the maximum response to the applied earthquakes. Moreover, the graphic representation of the demand spectrum and a unique model capacity line for a group of equal walls with different assumed design frequencies on them gives a visual interpretation of the different safety margins observed in the experiments for the respective walls. The same method allows as well constructing vulnerability curves for any design frequency or spectrum. Finally, the comparison of the different identified line models for the different walls allows us to assess the qualitative effect on the behaviour of parameters such as the reinforcement density or the added normal load.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelkar, Sharad [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-01
The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing fractures, whether natural or man-made, is possibly the single most important factor, after temperature, which determines the feasibility of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Rock deformation and in-situ stress changes induced by injected fluids can lead to shear failure on preexisting fractures which can generate microseismic events, and also enhance the permeability and accessible surface area of the geothermal formation. Hence, the ability to accurately model the coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) processes in fractured geological formations is critical in effective EGS reservoir development and management strategies. The locations of the microseismic events can serve as indicators of the zones of enhanced permeability, thus providing vital information for verification of the coupled THM models. We will describe a general purpose computational code, FEHM, developed for this purpose, that models coupled THM processes during multiphase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code incorporates several models of fracture aperture and stress behavior combined with permeability relationships. We provide field scale examples of applications to geothermal systems to demonstrate the utility of the method.
Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein
2017-02-01
In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiasheng Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The 3-D geometry of the seismicity in Hindu Kush–Pamir–western China region has been defined by seismic records for 1975–1999 from the National Earthquake Information Center, the U.S. Geological Survey, and over 16,000 relocated earthquakes since 1975 recorded by the Xinjiang seismic network of China. The results show that most Ms ≥ 5.0 hypocenters in the area are confined to a major intracontinental seismic shear zone (MSSZ. The MSSZ, which dips southwards in Pamir has a north-dipping counterpart in the Hindu Kush to the west; the two tectonic realms are separated by the sinistral Chaman transform fault of the India–Asia collisional zone. We demonstrate that the MSSZ constitutes the upper boundary of a south-dipping, actively subducting Pamir continental plate. Three seismic concentrations are recognized just above the Pamir MSSZ at depths between 45–65 km, 95–120 km, and 180–220 km, suggesting different structural relationships where each occurs. Results from focal mechanism solutions in all three seismological concentrations show orientations of the principal maximum stress to be nearly horizontal in an NNW–SSE direction. The south-dipping Pamir subduction slab is wedge-shaped with a wide upper top and a narrow deeper bottom; the slab has a gentle angle of dip in the upper part and steeper dips in the lower part below an elbow depth of ca. 80–120 km. Most of the deformation related to the earthquakes occurs within the hanging wall of the subducting Pamir slab. Published geologic data and repeated GPS measurements in the Pamir document a broad supra-subduction, upper crustal zone of evolving antithetic (i.e. north-dipping back-thrusts that contribute to north-south crustal shortening and are responsible for exhumation of some ultrahigh-pressure rocks formed during earlier Tethyan plate convergence. An alternating occurrence in activity of Pamir and Chaman seismic zones indicates that there is interaction between
An air/sea flux model including the effects of capillary waves
Bourassa, Mark A.
1993-01-01
An improved model of the air/sea interface is developed. The improvements consist in including the effect of capillary (surface tension) waves on the tropical surface fluxes and the consideration of the sea state, both of which increase the magnitude of tropical surface fluxes. Changes in surface stress are most significant in the low wind-speed regions, which include the areas where westerly bursts occur. It is shown that the changes, from the regular wind conditions to those of a westerly burst or El-Nino, can double when the effects of capillary waves are considered. This implies a much stronger coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere than is predicted by other boundary layer models.
A complete model of CH+ rotational excitation including radiative and chemical pumping processes
Godard, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Aims. Excitation of far-infrared and submillimetric molecular lines may originate from nonreactive collisions, chemical formation, or far infrared, near-infrared, and optical fluorescences. As a template, we investigate the impact of each of these processes on the excitation of the methylidyne cation CH+ and on the intensities of its rotational transitions recently detected in emission in dense photodissociation regions (PDRs) and in planetary nebulae. Methods. We have developed a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) excitation model that includes the entire energy structure of CH+, i.e. taking into account the pumping of its vibrational and bound and unbound electronic states by near-infrared and optical photons. The model includes the theoretical cross-sections of nonreactive collisions with H, H2, He, and e-, and a Boltzmann distribution is used to describe the probability of populating the excited levels of CH+ during its chemical formation by hydrogenation of C+. To confirm our results we also pe...
