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Sample records for model included coping

  1. College students coping with interpersonal stress: Examining a control-based model of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-04-01

    The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms. A total of 135 undergraduate students from 2 universities. Interpersonal stress, coping strategies, depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed via self-report. Students reporting more interpersonal stress reported more depression, anxiety, and somatization, and they reported less use of engagement coping strategies and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. Engagement coping strategies accounted for a significant portion of the association between interpersonal stress and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, coping strategies did not moderate the association between stress and mental health symptoms. Interventions designed to improve students' coping strategies may be an effective way to reduce mental health problems on college campuses.

  2. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  3. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of avoidance coping and coping self-efficacy on eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a stress-diathesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneil, Laura; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Mehlenbeck, Robyn; Weismoore, Julie

    2012-12-01

    The present study employed a series of stress-diathesis models to examine whether avoidance coping and poor coping self-efficacy contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a sample of college students. The sample included one hundred fifteen undergraduate students (28.7% male; 71.3% female). Participants completed self-report measures to assess daily stressors, coping style, coping self-efficacy, and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. As predicted, among students with an avoidance coping style, those who reported more daily stressors exhibited higher eating disorder attitudes and behaviors than those with less daily hassles. Contrary to study hypothesis, number of daily hassles did not moderate the association between coping self-efficacy and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. However, there was a significant main effect for coping self-efficacy, suggesting that students who lack confidence in their coping abilities are more likely to have problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, regardless of their level of daily stress. Clinically, results suggest that students who enter college with an avoidance coping style and poor coping self-efficacy may be at risk for disordered eating, particularly with the onset of associated stress. Teaching students active problem-focused coping skills to deal with daily hassles associated with college life, and providing opportunities for repeated practice to bolster self-efficacy, may help prevent and/or reduce disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validating Work Discrimination and Coping Strategy Models for Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Williams, Wendi; Dispenza, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate and expand on Y. B. Chung's (2001) models of work discrimination and coping strategies among lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In semistructured individual interviews, 17 lesbians and gay men reported 35 discrimination incidents and their related coping strategies. Responses were coded based on Chung's…

  6. Dyadic Empathy, Dyadic Coping, and Relationship Satisfaction: A Dyadic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Levesque

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate a theoretical model specifying the direct and indirect associations between dyadic empathy, dyadic coping, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of 187 heterosexual couples. Dyadic and structural aspects of mediation were tested using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that greater levels of an individual’s own propensity for dyadic empathy (i.e., one’s ability to experience empathic concern and perspective-taking significantly predicted greater levels of an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies among both male and female participants. Moreover, increased levels of an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies significantly predicted a similar greater degree of an individual’s own relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, results also provide support for the possible mediating role that an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies may hold in explaining the links between an individual’s own empathic concern and an individual’s own relationship satisfaction among male participants. With regard to the dyadic components of the study’s model, findings indicated that perspective-taking among males significantly improve their female partners’ propensity to employ positive dyadic coping strategies. Moreover, empathic concern among female participants was found to improve their male partners’ dyadic coping strategies. Findings suggest the potential utility of examining dyadic coping as a means to expand clinical and empirical insights regarding the links between dyadic empathy and relationship satisfaction.

  7. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  8. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  9. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  10. Coping with Complexity Model Reduction and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Alexander N

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the extended version of selected talks given at the international research workshop 'Coping with Complexity: Model Reduction and Data Analysis', Ambleside, UK, August 31 - September 4, 2009. This book is deliberately broad in scope and aims at promoting new ideas and methodological perspectives. The topics of the chapters range from theoretical analysis of complex and multiscale mathematical models to applications in e.g., fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics.

  11. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  12. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  13. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  14. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  15. School Moves, Coping, and Achievement: Models of Possible Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen Joanna

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 1,050 regional Australian secondary students participated in a study investigating the relationship between mobility and academic achievement. Measures of mobility, academic achievement, suspensions, coping strategies, parental education, and family structure were used to test the hypothesis that academic coping strategies interact…

  16. Modeling posttraumatic growth among cancer patients: The roles of social support, appraisals, and adaptive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidan; Qi, Xiaona; Cai, Deborah A; Han, Xuanye

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to build a model to explain the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among cancer patients in China. The participants who were cancer patients in a cancer hospital in China filled out a survey. The final sample size was 201. Structural equation modeling was used to build a model explaining PTG. Structural equation modeling results indicated that higher levels of social support predicted higher levels of adaptive coping, higher levels of uncontrollability appraisal predicted lower levels of adaptive coping, and higher levels of adaptive coping predicted higher levels of PTG. Moreover, adaptive coping was a mediator between social support and growth, as well as a mediator between uncontrollability and growth. The direct effects of social support and uncontrollability on PTG were insignificant. The model demonstrated the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and PTG. It could be concluded that uncontrollability appraisal was a required but not sufficient condition for PTG. Neither social support nor uncontrollability appraisal had direct influence on PTG. However, social support and uncontrollability might indirectly influence PTG, through adaptive coping. It implies that both internal factors (eg, cognitive appraisal and coping) and external factors (eg, social support) are required in order for growth to happen. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  18. Experimental evidence for a dual pathway model analysis of coping with the climate crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Spears, Russell; Leach, Colinn Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the psychological power of fear and group efficacy beliefs to increase environmental action intentions against the climate crisis Extending a dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage results showed evidence for emotion-focused approach coping Environmental

  19. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  20. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  1. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  2. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  3. A Path Analysis Model Pertinent to Undergraduates' Academic Success: Examining Academic Confidence, Psychological Capital and Academic Coping Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirikkanat, Berke; Soyer, Makbule Kali

    2018-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to create a path analysis model of academic success in a group of university students, which included the variables of academic confidence and psychological capital with a mediator variable--academic coping. 400 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in sophomore, junior…

  4. Appraisal, coping, emotion, and performance during elite fencing matches: a random coefficient regression model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, J; Martinent, G

    2017-09-01

    Understanding more about the stress process is important for the performance of athletes during stressful situations. Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) CMRT of emotion, this study tracked longitudinally the relationships between cognitive appraisal, coping, emotions, and performance in nine elite fencers across 14 international matches (representing 619 momentary assessments) using a naturalistic, video-assisted methodology. A series of hierarchical linear modeling analyses were conducted to: (a) explore the relationships between cognitive appraisals (challenge and threat), coping strategies (task- and disengagement oriented coping), emotions (positive and negative) and objective performance; (b) ascertain whether the relationship between appraisal and emotion was mediated by coping; and (c) examine whether the relationship between appraisal and objective performance was mediated by emotion and coping. The results of the random coefficient regression models showed: (a) positive relationships between challenge appraisal, task-oriented coping, positive emotions, and performance, as well as between threat appraisal, disengagement-oriented coping and negative emotions; (b) that disengagement-oriented coping partially mediated the relationship between threat and negative emotions, whereas task-oriented coping partially mediated the relationship between challenge and positive emotions; and (c) that disengagement-oriented coping mediated the relationship between threat and performance, whereas task-oriented coping and positive emotions partially mediated the relationship between challenge and performance. As a whole, this study furthered knowledge during sport performance situations of Lazarus's (1999) claim that these psychological constructs exist within a conceptual unit. Specifically, our findings indicated that the ways these constructs are inter-related influence objective performance within competitive settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  5. Stress and Coping in Primary Caregivers of Children with a Disability: A Qualitative Study Using the Lazarus and Folkman Process Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Tara; French, Davina; Fernandez, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-six primary caregivers of children with a disability took part in focus groups or interviews to discuss their perceptions of stress and the coping process. Research was framed within the Process Model of Stress and Coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Findings provided a snapshot of the common stresses encountered by caregivers and indicate…

  6. [Coping in transplantated patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Inês; Barbosa, António; Barroso, Eduardo; Monteiro, Estela

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical model of coping mechanisms (CM), is based on a discussion between it's main determinant factors: individual and situational (related to the 2 approaches of coping: dispositional and constitutional). Actually the most used classification of CM is based on the division of CM in two main dimensions: coping focused on emotions and coping focused on problem resolution. It is essential that classification methods of CM have in consideration the coexistence of stable dispositional elements with a situational variability. Some instruments to evaluate CM are introduced, based on different theories. Coping can influence health threw different mechanisms (neuroendocrine system, health threatening behaviours and adherence) and is included in two of the more important theoretical models applied to health (Moos & Schafer's and Leventhal's). Based on a systematic literature review we concluded that the most prevalent CM in pre transplantation period are acceptance, active coping, seeking support, and the less used are self-blame and avoidance. In post transplantation period the more prevalent CM continue to be active coping and seeking support associated to confrontation, selfconfidence, religion and coping focused in the problem. Evasive, emotive and fatalistic CM are associated to less control sensed by patients. Confrontation is associated to a better quality of life and avoidance to a reduction of quality of life and higher depression levels and denial to non-adherence increase. Control sensed by patients, CM related to the expression of emotions and denial change threw clinical evolution of transplanted patients.

  7. [Path causal analysis of a model of a functional organization between defense mechanisms and coping strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvernet, B; Mouchard, J; Combaluzier, S

    2015-10-01

    In the psychological literature, two concepts are often used to approach psychological and social adaptation: defense mechanisms and coping strategies. Many empirical studies deal with these strategies independently of each other. However, the nature of their relationship is still debated, making empirical studies necessary jointly evaluating these two types of strategies to better reflect the adaptive process. To test Chabrol and Callahan's theoretical model of the relationship between defence mechanisms and coping strategies. According to theses authors, defence mechanisms and coping strategies are distinct mechanisms, functionally organized: defenses appear first and modulate the emergence of coping strategy defenses through threat representation. Ninety-four young adult volunteers completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS14). The data were treated according to the structural equation modeling method. Overall, the results support the theoretical model proposed by Chabrol and Callahan. The statistical model provides a good fit to the data (chi(2)/df=18.62/22=.85, P=.67, RMSEA=.00 (90% CI: .00-.07), CFI=1, TLI=1.04). It explains from 7 to 24% of coping variability scores (Avoidant Coping: R(2)=.07, Pcritical in stress management. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Teachers' Workplace Well-Being: Exploring a Process Model of Goal Orientation, Coping Behavior, Engagement, and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The current research integrated components of the transactional model of stress and coping with self-worth and goal theories to examine a model where (a) teachers' goal orientation (as indicated by mastery and failure avoidance) was hypothesized to predict their teaching coping strategies (as indicated by problem- and emotion-focused coping) and…

  9. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation.

  10. A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. σ = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest.

  11. Coping among individuals with multiple sclerosis: Evaluating a goodness-of-fit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Turner, Aaron P; Williams, Rhonda M

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic illness involving both controllable and uncontrollable stressors. The goodness-of-fit hypothesis posits that managing stressors effectively requires the use of different coping approaches in the face of controllable and uncontrollable stressors. To test the applicability of the goodness-of-fit model in a sample of adults with MS, we evaluated the ratio of 2 types of coping (an active problem-solving approach and an emotion-based meaning-focused approach) as a moderator of the relations between stress uncontrollability and mental health outcomes. Participants were veterans with MS (N = 90) receiving medical services through the Veterans Health Administration who completed telephone-based interviews. Regression analyses tested the interaction of stress uncontrollability and the problem- and meaning-focused coping ratio on anxious and depressive symptoms. Significant interactions were probed at 1 SD above the mean of coping (use of predominantly problem-focused coping) and 1 SD below the mean of coping (use of predominantly meaning-focused coping). Findings largely supported the goodness-of-fit hypothesis. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were elevated when participants used more problem-focused strategies relative to meaning-focused strategies in the face of perceived uncontrollable stress. Conversely, symptoms of anxiety and depression were lower when uncontrollable stress was met with predominantly meaning-focused coping; however, the relations did not reach statistical significance. The impact of uncontrollable stressors on mental health outcomes for individuals with MS may vary depending on the degree to which problem-focused versus meaning-focused coping strategies are employed, lending support to the goodness-of-fit model. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Coping with injury in powerlifting : stress-injury model perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelic, Marina

    2017-01-01

    A need to evaluate psychological antecedents to injury in strength-based sports is evident. Powerlifting especially has seen a rise in participation rates (International Paralympic Committee; Powerlifting Australia Ltd.; British Weight Lifting), also resulting in an increase in weightlifting-related injuries (Metzger et al., 2012). While much literature exists on mental stressors and coping mechanisms athletes encounter in the sport context, minimal research has attempted to understand how at...

  13. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  14. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  15. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years) completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes' scores in these constructs.

  16. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  17. Coping motives, negative moods, and time-to-drink: exploring alternative analytic models of coping motives as a moderator of daily mood-drinking covariation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Talley, Amelia E; Jackson, Kristina M

    2012-12-01

    Affect regulation models of alcohol use posit individuals use alcohol to modify mood states. Importantly, these models hypothesize that individual differences in coping motives for drinking moderate the relation between drinking and negative moods. Despite consistently significant correlations among negative moods, coping motives, and alcohol involvement in numerous between-level studies, within-person analyses have yielded results inconsistent with theoretical models. Analytic techniques modeling time-to-drink have provided results more consistent with theory, though there remains a paucity of research using these methods. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether coping motives moderate the relation between negative moods and the immediacy of drinking using methodology outlined by Hussong (2007) and Armeli, Todd, Conner, and Tennen (2008). Overall, our study showed little evidence for hypothesized mood-motive-alcohol use relations, thus demonstrating that time-to-drink approaches may not provide more consistent support for these hypotheses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  19. Lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Markova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Refugees are at high risk for mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services to meet the needs of refugees from various regions, an understanding of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems is warranted. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway.Methods. The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the vignette character, completing the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10 were done separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies.Results. The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community rather than seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists. Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much and emotion (sadness, but not with biological mechanisms, and were thought to result from spiritual possessions, stress from social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independent of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. As participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the viewpoint of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be gatekeepers for access to mental health services. Conclusion. The results highlight that mental health programs for Somali refugees

  20. A Stress-Coping Model of Mental Illness Stigma: II. Emotional Stress Responses, Coping Behavior and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina; Rajah, Anita; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, leading to emotional stress reactions and cognitive coping responses. Stigma is appraised as a stressor if perceived stigma-related harm exceeds an individual’s perceived coping resources. It is unclear, however, how people with mental illness react to stigma stress and how that affects outcomes such as self-esteem, hopelessness and social performance. The cognitive appraisal of stigma stress as well as e...

  1. Extending and applying the demand-control model: the role of soldier's coping on a peacekeeping deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Jessica; Adler, Amy B; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Litz, Brett T; Hölzl, Rupert

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek, 1979) by examining coping as an additional factor. It was hypothesized that perceived job control only buffered the demand-strain relationship when individuals used active coping and exacerbated the relationship when individuals used passive coping. Soldiers (N=638) were surveyed before and during a 6-month peacekeeping deployment to Kosovo. Results partially confirmed the hypotheses. Even after controlling for general psychological health at predeployment, job control moderated the relationship between demands and psychological health during deployment when soldiers used active coping. No significant 3-way interactions were found for religious coping and passive coping. Implications for demand-control modeling and potential applications of the findings to soldier and leader training are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Protesters as "passionate economists" : A dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping with collective disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell

    To explain the psychology behind individuals' motivation to participate in collective action against collective disadvantage (e.g., protest marches), the authors introduce a dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping that integrates many common explanations of collective action (i.e., group

  3. Do we need a communal coping model of pain catastrophizing? An alternative explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severeijns, R.; Vlaeyen, J.W.S.; Hout, M.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    In this topical review, a case is made for placing pain catastrophizing within the transactional stress and coping model of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). It is argued that the CCM in its current formulation might actually contribute to the conceptual confusion around the construct of

  4. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts

  5. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Condori

    Full Text Available Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme. The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the

  6. Humor and Resiliency: Towards a Process Model of Coping and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how humor may fit within a resiliency perspective. Following a brief overview of resiliency approaches, including selected work on positive psychology, several lines of research that provide initial support for resiliency effects of humor on stress and trauma are highlighted. This work ranges from anecdotal case report descriptions of facilitative humor use in extremely traumatic situations (e.g., paramedics, to more rigorous studies examining moderator and cognitive appraisal effects of humor on psychological well-being. Although these initial findings are quite promising, it is noted that some resiliency-based approaches to humor are limited by a sole focus on humor as a positive attribute. As such, a humor styles model, which acknowledges both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of humor, is used to describe broader avenues of research within a resiliency perspective. This process orientation to humor use also highlights the importance of both negative and positive emotion regulation in modulating coping and growth. This model is then used to comment on limitations and potential extensions of current resiliency perspectives on humor, including programs and exercises that attempt to train humor use in a facilitative manner.

  7. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-07-15

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  8. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  9. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  10. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W

    2017-07-19

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  11. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  12. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  13. Predict Moral Distress Using Workplace Stress, Stress of Conscience Mediated by Coping Using Roy Adaptation Model: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkrisat, Muder

    2016-12-01

    Moral distress can be predisposed when nurses are exposed to ambiguous moral situations. Is to test a conceptual model based on Roy adaptation model (RAM) to examine the relationship among workplace stress, conscience stress, and moral distress mediated by coping. A correlational, cross sectional. Data were collected from 199 licensed nurses. The findings indicated that workplace stress was related negatively to coping processes (β = -.12) and that stress of conscience was predictive of greater use of coping process (β = -.21). The results indicated that the model suggested based on RAM is saturated and is the perfect fit. However, the alternative models indicated that workplace stress moderately predicted moral distress.

  14. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, pstyles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction. PMID:24787952

  15. Health Belief Model deterrents of social support seeking among people coping with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Jessica E; Rintamaki, Lance S; Kane, Tera L

    2013-02-20

    Eating disorders have the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric diagnosis (Sullivan, 1995). Understanding what prevents people from seeking or accessing that which can help them manage these disorders is critical to improving eating disorder outcomes. This study identifies specific barriers and deterrents individuals living with eating disorders perceive when deciding if and when they will seek eating disorder-specific social support. 34 men and women living with eating disorders were recruited and interviewed regarding their experiences with managing their disorders, including reasons why they may forego seeking social support to help cope with these conditions. Participant-reported reasons as to why they would forego seeking social support for the management of their eating disorders were framed against the five main constructs of the Health Belief Model. These include (a) perceived susceptibility to a health threat, (b) perceived severity of the health threat, (c) perceived benefit of protective health behaviors, (d) perceived self-efficacy with these protective behaviors, and (e) perceived barriers to performing these behaviors. It could be argued that since this study does not focus solely on one type of eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, the barriers to social support may differ depending upon the characteristics inherent to the specific disorders. Findings can be used to inform and improve therapeutic interventions to produce better long-term outcomes among people struggling with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping with Loss Aversion in the Newsvendor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce loss aversion into the decision framework of the newsvendor model. By introducing the loss aversion coefficient λ, we propose a novel utility function for the loss-averse newsvendor. First, we obtain the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-neutral. It is found that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the expected profit maximization order quantity in the classical newsvendor model, which may help to explain the decision bias in the classical newsvendor model. Then, to reduce the risk which originates from the fluctuation in the market demand, we achieve the optimal order quantity to maximize CVaR about utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-averse. We find that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility above and is decreasing in the confidence level α. Further, it is proved that the expected utility under this optimal order quantity is decreasing in the confidence level α, which verifies that low risk implies low return. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the obtained results and some management insights are suggested for the loss-averse newsvendor model.