Bongers, Mathilda L; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; Coupé, V M H
2016-01-01
With the shift toward individualized treatment, cost-effectiveness models need to incorporate patient and tumor characteristics that may be relevant to treatment planning. In this study, we used multistate statistical modeling to inform a microsimulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of individualized radiotherapy in lung cancer. The model tracks clinical events over time and takes patient and tumor features into account. Four clinical states were included in the model: alive without progression, local recurrence, metastasis, and death. Individual patients were simulated by repeatedly sampling a patient profile, consisting of patient and tumor characteristics. The transitioning of patients between the health states is governed by personalized time-dependent hazard rates, which were obtained from multistate statistical modeling (MSSM). The model simulations for both the individualized and conventional radiotherapy strategies demonstrated internal and external validity. Therefore, MSSM is a useful technique for obtaining the correlated individualized transition rates that are required for the quantification of a microsimulation model. Moreover, we have used the hazard ratios, their 95% confidence intervals, and their covariance to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the model in a correlated way. The obtained model will be used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of individualized radiotherapy treatment planning, including the uncertainty of input parameters. We discuss the model-building process and the strengths and weaknesses of using MSSM in a microsimulation model for individualized radiotherapy in lung cancer.
Estrada, Rosendo; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Roussel, Thomas J; Shakeri, Mostafa; Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Sethu, Palaniappan
2011-04-15
The phenotype and function of vascular cells in vivo are influenced by complex mechanical signals generated by pulsatile hemodynamic loading. Physiologically relevant in vitro studies of vascular cells therefore require realistic environments where in vivo mechanical loading conditions can be accurately reproduced. To accomplish a realistic in vivo-like loading environment, we designed and fabricated an Endothelial Cell Culture Model (ECCM) to generate physiological pressure, stretch, and shear stress profiles associated with normal and pathological cardiac flow states. Cells within this system were cultured on a stretchable, thin (∼500 μm) planar membrane within a rectangular flow channel and subject to constant fluid flow. Under pressure, the thin planar membrane assumed a concave shape, representing a segment of the blood vessel wall. Pulsatility was introduced using a programmable pneumatically controlled collapsible chamber. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured within this system under normal conditions and compared to HAECs cultured under static and "flow only" (13 dyn/cm(2)) control conditions using microscopy. Cells cultured within the ECCM were larger than both controls and assumed an ellipsoidal shape. In contrast to static control control cells, ECCM-cultured cells exhibited alignment of cytoskeletal actin filaments and high and continuous expression levels of β-catenin indicating an in vivo-like phenotype. In conclusion, design, fabrication, testing, and validation of the ECCM for culture of ECs under realistic pressure, flow, strain, and shear loading seen in normal and pathological conditions was accomplished. The ECCM therefore is an enabling technology that allows for study of ECs under physiologically relevant biomechanical loading conditions in vitro. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Guyot, Y; Luyten, F P; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I; Geris, L
2015-12-01
Bone tissue engineering strategies use flow through perfusion bioreactors to apply mechanical stimuli to cells seeded on porous scaffolds. Cells grow on the scaffold surface but also by bridging the scaffold pores leading a fully filled scaffold following the scaffold's geometric characteristics. Current computational fluid dynamic approaches for tissue engineering bioreactor systems have been mostly carried out for empty scaffolds. The effect of 3D cell growth and extracellular matrix formation (termed in this study as neotissue growth), on its surrounding fluid flow field is a challenge yet to be tackled. In this work a combined approach was followed linking curvature driven cell growth to fluid dynamics modeling. The level-set method (LSM) was employed to capture neotissue growth driven by curvature, while the Stokes and Darcy equations, combined in the Brinkman equation, provided information regarding the distribution of the shear stress profile at the neotissue/medium interface and within the neotissue itself during growth. The neotissue was assumed to be micro-porous allowing flow through its structure while at the same time allowing the simulation of complete scaffold filling without numerical convergence issues. The results show a significant difference in the amplitude of shear stress for cells located within the micro-porous neo-tissue or at the neotissue/medium interface, demonstrating the importance of taking along the neotissue in the calculation of the mechanical stimulation of cells during culture.The presented computational framework is used on different scaffold pore geometries demonstrating its potential to be used a design as tool for scaffold architecture taking into account the growing neotissue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2591-2600. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-01
Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cooper, Antony K
2011-07-01
Full Text Available an aggregator of VGI, such as Ushahidi, and the provider of the infrastructure for collecting VGI, such as OpenStreetMap. 3) Broker: A stakeholder who brings End Users and Providers together and assists in the negotiation of contracts between them... model of a spatial data infrastructure to include volunteered geographical information Antony K Cooper*, Petr Rapant?, Jan Hjelmager?, Dominique Laurent?, Adam Iwaniak#, Serena Coetzee$, Harold Moellering? and Ulrich D?ren? *Logistics...
QCD Equation of State From a Chiral Hadronic Model Including Quark Degrees of Freedom
Rau, Philip; Schramm, Stefan; Stöcker, Horst
2013-01-01
This work presents an effective model for strongly interacting matter and the QCD equation of state (EoS). The model includes both hadron and quark degrees of freedom and takes into account the transition of chiral symmetry restoration as well as the deconfinement phase transition. At low temperatures $T$ and baryonic densities $\\rho_B$ a hadron resonance gas is described using a SU(3)-flavor sigma-omega model and a quark phase is introduced in analogy to PNJL models for higher $T$ and $\\rho_B$. In this way, the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom are used in a wide range of $T$ and $\\rho_B$. Here, results of this model concerning the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions and thermodynamic model properties are presented. Large hadron resonance multiplicities in the transition region emphasize the importance of heavy-mass resonance states in this region and their impact on the chiral transition behavior. The resulting phase diagram of QCD matter at small chemical potentials is in line with latest lattic...
A full model for simulation of electrochemical cells including complex behavior
Esperilla, J. J.; Félez, J.; Romero, G.; Carretero, A.
This communication presents a model of electrochemical cells developed in order to simulate their electrical, chemical and thermal behavior showing the differences when thermal effects are or not considered in the charge-discharge process. The work presented here has been applied to the particular case of the Pb,PbSO 4|H 2SO 4 (aq)|PbO 2,Pb cell, which forms the basis of the lead-acid batteries so widely used in the automotive industry and as traction batteries in electric or hybrid vehicles. Each half-cell is considered independently in the model. For each half-cell, in addition to the main electrode reaction, a secondary reaction is considered: the hydrogen evolution reaction in the negative electrode and the oxygen evolution reaction in the positive. The equilibrium potential is calculated with the Nernst equation, in which the activity coefficients are fitted to an exponential function using experimental data. On the other hand, the two main mechanisms that produce the overpotential are considered, that is the activation or charge transfer and the diffusion mechanisms. First, an isothermal model has been studied in order to show the behavior of the main phenomena. A more complex model has also been studied including thermal behavior. This model is very useful in the case of traction batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles where high current intensities appear. Some simulation results are also presented in order to show the accuracy of the proposed models.
A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics
2016-08-09
An anisotropic, rate-dependent, single-crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.
Intrinsic alignment-lensing interference as a contaminant of cosmic shear
Hirata, C M; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros
2004-01-01
Cosmic shear surveys have great promise as tools for precision cosmology, but can be subject to systematic errors including intrinsic ellipticity correlations of the source galaxies. The intrinsic alignments are believed to be small for deep surveys, but this is based on intrinsic and lensing distortions being uncorrelated. Here we show that the gravitational lensing shear and intrinsic shear need not be independent: correlations between the tidal field and the intrinsic shear cause the intrinsic shear of nearby galaxies to be correlated with the gravitational shear acting on more distant galaxies. We estimate the magnitude of this effect for two simple intrinsic alignment models: one in which the galaxy ellipticity is linearly related to the tidal field, and one in which it is quadratic in the tidal field as suggested by tidal torque theory. The first model predicts a gravitational-intrinsic (GI) correlation that can be much greater than the intrinsic-intrinsic (II) correlation for broad redshift distributio...