  17. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  18. Pain catastrophizing and interpersonal problems: a circumplex analysis of the communal coping model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Gurtman, Michael B

    2004-08-01

    Using the circumplex model of interpersonal behavior [Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology, 1982], this study tested the communal coping model of catastrophizing (CCM) in a large (N = 179) sample of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common, benign chronic pain disorder associated with significant painful extraintestinal comorbidity (e.g. headache, low back pain). Patients completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. The main findings were: (1) individuals who reported higher levels of catastrophizing described greater interpersonal problems; (2) the interpersonal problems described by catastrophizers fell within the friendly and friendly submissive quadrants of the circumplex supporting the notion that they have an interpersonal style demanding support and care-taking [Pain 103 (2003) 151]; (3) the pain coping behavior most strongly associated with interpersonal problems was catastrophizing; and (4) the relationship between interpersonal problems and catastrophizing remained after removing the influence of general symptomatic distress (i.e. an overall tendency to complain of psychological problems in general). In general, data provide evidence supporting the interpersonal distinctiveness of pain catastrophizing as postulated by the CCM. Advantages of a circumplex model and of interpersonal theory for understanding and testing the CCM are discussed.

  19. Healthy Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you find healthy ways to cope that work with your lifestyle, including: Your diabetes educator also can offer some tips for dealing ... 3633 Contact Us Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Social Media Policy | Contact ... 2018 American Association of Diabetes Educators. All rights reserved. The AADE logo is ...

  20. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  1. An evaluation of the coping patterns of rape victims: integration with a schema-based information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather

    2007-08-01

    The current study sought to provide an expansion of Resick and Schnicke's information-processing model of interpersonal violence response. Their model posits that interpersonal violence threatens victims' schematic beliefs and that victims can resolve this threat through assimilation, accommodation, or overaccommodation. In addition, it is hypothesized that how victims resolve schematic threat affects their coping strategies. To test this hypothesis, a cluster analysis of rape victims' coping patterns was conducted. Victims' coping patterns were related to distress, self-worth, and rape label in ways consistent with predictions. Thus, future research should focus on the implications of how victims integrate trauma with schemas.

  2. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  3. A Structural Model of Depression Based on Interpersonal Relationships: The Mediating Role of Coping Strategies and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd Ara, Elahe; Talepasand, Siavash; Rezaei, Ali Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of examining the structural model of interpersonal relationships and depression using coping strategies and loneliness as mediators. Using multistage random sampling, 301 high-school students were selected from Minudasht city, Iran. The participants were aksed to complete the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI); the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Lazarus and Folkman); the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS); and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the pattern of direct and indirect effects. Findings of the present study show that the data are well fitted to the model. The indirect effect of the positive quality of relationships was significant on depression through loneliness. Moreover, the indirect effects of the negative quality of relationships on depression through loneliness and through emotion-focused coping strategies were statistically significant. Although the effect of loneliness and emotion-focused coping strategies on depression was significant, problem-focused coping strategies did not have a significant effect on depression. Additionally, the findings suggested that the indirect effect through loneliness on depression was stronger compared with the indirect effect through emotion-focused coping strategies. The positive or negative quality of interpersonal relationships, loneliness, and emotion-focused coping strategy can significantly predict depression.

  4. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  5. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  6. Using analytic hierarchy process to identify the nurses with high stress-coping capability: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F C Pan, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Nurses have long been relied as the major labor force in hospitals. Featured with complicated and highly labor-intensive job requirement, multiple pressures from different sources was inevitable. Success in identifying stresses and accordingly coping with such stresses is important for job performance of nurses, and service quality of a hospital. Purpose of this research is to identify the determinants of nurses' capabilities. A modified Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted. Overall, 105 nurses from several randomly selected hospitals in southern Taiwan were investigated to generate factors. Ten experienced practitioners were included as the expert in the AHP to produce weights of each criterion. Six nurses from two regional hospitals were then selected to test the model. Four factors are then identified as the second level of hierarchy. The study result shows that the family factor is the most important factor, and followed by the personal attributes. Top three sub-criteria that attribute to the nurse's stress-coping capability are children's education, good career plan, and healthy family. The practical simulation provided evidence for the usefulness of this model. The study suggested including these key determinants into the practice of human-resource management, and restructuring the hospital's organization, creating an employee-support system as well as a family-friendly working climate. The research provided evidence that supports the usefulness of AHP in identifying the key factors that help stabilizing a nursing team.

  7. Social problem solving in chronic pain: An integrative model of coping predicts mental health in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Camacho-Guerrero, Laura; McCracken, Lance M; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2016-06-01

    Despite several models of coping have been proposed in chronic pain, research is not integrative and has not yet identified a reliable set of beneficial coping strategies. We intend to offer a comprehensive view of coping using the social problem-solving model. Participants were 369 chronic pain patients (63.78% women; mean age 58.89 years; standard deviation = 15.12 years). Correlation analyses and the structural equation model for mental health revealed potentially beneficial and harmful problem-solving components. This integrative perspective on general coping could be used to promote changes in the way patients deal with stressful conditions other than pain. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  9. The explanatory models and coping strategies for alcohol use disorders: An exploratory qualitative study from India☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Dabholkar, Hamid; McCambridge, Jim; Bhat, Bhargav; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Murthy, Pratima; Patel, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The explanatory models (EM) and coping strategies for mental health problems influence treatment seeking and the subsequent patient journey. The goal of this study was to explore the EMs and coping strategies for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods We conducted semi structured interviews with 29 men with AUD and 10 significant others (SO) in two sites in India. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Results The former were predominantly married, literate and employed; the latter were predominantly wives, literate and employed. Alcohol consumption and AUDs are seen to be mainly associated with psychosocial stress, with other factors being peer influences, availability of disposable income and drinking for pleasure. They are perceived to result in a range of adverse impacts on social life, family life, personal health and family finances. Various coping strategies were deployed by men with AUD and their significant others, for example avoidance, substitution, distraction, religious activities, support from AA/friends/family, restricting means to buy alcohol and anger management. Reduction/cessation in drinking, improved family relationships, improved emotional/physical wellbeing and better occupational functioning were the most desired treatment outcomes. Conclusion There are considerable similarities, as well as some key differences, observed between the EMs for AUD in India and those reported from other cultures which have implications for the global applicability and contextual adaptations of evidence based interventions for AUD. PMID:24309865

  10. Coping with Chronic Illness in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Dunn, Madeleine J.; Rodriguez, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the source of stress or one’s emotions), secondary control or accommodative coping (efforts to adapt to the source of stress), and disengagement or passive coping (efforts to avoid or deny the stressor). Evidence suggests the efficacy of secondary control coping in successful adaptation to chronic illness in children and adolescents, disengagement coping is associated with poorer adjustment, and findings for primary control coping are mixed. Avenues for future research are highlighted. PMID:22224836

  11. Understanding the sociocultural context of coping for African American family members of homicide victims: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Tanya L

    2015-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African American survivors of homicide victims places them at greater risk for compromised mental health. However, an examination of factors that influence how this population copes with this traumatic event is absent from the literature. This article elucidates the importance of sociocultural factors that influence coping resources and strategies for African Americans surviving the homicide of a loved one. A socioculturally responsive model of coping is presented that can be utilized in furthering the development of research and practice that is culturally responsive to the needs of African American survivors of homicide victims. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Testing a model of pain appraisal and coping in children with chronic abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynn S; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Claar, Robyn Lewis

    2005-07-01

    This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominal pain (N=133; ages 8--15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-specific passive coping and long-term symptoms and disability. Accommodative coping (acceptance and self-encouragement) was associated with reduced episode-specific distress, which itself predicted reduced depressive symptoms 3 months later. Results suggest that coping-skill interventions for children with chronic pain should target reductions in passive coping and consider the potential benefits of accommodative coping strategies.

  13. Relationships among symptom severity, coping styles, and quality of life in community-dwelling women with urinary incontinence: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongjuan; Liu, Nana; Qu, Haili; Chen, Liqin; Wang, Kefang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among symptom severity, coping styles, and quality of life (QOL) in community-dwelling women with urinary incontinence (UI). A total of 592 women with UI participated in this cross-sectional study. Bivariate Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlations between symptom severity, coping styles, and QOL. Multivariate regression models and Sobel tests were used to test the mediating effect of coping styles. Additionally, a multiple mediator model was used to examine the mediating role of coping styles collectively. All regression models were adjusted for age, education, marital status, income, duration of UI, and type of UI. Participants tended to use avoidant and palliative coping styles and not use instrumental coping style. Avoidant and palliative coping styles were associated with poor QOL, and partially mediated the association between symptom severity and QOL. Nearly 73% of the adverse effect of symptom severity on QOL was mediated by avoidant and palliative coping styles. The use of avoidant and palliative coping styles was higher with more severe urine leakage, and QOL tended to be poorer. Coping styles should be addressed in UI management. It may be of particular value to look closely at negative coping styles and implement education and training of patients in improving their coping skills related to managing UI, which will in turn improve their QOL.

  14. An evaluation of a psychosocial stress and coping model in the police work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2010-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine how Moos's hypothesised stress and coping model (1994 fitted a sample of police officers. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to understand police officers' unique needs and how the frequency and/or intensity of perceived stress could be reduced so that they would be able to cope more effectively with stress. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental survey design, following the quantitative tradition, was used in pursuit of the research objectives. A random sample of 505 participants was extracted from a population of serving male and female police officers reflecting the typical South African ethnic groups. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to establish the adequacy of between the hypothesised Moos model and the sample. Main findings: The hypothesised theoretical framework was disproved. A respecified model and inter-correlations confirm that some officers experience burnout, while, paradoxically, others continue to be unaffected because of the buffering effect of social support, personality factors and other resilience factors not revealed in this study. Practical/managerial implications: The study calls on police management for awareness of the negative health consequences of prolonged stressors. Simultaneously, employee assistance programmes could be directed to problem-solving strategies, perceived self-efficacy and learned resourcefulness to improve control over prolonged negative stress consequences among members. Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework to understand, describe and assess individual well-being in the police work context.

  15. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  16. Coping strategies, satisfaction with life, and quality of life in Crohn's disease: A gender perspective using structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, O; Slonim-Nevo, V; Pereg, A; Friger, M; Sergienko, R; Schwartz, D; Greenberg, D; Shahar, I; Chernin, E; Vardi, H; Eidelman, L; Segal, A; Ben-Yakov, G; Gaspar, N; Munteanu, D; Rozental, A; Mushkalo, A; Dizengof, V; Abu-Freha, N; Fich, A; Odes, S

    2017-01-01

    To identify coping strategies and socio-demographics impacting satisfaction with life and quality of life in Crohn's disease (CD). 402 patients completed the Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index, Brief COPE Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) of mediators of quality of life and satisfaction with life. The cohort comprised: men 39.3%, women 60.1%; P-HBI 4.75 and 5.74 (p = 0.01). In inactive CD (P-HBI≤4), both genders had SWLS score 23.8; men had SIBDQ score 57.4, women 52.6 (p = 0.001); women reported more use of emotion-focused, problem-focused and dysfunctional coping than men. In active CD, SWLS and SIBDQ scores were reduced, without gender differences; men and women used coping strategies equally. A SEM model (all patients) had a very good fit (X2(6) = 6.68, p = 0.351, X2/df = 1.114, SRMR = 0.045, RMSEA = 0.023, CFI = 0.965). In direct paths, economic status impacted SWLS (β = 0.39) and SIBDQ (β = 0.12), number of children impacted SWLS (β = 0.10), emotion-focused coping impacted SWLS (β = 0.11), dysfunctional coping impacted SWLS (β = -0.25). In an indirect path, economic status impacted dysfunctional coping (β = -0.26), dysfunctional coping impacted SIBDQ (β = -0.36). A model split by gender and disease activity showed that in active CD economic status impacted SIBDQ in men (β = 0.43) more than women (β = 0.26); emotional coping impacted SWLS in women (β = 0.36) more than men (β = 0.14). Gender differences in coping and the impacts of economic status and emotion-focused coping vary with activity of CD. Psychological treatment in the clinic setting might improve satisfaction with life and quality of life in CD patients.

  17. Testing a Model of Pain Appraisal and Coping in Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Lynn S.; Smith, Craig A.; Garber, Judy; Claar, Robyn Lewis

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominal pain (N = 133; ages 8–15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-speci...

  18. The mediating effects of coping on the stress and health relationships among nursing students: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Keawkerd, Ornuma; Pumpuang, Walailak; Thunyadee, Chanya; Thanoi, Wareerat; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    To test the impact of stress on psychological and physical health, and examine the mediating effects of coping on the stress-health relationships among nursing students. Stress is associated with various physical and psychological symptoms in nursing students. Numerous studies examined the relationships among stress, coping and health; nevertheless, a mechanism of coping has not been fully explored in Thai nursing students. This study adopted a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational research design. A convenience sample of 335 nursing students were recruited from a University in Thailand from 2005-2007. We used self-reported questionnaires to collect information; and analysed data using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling. Nursing students with high levels of stress reported poorer physical health and higher psychological distress. Stress had a stronger effect and explained more variances on psychological distress than on poor physical health. The partial mediation of coping was observed. Specifically, 77·00% of the effects of stress on poor physical health and 11·30% on psychological distress were mediated by coping. Evidence from this study contributes to the nursing science and has implications to nursing practice. Stress among nursing students should be monitored and effectively managed to prevent deleterious effects on their health. Nursing interventions focusing on coping skill training could be developed and delivered. Future research may examine the effectiveness of the interventions and/or to further explore variables associated with psychological distress in nursing students. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  20. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  1. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Zyga; Evmorfia Koukia; Antonios Travlos; Stavroula Mitrousi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar ...

  2. Coping with technological disaster: an application of the conservation of resources model to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, C M; Picou, J S; Johnson, G D; McNally, T S

    2000-01-01

    One hundred twenty-five commercial fishers in Cordova, Alaska, completed a mailed survey regarding current mental health functioning 6 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Economic and social impacts of the oil spill and coping and psychological functioning (modified Coping Strategies Scales, Symptom Checklist 90-R) were measured. Multiple regression was used to test the utility of the Conservation of Resources stress model for explaining observed psychological symptoms. Current symptoms of depression, anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were associated with conditions resource loss and avoidant coping strategies. The Conservation of Resources model provided a framework for explaining psychological impacts of the oil spill. Future research is needed to identify factors related to recovery.

  3. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  4. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  6. Coping Styles: A Better Understanding of Stress and Anxiety in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Conditions Through Sport and Exercise Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an understanding of the coping mechanisms and coping styles adopted by individuals on the Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC by looking to draw parallels with sports performance psychology and how different sources of stress and anxiety can lead to the adoption of different coping styles. Firstly, an overview of current understanding of what constitute a stressor and how this can affect an individual is presented from sport and exercise psychology literature. Secondly, a model of coping styles is illustrated with the aim to shed light at how different perceptions of levels of stress and anxiety are managed both on an individual and group level. Thirdly, within the context of this understanding, some examples about how to support individuals on the ASC will be illustrated. Finally, implications for future research and reflection will be presented by highlighting the importance of teaching and learning coping and tolerance skills as part of a comprehensive and holistic psycho-educational program.

  7. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  8. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  9. Thematic report: Macroeconomic models including specifically social and environmental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kratena, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Deliverable No. 8, 30 pages A significant reduction of the global environmental consequences of European consumption and production activities are the main objective of the policy simulations carried out in this paper. For this purpose three different modelling approaches have been chosen. Two macroeconomic models following the philosophy of consistent stock-flow accounting for the main institutional sectors (households, firms, banks, central bank and government) are used for...

  10. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  11. Strategi Coping: Teori Dan Sumberdayanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coping behavior is defined as individuals’ transactions to cope with the various demands (internal and external. Coping strategies aim to address the situation and demands which pressing, challenging, taxing and exceed the resources (resources. Coping resources affects the coping strategies that will be done in addressing the issue. The aim of this article was to explore further coping stategies mentioned by several scholars, including Stuart and Sundeen (1991, Lazarus and Folkman (1984, as well as Friedman (1998.  Method used was literature review. Result found that coping strategies have two basic forms, namely problem focused form of coping mechanism/direct action and emotion focused of coping/palliative form

  12. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  13. Goal striving, coping, and well-being: a prospective investigation of the self-concordance model in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Developing upon cross-sectional research (Smith, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2007) supporting the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999) as a framework for contextual goal striving, the current study investigated the assumptions of the model in relation to season-long goal striving in sport. The study additionally examined the role of coping strategies in the persistence of goal-directed effort. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 97 British athletes indicated that ...

  14. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of unsteady air loads is an essential step in any aeroelastic analysis. The subsonic doublet lattice method (DLM) is used extensively for this purpose due to its simplicity and reliability. The body models available with the popular...

  15. A thermal lens model including the Soret effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Humberto; Sira, Eloy; Rahn, Kareem; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we generalize the thermal lens model to account for the Soret effect in binary liquid mixtures. This formalism permits the precise determination of the Soret coefficient in a steady-state situation. The theory is experimentally verified using the measured values in the ethanol/water mixtures. The time evolution of the Soret signal has been used to derive mass-diffusion times from which mass-diffusion coefficients were calculated. (Author)

  16. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....

  17. A stochastic model of gene expression including splicing events

    OpenAIRE

    Penim, Flávia Alexandra Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Bioinformática e Biologia Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Proteins carry out the great majority of the catalytic and structural work within an organism. The RNA templates used in their synthesis determines their identity, and this is dictated by which genes are transcribed. Therefore, gene expression is the fundamental determinant of an organism’s nature. The main objective of this thesis was to develop a stochastic computational model a...