A 3D model of the oculomotor plant including the pulley system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viegener, A; Armentano, R L [Fundacion Universitaria Dr. Rene G. Favaloro, SolIs 453 (1078) Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2007-11-15
Early models of the oculomotor plant only considered the eye globes and the muscles that move them. Recently, connective tissue structures have been found enveloping the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and firmly anchored to the orbital wall. These structures act as pulleys; they determine the functional origin of the EOMs and, in consequence, their effective pulling direction. A three dimensional model of the oculomotor plant, including pulleys, has been developed and simulations in Simulink were performed during saccadic eye movements. Listing's law was implemented based on the supposition that there exists an eye orientation related signal. The inclusion of the pulleys in the model makes this assumption plausible and simplifies the problem of the plant noncommutativity.
A flexible and qualitatively stable model for cell cycle dynamics including DNA damage effects.
Jeffries, Clark D; Johnson, Charles R; Zhou, Tong; Simpson, Dennis A; Kaufmann, William K
2012-01-01
This paper includes a conceptual framework for cell cycle modeling into which the experimenter can map observed data and evaluate mechanisms of cell cycle control. The basic model exhibits qualitative stability, meaning that regardless of magnitudes of system parameters its instances are guaranteed to be stable in the sense that all feasible trajectories converge to a certain trajectory. Qualitative stability can also be described by the signs of real parts of eigenvalues of the system matrix. On the biological side, the resulting model can be tuned to approximate experimental data pertaining to human fibroblast cell lines treated with ionizing radiation, with or without disabled DNA damage checkpoints. Together these properties validate a fundamental, first order systems view of cell dynamics. Classification Codes: 15A68.
RELAP5-3D Code Includes Athena Features and Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard R. Schultz
2006-07-01
Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, sf6, xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5- 3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper.
Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations
Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien
2017-04-01
Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.
EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL INCLUDING A QUADRATIC GRADIENT TERM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹绪龙; 同登科; 王瑞和
2004-01-01
The models of the nonlinear radial flow for the infinite and finite reservoirs including a quadratic gradient term were presented. The exact solution was given in real space for flow equation including quadratic gradiet term for both constant-rate and constant pressure production cases in an infinite system by using generalized Weber transform. Analytical solutions for flow equation including quadratic gradient term were also obtained by using the Hankel transform for a finite circular reservoir case. Both closed and constant pressure outer boundary conditions are considered. Moreover, both constant rate and constant pressure inner boundary conditions are considered. The difference between the nonlinear pressure solution and linear pressure solution is analyzed. The difference may be reached about 8% in the long time. The effect of the quadratic gradient term in the large time well test is considered.
Extended Chaplygin gas equation of state with bulk and shear viscosities
Naji, Jalil
2014-03-01
In this note extended Chaplygin gas equation of state includes bulk and shear viscosities suggested. Bulk viscosity assumed as power law form of density and shear viscosity considered as a constant. We study evolution of dark energy density numerically for several forms of scale factor, and analytically under some assumptions corresponding to early universe. We found our model is stable for infinitesimal viscous parameters.
SPheno 3.1: extensions including flavour, CP-phases and models beyond the MSSM
Porod, W.; Staub, F.
2012-11-01
We describe recent extensions of the program SPhenoincluding flavour aspects, CP-phases, R-parity violation and low energy observables. In case of flavour mixing all masses of supersymmetric particles are calculated including the complete flavour structure and all possible CP-phases at the 1-loop level. We give details on implemented seesaw models, low energy observables and the corresponding extension of the SUSY Les Houches Accord. Moreover, we comment on the possibilities to include MSSM extensions in SPheno. Catalogue identifier: ADRV_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRV_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1336037 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran95. Computer: PC running under Linux, should run in every Unix environment. Operating system: Linux, Unix. Classification: 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRV_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 153(2003)275 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The first issue is the determination of the masses and couplings of supersymmetric particles in various supersymmetric models, the R-parity conserved MSSM with generation mixing and including CP-violating phases, various seesaw extensions of the MSSM and the MSSM with bilinear R-parity breaking. Low energy data on Standard Model fermion masses, gauge couplings and electroweak gauge boson masses serve as constraints. Radiative corrections from supersymmetric particles to these inputs must be calculated. Theoretical constraints on the soft SUSY breaking parameters from a high scale theory are imposed and the parameters at the electroweak scale are obtained from the
Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E; Krein, Gastão
2015-01-01
We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear $\\eta$ and bulk $\\zeta$ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-$\\pi$ and quark-$\\sigma$ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses, and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We found a non-trivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios $\\eta/s$ and $\\zeta/s$, where $s$ is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model in the quasi-particle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for $\\eta/s$ has a minimum very close to the conjectured AdS/CFT lower bound, $\\eta/s = 1/4\\pi$.
Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Peixoto, Thiago C.; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão
2016-04-01
We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear η and bulk ζ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-π and quark-σ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We found a nontrivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios η /s and ζ /s , where s is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the quasiparticle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for η /s has a minimum very close to the quantum lower bound, η /s =1 /4 π .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang-jin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The researchers cannot control the composition and structure of coarse grained soil in the indoor experiment because the granular particles of different size have the characteristics of random distribution and no sorting. Therefore, on the basis of the laboratory tests with the coarse grained soil, the HHC-Granular model, which could simulate the no sorting and random distribution of different size particles in the coarse-grained soil, was developed by use of cellular automata method. Meanwhile, the triaxial numerical simulation experiments of coarse grained soil were finished with the different composition and structure soil, and the variation of shear strength was discussed. The results showed that the internal friction angle was likely to reduce with the increasing of gravel contents in the coarse-grained soil, but the mean internal friction angle significantly increased with the increment of gravel contents. It indicated that the gravel contents of shear bands were the major factor affecting the shear strength.
Venetsanos, A G; Bartzis, J G; Würtz, J; Papailiou, D D
2003-04-25
A two-dimensional shallow layer model has been developed to predict dense gas dispersion, under realistic conditions, including complex features such as two-phase releases, obstacles and inclined ground. The model attempts to predict the time and space evolution of the cloud formed after a release of a two-phase pollutant into the atmosphere. The air-pollutant mixture is assumed ideal. The cloud evolution is described mathematically through the Cartesian, two-dimensional, shallow layer conservation equations for mixture mass, mixture momentum in two horizontal directions, total pollutant mass fraction (vapor and liquid) and mixture internal energy. Liquid mass fraction is obtained assuming phase equilibrium. Account is taken in the conservation equations for liquid slip and eventual liquid rainout through the ground. Entrainment of ambient air is modeled via an entrainment velocity model, which takes into account the effects of ground friction, ground heat transfer and relative motion between cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The model additionally accounts for thin obstacles effects in three ways. First a stepwise description of the obstacle is generated, following the grid cell faces, taking into account the corresponding area blockage. Then obstacle drag on the passing cloud is modeled by adding flow resistance terms in the momentum equations. Finally the effect of extra vorticity generation and entrainment enhancement behind obstacles is modeled by adding locally into the entrainment formula without obstacles, a characteristic velocity scale defined from the obstacle pressure drop and the local cloud height.The present model predictions have been compared against theoretical results for constant volume and constant flux gravity currents. It was found that deviations of the predicted cloud footprint area change with time from the theoretical were acceptably small, if one models the frictional forces between cloud and ambient air, neglecting the Richardson
A visco-elasto-plastic model for granular materials under simple shear conditions
Redaelli, I.; di Prisco, C.; Vescovi, Dalila
2016-01-01
The numerical simulation of rapid landslides is quite complex mainly because constitutive models capable of simulating the mechanical behaviour of granular materials in the pre-collapse and post-collapse regimes are still missing. The goal of this paper is to introduce a constitutive model capable
A visco-elasto-plastic model for granular materials under simple shear conditions
Redaelli, I.; Prisco, di C.; Vescovi, D.
2016-01-01
The numerical simulation of rapid landslides is quite complex mainly because constitutive models capable of simulating the mechanical behaviour of granular materials in the pre-collapse and post-collapse regimes are still missing. The goal of this paper is to introduce a constitutive model capable o
Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.