  18. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  19. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  20. Implication of Mauk Nursing Intervention Model on Coping Strategies of Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shoja

    2015-06-01

    descriptive and inferential tests in SPSS software 16. Results: The mean score for coping strategies before intervention was 111.42±11.71, and after intervention was 102.14±12.45 (P<0.05. The physical, mental and social dimensions in the coping strategies showed significant differences before and after intervention. Discussion: Using the rehabilitation program interventions for effectively dealing with stress, changing and unpredictable behavior patterns in chronic patients is an important component of the treatment protocol, and helps deliver an increase in coping strategies for stroke patients.

  1. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Coping is a psychological process that prompts the individual to adapt to stressful situations. The Adolescent Coping Scale is a widely used research and clinical tool. This study aimed to develop a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale and to analyze the strategies and coping styles of young people in our sample. An anonymous questionnaire comprising the Adolescent Coping Scale was submitted and replied by 1 713 students (56% female, from 12 to 20 years, average age 16) The validity study of the scale included: principal component and reliability analysis; confirmatory analysis using structural equation modelling Subsequently, a gender comparison of both the strategies and the coping styles was conducted through independent samples t tests. The final structure of the Adolescent Coping Scale adaptation retained 70 items assessing 16 coping strategies grouped into three major styles. The scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha values between 0.63. and 0.86, with the exception of one dimension that as shown a value of 0.55) and the confirmatory model showed a good fit (goodness of fit index values between 0.94 e 0.96). Two coping strategies were eliminated on statistical grounds (insufficient saturations of items in the corresponding dimensions). We found that the style of coping focused on problem solving is the most used by youths from our sample, in both sexes. Females had higher mean values in non-productive coping style and reference to others. This adapted version has high similarity with the original scale, with expectable minor changes, given that coping is influenced by cultural, geographical and socio-economic variables. The present study represents an important part of the validation protocol Portuguese Adolescent Coping Scale, including its linguistic adaptation and its internal consistency and factor structure studies.

  2. Examining Prediction Models of Giving up within a Resource-Based Framework of Coping in Primary School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Theiler, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a proposed model of coping outcomes for 290 primary school students in Years 5 and 6 (mean age = 11.50 years) with and without learning disabilities (LDs) within a resource-based framework of coping. Group-administered educational and intelligence tests were used to screen students for LDs. Students also completed a questionnaire…

  3. Goal striving, coping, and well-being: a prospective investigation of the self-concordance model in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-02-01

    Developing upon cross-sectional research (Smith, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2007) supporting the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999) as a framework for contextual goal striving, the current study investigated the assumptions of the model in relation to season-long goal striving in sport. The study additionally examined the role of coping strategies in the persistence of goal-directed effort. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 97 British athletes indicated that start-of-season autonomous goal motives were linked to midseason effort, which subsequently predicted end-of-season goal attainment. Attainment was positively related to changes in psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted changes in emotional well-being. In a second model, autonomous and controlled motives positively predicted task- and disengagement-oriented coping strategies, respectively. In turn, these strategies were differentially associated with effort. The findings provide support for contextual adaptations of the self-concordance model and demonstrate the role of coping strategies in the goal striving process.

  4. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, ... including anti-anxiety medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, it's normal to feel ...

  5. Depression and Substance Use: Towards the Development of an Emotion Regulation Model of Stigma Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Burton, Charles L; Pachankis, John E

    2017-11-10

    The comorbidity between depression and substance use problems is well-documented, yet little research has investigated how stigma associated with one's depression might relate to alcohol and drug use. The current study examined the association between depression-related stigma and substance use coping and considered the role of emotion dysregulation (i.e., difficulty in monitoring, evaluating, and modulating one's emotional reactions) as a mechanism underlying this association. A sample of individuals who self-identified as having current or remitted depression (N = 218) completed self-report measures of depression-related stigma, emotion dysregulation, and tendency to rely on alcohol or drugs to cope with psychological distress. Depression-related stigma was positively associated with emotion dysregulation, which was in turn associated with a greater tendency to engage in substance use coping. These findings provide initial support for the role of stigma as a contributor to maladaptive coping responses, such as substance use, among people living with depression. Further, they underscored the potential utility of targeting emotion dysregulation in stigma coping and substance abuse prevention intervention efforts.

  6. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  7. The Great Recession and Drinking Outcomes: Protective Effects of Politically Oriented Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A.; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Research derived from the stress paradigm suggests that certain types of coping (e.g., problem-focused coping instead of behavioral disengagement) are protective against problem-related drinking to deal with social stressors. Going beyond the typical focus in the coping literature, we hypothesize that stressors engendered by macrolevel social forces may require coping actions within the political realm in contrast to modes of coping focused outside of the political realm. A United States sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey in 2010, including measures of stressful consequences of the Great Recession, drinking patterns and problems, modes of coping encompassed in the Brief COPE instrument, and politically oriented coping. Structural equation modeling examined whether modes of coping mediated the links between stressors and drinking outcomes. A substantial portion of the associations between stressors and drinking was explained by modes of coping. Politically oriented coping was protective against problem drinking for both genders. Future studies should further explore politically oriented coping in addition to modes of coping outside of the political realm when studying the relationships between macrolevel social stressors and deleterious drinking outcomes. PMID:25302131

  8. The Great Recession and Drinking Outcomes: Protective Effects of Politically Oriented Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Richman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research derived from the stress paradigm suggests that certain types of coping (e.g., problem-focused coping instead of behavioral disengagement are protective against problem-related drinking to deal with social stressors. Going beyond the typical focus in the coping literature, we hypothesize that stressors engendered by macrolevel social forces may require coping actions within the political realm in contrast to modes of coping focused outside of the political realm. A United States sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey in 2010, including measures of stressful consequences of the Great Recession, drinking patterns and problems, modes of coping encompassed in the Brief COPE instrument, and politically oriented coping. Structural equation modeling examined whether modes of coping mediated the links between stressors and drinking outcomes. A substantial portion of the associations between stressors and drinking was explained by modes of coping. Politically oriented coping was protective against problem drinking for both genders. Future studies should further explore politically oriented coping in addition to modes of coping outside of the political realm when studying the relationships between macrolevel social stressors and deleterious drinking outcomes.

  9. Coping with perceived weight discrimination: testing a theoretical model for examining the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahlholz, J; Pabst, A; Riedel-Heller, S G; Luck-Sikorski, C

    2016-12-01

    The association between obesity and perceived weight discrimination has been investigated in several studies. Although there is evidence that perceived weight discrimination is associated with negative outcomes on psychological well-being, there is a lack of research examining possible buffering effects of coping strategies in dealing with experiences of weight discrimination. The present study aims to fill that gap. We examined the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and depressive symptoms and tested whether problem-solving strategies and/or avoidant coping strategies mediated this effect. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed representative cross-sectional data of n=484 German-speaking individuals with obesity (BMI⩾30 kg m -2 ), aged 18 years and older. Results revealed a direct effect of perceived weight discrimination on depressive symptoms. Further, the data supported a mediational linkage for avoidant coping strategies, not for problem-solving strategies. Higher scores of perceived weight discrimination experiences were associated with both coping strategies, but only avoidant coping strategies were positively linked to more symptoms of depression. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with increased depressive symptoms both directly and indirectly through situational coping strategies. Avoidant coping has the potential to exacerbate depressive symptoms, whereas problem-solving strategies were ineffective in dealing with experiences of weight discrimination. We emphasize the importance of coping strategies in dealing with experiences of weight discrimination and the need to distinguish between using a strategy and benefiting from it without detriment.

  10. Communications with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients: A model based on stress-coping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam

    2017-02-01

    In cancer care settings, family caregivers often experience negative or little communication with the health professionals, and this negative communication and limited health-related information causes psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients. The first aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers. The second aim is to investigate the mediating effects of self-efficacy in this hypothetical model. A total of 1397 family caregivers were included in this research. A structural equation model was then applied, in order to examine the hypothesized model based on the stress-coping model. More negative communication with health professionals was associated with higher psychological distress. Self-efficacy in health information seeking significantly mediated the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress. This study indicates that as a coping resource, self-efficacy in health information seeking, plays a significant role in reducing the effects of negative communication with health professionals on psychological distress in family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L; Spitz, E

    2003-01-01

    coping strategies regarding every kind of pathologies. Thus, we were led to present the translation and the validation of this measure in a French population. Two studies are presented in this Article: the first one describes the validation of the inventory in a dispositional format (trait coping) and the second one the validation of the inventory in a situational format (state coping). The French version of Brief COPE, which was used for both studies, was back-translated and analysed by the Brief COPE Author: Charles S. Carver. For study 1, 834 first Year university students answered the Brief COPE in its dispositional format. To study the factor structure of the Brief COPE, we used structural equation modeling and the LISREL software. Results show that the expected theoretical structure and the observed one fit adequately (c2=606, p0,95, AGFI>0,92, RMRvalidity of Brief COPE, self-esteem (SEI, Rosenberg, 1979), perceived stress (PSS, Cohen et al., 1983), and psychological distress (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1972) measures were used. Results show that functional coping strategies (eg, active coping) are linked to good self-esteem, to lower perceived stress, and to lower psychological distress, whereas less functional strategies (eg, denial or self-blame) are widely linked to poor self-esteem, to a high perceived stress, and to psychological distress. Study 1 shows also several significant gender differences. Study 2 describes the Brief COPE validation in its situational format. 178 additional students answered this version. The method that was used is the same the one developed by Lazarus and his colleagues for the WCC validation. Participants were asked to recall and think about the most stressful event they had experienced during the past two Months. They were also to give an account of how much that situation mattered to them. They had to evaluate their capacity to control the situation and indicated whether they felt the situation was amenable to change. The study includes

  12. Psychological barrier and coping strategies in business transfers explored: towards a conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin Weesie; Lex van Teeffelen

    2013-01-01

    Letting go of the firm or “my baby” as some entrepreneurs describe their creation, leads to a certain amount of stress (Rahim 1996, Kets de Vries 1999). Dealing with stress in singular events as the transfer of a business, is hardly been subject of research (Uy et al. 2012). Improving coping

  13. Polyvictimization and Psychological Distress in Early Adolescence: A Mediation Model of Defense Mechanisms and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Elklit, Ask

    2017-06-01

    In the current study, we aim to examine the link between exposure to multiple traumatic events (polyvictimization), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PTSS), and psychiatric symptomatology in early adolescence. Furthermore, we aim to explore the mediating roles of defense styles and coping styles in the associations between polyvictimization, PTSS, and psychiatric symptomatology. Data from a Danish national representative sample of 390 eighth-grade students with a mean age of 13.95 ( SD = 0.37) years were used. Participants responded to validated self-report questionnaires in 2001. The dimensions of immature defense styles and emotional and avoidance coping mediated the positive associations between polyvictimization, PTSS, and psychiatric symptomatology. Serial multiple mediation indicated that the sum of exposure to traumatic events was significantly associated with more immature defense styles, associated with both high levels emotional and avoidance coping, which, in turn, were associated with high levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. Polyvictimization is related to adverse outcomes in early adolescence. Both immature defense styles and emotional and avoidance coping styles should be considered as risk factors for the development of psychological distress following exposure to multiple traumas.

  14. Work Discrimination and Coping Strategies: Conceptual Frameworks for Counseling Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry

    2001-01-01

    Proposes conceptual models for work discrimination and discrimination coping strategies pertaining to lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. The work discrimination model includes three dimensions (formal vs. informal, potential vs. encountered, and perceived vs. real), and the coping strategies model outlines methods that deal with potential and…

  15. Family economic hardship and Chinese adolescents' sleep quality: A moderated mediation model involving perceived economic discrimination and coping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping; Lai, Xuefen

    2016-07-01

    The association between family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment outcomes, including sleep quality, is well-established. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relation between family economic hardship and adolescents' sleep quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of family economic hardship on Chinese adolescents' sleep quality, as well as the role of perceived economic discrimination as a mediator and the role of coping strategy as a moderator. Survey data from a cross-sectional sample of 997 Chinese adolescents (45% male, mean age = 15.04 years) were analyzed using path analysis in Mplus 7.0. The results of this study indicated that family economic hardship was significantly associated with adolescents' sleep quality. This association was mediated by adolescents' perceived economic discrimination. In addition, adolescents' coping strategy significantly moderated the path from perceived economic discrimination to sleep quality, with the "shift" coping strategy as a protective factor. The present study contributes to our understanding of key mechanisms underlying the association between family economic hardship and adolescent sleep quality and highlights the importance of improving sleep quality for adolescents exposed to economic hardship. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  16. [Coping styles in schizophrenia: study of clinical and functional variables as determinants of strategies to cope with stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Serena; Montemagni, Cristiana; Macrì, Antonio; Sandei, Luisa; Sigaudo, Monica; Rocca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between coping styles, and both clinical and functional variables in a sample of patients with stable schizophrenia. Forty-seven consecutive outpatients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. A clinical assessment was performed and included: the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) and the questionnaire Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36). Coping strategies were assessed with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), identifying three main coping styles: task-, emotion- and avoidance-oriented. Three different multiple regression models with backward elimination were performed in order to discover contributing factors to coping styles. From the results of multiple regression, depressive symptoms and objective quality of life were contributing factors to task-oriented coping style, explaining about 32% of variance. Negative symptoms, subjective quality of life, self-esteem, awareness of symptomatology and attribution of symptoms to illness resulted to be contributing factors to emotion-oriented coping strategies, explaining about 60% of variance. These results suggested the role of some clinical and functional variables as contributing factors to coping styles. In this context, supportive and rehabilitative interventions and cognitive-behavioral therapy focused to manage psychotic symptoms and to decrease distress could help patients to employ more adaptive coping strategies and improve their outcomes.

  17. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  18. A Stress-Coping Model of Mental Illness Stigma: I. Predictors of Cognitive Stress Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for individuals with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. It is unclear, however, why some stigmatized individuals appraise stigma as more stressful, while others feel they can cope with the potential harm posed by public prejudice. We tested the hypothesis that the level of perceived public stigma and personal factors such as rejection sensitivity, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and ingroup perceptions (group value; group identification; entitativi...

  19. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. EMDS 3.0: A modeling framework for coping with complexity in environmental assessment and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Reynolds

    2006-01-01

    EMDS 3.0 is implemented as an ArcMap® extension and integrates the logic engine of NetWeaver® to perform landscape evaluations, and the decision modeling engine of Criterium DecisionPlus® for evaluating management priorities. Key features of the system's evaluation component include abilities to (1) reason about large, abstract, multifaceted ecosystem management...

  1. The relationship between educational stress, stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status among nursing students in Turkey: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, N; Karaca, A; Cangur, S; Acıkgoz, F; Akkus, D

    2017-01-01

    Nursing education can be a stressful experience. To fully benefit from this experience and develop a positive professional identity, it is essential for nursing students to effectively cope with education-related stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between nursing students' education-related stress and stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status. This study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational design. The sample consisted 517 nursing students from a bachelor program in Turkey during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants provided data on sociodemographic characteristics as well as completing the following instruments: Nursing Education Stress Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory for Nursing Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Relationships were examined using multivariate structural equation modeling. Results indicated that nursing students' stress coping levels were affected by self-esteem and social support. Additionally, this interaction appears to affect general health status. Although the direct effect of stress on coping was non-significant, its overall effect was significant within the model. It is necessary to conduct further intervention studies examining the role of self-esteem and social support in facilitating nursing students' stress-related coping during their education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions of Coach–Athlete Relationship Are More Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor–Partner Independence Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R.; Perry, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete’s individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995), from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach–athlete dyads (n = 277 participants). The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123), semi-professional (n = 31), or professional levels (n = 4). Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach–athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor–Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the non-independence of dyadic data. These actor–partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach–athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat. PMID:27065917

  3. Perceptions of Coach-Athlete Relationship are more Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor-Partner Independence Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete’s individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995, from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach-athlete dyads (n = 277 participants. The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123, semi-professional (n = 31, or professional levels (n = 4. Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach-athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the nonindependence of dyadic data. These actor-partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach-athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat.

  4. Perceptions of Coach-Athlete Relationship Are More Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor-Partner Independence Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L

    2016-01-01

    Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete's individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995), from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach-athlete dyads (n = 277 participants). The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123), semi-professional (n = 31), or professional levels (n = 4). Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach-athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the non-independence of dyadic data. These actor-partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach-athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat.

  5. The relationship between general health and coping style with the perceived stress in primigravida healthy pregnant women: using the PATH model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsaei, Farshid; Maleki, Azam; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Soltani, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study was to analyze relationships among general health, coping style, and perceived stress in healthy primigravida pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at public health clinics in Hamadan city, Iran between July and December 2015. In total, 380 pregnant women were selected through stratified random sampling. Data were collected using the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory and General Health Questionnaire. Perceived stress was assessed through an interview comprised of open-ended questions. The final PATH model fit well; general health (β = 0.02) as well as anxiety and sleep disorders (β = 0.03) were slightly directly associated with perceived stress, and only planning-preparation was related to perceived stress through general health (β = 0.09). The findings enhance the knowledge gained from previous perinatal stress research. General health status was directly related to stress, and coping style was indirectly related to stress. Coping styles may mediate the relationship between general health status and perceived stress, suggesting that midwives should attempt to improve the general health of women to reduce stress and its consequences during pregnancy by teaching patients appropriate coping styles. Further studies on the effect of coping style interventions on stress are warranted.

  6. Stress and the Athlete: Coping with Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Athletes, including recreational athletes, must cope with stress, both from within and from others. The causes of stress, identifying the distressed athlete, and coping with stress are dealt with. (MT)

  7. Adaptive fuzzy neural network control design via a T-S fuzzy model for a robot manipulator including actuator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Yang, Zhi-Wei

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the development of adaptive fuzzy neural network control (AFNNC), including indirect and direct frameworks for an n-link robot manipulator, to achieve high-precision position tracking. In general, it is difficult to adopt a model-based design to achieve this control objective due to the uncertainties in practical applications, such as friction forces, external disturbances, and parameter variations. In order to cope with this problem, an indirect AFNNC (IAFNNC) scheme and a direct AFNNC (DAFNNC) strategy are investigated without the requirement of prior system information. In these model-free control topologies, a continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) dynamic fuzzy model with online learning ability is constructed to represent the system dynamics of an n-link robot manipulator. In the IAFNNC, an FNN estimator is designed to tune the nonlinear dynamic function vector in fuzzy local models, and then, the estimative vector is used to indirectly develop a stable IAFNNC law. In the DAFNNC, an FNN controller is directly designed to imitate a predetermined model-based stabilizing control law, and then, the stable control performance can be achieved by only using joint position information. All the IAFNNC and DAFNNC laws and the corresponding adaptive tuning algorithms for FNN weights are established in the sense of Lyapunov stability analyses to ensure the stable control performance. Numerical simulations and experimental results of a two-link robot manipulator actuated by dc servomotors are given to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed methodologies. In addition, the superiority of the proposed control schemes is indicated in comparison with proportional-differential control, fuzzy-model-based control, T-S-type FNN control, and robust neural fuzzy network control systems.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence Among Low-Income Fathers: Testing a Stress-Coping Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Moore, Kelly E; Vincent, Wilson; Iwamoto, Derek K; Campbell, Christina; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Ward, Nadia L; Hawes, Samuel W; Albritton, Tashuna; McCaulley, Horace; DiTunno, Dianna; Judkins, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    This research used a stress-coping conceptual framework to examine intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who are fathers. The current study examined how perceived stress explained associations between stressors (e.g., employment status, psychological and physical female-to-male partner violence [FMPV], substance use, criminal justice system involvement) and male-perpetrated physical and psychological IPV. Participants were 1,971 low-income, ethnically diverse fathers involved in a statewide fatherhood program. Findings indicated that, across African American, White, and Hispanic/Latino men, male-reported FMPV and criminal justice involvement were associated with psychological and/or physical IPV via perceived stress. Employment status and alcohol use were associated with psychological IPV via perceived stress among African American men only. Implications for community-based fatherhood programs are discussed.