1986-01-01
Models of stratospheric photochemistry are generally tested by comparing their predictions for the composition of the present atmosphere with measurements of species concentrations. These models are then used to make predictions of the atmospheric sensitivity to perturbations. Here the problem of the sensitivity of such a model to chlorine perturbations ranging from the present influx of chlorine-containing compounds to several times that influx is addressed. The effects of uncertainties in input parameters, including reaction rate coefficients, cross sections, solar fluxes, and boundary conditions, are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method in which the values of the input parameters are randomly selected. The results are probability distributions for present atmosheric concentrations and for calculated perturbations due to chlorine from fluorocarbons. For more than 300 Monte Carlo runs the calculated ozone perturbation for continued emission of fluorocarbons at today's rates had a mean value of -6.2 percent, with a 1-sigma width of 5.5 percent. Using the same runs but only allowing the cases in which the calculated present atmosphere values of NO, NO2, and ClO at 25 km altitude fell within the range of measurements yielded a mean ozone depletion of -3 percent, with a 1-sigma deviation of 2.2 percent. The model showed a nonlinear behavior as a function of added fluorocarbons. The mean of the Monte Carlo runs was less nonlinear than the model run using mean value of the input parameters.
Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young
2016-03-01
The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Namhun Kim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.
An extended gene protein/products Boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation.
Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco; Savino, Alessandro; Vasciaveo, Alessandro
2014-05-07
Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms.
An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation
2014-01-01
Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF AMORPHOUS POLYMERS IN SHEAR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张赟; 黄筑平
2004-01-01
Based on the non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory, a new thermo-viscoelastic constitutive model for an incompressible material is proposed. This model can be considered as a kind of generalization of the non-Gaussian network theory in rubber elasticity to include the viscous and the thermal effects. A set of second rank tensorial internal variables was introduced, and in order to adequately describe the evolution of these internal variables, a new expression of the Helmholtz free energy was suggested. The mechanical behavior of the thermo-viscoelastic material under simple shear deformation was studied, and the "viscous dissipation induced" anisotropy due to the change of orientation distribution of molecular chains was examined. Influences of strain rate and thermal softening produced by the viscous dissipation on the shear stress were also discussed. Finally, the model predictions were compared with the experimental results performed by G'Sell et al., thus the validity of the proposed model is verified.
Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pettersson, Bjoern Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.
Effect of a shear modified Gurson model on damage development in a FSW tensile specimen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo
2009-01-01
For a friction stir welded aluminum plate the resistance to ductile failure is studied by analyzing tensile test specimens cut out across the weldline. As the stress triaxiality is rather low in these tests, the Gurson material model is not expected to give a very accurate description of the void...... growth to coalescence. A recently proposed modified version of the Gurson model is used, in which an extra term in the damage evolution law allows for the prediction of failure even at zero or negative values of the mean stress. This modification of the Gurson model is purely phenomenological......, such that the damage parameter does not really represent the void volume fraction. Various amounts of the additional damage evolution are compared with predictions of the original Gurson model. The analyses are carried out for different yield stress profiles transverse to the weld and for different specimen widths...
Mohammad, S. Noor
2010-09-01
Semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes, have vast potential for new technology development. The fundamental physics and growth kinetics of these nanotubes are still obscured. Various models developed to elucidate the growth suffer from limited applicability. An in-depth investigation of the fundamentals of nanotube growth has, therefore, been carried out. For this investigation, various features of nanotube growth, and the role of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) in this growth, have been considered. Observed growth anomalies have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new shell model and a general hypothesis have been proposed for the growth. The essential element of the shell model is the seed generated from segregation during growth. The seed structure has been defined, and the formation of droplet from this seed has been described. A modified definition of the droplet exhibiting adhesive properties has also been presented. Various characteristics of the droplet, required for alignment and organization of atoms into tubular forms, have been discussed. Employing the shell model, plausible scenarios for the formation of carbon nanotubes, and the variation in the characteristics of these carbon nanotubes have been articulated. The experimental evidences, for example, for the formation of shell around a core, dipole characteristics of the seed, and the existence of nanopores in the seed, have been presented. They appear to justify the validity of the proposed model. The diversities of nanotube characteristics, fundamentals underlying the creation of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes, and the impurity generation on the surface of carbon nanotubes have been elucidated. The catalytic action of FECA on growth has been quantified. The applicability of the proposed model to the nanotube growth by a variety of mechanisms has been elaborated. These mechanisms include the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the oxide-assisted growth mechanism, the self
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Akira Onuki; Akira Furukawa; Akihiko Minami
2005-05-01
We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume . For very small the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing , accumulation of around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (coherency loss) under shear strains, where dislocations glide preferentially in the softer regions and are trapped at the interfaces.
Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glitzky, Annegret
2010-07-01
We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)
Nonlinear Acoustics FDTD method including Frequency Power Law Attenuation for Soft Tissue Modeling
Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Camarena, Francisco; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E
2014-01-01
This paper describes a model for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation through absorbing and weakly dispersive media, and its numerical solution by means of finite differences in time domain method (FDTD). The attenuation is based on multiple relaxation processes, and provides frequency dependent absorption and dispersion without using computational expensive convolutional operators. In this way, by using an optimization algorithm the coefficients for the relaxation processes can be obtained in order to fit a frequency power law that agrees the experimentally measured attenuation data for heterogeneous media over the typical frequency range for ultrasound medical applications. Our results show that two relaxation processes are enough to fit attenuation data for most soft tissues in this frequency range including the fundamental and the first ten harmonics. Furthermore, this model can fit experimental attenuation data that do not follow exactly a frequency power law over the frequency range of interest. The main...
Particle-based modeling of heterogeneous chemical kinetics including mass transfer
Sengar, A.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; van Santen, Rutger A.; Padding, J. T.
2017-08-01
Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics. The model is able to resolve the convective and diffusive interplay between participating species, while including adsorption, desorption, and reaction processes on the catalytic surface. Here we apply the simulation methodology to a simple straight microchannel with a catalytic strip. Dimensionless Damkohler numbers are used to comment on the spatial concentration profiles of reactants and products near the catalyst strip and in the bulk. We end the discussion with an outlook on more complicated geometries and increasingly complex reactions.
Models of epidemics: when contact repetition and clustering should be included
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scholz Roland W
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of infectious disease is determined by biological factors, e.g. the duration of the infectious period, and social factors, e.g. the arrangement of potentially contagious contacts. Repetitiveness and clustering of contacts are known to be relevant factors influencing the transmission of droplet or contact transmitted diseases. However, we do not yet completely know under what conditions repetitiveness and clustering should be included for realistically modelling disease spread. Methods We compare two different types of individual-based models: One assumes random mixing without repetition of contacts, whereas the other assumes that the same contacts repeat day-by-day. The latter exists in two variants, with and without clustering. We systematically test and compare how the total size of an outbreak differs between these model types depending on the key parameters transmission probability, number of contacts per day, duration of the infectious period, different levels of clustering and varying proportions of repetitive contacts. Results The simulation runs under different parameter constellations provide the following results: The difference between both model types is highest for low numbers of contacts per day and low transmission probabilities. The number of contacts and the transmission probability have a higher influence on this difference than the duration of the infectious period. Even when only minor parts of the daily contacts are repetitive and clustered can there be relevant differences compared to a purely random mixing model. Conclusion We show that random mixing models provide acceptable estimates of the total outbreak size if the number of contacts per day is high or if the per-contact transmission probability is high, as seen in typical childhood diseases such as measles. In the case of very short infectious periods, for instance, as in Norovirus, models assuming repeating contacts will also behave
Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi
2016-08-01
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff.
A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation
Maas, Jan
2015-11-01
© EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.
Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A
2017-04-01
In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stéphane Guichard
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.
Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.
von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S
2009-01-01
The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.
A transient energy function for power systems including the induction motor model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A construction method for power system transient energy function is studied in the paper, which is simple and universal, and can unify the forms of some current energy functions. A transient energy function including the induction motor model is derived using the method. The unintegrable term is dealt with to get an approximate energy function. Simulations in a 3-bus system and in the WSCC 4-generator system verify the validity of the proposed energy function. The function can be applied to direct transient stability analysis of multi-machine large power systems and provides a tool for analysis of the interaction between the generator angle stability and the load voltage stability.