  9. A stress and coping model of medication adherence and viral load in HIV-positive men and women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn E; Llabre, María M; Durán, Ron E; Antoni, Michael H; Ironson, Gail; Penedo, Frank J; Schneiderman, Neil

    2005-07-01

    The authors tested a structural model that incorporated age, time since diagnosis, social support, coping, and negative mood as predictors of medication adherence and HIV viral load on 188 men and 134 women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The authors used psychosocial latent factors formed from baseline measures to predict latent factors of adherence, as assessed by electronic monitoring and self-report, and viral load defined by indicators assessed over a 15-month period. Results from the model indicate that greater negative mood and lower social support are related to greater use of avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Use of these coping strategies by patients on HAART is related to poorer medication adherence and, subsequently, higher viral load. This model advances researchers' understanding of the contribution of psychosocial variables in predicting treatment adherence and disease progression in HIV-positive men and women.

  10. [Relationships between defense mechanisms and coping strategies, facing exam anxiety performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebot, E; Paty, B; Girarddephanix, N

    2006-01-01

    Defence mechanisms and coping strategies rely on different theoretical backgrounds and describe distinct psychological processes. Cramer has based a distinction on the following dimensions: conscious processes vs. not; intentionality vs. not; hierarchical conception vs. not. On the contrary to these distinctions, the two notions of defense mechanisms and coping strategies are defined as similar in the Diagnostical and Statistical Manual (DSM IV). This assimilation between coping and defenses in the DSM IV is not confirmed by some researches, namely the one by Callahan and Chabrol. It indeed proves a relationship between adaptive coping and mature defenses, as well as between maladaptive coping and immature defenses. Similarly, Plutchik offered theoretical correspondences between eight defense mechanisms and eight coping strategies: (a) Defenses: repression, isolation, introjection and Coping escape; (b) Defense denial and Coping minimalization; (c) Defense undoing and coping substitution; (d) Defenses: regression, acting out and coping social support; (e) Defenses: compensation, identification, fantasy and coping replacement; (f) Defenses: intellectualization, sublimation, annulation, rationalisation and coping: planification; (g) Defense projection and coping blame; (h) Defense: reactional formation and coping inversion. this research aims at testing the relations observed by Callahan and Chabrol and some theoretical correspondences proposed by Plutchik between defences and coping strategies in a population of students similar to the one used by Callahan and Chabrol. It also aims at studying the relationships between coping strategies and conscious derives of defense mechanisms, such as defined by Bond (1995). Defenses were evaluated the first day of the examination week. the population includes 184 women students in human sciences (sociology and psychology). defenses were evaluated with the Defense Style Questionnaire by Bond (DSQ 40). Its French version is made

  11. Middle-Range Theory: Coping and Adaptation with Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Barajas, Martha Elba; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota

    2017-10-01

    Various disciplines focus on a multiplicity of aspects of aging: lifestyles, personal biological factors, psychological conditions, health conditions, physical environment, and social and economic factors. The aforementioned are all related to the determinants of active aging. The aim is to describe the development of a middle-range theory based on coping and adaptation with active aging. Concepts and relationships derived from Roy's model of adaptation are included. The proposed concepts are hope, health habits, coping with aging, social relations, and active aging.

  12. Getting a Good Night's Sleep in Adolescence: Do Strategies for Coping With Stress Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Cousins, Jennifer; Lee, Laisze

    2016-01-01

    Getting a good night's sleep is challenging for adolescents because of early school start times and adolescents' substantial social and physical changes. We tested whether key indices of sleep health are associated with usual styles of coping with stress and interpersonal conflict in healthy black and white adolescents. Two hundred forty-two (57% female, 56% black) high school students completed daily sleep diaries, questionnaires, and actigraphy across a school week. Linear regression models tested associations, independent of race, gender, and other covariates. Students who reported using disengagement coping exhibited poor sleep health. They had shorter sleep duration, more fragmented sleep, delayed sleep, and increased daytime sleepiness. Unexpectedly, positive engagement coping was related to daytime sleepiness and delayed sleep, although not in models that included disengagement coping. Coping strategies may be an important influence on adolescent sleep. Future research should evaluate the antecedent-consequent relationships among coping, sleep, and stress.

  13. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ... or she can recommend treatment, perhaps including anti-anxiety medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, ...

  14. Creatively Coping with Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The authors suggest that the best way to deal effectively with stress is better management of one's life style. Some of the coping strategies include developing good eating and exercise habits, learning relaxation techniques, building an emotional support system, and anticipating and managing stressful life events. (SK)

  15. Drinking and desired self-images: path models of self-image goals, coping motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A systematic literature review on the association between loneliness and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckx, Laura; van den Akker, Marjan; Buntinx, Frank; van Driel, Mieke

    2018-03-13

    Loneliness is an emerging and important public health concern associated with increased risk for health disorders and even mortality. Interventions targeting coping strategies might be effective in alleviating feelings of loneliness. However, the relationship between loneliness and coping strategies is not well understood. We systematically reviewed quantitative studies addressing the association between loneliness and coping. Studies were included if loneliness and coping styles were measured with a validated scale and the association between both was assessed quantitatively. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases in compliance with the predefined in- and exclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers performed the search, quality appraisal, and data extraction. Coping styles were subdivided according to problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. We included twelve studies that measured the association between loneliness and coping. Half of the studies had low risk of bias (n = 6), in the remaining six the risk of bias was moderate (n = 1) or high (n = 5). All studies that showed a significant association between loneliness and coping consistently showed that problem-focused coping styles were associated with lower levels of loneliness, and emotion-focused coping styles with higher levels of loneliness. Our findings suggest that learning how to use problem-focused coping strategies could be an important aspect of interventions targeting loneliness. This should be further explored in randomized clinical trials. Trials should report changes is coping and changes in loneliness and also include multivariate models that investigate if changes in coping contributed to changes in loneliness. Furthermore, further research should explore the role of different subgroups (e.g. older people), and the role of different types of loneliness as these can affect the effectiveness of loneliness interventions.

  17. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014081118763N1 PMID:27218110

  18. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Farsi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05. This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05, except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation.

  19. Effect of Roy's Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-04-01

    Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy's adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy's adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). The findings of this research indicated that the Roy's adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy's adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. IRCT2014081118763N1.

  20. The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.

  1. BioModels: expanding horizons to include more modelling approaches and formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glont, Mihai; Nguyen, Tung V N; Graesslin, Martin; Hälke, Robert; Ali, Raza; Schramm, Jochen; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Kothamachu, Varun B; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Swat, Maciej J; Eils, Jurgen; Eils, Roland; Laibe, Camille; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-01-04

    BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels. This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Latino Youth: The Moderating Role of Active and Avoidant Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G; Stiles, Allison A; Diaz, Kathleen I

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of exposure to community violence among Latino youth in urban communities, there is considerable variability in individual outcomes. This study examined (a) associations between coping and indices of Latino culture, (b) main effects of active/avoidant coping on psychopathology, and (c) whether coping moderates the impact of violence exposure on mental health in Latino youth. Participants included 168 Latino youth (56% female; ages 11-14) that took part in a short-term longitudinal study. Results indicate that youth acculturation was positively associated with active coping, but enculturation level and immigrant status were not associated with coping. Structural equation models suggested that active coping was negatively associated with internalizing problems (p = .046) while avoidant coping was positively associated with internalizing problems (p = .013) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (p = .024). Moderation analyses revealed that violence exposure was more strongly associated with internalizing problems as reliance on avoidance coping increased. However, at high levels of violence exposure, a greater reliance on active coping was related to increased posttraumatic stress problems. Findings suggest that consideration of the specific stressor, level of stress exposure, and mental health problem-type may be crucial in determining the effectiveness of a coping strategy. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  3. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  4. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  5. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  6. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with ...

  7. Psychological distress, social withdrawal, and coping following receipt of an abnormal mammogram among different ethnicities: a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Beresford, Shirley A A; Espinoza, Noah; Thompson, Beti

    2014-09-01

    To explore ethnic differences in psychological distress and social withdrawal after receiving an abnormal mammogram result and to assess if coping strategies mediate ethnic differences. Descriptive correlational. Two urban mobile mammography units and a rural community hospital in the state of Washington. 41 Latina and 41 non-Latina Caucasian (NLC) women who had received an abnormal mammogram result. Women completed standard sociodemographic questions, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the social dimension of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE. Ethnicity, psychological distress, social withdrawal, and coping. Latinas experienced greater psychological distress and social withdrawal compared to NLC counterparts. Denial as a coping strategy mediated ethnic differences in psychological distress. Religious coping mediated ethnic differences in social withdrawal. Larger population-based studies are necessary to understand how ethnic differences in coping strategies can influence psychological outcomes. This is an important finding that warrants additional study among women who are and are not diagnosed with breast cancer following an abnormal mammogram. Nurses may be able to work with Latina patients to diminish denial coping and consequent distress. Nurses may be particularly effective, given cultural values concerning strong interpersonal relationships and respect for authority figures.

  8. [Psychological well-being in nursing: relationships with resilience and coping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Óscar; Pérez-García, Ana Maria; Aparicio-Zaldívar, Eva G

    2015-01-01

    To determine the differences in resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among nursing professionals of different hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in nursing staff where resilience and coping were included. Correlational and cross-sectorial study with probabilistic sampling. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n = 133), nursing assistants (n = 61), and midwives (n = 14), of whom 94 worked in special units and 114 worked in wards. 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping strategies), PWB scales (PWB dimensions), and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found where resilience was a precursor factor of coping that determined the PWB of the nurses. Resilience favoured strategies related to engagement coping with stressful situations (β = 0.56) that contributed to PWB (β = 0.43) (these relationships were inverted in the case of disengagement coping). Resilience is an inherent feature in nursing staff whether they work in special units or wards. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive) with the stressful situation determined nursing PWB (primarily self-acceptance and environment mastery dimensions). Resilience and coping strategies more adaptives constitute two personal resources that determine PWB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  10. Mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, M.; Szychta, E.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with the aid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  11. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslaw Luft; Elzbieta Szychta

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  12. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  13. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  14. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  15. Undergraduate Engineering Students' Beliefs, Coping Strategies, and Academic Performance: An Evaluation of Theoretical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Sass, Daniel A.; Guerra, Norma S.

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified factors associated with academic success by evaluating relations among psychological and academic variables, although few studies have examined theoretical models to understand the complex links. This study used structural equation modeling to investigate whether the relation between test anxiety and final course grades was…

  16. Combining prior knowledge with data driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, PF; Betlem, BHL; Roffel, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  17. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  18. Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle

    2009-03-01

    A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).

  19. Maternal HIV/AIDS and adolescent depression: A covariance structure analysis of the “Parents and Adolescents Coping Together” (PACT) model

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Amaro, Hortensia

    2009-01-01

    The current study assessed the efficacy of selected variables from the Parents and children Coping Together (PACT) model, which was designed to predict maternal HIV effects on child/adolescent outcomes. Data from two longitudinal studies applying PACT measures were utilized, encompassing a seven-year assessment timespan for HIV-infected mothers and their children. Both maternal and child-based measures were evaluated, and a sequential longitudinal design was adopted. Structural equation model...

  20. Mathematical modeling of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal gland (HPA) axis, including hippocampal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the HPA axis. The HPA axis consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands in which the three hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol interact through receptor dynamics. Furthermore, it has been suggested that receptors in the hippocampus have...... an influence on the axis.A model is presented with three coupled, non-linear differential equations, with the hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol as variables. The model includes the known features of the HPA axis, and includes the effects from the hippocampus through its impact on CRH in the hypothalamus...

  1. The Development of a New Sport-Specific Classification of Coping and a Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Different Coping Strategies and Moderators on Sporting Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor, internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses, or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts towards goal attainment. Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I2, and R2 values assessed heterogeneity

  2. The Development of a New Sport-Specific Classification of Coping and a Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Different Coping Strategies and Moderators on Sporting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Taylor, Natalie J; Carroll, Sean; Perry, John L

    2016-01-01

    There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor), internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses), or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts toward goal attainment). Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I 2 , and R 2 values assessed heterogeneity. Eighteen published

  3. The Development of a New Sport-Specific Classification of Coping and a Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Different Coping Strategies and Moderators on Sporting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R.; Taylor, Natalie J.; Carroll, Sean; Perry, John L.

    2016-01-01

    There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor), internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses), or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts toward goal attainment). Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I2, and R2 values assessed heterogeneity. Eighteen published

  4. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Child coping, parent coping assistance, and post-traumatic stress following paediatric physical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, M L; Donlon, K A; Winston, F K; Kassam-Adams, N

    2013-03-01

    Following a physical injury, many children exhibit long-term psychological reactions such as post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Children's coping strategies, and the ways that others help them cope with injury (i.e. coping assistance), are understudied, potentially malleable variables that could be targeted in preventive interventions. The objectives of the current research were to describe child coping behaviour and parent coping assistance following a child's injury, and to investigate the relationships among coping, coping assistance and child PTSS. Participants included 82 children with injuries and one parent of each child. Children completed measures of coping and coping assistance 2 weeks after their injury (T1). Children also completed measures of coping and PTSS at a 3-month follow-up (T2). Parents reported on the coping assistance they provided to their child at T1. Children reported using an average of six coping strategies (out of 10) with wishful thinking, social support, distraction, and cognitive restructuring endorsed most frequently. Child-reported social withdrawal and resignation 2 weeks after his or her injury (T1) were related to subsequent PTSS (T2). Social withdrawal at T2 was related to concurrent child PTSS (T2). Children were more likely to seek social support when their parents reported helping their child cope. No relationships were identified between active coping behaviours or parent coping assistance and PTSS outcomes. Findings suggest that children's coping strategies (particularly social withdrawal and resignation) play a possibly important, complex role in the development of traumatic stress symptoms. When parents help their child cope, children are more likely to seek out social support, suggesting that they will be more able to ask their parents for help as needed. Future research should identify effective strategies to prevent PTSS including how parents can best support their child following paediatric injury. © 2011

  6. Dynamic document object model formation technique for corporate website protection against automatic coping of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galushka Vasily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solution path of the problem of information automatic copying from web-sites in the Internet, which is implemented using parsing techniques based on regular expressions or function libraries. To protecting against this type of information security threat, it is proposed to dynamically generate and periodically change the object model of the HTML document when generated and sent to the browser. These changes should affect the values of the identifying tag attributes and the structure of the object model tree. As attribute values it is offered to use character sets of limited length obtained as a result of random numbers hashing; change of the structure of the object model should be done by adding of additional tags at the corresponding levels of the hierarchy of the tree representing it. The simultaneous application of these methods excludes the possibility of algorithm compile for the necessary information extraction in the overall structure of the web page.

  7. Modification of TOUGH2 to Include the Dusty Gas Model for Gas Diffusion; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.

    2001-01-01

    The GEO-SEQ Project is investigating methods for geological sequestration of CO(sub 2). This project, which is directed by LBNL and includes a number of other industrial, university, and national laboratory partners, is evaluating computer simulation methods including TOUGH2 for this problem. The TOUGH2 code, which is a widely used code for flow and transport in porous and fractured media, includes simplified methods for gas diffusion based on a direct application of Fick's law. As shown by Webb (1998) and others, the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) is better than Fick's Law for modeling gas-phase diffusion in porous media. In order to improve gas-phase diffusion modeling for the GEO-SEQ Project, the EOS7R module in the TOUGH2 code has been modified to include the Dusty Gas Model as documented in this report. In addition, the liquid diffusion model has been changed from a mass-based formulation to a mole-based model. Modifications for separate and coupled diffusion in the gas and liquid phases have also been completed. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's law behavior for TCE and PCE diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences are small due to the relatively high permeability (k= 10(sup -11) m(sup 2)) of the problem and the small mole fraction of the gases. Additional comparisons for lower permeabilities and higher mole fractions may be useful

  8. Understanding and coping with extremism in an online collaborative environment: A data-driven modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Rudas

    Full Text Available The Internet has provided us with great opportunities for large scale collaborative public good projects. Wikipedia is a predominant example of such projects where conflicts emerge and get resolved through bottom-up mechanisms leading to the emergence of the largest encyclopedia in human history. Disaccord arises whenever editors with different opinions try to produce an article reflecting a consensual view. The debates are mainly heated by editors with extreme views. Using a model of common value production, we show that the consensus can only be reached if groups with extreme views can actively take part in the discussion and if their views are also represented in the common outcome, at least temporarily. We show that banning problematic editors mostly hinders the consensus as it delays discussion and thus the whole consensus building process. To validate the model, relevant quantities are measured both in simulations and Wikipedia, which show satisfactory agreement. We also consider the role of direct communication between editors both in the model and in Wikipedia data (by analyzing the Wikipedia talk pages. While the model suggests that in certain conditions there is an optimal rate of "talking" vs "editing", it correctly predicts that in the current settings of Wikipedia, more activity in talk pages is associated with more controversy.

  9. Numerical Acoustic Models Including Viscous and Thermal losses: Review of Existing and New Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Risby; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Aage, Niels

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an updated overview of numerical methods including acoustic viscous and thermal losses. Numerical modelling of viscothermal losses has gradually become more important due to the general trend of making acoustic devices smaller. Not including viscothermal acoustic losses...... in such numerical computations will therefore lead to inaccurate or even wrong results. Both, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM), formulations are available that incorporate these loss mechanisms. Including viscothermal losses in FEM computations can be computationally very demanding, due...... and BEM method including viscothermal dissipation are compared and investigated....