A laboratory model of the aortic root flow including the coronary arteries
Querzoli, Giorgio; Fortini, Stefania; Espa, Stefania; Melchionna, Simone
2016-08-01
Cardiovascular flows have been extensively investigated by means of in vitro models to assess the prosthetic valve performances and to provide insight into the fluid dynamics of the heart and proximal aorta. In particular, the models for the study of the flow past the aortic valve have been continuously improved by including, among other things, the compliance of the vessel and more realistic geometries. The flow within the sinuses of Valsalva is known to play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the aortic valve since they host a recirculation region that interacts with the leaflets. The coronary arteries originate from the ostia located within two of the three sinuses, and their presence may significantly affect the fluid dynamics of the aortic root. In spite of their importance, to the extent of the authors' knowledge, coronary arteries were not included so far when modeling in vitro the transvalvular aortic flow. We present a pulse duplicator consisting of a passively pulsing ventricle, a compliant proximal aorta, and coronary arteries connected to the sinuses of Valsalva. The coronary flow is modulated by a self-regulating device mimicking the physiological mechanism, which is based on the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle during the cardiac cycle. Results show that the model reproduces satisfyingly the coronary flow. The analysis of the time evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields within the aortic root reveals the main characteristics of the backflow generated through the aorta in order to feed the coronaries during the diastole. Experiments without coronary flow have been run for comparison. Interestingly, the lifetime of the vortex forming in the sinus of Valsalva during the systole is reduced by the presence of the coronaries. As a matter of fact, at the end of the systole, that vortex is washed out because of the suction generated by the coronary flow. Correspondingly, the valve closure is delayed and faster compared to the case with
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syed, Sammiuddin [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 426 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 413 Mann Hall, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)
2015-12-15
hence its direct use in a simulation based fragility assessment is addressed. A methodology to overcome these limitations by combining the damage plasticity based constitutive model with some existing closed-form expressions is presented in this study. A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework that incorporates the damage plasticity model and the closed-form expressions for evaluating damage variables and application of this framework to an experimentally tested shear wall is presented in the Part-II companion paper.
Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS
Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.
2010-12-01
With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific
Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R
2012-02-01
The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.
Elastic clearance change in axisymmetric shearing process
Yoshida, Yoshinori
2016-10-01
An axisymmetric shearing experiment is conducted for a sheet of low carbon steel and stainless steel. Elastic change in the clearance between punch and die is measured. The increase of the clearance in shearing is confirmed and the influence of sheared material's flow stress on the clearance change is shown. Finite element analysis (FEA) of shearing with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlman model (GTN model) is conducted for shearing of the carbon steels with rigid tools as a numerical experiment. Burr height is predicted in the FEA and the result is compared with the experimental result. In addition, the influence of the clearance on stress state in the material is investigated.
Fracture structure near a longitudinal shear macrorupture
Goldstein, R. V.; Osipenko, N. M.
2012-09-01
Fracture evolution the near a main longitudinal shear in the presence of normal stresses is studied. Experiments with model materials (gypsum, cheese) showed that a multiscale echelon structure of cracks feathering the main rupture is formed under the shear domination conditions. A system of small cracks in the initial echelon is replaced by an echelon of larger and sparser cracks. Intensive transverse compression along the normal to the shear plane, which imitates the initial stress concentrator, takes the fracture region away from the shear plane. A model of evolution development of the observed echelon structure along the main rupture front under the shear domination conditions is proposed.
Chen, Chang-Kun; Li, Zhi; Sun, Yun-Feng
A new model for describing the disaster system including instantaneous and continuous action synchronously has been developed. The model is composed of three primary parts, that is, the impact from its causative disaster events, stochastic noise of disaster node and self-healing function, and every part is modeled concretely in terms of their characteristics in practice. Some key parameters, namely link appearance probability, retardation coefficient, ultimate repair capacity of government, dynamical modes considering different disaster evolving chains, and the positions of link with the specific performance in disaster network system are involved. Combined with a case study, the proposed model is applied to a certain disaster evolution system, and the influence law of different parameters on disaster evolution process, in disaster networks with instantaneous-action and/or continuous-action, is presented and compared. The results indicate that the destructive impact in the networks by link in continuous action is far greater an order of magnitude than that in instantaneous action. If a link in continuous action emerges in the disaster network system, properties of the causative event for the link, link appearance probability and its position in the network all have a notable influence to the severity of the disaster network. In addition, some peculiar phenomena are also commendably observed in the disaster evolution process based on the model, such as the multipeaks emerging in the destroyed rate number curve for some crisis nodes caused by their various inducing paths together with the relevant retardation coefficients, the existence of the critical value for ultimate repair capacity to recover the disaster node, and so on.