  10. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

  11. Supporting Third Year Medical Students' Skill Acquisition and Self-Efficacy with Coping Models and Process Feedback during Laparoscopic Knot Tying Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Michael S; Kauffman, Douglas F

    2017-01-01

    Background: During the third year general surgery clerkship, medical students are required to develop laparoscopic knot-tying skills. Knot-tying skills studies often rely on objective variables (e.g., time, materials used, number of iterations) that lend themselves to correlational analysis of pre- and post-intervention skill level. This study differs by examining how instructional interventions-role modeling and feedback-affect medical students' skill acquisition and self-efficacy during a laparoscopic surgical simulation training session. Methods: Seventy-eight surgical clerkship students were assigned randomly to one cell of a 2X2 factorial design. Participants observed one of two types of role modeling (expert vs. coping) and received either process-oriented or outcome-oriented feedback during a 30-min laparoscopic training session. Participants also completed several surveys that assessed their interest in surgery and their self-efficacy for laparoscopic knot tying. Results: Coping model groups tended to perform better on the knot tying task, though this was less the case in the presence of outcome feedback. Expert model groups slightly outperformed the coping model group on the peg transfer task, but in the presence of outcome feedback they reported the lowest satisfaction with their performance and the lowest self-efficacy for the knot tying task. The coping model combined with process feedback had a positive influence on students' efficiency in learning the task, on their satisfaction with their performance, and on their self-efficacy for laparoscopic knot typing. Conclusions: Results are discussed relative to self-regulated learning theory.

  12. Coping with hallucinated voices in schizophrenia: a review of self-initiated strategies and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhall, John; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark; Jackson, Henry J

    2007-05-01

    This article reviews the state of knowledge about strategies used by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to cope with hallucinated voices, and considers the role of coping in psychological treatments for persisting symptoms. The use of self-initiated ('natural') coping strategies appears almost universal amongst voice-hearers. These strategies are similar across cultures, and include diverse behaviours, only a minority of which is specific to hallucinations. Most strategies are reported by at least some users to be effective, but more sophisticated outcome studies are lacking. Some evidence for the efficacy of certain behavioural techniques of coping, for the manipulation of auditory input, and for strategies involving subvocalisation, is available from experimental studies. Therapeutic enhancement of natural coping strategies for persisting symptoms has demonstrated some efficacy, but its benefit for voices is unknown. Despite this, it has become an established part of some CBT interventions for psychosis. Further advances in knowledge and practice may come from utilisation of coping models in research, longitudinal and ideographic methods of study and a movement away from descriptive coping lists to investigations of coping styles, mechanisms of action, and the process of coping.

  13. The Effect of the Psychiatric Nursing Approach Based on the Tidal Model on Coping and Self-esteem in People with Alcohol Dependency: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaşan, Ayşegül; Çam, Olcay

    2017-06-01

    People with alcohol dependency have lower self-esteem than controls and when their alcohol use increases, their self-esteem decreases. Coping skills in alcohol related issues are predicted to reduce vulnerability to relapse. It is important to adapt care to individual needs so as to prevent a return to the cycle of alcohol use. The Tidal Model focuses on providing support and services to people who need to live a constructive life. The aim of the randomized study was to determine the effect of the psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model on coping and self-esteem in people with alcohol dependency. The study was semi-experimental in design with a control group, and was conducted on 36 individuals (18 experimental, 18 control). An experimental and a control group were formed by assigning persons to each group using the stratified randomization technique in the order in which they were admitted to hospital. The Coping Inventory (COPE) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) were used as measurement instruments. The measurement instruments were applied before the application and three months after the application. In addition to routine treatment and follow-up, the psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model was applied to the experimental group in the One-to-One Sessions. The psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model is an approach which is effective in increasing the scores of people with alcohol dependency in positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, restraint, emotional social support and planning and reducing their scores in behavioral disengagement. It was seen that self-esteem rose, but the difference from the control group did not reach significance. The psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model has an effect on people with alcohol dependency in maintaining their abstinence. The results of the study may provide practices on a theoretical basis for improving coping behaviors and self-esteem and

  14. Effects of religiosity and religious coping on medication adherence and quality of life among people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Pakpour, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    The epidemiologic information demonstrates the importance of caring people with epilepsy (PWE). Indeed, the impaired quality of life (QoL) and medication nonadherence rate among PWE have been reported. However, religiosity and religious coping could be potential factors for clinicians to foster appropriate intervention on epileptic care. This study investigated two models to further understand the relationships between religiosity, religious coping (including positive and negative coping), medication adherence, and QoL in an Iranian sample with epilepsy. Eligible PWE (n=760) completed the religiosity scale (Duke University Religion Index; DUREL) at baseline; the religious coping scale (Brief Religious Coping Scale; Brief RCOPE) one month later; the medication adherence scale (Medication Adherence Report Scale; MARS-5) two months later; and the QoL scale (Quality of Life in Epilepsy; QOLIE-31) twelve months later. Their antiepileptic drug serum level was measured during the period they completed the MARS. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that religiosity directly correlated with negative religious coping and medication adherence, and indirectly correlated with medication adherence through negative religious coping. Both positive and negative religious coping directly correlated with medication adherence and QoL. Therefore, religiosity and religious coping may be determinants of medication adherence and QoL in PWE; health professionals may consider asking PWE if religion is important to them and how they use it to cope with their epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  16. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anandan, P.; Malathi, N.; Mohankumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resi...

  17. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  18. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q2's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q 2 values of 3.5 GeV 2 to the highest values of Q 2 =250 GeV 2 . To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  19. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  20. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  1. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  3. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  4. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  5. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  6. Family Matters in Bereavement: Toward an Integrative Intra-Interpersonal Coping Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk

    2015-11-01

    The death of a loved one can be heartbreaking for those left behind, and indeed, bereavement is associated not only with adverse health effects but also a higher risk of dying oneself. Not surprisingly, its consequences have been the subject of much psychological enquiry, with a major interest in shedding light on how one adapts, who is most at risk, and why. Often the focus is on the bereaved individual, yet people do not typically grieve in isolation; most do so with family members who have likewise experienced the loss. Family dynamics affect personal grief and vice versa. What is more, family concerns, such as reduced finances, legal consequences, and changed family relationships, have to be dealt with. While the latter stressful aspects have been investigated, there is still a huge gap between the individual and family approaches. To move them closer together, we propose a family-level extension of our Dual Process Model, showing how the whole may actually be more-and more accurate-than the sum of the two parts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  8. MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proksch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.

  9. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coping in sport: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 - 2004). The results indicated that athletes use a variety of coping strategies. Forty-six papers supported or adopted the process perspective (Lazarus, 1999; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). There were also gender and age-related differences. Evidence was found to support three of the different models of coping effectiveness (goodness-of-fit approach, choice of coping strategy, and automacity). Based on this evidence, future research should address some of the methodological and measurement limitations of the sport psychology coping literature. In particular, prospective research designs that minimize the time delay between recall and the stressful experience are required to assess how coping changes over time. More attention to developmental issues to guide the formulation of sport-specific models to enhance our theoretical understanding is also required. Finally, coping effectiveness should be examined both in the short and long term, as a greater understanding of coping effectiveness has the potential to make a significant impact on applied practice.

  11. Identification of the role of the sports pharmacist with a model for the prediction of athletes' actions to cope with sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Horio, Ikuo; Aoki, Ryouta; Yamashita, Noboru; Tanaka, Mamoru; Izushi, Fumio; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established Sports Pharmacist-a system for certified pharmacists. There are many over-the-counter drugs that contain prohibited substances in Japan, and they are easily available. In Japan, most doping violations are committed when athletes unintentionally take prohibited substances. Therefore, the Sports Pharmacist has a vital role in promoting the prevention of doping. In the present study, surveys involving a total of 350 athletes, (including 260 representatives of Ehime Prefecture in the National Athletic Meets and 90 college students who participated in the intercollegiate athletics Shikoku area meets), on awareness regarding doping and medical drugs were conducted. Using correspondence and logistic regression analyses, the results were examined to develop a model for the prediction of athletes' actions to cope with sickness based on changes in their awareness of anti-doping, and the relationship between them was also analyzed. The survey results suggested that attitudes towards doping were strongly influenced by gender, rather than the athletic ability and whether or not a doping test is scheduled. Their behavior and criteria for the selection of drugs to address sickness were strongly correlated with awareness of anti-doping. Therefore, athletes with an increased awareness of anti-doping are expected to consult a pharmacist prior to using medicine. The Sports Pharmacist should further promote environmental development, such as activities to improve awareness of doping among young athletes and the establishment of medical drug consultation services for athletes (female athletes in particular).

  12. Coping with flow: behavior, neurophysiology and modeling of the fish lateral line system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogdans, Joachim; Bleckmann, Horst

    2012-12-01

    With the mechanosensory lateral line fish perceive water motions relative to their body surface and local pressure gradients. The lateral line plays an important role in many fish behaviors including the detection and localization of dipole sources and the tracking of prey fish. The sensory units of the lateral line are the neuromasts which are distributed across the surface of the animal. Water motions are received and transduced into neuronal signals by the neuromasts. These signals are conveyed by afferent nerve fibers to the fish brain and processed by lateral line neurons in parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, midbrain, and forebrain. In the cerebellum, midbrain, and forebrain, lateral line information is integrated with sensory information from other modalities. The present review introduces the peripheral morphology of the lateral line, and describes our understanding of lateral line physiology and behavior. It focuses on recent studies that have investigated: how fish behave in unsteady flow; what kind of sensory information is provided by flow; and how fish use and process this information. Finally, it reports new theoretical and biomimetic approaches to understand lateral line function.

  13. Trauma Theory and Trauma-Informed Care in Substance Use Disorders: A Conceptual Model for Integrating Coping and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Goodman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available National data of children’s exposure to traumatic experiences are alarming. Research asserts the interconnectedness between experiencing childhood trauma (CT or adverse childhood experiences (ACE and developing substance use disorders (SUDs in later adulthood. Trauma definition and contemporary trauma theory (CTT provide the foundation for trauma informed care (TIC in social work practice with co-occurring trauma and SUDs. TIC re-conceptualizes SUDs as a mechanism to cope with the effects of trauma. Coping and resilience are relevant factors to the ramifications of CT on SUDs, and are the manifestation of key TIC principles. Integrating TIC practices aimed at enhancing coping and resilience into treatment for co-occurring trauma and SUDs is needed in order to negate the devastating impact of trauma and propel recovery. Conclusions and implications to social work practice are discussed.

  14. Executive function and coping in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica; Dux, Moira; Macko, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and sequelae may include physical, emotional, and cognitive impairments. The methods employed to cope with distress, both emotional and cognitive, have not been evaluated in individuals post-stroke. However, research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggests that executive function is positively correlated with adaptive coping and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies (Krpan et al., 2007). Examination of these constructs post-stroke may assist with enriching our understanding of cognitive and emotional symptomatology and optimize rehabilitation strategies. The present study aimed to assess the association between executive function and coping strategies in a sample of chronic stroke survivors. The researchers hypothesized that executive function would be positively correlated with adaptive coping strategies and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies. Fifteen stroke survivors were administered a battery of cognitive tests assessing executive function and also completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS), a self-report coping measure. Analyses indicated that executive function deficits were related to increased avoidant coping. Contrary to expectations, executive function was not significantly related to active coping. In addition, post hoc analyses revealed that executive function was a significant predictor of avoidant coping after controlling for demographics. Our data, in accordance with prior work in TBI, suggests that executive function and aspects of coping are associated. Rehabilitation strategies that improve executive function may also lead to utilization of adaptive coping strategies. Research has shown that aerobic exercise increases activation in the frontal lobe and improves executive function (Colcombe & Kramer, 2003; Colcombe et al., 2004). Future studies should examine whether aerobic exercise positively affects executive function and coping in stroke survivors.

  15. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  16. A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.

    2004-01-01

    as continuous force. The model of the roller-chain drive now proposed departs from an earlier model where two contact/impact methods are proposed to describe the contact between the rollers of the chain and the teeth of the sprockets. These different formulations are based on unilateral constraints....... In the continuous force method the roller-sprocket contact, is represented by forces applied on each seated roller and in the respective sprocket teeth. These forces are functions of the pseudo penetrations between roller and sprocket, impacting velocities and a restitution coefficient. In the continuous force......A model of a roller chain drive is developed and applied to the simulation and analysis of roller chain drives of large marine diesel engines. The model includes the impact with guide-bars that are the motion delimiter components on the chain strands between the sprockets. The main components...

  17. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  19. EXCESSIVE INTERNET USE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.

  20. Global Reference Atmospheric Models, Including Thermospheres, for Mars, Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation. Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch has developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations. Mars-GRAM has been widely used for engineering applications including systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Preliminary results are presented, comparing Mars-GRAM with measurements from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during its aerobraking in Mars thermosphere. Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is suitable for similar engineering applications in the thermosphere or other altitude regions of the atmosphere of Venus. Until recently, the thermosphere in Earth-GRAM has been represented by the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. Earth-GRAM has recently been revised. In addition to including an updated version of MET, it now includes an option to use the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) as an alternate thermospheric model. Some characteristics and results from Venus-GRAM and Earth-GRAM thermospheres are also presented.

  1. A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

  2. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  3. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  4. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.

  5. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  6. Coping strategies in anxious surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Hansjoerg; Rüsch, Dirk; Schuster, Maike; Sturm, Theresa; Brehm, Felix; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2016-07-12

    Anaesthesia and surgery provoke preoperative anxiety and stress. Patients try to regain control of their emotions by using coping efforts. Coping may be more effective if supported by specific strategies or external utilities. This study is the first to analyse coping strategies in a large population of patients with high preoperative anxiety. We assessed preoperative anxiety and coping preferences in a consecutive sample of 3087 surgical patients using validated scales (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale/Visual Analogue Scale). In the subsample of patients with high preoperative anxiety, patients' dispositional coping style was determined and patients' coping efforts were studied by having patients rate their agreement with 9 different coping efforts on a four point Likert scale. Statistical analysis included correlational analysis between dispositional coping styles, coping efforts and other variables such as sociodemographic data. Statistical significance was considered for p < 0.05. The final analysis included 1205 patients with high preoperative anxiety. According to the initial self-assessment, about two thirds of the patients believed that information would help them to cope with their anxiety ("monitors"); the remainder declined further education/information and reported self-distraction to be most helpful to cope with anxiety ("blunters"). There was no significant difference between these two groups in anxiety scores. Educational conversation was the coping effort rated highest in monitors whereas calming conversation was the coping effort rated highest in blunters. Coping follows no demographic rules but is influenced by the level of education. Anxiolytic Medication showed no reliable correlation to monitoring and blunting disposition. Both groups showed an exactly identical agreement with this coping effort. Demand for medical anxiolysis, blunting or the desire for more conversation may indicate increased anxiety. The use of the

  7. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  8. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  9. Modeling and analysis of the affinity filtration process, including broth feeding, washing, and elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L Z; Dong, X Y; Sun, Y

    1998-01-01

    Affinity filtration is a developing protein purification technique that combines the high selectivity of affinity chromatography and the high processing speed of membrane filtration. In this work a lumped kinetic model was developed to describe the whole affinity filtration process, including broth feeding, contaminant washing, and elution steps. Affinity filtration experiments were conducted to evaluate the model using bovine serum albumin as a model protein and a highly substituted Blue Sepharose as an affinity adsorbent. The model with nonadjustable parameters agreed fairly to the experimental results. Thus, the performance of the affinity filtration in processing a crude broth containing contaminant proteins was analyzed by computer simulations using the lumped model. The simulation results show that there is an optimal protein loading for obtaining the maximum recovery yield of the desired protein with a constant purity at each operating condition. The concentration of a crude broth is beneficial in increasing the recovery yield of the desired protein. Using a constant amount of the affinity adsorbent, the recovery yield can be enhanced by decreasing the solution volume in the stirred tank due to the increase of the adsorbent weight fraction. It was found that the lumped kinetic model was simple and useful in analyzing the whole affinity filtration process.

  10. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  11. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  12. A 3D model of the oculomotor plant including the pulley system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegener, A.; Armentano, R. L.

    2007-11-01

    Early models of the oculomotor plant only considered the eye globes and the muscles that move them. Recently, connective tissue structures have been found enveloping the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and firmly anchored to the orbital wall. These structures act as pulleys; they determine the functional origin of the EOMs and, in consequence, their effective pulling direction. A three dimensional model of the oculomotor plant, including pulleys, has been developed and simulations in Simulink were performed during saccadic eye movements. Listing's law was implemented based on the supposition that there exists an eye orientation related signal. The inclusion of the pulleys in the model makes this assumption plausible and simplifies the problem of the plant noncommutativity.

  13. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  14. A structural model of burnout syndrome, coping behavior and personality traits in professional soldiers of the Slovene armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Serec

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.

  15. Anxiety sensitivity, coping motives, emotion dysregulation, and alcohol-related outcomes in college women: a moderated-mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandley, Rachel B; Luebbe, Aaron M; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relation of anxiety sensitivity to alcohol-related outcomes via coping drinking motives in college women. Further, the impact of emotion dysregulation on the mediational path between anxiety sensitivity and alcohol-related outcomes was investigated. A sample of 223 female undergraduate drinkers from a midwestern university completed self-report surveys assessing alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, anxiety sensitivity, coping drinking motives, and emotion dysregulation. Anxiety sensitivity was indirectly related to both alcohol-related problems and alcohol use via coping motives. The indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol-related problems (but not alcohol use) was qualified by the level of emotion dysregulation. As individuals reported more emotion dysregulation, the strength of the relation between coping drinking motives and alcohol-related problems increased. Results replicate and extend the link between anxiety sensitivity and alcohol outcomes via the mechanism of negative reinforcement, and they further support the importance of emotion dysregulation in explaining alcohol-related problems among college women. Implications for treatment and prevention of alcohol-related problems in college women are discussed.

  16. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface–atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of Acidifying Compounds, in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia lifetime and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extent. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  17. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  18. Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with

  19. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J; Pinsky, Peter M

    2015-08-06

    A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  2. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2018-03-01

    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  3. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27920734

  4. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young's eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  5. Role of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles, and neuroticism in online game addiction among college students: a moderated mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huanhuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Online game addiction (OGA is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs, and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS, Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC, Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire (CCSQ, and Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8% were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  6. General hypothesis and shell model for the synthesis of semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2010-09-01

    Semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes, have vast potential for new technology development. The fundamental physics and growth kinetics of these nanotubes are still obscured. Various models developed to elucidate the growth suffer from limited applicability. An in-depth investigation of the fundamentals of nanotube growth has, therefore, been carried out. For this investigation, various features of nanotube growth, and the role of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) in this growth, have been considered. Observed growth anomalies have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new shell model and a general hypothesis have been proposed for the growth. The essential element of the shell model is the seed generated from segregation during growth. The seed structure has been defined, and the formation of droplet from this seed has been described. A modified definition of the droplet exhibiting adhesive properties has also been presented. Various characteristics of the droplet, required for alignment and organization of atoms into tubular forms, have been discussed. Employing the shell model, plausible scenarios for the formation of carbon nanotubes, and the variation in the characteristics of these carbon nanotubes have been articulated. The experimental evidences, for example, for the formation of shell around a core, dipole characteristics of the seed, and the existence of nanopores in the seed, have been presented. They appear to justify the validity of the proposed model. The diversities of nanotube characteristics, fundamentals underlying the creation of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes, and the impurity generation on the surface of carbon nanotubes have been elucidated. The catalytic action of FECA on growth has been quantified. The applicability of the proposed model to the nanotube growth by a variety of mechanisms has been elaborated. These mechanisms include the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the oxide-assisted growth mechanism, the self

  7. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 2 – Including organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Kohler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5–6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. By comparison with electrodynamic balance data, it was also found that the model was capable of capturing the behaviour of aqueous aerosols containing Suwannee River Fulvic acid, a structure previously used to represent the functionality of complex oxidised macromolecules often found in atmospheric aerosols. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between model predictions and measurements increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly

  9. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 2 Including organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM) framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Kohler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5-6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. By comparison with electrodynamic balance data, it was also found that the model was capable of capturing the behaviour of aqueous aerosols containing Suwannee River Fulvic acid, a structure previously used to represent the functionality of complex oxidised macromolecules often found in atmospheric aerosols. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between model predictions and measurements increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly soluble in water

  10. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  11. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  12. A multiscale model for glioma spread including cell-tissue interactions and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwer, Christian; Knappitsch, Markus; Surulescu, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Glioma is a broad class of brain and spinal cord tumors arising from glia cells, which are the main brain cells that can develop into neoplasms. They are highly invasive and lead to irregular tumor margins which are not precisely identifiable by medical imaging, thus rendering a precise enough resection very difficult. The understanding of glioma spread patterns is hence essential for both radiological therapy as well as surgical treatment. In this paper we propose a multiscale model for glioma growth including interactions of the cells with the underlying tissue network, along with proliferative effects. Our current accounting for two subpopulations of cells to accomodate proliferation according to the go-or-grow dichtomoty is an extension of the setting in [16]. As in that paper, we assume that cancer cells use neuronal fiber tracts as invasive pathways. Hence, the individual structure of brain tissue seems to be decisive for the tumor spread. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to provide such information, thus opening the way for patient specific modeling of glioma invasion. Starting from a multiscale model involving subcellular (microscopic) and individual (mesoscale) cell dynamics, we perform a parabolic scaling to obtain an approximating reaction-diffusion-transport equation on the macroscale of the tumor cell population. Numerical simulations based on DTI data are carried out in order to assess the performance of our modeling approach.

  13. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  14. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  15. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  16. Coping in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farcaş, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of patients with chronic heart failure is influencedby the type of coping with chronic heart disease. We employed the COPEquestionnaire to identify the mechanisms of coping and analyze theparameters involved. Our results show that heart failure patients use mainly emotion-based coping (acceptance, seeking emotional support, religion. Independent variables that influence the type of coping mechanisms include gender, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life. Identification of disadaptive mechanisms should become an important step in a complex management program devised by a multidisciplinary team.

  17. Coping Skills Development: A New Service for Elderly Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kay

    1981-01-01

    Describes a model project developed to teach effective coping skills to the aged. Lists objectives of the program workshops and describes approaches to coping with stress due to life transitions. (Author/RC)

  18. A comprehensive model of stress - The roles of experienced stress and neuroticism in explaining the stress-distress relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, GM; van Sonderen, E; Emmelkamp, PMG

    1999-01-01

    Background: In this study, a complex theoretical model regarding the stress-distress relationship was evaluated. The various components in the model included experienced stress (daily hassles), psychological distress, neuroticism, problem-focused coping, avoidant coping, satisfaction with received

  19. Coping in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Robles de Medina, P.G.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Background: In high-risk populations (e.g., adolescents, substance abusers), coping strategies in pregnancy have been :studied. Avoidance of the stressful situation and aggressive coping are frequently used and related to postnatal depression and other negative outcomes. Little is known about coping

  20. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  1. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981 and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994, the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews from fourteen international ballet dancers were used adopting an idiographic approach through interpretative phenomenological analysis and tenets of grounded theory methodology. The results identified a main theme "Coping strategies: Coping within & without" and eight sub-categories: Denial, alienation, indecision, severance, acceptance, letting go, renegotiation and reconstruction. The individual can experience different responses, which trigger different coping processes and subsequently different types of support are sought. Finally the paper briefly discusses some of the implications for future career development and career guidance. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100210

  2. Web-accessible molecular modeling with Rosetta: The Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pK a determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: 2 Including organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM) framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Köhler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5-6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between predicted and measured data increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly soluble in water, significant deviations from measured surface tension depression behaviour were predicted with both model formalisms tested. A Sensitivity analysis showed that such variation is likely to lead to predicted growth factors within the measurement uncertainty for growth factor taken in the sub-saturated regime. Greater

  4. Modeling the distinct pathways of influence of coping strategies on youth suicidal ideation: a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    National surveys indicate high rates of suicidal ideation in youth, especially among females. Coping skill training programs hold promise as a potential intervention that can help young people better manage stress and not consider suicide as a solution to life's problems. To assess the promise of this strategy, the present research examined which coping strategies (if any) predicted reduction in youth suicidal ideation over a 1-year follow-up, and explored the potential pathways through which their influence was channeled. Two waves of panel data from a nationally representative sample of youth, assessed 1 year apart (N = 710; Mean age = 18 years) were analyzed separately by gender using multiple group path analytic procedures. Four coping strategies, namely problem solving, emotional regulation, support seeking and acceptance were found to predict reduction in suicidal ideation among both males and females. However, the influence of these strategies (at baseline) was channeled through distinct pathways. The effect of emotional regulation (and acceptance) was channeled through its use at follow-up and was mediated by reductions in perceived stress and depressive symptoms, leading to reduction in suicidal ideation. The influence of support seeking was also channeled through its more recent use at follow-up, but directly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation, with no effect on perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The effect of problem solving on suicidal ideation was mediated by reduction in depressive symptoms, but was not channeled through its use at follow-up, suggesting a longer time course for the protective influence of this strategy. Finally, acceptance had a direct risk-enhancing effect on suicidal ideation. Coping strategies commonly used by youth can be effective in reducing suicidal ideation and therefore universal training in the effective use of these strategies should be considered. An understanding of the distinct pathways through which

  5. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  6. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  7. Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

  8. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  9. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  10. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth includes potential pathogens in the carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Prado, Julio; Eades, Susan C; Mirza, Mustajab H; Fugaro, Michael N; Häggblom, Max M; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-10-12

    Carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis are used to study the development of lameness. It is hypothesized that a diet-induced shift in cecal bacterial communities contributes to the development of the pro-inflammatory state that progresses to laminar failure. It is proposed that vasoactive amines, protease activators and endotoxin, all bacterial derived bioactive metabolites, play a role in disease development. Questions regarding the oral bioavailability of many of the bacterial derived bioactive metabolites remain. This study evaluates the possibility that a carbohydrate-induced overgrowth of potentially pathogenic cecal bacteria occurs and that bacterial translocation contributes toward the development of the pro-inflammatory state. Two groups of mixed-breed horses were used, those with laminitis induced by cornstarch (n=6) or oligofructan (n=6) and non-laminitic controls (n=8). Cecal fluid and tissue homogenates of extra-intestinal sites including the laminae were used to enumerate Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Horses that developed Obel grade2 lameness, revealed a significant overgrowth of potentially pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal bacteria within the cecal fluid. Although colonization of extra-intestinal sites with potentially pathogenic bacteria was not detected, results of this study indicate that cecal/colonic lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia develop in horses progressing to lameness. It is hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory state in carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis is driven by an immune response to the rapid overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cecal bacterial communities in the gut. Further equine research is indicated to study the immunological response, involving the lymphatic system that develops in the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  12. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: measuring temporal and affective components of adolescent responses to peer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagans Gould, Laura; Hussong, Andrea M; Keeley, Mary L

    2008-10-01

    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Adolescent Coping Process Interview (ACPI), that is more in line with transactional and developmental models of coping. Results indicate that the ACPI displays good psychometric properties, captures significant intra-individual variability in coping over the process, and points to emotional arousal as informing several coping-adjustment relationships. Moreover, the ACPI and similar approaches may help promote the development of more adaptive patterns of coping in adolescents by helping to identify specific points within the coping process at which to intervene.

  13. Psychosocial outcomes and coping after complete avulsion traumatic brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzblau, Lauren; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To understand psychosocial outcomes, coping and adjustment after complete avulsion traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI). We conducted a grounded theory analysis of 12 semi-structured patient interviews exploring psychosocial outcomes, augmented by quantitative evaluation of self-reported mental health and social functioning, body image and coping strategies obtained via three questionnaires (SF-36, Brief COPE and modified SWAP). Subjects' main sources of psychological stress were chronic pain, unemployment, decreased self-efficacy and social-emotional consequences of poor body image. One third of participants reported depression, half experienced anger and frustration and two-thirds were dissatisfied with the appearance of their affected limbs. Acceptance, active coping, planning and emotional support were the most frequently used coping strategies. Patients encounter high levels of physical and psychological stress after complete avulsion BPI and must find ways to cope to adjust to their injuries. They face similar challenges to patients with spinal cord injuries, for whom many models describing coping and adjustment exist. Similar models could facilitate more complete adjustment and rehabilitation of BPI patients and help to reduce the prevalence of negative stress responses, including anger and depression. Future patients would benefit from a multidisciplinary treatment program, involving medical and mental health services.

  14. The effectiveness of coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and their impact on personal well-being and venture performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Wincent

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes effectiveness of coping strategies that entrepreneurs use to daily manage work related stress. Coping is the process of expending efforts to solve personal and interpersonal problems and reducing stress induced by unpleasant and stressful situations. Two broad strategies of coping are identified; problem-based coping refers to a cognitively-based response behavior that includes efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances while emotion-based coping involves behavioural responses to regulate the affective consequences of stressful events. The purpose of this research is to analyze relationships among the coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and a set of antecedents influencing the selection of coping strategies. The methodology used is based on structural equation modeling and empirical data of 469 entrepreneurs from two European countries. Our results show that problem based coping facilitates well-being and venture performance. In addition, our findings also support interaction effects of founder centrality and contextual conditions of venturing on the extent entrepreneurs engage in coping. We believe that our insights can help in training entrepreneurs in the development of effective coping strategies that are context dependent. In specific, our results suggest entrepreneurs to engage in problem-focused strategies when they want to effectively address the economic aspects of their lives whereas when they engage in emotion based strategies they seem to increase the self-knowledge they need to start subsequent ventures and facilitate learning from failure. Future studies on coping strategies could study the interplay of coping strategies used to resolve challenging social situations that various stakeholders of practicing entrepreneurs impose.

  15. Latino Alzheimer's disease caregivers and depression: using the stress coping model to examine the effects of spirituality and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    This study used stress coping theory to examine the effects of spirituality and religion on depression among a sample of Latino family members caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the United States. Participants consisted of 209 Latino caregivers (CGs) drawn from baseline data from the Resource for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH) II clinical trial. The findings indicate that church attendance moderates the relationship between subjective forms of stress and depression in tandem with exhibiting direct effects on depression. Consistent with the central role religion plays in Latino culture, the results imply that religious involvement may play an important role in mitigating depression through indirect and direct pathways.

  16. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: Measuring Temporal and Affective Components of Adolescent Responses to Peer Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Hussong, Andrea M.; Keeley, Mary L.

    2007-01-01

    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Ad...

  17. Appraisal and Coping Strategy Use in Victims of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S. C.; Boyle, J. M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Transactional models of coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) can contribute to our understanding of why some children cope effectively with bullying while others suffer negative outcomes. However, previous research has relied on coping measures that are not comparable with adult measures, restricting investigation of developmental trends.…

  18. Understanding the role of emotion-oriented coping in women's motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model that emotion-oriented coping and motivation for change mediate the relations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and the change in substance use. Data included 183 substance using women, randomly assigned to family therapy (N=123) or individual therapy (N=60). They reported their baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms, emotion-oriented coping, as well as motivation for change throughout treatment, and substance use over a time period of 1.5years. Latent growth curve modeling showed that increased baseline motivation was associated with a faster decline in alcohol and drug use. Moreover, higher baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with a faster decrease in drug use through higher emotion-oriented coping and higher baseline motivation. This study underscores the importance of emotion-oriented coping in increasing clients' motivation and reducing their drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  20. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model follows

  1. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, J.H. de

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model

  2. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  3. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  4. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  5. ETM documentation update – including modelling conventions and manual for software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    , it summarises the work done during 2013, and it also contains presentations for promotion of fusion as a future element in the electricity generation mix and presentations for the modelling community concerning model development and model documentation – in particular for TIAM collaboration workshops....

  6. Coping with chronic renal failure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Lai, Claudia; Zhang, Zhi-Xue

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the coping behaviours of Chinese patients with chronic renal failure. The study, based on Lazarus and Folkman (Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York, 1984) model of coping, was conducted to identify the process by which 11 chronic renal failure patients cope with their disease. The identified themes are coping with fluctuating feelings and concerns, motivation to cope, interdependent relationships between patients and their family members and modes of coping strategies. The significance of the results indicates that coping is the consequence not only of situational demands but also of life goals. Meaning in life is an important motivator in the coping process. Besides problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping, another important element is relationship-focused coping. The interdependent influences of families on patients and patients on families are also important factors. The role of family and cultural factors is discussed as it affects how patients with chronic renal failure cope with their illness.

  7. Serverification of Molecular Modeling Applications: The Rosetta Online Server That Includes Everyone (ROSIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchúir, Shane Ó.; Der, Bryan S.; Drew, Kevin; Kuroda, Daisuke; Xu, Jianqing; Weitzner, Brian D.; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Sripakdeevong, Parin; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Kortemme, Tanja; Bonneau, Richard; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Das, Rhiju

    2013-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. PMID:23717507

  8. [Individual and common coping in families with parents suffering from schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Albert; Kuhn, Juliane; Walther, Susann; Jungbauer, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Using a triangulation design the individual and family coping strategies in families with parents suffering from schizophrenia are ascertained and contrasted utilising qualitative and quantitative data. For children (n = 25) three coping strategies are identified: "Aggressive coping", "controlling coping", and "moderate coping" i. e. inconspicuous coping. Parents seem to model coping for their children. Qualitative analysis of data for 35 families revealed five patterns of shared familial coping-processes. A clear picture emerges showing that the children's contribution to family functioning consists essentially of taking on responsibility and family tasks. The results emphasize the need for family-oriented interventions.

  9. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  10. Coping with delusions in schizophrenia and affective disorder with psychotic symptoms: the relationship between coping strategies and dimensions of delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückl, Sarah; Gentner, Nana Christina; Büche, Liesa; Backenstrass, Matthias; Barthel, Andreas; Vedder, Helmut; Bürgy, Martin; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Self-generated coping strategies and the enhancement of coping strategies are effective in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. Evaluating these strategies can be of clinical interest to develop better coping enhancement therapies. Cognitive models consider delusions as multidimensional phenomena. Using a psychometric approach, the relationship between coping and the dimensions of delusion were examined. Thirty schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions and 29 patients with affective disorder with psychotic symptoms were interviewed using the Heidelberg Coping Scales for Delusions and the Heidelberg Profile of Delusional Experience. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the groups, and Spearman's rank-based correlations were used to examine the correlations between coping factors and the dimensions of delusion. Schizophrenia spectrum patients used more medical care and symptomatic coping, whereas patients with affective disorder engaged in more depressive coping. In the schizophrenia spectrum sample, the action-oriented, the cognitive, and the emotional dimensions of delusion were related to coping factors. In patients with affective disorder, only the action-oriented dimension was related to coping factors. Patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder cope differently with delusions. The dimensions of delusion are related to coping and should be regarded when using cognitive therapy approaches to enhance coping strategies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems, Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a model that allows the simulation of the static behavior of a transverse crack in a horizontal rotor under the action of weight and other possible static loads and the dynamic behavior of cracked rotating shaft. The crack breathes—that is, the mechanism of the crack's opening and closing is ruled by the stress on the cracked section exerted by the external loads. In a rotor, the stresses are time-dependent and have a period equal to the period of rotation; thus, the crack periodically breathes. An original, simplified model allows cracks of various shapes to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, as they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method was validated by using two criteria. First the crack's breathing mechanism, simulated by the model, was compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear, threedimensional finite element model calculation, and a good agreement in the results was observed. Then the proposed model allowed the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model were compared with those obtained by the three-dimensional finite element model. Also in this case, there was a good agreement in the results.

  12. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  13. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally pre-defined by experience with limited design flexibility. Consequently, a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical...

  14. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  15. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A viscoplastic model including anisotropic damage for the time dependent behaviour of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, F.; Hajdu, A.; Deleruyelle, F.; Besnus, F.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a new constitutive model for the time dependent mechanical behaviour of rock which takes into account both viscoplastic behaviour and evolution of damage with respect to time. This model is built by associating a viscoplastic constitutive law to the damage theory. The main characteristics of this model are the account of a viscoplastic volumetric strain (i.e. contractancy and dilatancy) as well as the anisotropy of damage. The latter is described by a second rank tensor. Using this model, it is possible to predict delayed rupture by determining time to failure, in creep tests for example. The identification of the model parameters is based on experiments such as creep tests, relaxation tests and quasi-static tests. The physical meaning of these parameters is discussed and comparisons with lab tests are presented. The ability of the model to reproduce the delayed failure observed in tertiary creep is demonstrated as well as the sensitivity of the mechanical response to the rate of loading. The model could be used to simulate the evolution of the excavated damage zone around underground openings.

  17. Help your teen cope with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  18. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Costas, B.; Höglund, E.; Overli, O.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in

  19. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  20. A Two-Dimensional Modeling Procedure to Estimate the Loss Equivalent Resistance Including the Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Salas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modeling procedure specifically designed for a ferrite inductor excited by a waveform in time domain. We estimate the loss resistance in the core (parameter of the electrical model of the inductor by means of a Finite Element Method in 2D which leads to significant computational advantages over the 3D model. The methodology is validated for an RM (rectangular modulus ferrite core working in the linear and the saturation regions. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental data and the computational results.

  1. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our...

  2. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  3. Advanced Modeling of Ramp Operations including Departure Status at Secondary Airports, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses three modeling elements relevant to NASA's IADS research and ATD-2 project, two related to ramp operations at primary airports and one related...

  4. Extending the Scope of the Acculturation/Pidginization Model to Include Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines five cognitive models for second-language acquisition (SLA) and assesses how each might account for the Pidginized interlanguage found in the early stages of second-language acquisition. (23 references) (JL)

  5. An integrated computable general equilibrium model including multiple types and uses of water

    OpenAIRE

    Luckmann, Jonas Jens

    2015-01-01

    Water is a scarce resource in many regions of the world and competition for water is an increasing problem. To countervail this trend policies are needed regulating supply and demand for water. As water is used in many economic activities, water related management decisions usually have complex implications. Economic simulation models have been proven useful to ex-ante assess the consequences of policy changes. Specifically, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models are very suitable to ana...

  6. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model is described that allows one to simulate the static behavior of a transversal crack in a horizontal rotor, under the action of the weight and other possible static loads and the dynamical behavior of the rotating cracked shaft. The crack “breaths,” i.e., the mechanism of opening and closing of the crack, is ruled by the stress acting on the cracked section due to the external loads; in a rotor the stress is time-depending with a period equal to the period of rotation, thus the crack “periodically breaths.” An original simplified model is described that allows cracks of different shape to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, since they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method has been validated using two criteria. Firstly, the crack “breathing” mechanism, simulated with the model, has been compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear 3-D FEM calculation and a good agreement in the results has been observed. Secondly, the proposed model allows the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by the above-mentioned 3-D FEM. There is a good agreement in the results, of this case as well.

  7. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  8. Simplification and Validation of a Spectral-Tensor Model for Turbulence Including Atmospheric Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2018-02-01

    A spectral-tensor model of non-neutral, atmospheric-boundary-layer turbulence is evaluated using Eulerian statistics from single-point measurements of the wind speed and temperature at heights up to 100 m, assuming constant vertical gradients of mean wind speed and temperature. The model has been previously described in terms of the dissipation rate ɛ , the length scale of energy-containing eddies L , a turbulence anisotropy parameter Γ, the Richardson number Ri, and the normalized rate of destruction of temperature variance η _θ ≡ ɛ _θ /ɛ . Here, the latter two parameters are collapsed into a single atmospheric stability parameter z / L using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, where z is the height above the Earth's surface, and L is the Obukhov length corresponding to Ri,η _θ. Model outputs of the one-dimensional velocity spectra, as well as cospectra of the streamwise and/or vertical velocity components, and/or temperature, and cross-spectra for the spatial separation of all three velocity components and temperature, are compared with measurements. As a function of the four model parameters, spectra and cospectra are reproduced quite well, but horizontal temperature fluxes are slightly underestimated in stable conditions. In moderately unstable stratification, our model reproduces spectra only up to a scale ˜ 1 km. The model also overestimates coherences for vertical separations, but is less severe in unstable than in stable cases.

  9. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  10. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBerjot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  11. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  12. Including fluid shear viscosity in a structural acoustic finite element model using a scalar fluid representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl

    2013-01-01

    An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem. PMID:23729844

  13. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  14. Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrill, Carey S.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.

  15. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  16. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics; Kozel, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special `laminar-kinetic-energy` equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  17. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. (Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics); Kozel, K. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special 'laminar-kinetic-energy' equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  18. Beam dynamics in high intensity cyclotrons including neighboring bunch effects: Model, implementation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Yang (杨建俊

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Space-charge effects, being one of the most significant collective effects, play an important role in high intensity cyclotrons. However, for cyclotrons with small turn separation, other existing effects are of equal importance. Interactions of radially neighboring bunches are also present, but their combined effects have not yet been investigated in any great detail. In this paper, a new particle in the cell-based self-consistent numerical simulation model is presented for the first time. The model covers neighboring bunch effects and is implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. We discuss this model together with its implementation and validation. Simulation results are presented from the PSI 590 MeV ring cyclotron in the context of the ongoing high intensity upgrade program, which aims to provide a beam power of 1.8 MW (CW at the target destination.

  19. Finding practical phenomenological models that include both photoresist behavior and etch process effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunwook; Do, Thuy; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    For more than five decades, the semiconductor industry has overcome technology challenges with innovative ideas that have continued to enable Moore's Law. It is clear that multi-patterning lithography is vital for 20nm half pitch using 193i. Multi-patterning exposure sequences and pattern multiplication processes can create complicated tolerance accounting due to the variability associated with the component processes. It is essential to ensure good predictive accuracy of compact etch models used in multipatterning simulation. New modelforms have been developed to account for etch bias behavior at 20 nm and below. The new modeling components show good results in terms of global fitness and some improved predication capability for specific features. We've also investigated a new methodology to make the etch model aware of 3D resist profiles.

  20. A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.

  1. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... speed shutdowns and restarts are represented as on–off switching rules that govern the output of the wind turbine at extreme wind speed conditions. The model uses the concept of equivalent wind speed, estimated from the single point (hub height) wind speed using a second-order dynamic filter...... measurements available from the DONG Energy offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  2. Coping Well with Advanced Cancer: A Serial Qualitative Interview Study with Patients and Family Carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Catherine; Roberts, Diane; Appleton, Lynda; Calman, Lynn; Large, Paul; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Grande, Gunn

    2017-01-01

    To understand successful strategies used by people to cope well when living with advanced cancer; to explore how professionals can support effective coping strategies; to understand how to support development of effective coping strategies for patients and family carers. Qualitative serial (4-12 week intervals) interview study with people with advanced cancer and their informal carers followed by focus groups. The iterative design had a novel focus on positive coping strategies. Interview analysis focused on patients and carers as individuals and pairs, exploring multiple dimensions of their coping experiences. Focus group analysis explored strategies for intervention development. 26 people with advanced (stage 3-4) breast, prostate, lung or colorectal cancer, or in receipt of palliative care, and 24 paired nominated informal/family carers. Participants recruited through outpatient clinics at two tertiary cancer centres in Merseyside and Manchester, UK, between June 2012 and July 2013. 45 patient and 41 carer interviews were conducted plus 4 focus groups (16 participants). People with advanced cancer and their informal/family carers develop coping strategies which enable effective management of psychological wellbeing. People draw from pre-diagnosis coping strategies, but these develop through responding to the experience of living with advanced cancer. Strategies include being realistic, indulgence, support, and learning from others, which enabled participants to regain a sense of wellbeing after emotional challenge. Learning from peers emerged as particularly important in promoting psychological wellbeing through the development of effective 'everyday', non-clinical coping strategies. Our findings challenge current models of providing psychological support for those with advanced cancer which focus on professional intervention. It is important to recognise, enable and support peoples' own resources and coping strategies. Peer support may have potential, and could

  3. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  4. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  5. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  6. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  7. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...... of safety barrier (passive, automated, or involving human action). Such models are valuable for many purposes, but are difficult to apply to more complex situations, as the influences are to be set individually for each barrier. The approach described in this paper is trying to improve the state...

  8. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. We decompose the problem into two subproblems. First, we show that all...

  9. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. First, we show that all production rates should be choosen in the interval...

  10. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  11. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  12. Description of the new version 4.0 of the tritium model UFOTRI including user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1993-08-01

    In view of the future operation of fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Because of its physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to the direct exposure and by the ingestion pathways. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, re-emission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium, are considered. The use of UFOTRI in its probabilistic mode shows the spectrum of the radiological impact together with the associated probability of occurrence. A first model version was established in 1991. As the ongoing work on investigating the main processes of the tritium behaviour in the environment shows up new results, the model has been improved in several points. The report describes the changes incorporated into the model since 1991. Additionally provides the up-dated user guide for handling the revised UFOTRI version which will be distributed to interested organizations. (orig.) [de

  13. Extending the formal model of a spatial data infrastructure to include volunteered geographical information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -to-date VGI, have led to the integration of VGI into some SDIs. Therefore it is necessary to rethink our formal model of an SDI to accommodate VGI. We started our rethinking process with the SDI stakeholders in an attempt to establish which changes...

  14. Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    pre-defined by experience with poor design flexibility. Consequently a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical loading but also the device rating as input variables. The quantified correlation between the power loss, thermal...

  15. Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2001-01-01

    In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a

  16. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    is considered as one or more fuzzy substructures that are known in some statistical sense only. Experiments have shown that such fuzzy substructures often introduce a damping in the master which is much higher than the structural losses account for. A special method for modeling fuzzy substructures with a one...

  17. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  18. Modeling the elastic behavior of ductile cast iron including anisotropy in the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    by means of a 3D periodic unit cell model. In this respect, an explicit procedure to enforce both periodic displacement and periodic traction boundary conditions in ABAQUS is presented, and the importance of fulfilling the traction continuity conditions at the unit cell boundaries is discussed. It is shown...

  19. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  20. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: pipe leakage, urban hydrogeology, catchment scale, OpenGeoSys, HYSTEM-EXTRAN Wastewater leakage from subsurface sewer pipe defects leads to contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater (Ellis, 2002; Wolf et al., 2004). Leakage rates at pipe defects have to be known in order to quantify contaminant input. Due to inaccessibility of subsurface pipe defects, direct (in-situ) measurements of leakage rates are tedious and associated with a high degree of uncertainty (Wolf, 2006). Proposed catchment-scale models simplify leakage rates by neglecting unsaturated zone flow or by reducing spatial dimensions (Karpf & Krebs, 2013, Boukhemacha et al., 2015). In the present study, we present a physically based 3-dimensional numerical model incorporating flow in the pipe network, in the saturated zone and in the unsaturated zone to quantify leakage rates on the catchment scale. The model consists of the pipe network flow model HYSTEM-EXTAN (itwh, 2002), which is coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). We also present the newly developed coupling scheme between the two flow models. Leakage functions specific to a pipe defect are derived from simulations of pipe leakage using spatially refined grids around pipe defects. In order to minimize computational effort, these leakage functions are built into the presented numerical model using unrefined grids around pipe defects. The resulting coupled model is capable of efficiently simulating spatially distributed pipe leakage coupled with subsurficial water flow in a 3-dimensional environment. References: Boukhemacha, M. A., Gogu, C. R., Serpescu, I., Gaitanaru, D., & Bica, I. (2015). A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(3), 437-450. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3. Ellis, J. B., & Revitt, D. M. (2002). Sewer losses and interactions with groundwater quality. Water Science and Technology, 45(3), 195

  1. Including Antenna Models in Microwave Imaging for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a tool for screening for breast cancer, but the lack of methods for including the characteristics of the antennas of the imaging systems in the imaging algorithms limits their performance. In this paper, a method for incorporating the full antenna characteristics...

  2. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    Negative index acoustic metamaterials are artificial structures made of subwavelength units arranged in a lattice, whose effective acoustic parameters, bulk modulus and mass density, can be negative. In these materials, sound waves propagate inside the periodic structure, assumed rigid, showing...... extraordinary properties. We are interested in two particular cases: a double-negative metamaterial, where both parameters are negative at some frequencies, and a single-negative metamaterial with negative bulk modulus within a broader frequency band. In previous research involving the double-negative...... detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  3. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  4. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  5. An earth outgoing longwave radiation climate model. II - Radiation with clouds included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Keng; Smith, G. Louis; Bartman, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    The model of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) of Yang et al. (1987) is modified by accounting for the presence of clouds and their influence on OLWR. Cloud top temperature was adjusted so that the calculation agreed with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Cloudy sky cases were calculated for global average, zonal average, and worldwide distributed cases. The results were found to agree well with satellite observations.

  6. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  7. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Creemers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the type of problems/difficulties the school is facing. Reference is made to the methods used to test this assumption of the dynamic model by measuring school effectiveness in mathematics, Greek language, and religious education over two consecutive school years. The main findings are as follows. School factors were found to have situational effects. Specifically, the development of a school policy for teaching and the school evaluation of policy for teaching were found to have stronger effects in schools where the quality of teaching at classroom level was low. Moreover, time stability in the effectiveness status of schools was identified and thereby changes in the functioning of schools were found not to have a significant impact on changes in the effectiveness status of schools. Implications of the findings for the development of the dynamic model and suggestions for further research are presented.

  8. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Michael Davis, J.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM 2.5 particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM 2.5 data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM 2.5 .samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM 2.5 data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for 'secondary smoke' (industry), 'soil', 'smoke' and 'seaspray'. Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from 'secondary industry', 'smoke', 'soil' and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer

  9. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  10. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina Romero, Angélica María; Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-04-01

    The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. SEARCH AND SELECTION OF DATABASE ARTICLES: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services.

  11. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  12. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  13. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  14. Description and Application of A Model of Seepage under A Weir Including Mechanical Clogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses seepage flow under a damming structure (a weir in view of mechanical clogging in a thin layer at the upstream site. It was assumed that in this layer flow may be treated as one-dimensional (perpendicular to the layer, while elsewhere flow was modelled as two-dimensional. The solution in both zones was obtained in the discrete form using the finite element method and the Euler method. The effect of the clogging layer on seepage flow was modelled using the third kind boundary condition. Seepage parameters in the clogging layer were estimated based on laboratory tests conducted by Skolasińska [2006]. Typical problem was taken to provide simulation and indicate how clogging affects the seepage rate and other parameters of the flow. Results showed that clogging at the upstream site has a significant effect on the distribution of seepage velocity and hydraulic gradients. The flow underneath the structure decreases with time, but these changes are relatively slow.

  15. Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts

  16. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  17. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  18. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Access to Credits and Erosive or Non-erosive Coping Strategies: An Empirical Analysis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meherun AHMED

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses household-level data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 2009 and 2010 in Bangladesh to determine the relationship between coping mechanisms and having access to credits. The analysis finds that more than half of the sample claimed to have faced shocks over the years. The paper also discusses the coping strategies households undertake after experiencing economic shocks. As Bangladesh is prone to natural disasters, some climatic shocks are annual in certain parts of the country. A lot of factors influence the coping strategies taken by the households. Poorer households are more likely to use coping mechanisms that may have negative implications in the long run as they include the depletion of capitals, assets, savings etc. An econometric model is used to address what might help them to cope better and whether having access to any kind of credit can help them cope, i.e., help them to take non-erosive measures when they face shocks. Policy implications include the importance of developing government programs, safety net programs and developing the networks of microfinance organizations.

  20. Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Wright, Aidan G C; Clark, Duncan B; Black, Jessica J; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint and the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states as correlates of solitary drinking in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of constraint would predict solitary drinking and that these relationships would be mediated by the ability to resist drinking in response to negative emotions. Structural equation modeling was used to fit a path model from the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint to solitary drinking status through intermediate effects on the ability to resist drinking during negative emotions using cross-sectional data. Clinical and community settings in Pennsylvania, USA. The sample included 761 adolescent drinkers (mean age = 17.1). Adolescents completed the Lifetime Drinking History, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. The path model provided a good fit to the data. The association between trait negative emotionality and solitary drinking was fully mediated by adolescents' ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = 0.05, P = 0.01). In contrast, constraint had a direct effect on solitary drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, b = -0.23, P<0.01), as well as an indirect effect through the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = -0.03, P = 0.02). The ability to resist drinking while experiencing negative feelings or emotions may be an important underlying mechanism linking trait negative emotionality (a tendency toward depression, anxiety and poor reaction to stress) and constraint (lack of impulsiveness) to adolescent solitary drinking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Including temperature in a wavefunction description of the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Michael; Grossmann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    We present a wavefunction methodology to account for finite temperature initial conditions in the quantum Rabi model. The approach is based on the Davydov Ansatz together with a statistical sampling of the canonical harmonic oscillator initial density matrix. Equations of motion are gained from a variational principle and numerical results are compared to those of the thermal Hamiltonian approach. For a system consisting of a single spin and a single oscillator and for moderate coupling strength, we compare our new results with full quantum ones as well as with other Davydov-type results based on alternative sampling/summation strategies. All of these perform better than the ones based on the thermal Hamiltonian approach. The best agreement is shown by a Boltzmann weighting of individual eigenstate propagations. Extending this to a bath of many oscillators will, however, be very demanding numerically. The use of any one of the investigated stochastic sampling approaches will then be favorable.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  3. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  4. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  5. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  6. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  7. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R [Department of Medical Physics, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 111 Highland Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Schubert, Leah K [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Westerly, David C, E-mail: mwkissick@wisc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2010-05-21

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.

  8. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R; Schubert, Leah K; Westerly, David C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.

  9. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... (DATAC1, which only contained the first crop daughters) for proven bulls. In addition, the superiority of the models was evaluated by expected reliability of EBV, calculated from the prediction error variance of EBV. Based on these criteria, the models combining milk production traits showed better model...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  10. Regional modelling of future African climate north of 15S including greenhouse warming and land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H. [Geographical Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Thamm, H.P. [Geographical Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Previous studies have highlighted the crucial role of land degradation in tropical African climate. This effect urgently has to be taken into account when predicting future African climate under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Here, we present time slice experiments of African climate until 2025, using a high-resolution regional climate model. A supposable scenario of future land use changes, involving vegetation loss and soil degradation, is prescribed simultaneously with increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations in order to detect, where the different forcings counterbalance or reinforce each other. This proceeding allows us to define the regions of highest vulnerability with respect to future freshwater availability and food security in tropical and subtropical Africa and may provide a decision basis for political measures. The model simulates a considerable reduction in precipitation amount until 2025 over most of tropical Africa, amounting to partly more than 500 mm (20-40% of the annual sum), particularly in the Congo Basin and the Sahel Zone. The change is strongest in boreal summer and basically reflects the pattern of maximum vegetation cover during the seasonal cycle. The related change in the surface energy fluxes induces a substantial near-surface warming by up to 7C. According to the modified temperature gradients over tropical Africa, the summer monsoon circulation intensifies and transports more humid air masses into the southern part of West Africa. This humidifying effect is overcompensated by a remarkable decrease in surface evaporation, leading to the overall drying tendency over most of Africa. Extreme daily rainfall events become stronger in autumn but less intense in spring. Summer and autumn appear to be characterized by more severe heat waves over Subsaharan West Africa. In addition, the Tropical Easterly Jet is weakening, leading to enhanced drought conditions in the Sahel Zone. All these results suggest that the local impact of land

  11. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horing, Norman J. M.

    2017-06-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  12. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. M. Horing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  13. Religious Coping in Caregivers of Family Members With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathier, Lucille A; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  15. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Marjan J; De Vries, Jolanda; Bodenmann, Guy; Den Oudsten, Brenda L

    2015-02-01

    Cancer not only affects the patient but also the partner. In fact, couples may react as a unit rather than as individuals while coping with cancer (i.e., dyadic coping). We assessed (1) the relationship between dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer and (2) whether intervention studies aimed at improving dyadic coping were able to enhance the relationship functioning of these couples. Recommendations for future studies are provided. A systematic search was conducted to identify all eligible papers between January 1990 and September 2012. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were screened. Most studies (n = 33) used an appropriate study design, adequate measurements, adequate analytical techniques, and a sufficient number of included participants to answer addressed research questions. However, the definition and assessment of dyadic coping strategies differed, which hampered comparison. Coping styles characterized by open and constructive (cancer-related) communication, supportive behaviours, positive dyadic coping, and joint problem solving were related to higher relationship functioning, whereas dysfunctional communication patterns (e.g., protective buffering, demand-withdraw communication), unsupportive behaviours, and negative dyadic coping were related to lower relationship functioning. The results of the intervention studies were inconsistent: while some studies reported a beneficial effect on relationship functioning, other studies report no such effect, or only found a positive effect in couples with fewer personal relationship resources. This review showed that adequate dyadic coping may improve relationship functioning, while dysfunctional dyadic coping may impede relationship functioning. In order to increase the comparability of the reported findings, a more uniformly conceptualized perspective on dyadic coping is needed. A better understanding of the dyadic challenges couples coping with

  16. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...

  17. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs About ...

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    Full Text Available ... Contact List Preparing for Medical Visits An Active Partnership workbook and DVD Related Sites My Life Check ... Visits - Questions To Ask Your Healthcare Professional Taking Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - ...

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    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Know Your Numbers Understand Symptoms & Risks Learn How HBP Harms Your Health Make Changes That Matter Find HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings ...

  20. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...

  1. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... t try to reduce your anxiety with harmful habits, such as drinking alcohol or taking sleeping pills. ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...

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    Full Text Available ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have ... or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, ...

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    Full Text Available ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight ... Target Heart Rates 4 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 5 How to Eat Healthy 6 What are the Symptoms of High Blood ...

  4. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Tools & Resources Cholesterol About Cholesterol HDL, LDL & Triglycerides Causes of High Cholesterol How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested ... Questions To Ask Your Healthcare Professional Taking Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress ... Popular Articles ...

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    Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...

  6. Coping with Feelings

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    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...

  7. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart ...

  8. Coping with Feelings

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  9. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... at people who are in your way in daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...

  10. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...

  11. Coping with Feelings

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  12. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...

  13. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions ... and information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This ...

  14. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  15. "It's how we deal": Perceptions of LGB peers' use of alcohol and other drugs to cope and sexual minority adults' own coping motivated substance use following the Pulse nightclub shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Costine, Lauren D; Witkovic, Yong D

    2017-02-01

    Sexual minority stress experiences (e.g. prejudice, victimization, etc.) and peer substance use norms (e.g. peers' frequency of use and quantity consumed) are important correlates of alcohol and drug use in sexual minority populations. The current study incorporates both of these by examining LGB individuals' perceptions of peers' use of alcohol and other drugs to cope with a sexual minority stressor, and whether perceptions of peer coping norms relate to one's own coping-motivated substance use in response to the stressor. Three-hundred and seven sexual minority males and females who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual completed an online survey approximately 1month following the Pulse Nightclub Shooting, the deadliest incident of violence against LGBT people in U.S. history, and a stressor experienced within LGB communities throughout the U.S. Results revealed that LGB peers were widely perceived as likely to have coped with alcohol (68%) and drugs (41%) following the Pulse Shooting; however only small proportions of participants themselves reported coping with alcohol (26%) and drugs (7%). Further, multivariate models revealed that even after controlling for other factors including the stress impact of the Pulse shooting, the odds of using alcohol to cope with this event were 15 times greater among participants who held the perception that LGB peers likely used alcohol to cope relative to those who did not share this perception. Similarly, the odds of using drugs to cope with this event were 9 times greater among participants who perceived LGB peers likely to use drugs to cope with Pulse compared to those who did not. Importantly, these findings suggest that personalized normative feedback designed to correct perceptions of peers' coping motivated substance use may have utility as a motivational component in larger interventions seeking to reduce LGBs' substance use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  17. Moderating effects of three coping strategies and self-esteem on perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms: A minority stress model for Asian international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Russell, Daniel W; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin

    2008-10-01

    This study examined 3 coping strategies (reflective, suppressive, and reactive), along with self-esteem, as moderators of the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. International students (N = 354) from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong provided data via an online survey. The role of perceived general stress was statistically controlled. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant direct effect of perceived discrimination, a significant 2-way interaction of perceived discrimination and suppressive coping, and a significant 3-way interaction of perceived discrimination, reactive coping, and self-esteem in predicting depressive symptoms. An increased tendency to use suppressive coping appeared to strengthen the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. In contrast, the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was not significant when reactive coping was infrequently used, but only for students with relatively high self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Coping in Parkinson's disease: an examination of the coping inventory for stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C S; Thomas, B A; Burn, D J; Hindle, J V; Landau, S; Samuel, M; Wilson, K C M; Brown, R G

    2011-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) brings with it a range of stresses and challenges with which a patient must cope. The type of coping strategies employed can impact upon well-being, although findings from coping studies in PD remain inconsistent. The variety of coping scales used without validation in PD has been cited as a possible cause of this inconsistency. The present study sought to examine the validity of the coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) in a sample of patients with PD. Five hundred and twenty-five patients with PD were recruited as part of a longitudinal investigation of mood states in PD. Four hundred and seventy-one participants completed the CISS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the structural validity of the scale. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlations and Pearson's correlations. Both three and four factor solutions were examined. The four factor model was found to provide a better fit of the data than the three factor model. The internal reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the CISS scales were shown to be good. Use of emotion-focused coping was associated with greater depression and anxiety whilst, task-oriented coping was associated with better psychological well-being. The results provide support for the validity and reliability of the CISS as a measure of coping in patients with PD. Further research into the relationship between coping and well-being is warranted. The identification of helpful and unhelpful coping strategies may guide the development of evidence-based therapies to improve well-being in patients with PD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fibromyalgia, Spirituality, Coping and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life.

  20. Alcohol and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use to Cope With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: An Analysis of Hurricane Sandy Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Young, Megan N; Galea, Sandro

    2017-08-24

    Postdisaster increases in substance use have been attributed to use of substances to cope with emotional reactions. However, no study to our knowledge has explored disaster survivors' substance use to cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) to cope with PTSD symptoms in two population-based samples of adult residents of New York City neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Sandy. Participants completed structured interviews at either 13-16 or 25-28 months postdisaster (combined N = 914). Participants with PTSD symptoms, assessed via the Posttraumatic Stress Checklist for DSM-5, indicated whether they coped with their symptoms through alcohol use or NMPDU, via items adapted from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models explored correlates of substance use coping, including demographic characteristics, lifetime and hurricane-related exposures, and psychiatric symptoms in the combined sample. Over a third of participants in the combined sample (n = 311, 34.0%) reported PTSD symptoms, and of these, 12.8% used alcohol to cope and 9.2% endorsed NMPDU to cope. Older age and being a parent living with a child under 18 years old at the time of the hurricane were associated with a lower likelihood, and more severe depression symptoms with a higher likelihood, of alcohol use coping. Conclusions/Importance: Although preliminary, the results provide evidence for the use of substances to cope with postdisaster PTSD symptoms, and that age, parent status, and depression symptoms are associated with alcohol use coping.

  1. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  2. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level) and individual (lower level) exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure). More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure). In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models. Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure. Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions. When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation, particularly

  3. Long-term trends in field level irrigation water demand in Mahanadi delta districts - a hydrological modeling approach for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju Pokkuluri, Venkat; Rao, Diwakar Parsi Guru; Hazra, Sugata; Srikant Kulkarni, Sunil

    2017-04-01

    India uses its 85 percent of available water resources for irrigation making it the country with largest net irrigated area in the world. With one of the largest delta plains, sustaining the needs of irrigation supplies is critical for food security and coping with challenges of climate change. The extensive development of upstream river basins/catchments is posing serious challenge and constrains to the water availability to delta regions, which depend on the controlled/regulated flows from the upstream catchments. The irrigation water demands vary due to changes in agricultural practices, cropping pattern and changing climate conditions. Estimation of realistic irrigation water demand and its trend over time is critical for meeting the supplementary water needs of productive agricultural lands in delta plains and there by coping the challenges of extensive upstream river basin development and climate change. The present study carried out in delta districts of Mahanadi river in Odisha State of India, wherein the long-term trends in field level irrigation water requirements were estimated, both on spatial & temporal scales, using hydrological modeling framework. This study attempts to estimate field level irrigation water requirements through simulation of soil water balance during the crop growing season through process based hydrological modeling framework. The soil water balance computations were carried out using FAO-56 framework, by modifying the crop coefficient (Kc) proportional to the water stress coefficient (Ks), which is a function of root zone depletion of water. Daily meteorological data, spatial cropping pattern, terrain are incorporated in the soil water balance simulation in the model. The irrigation water demand is derived considering the exclusion of soil water stress for each model time step. The field level irrigation water requirement at 8 day interval had been estimated for the each Rabi season (post-monsoon) spanning over 1986 to 2015. The

  4. Combining prior knowledge with data-driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, P.F.; van Lith, Pascal F.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  5. Relationship between coping skills and job satisfaction among Japanese full-time occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Nagata, Shoji

    2003-09-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between coping skills and job satisfaction among Japanese full-time occupational physicians (OPs). In 2000 we mailed self-administered questionnaires to 716 full-time OPs who were members of "Sanyu-kai", the only Japanese association of full-time OPs. The questionnaires included age, gender, marital status, main type of company's work, the number of full-time OPs, the number of employees, working years as an OP, tenure in the present company, job stress, and coping skills question. The coping skills questions consisted of 11 items which were decided after discussion among several experienced full-time OPs. In total, 351 (49%) of the OPs returned suitable questionnaires for analyses. Considering age, gender, marital status, and coping skills, multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) found that age, simplification of work, obvious roles for staff, consultations, and communication in the community and company were factors which contributed significantly to job satisfaction. Structural equation modeling showed that age and coping skills such as work system improvements, consultations, and communication in the community and company influenced job satisfaction. Our results indicated that the age and coping skills influenced job satisfaction among full-time OPs. Our results are also considered to support the training of OPs in the future.

  6. Using the Rosenzweig frustration picture test in the study of coping behaviour in thesituation of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. L’vova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the relation between the relevance of coping behaviour and increasing interest to phenomena of uncertainty. The reviewing of coping as complicated setting notion including several levels is offered. The relevance of studying conscious and unconscious levels of coping is validated. Using coping questionnaires’ deficit of prognosis validity and the relevancy of using projective methods that are effective and useful in diagnostics of coping’ unconscious components are discussed. Due to the changes in viewing difficult life situations’ range and focusing on subjective perception of difficulties, the frustration situations are reviewed as difficult daily life situations. The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test could be used for diagnosing coping’ unconscious components that compose meaning set level and coping behaviour basis. The relations among personal characteristics (tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, noetic orientations, personal anxiety, locus of control and three types and three directions of subjects’ responses in test’ situations were examined, generalized linear models were used. The subjects of the research are 199 teachers from secondary schools of Russian Federation, mean age is 40.6 years old. The results showed significant relations between particular personal characteristics and types and directions of the responses: ego-defense type and tolerance to uncertainty, obstacle-dominance type and personal anxiety, intropunitive direction and personal anxiety, obstacledominance type and noetic orientations. The common discussion of current results and results obtained in previous studies demonstrates potential existence of mediating relations between particular coping strategies and types and directions of subjects’ responses in The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test.

  7. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  8. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  9. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  10. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping

    2017-11-01

    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  11. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bonnie E.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  12. Numerical simulation of lateral-torsional buckling of coped girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Stark, J.W.B.; Abspoel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The lateral torsional buckling resistance of girders depends on the support conditions. In floor structures for buildings, coped girders are often used. A numerical model was developed to research the influence of copes on lateral buckling resistance. The model is successfully validated with tests.

  13. A finite element model of the lower limb during stance phase of gait cycle including the muscle forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffo Kaze, Arnaud; Maas, Stefan; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Wolf, Claude; Pape, Dietrich

    2017-12-07

    Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities of daily life, are considered in the FE modelling. So far, many simplifications of the boundary conditions are currently made. This study presents an approach for FE modelling of the lower limb for which muscle forces were included. The stance phase of normal gait was simulated. Muscle forces were calculated using a musculoskeletal rigid body (RB) model of the human body, and were subsequently applied to a FE model of the lower limb. It was shown that the inertial forces are negligible during the stance phase of normal gait. The contact surfaces between the parts within the knee were modelled as bonded. Weak springs were attached to the distal tibia for numerical reasons. Hip joint reaction forces from the RB model and those from the FE model were similar in magnitude with relative differences less than 16%. The forces of the weak spring were negligible compared to the applied muscle forces. The maximal strain was 0.23% in the proximal region of the femoral diaphysis and 1.7% in the contact zone between the tibia and the fibula. The presented approach based on FE modelling by including muscle forces from inverse dynamic analysis of musculoskeletal RB model can be used to perform analyses of the lower limb with very realistic boundary conditions. In the present form, this model can be used to better understand the loading, stresses and strains of bones in the knee area and hence to analyse osteotomy fixation devices.

  14. Global stability for infectious disease models that include immigration of infected individuals and delay in the incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Uggenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We begin with a detailed study of a delayed SI model of disease transmission with immigration into both classes. The incidence function allows for a nonlinear dependence on the infected population, including mass action and saturating incidence as special cases. Due to the immigration of infectives, there is no disease-free equilibrium and hence no basic reproduction number. We show there is a unique endemic equilibrium and that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for all parameter values. The results include vector-style delay and latency-style delay. Next, we show that previous global stability results for an SEI model and an SVI model that include immigration of infectives and non-linear incidence but not delay can be extended to systems with vector-style delay and latency-style delay.

  15. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used m...

  16. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home...

  17. Coping changes the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Nechvatal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  18. What is Skilled Coping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses a phenomenological analysis of interviews with a professional string quartet to critique the notion of ‘skilled coping’ as used by Hubert Dreyfus. According to Dreyfus, skilled coping is a way of being and acting in which one is immersed in one’s actions such that one is not thinking...... or reflecting. He uses examples from various experts, such a chess-, baseball-, and soccer players, to illustrate this. I argue that his account suffers from a reductive dualism between coping and reflection and further from a lack of clarity. I use my work with the string quartet to illustrate that so...

  19. Surface potential based modeling of charge, current, and capacitances in DGTFET including mobile channel charge and ambipolar behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-08-01

    We present a surface potential based analytical model for double gate tunnel field effect transistor (DGTFET) for the current, terminal charges, and terminal capacitances. The model accounts for the effect of the mobile charge in the channel and captures the device physics in depletion as well as in the strong inversion regime. The narrowing of the tunnel barrier in the presence of mobile charges in the channel is incorporated via modeling of the inverse decay length, which is constant under channel depletion condition and bias dependent under inversion condition. To capture the ambipolar current behavior in the model, tunneling at the drain junction is also included. The proposed model is validated against TCAD simulation data and it shows close match with the simulation data.

  20. How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Gorissen, Marnix; Höglund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternate stress coping styles is poor. Since perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under...... in the Dl, in line with active coping neuro-profiles reported in the mammalian literature. We present novel evidence of proposed functional equivalences in the fish forebrain with mammalian limbic structures....

  1. Model Selection and Evaluation Based on Emerging Infectious Disease Data Sets including A/H1N1 and Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.

  2. Illness representations, coping, and illness outcomes in people with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Emma M; Schüz, Natalie; Sanderson, Kristy; Scott, Jennifer L; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is associated with negative health and emotional outcomes in those affected by it, suggesting the need to better understand the psychosocial determinants of illness outcomes and coping. The common sense model is the leading psychological model of self-regulation in the face of illness and assumes that subjective illness representations explain how people attempt to cope with illness. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the associations of the common sense model's illness representation dimensions with health and coping outcomes in people with cancer. A systematic literature search located 54 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria, with 38 providing sufficient data for meta-analysis. A narrative review of the remaining studies was also conducted. Random-effects models revealed small to moderate effect sizes (Fisher Z) for the relations between illness representations and coping behaviors (in particular between control perceptions, problem-focused coping, and cognitive reappraisal) and moderate to large effect sizes between illness representations and illness outcomes (in particular between identity, consequences, emotional representations, and psychological distress). The narrative review of studies with insufficient data provided similar results. The results indicate how illness representations relate to illness outcomes in people with cancer. However, more high-quality studies are needed to examine causal effects of illness representations on coping and outcomes. High heterogeneity indicates potential moderators of the relationships between illness representations and health and coping outcomes, including diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment-related variables. This review can inform the design of interventions to improve coping strategies and mental health outcomes in people with cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS) model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV) loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves. PMID:21942971

  4. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  5. The effects of perceived racism on psychological distress mediated by venting and disengagement coping in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Antonio, Mapuana C K; Ing, Claire K Townsend; Hermosura, Andrea; Hall, Kimberly E; Knight, Rebecca; Wills, Thomas A

    2017-01-12

    Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling. Perceived racism had a significant indirect effect on psychological distress, mediated through venting and behavioral disengagement coping strategies, with control for age, gender, educational level, and marital status. The findings suggest that certain coping strategies may exacerbate the deleterious effects of racism on a person's psychological well-being. Our study adds Native Hawaiians to the list of U.S. racial and ethnic minorities whose psychological well-being is adversely affected by racism.

  6. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  7. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  8. Recent Progress on Labfit: a Multispectrum Analysis Program for Fitting Lineshapes Including the Htp Model and Temperature Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cich, Matthew J.; Guillaume, Alexandre; Drouin, Brian; Benner, D. Chris

    2017-06-01

    Multispectrum analysis can be a challenge for a variety of reasons. It can be computationally intensive to fit a proper line shape model especially for high resolution experimental data. Band-wide analyses including many transitions along with interactions, across many pressures and temperatures are essential to accurately model, for example, atmospherically relevant systems. Labfit is a fast multispectrum analysis program originally developed by D. Chris Benner with a text-based interface. More recently at JPL a graphical user interface was developed with the goal of increasing the ease of use but also the number of potential users. The HTP lineshape model has been added to Labfit keeping it up-to-date with community standards. Recent analyses using labfit will be shown to demonstrate its ability to competently handle large experimental datasets, including high order lineshape effects, that are otherwise unmanageable.

  9. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis M. Eaton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.

  10. Application of a new combined model including radiological indicators to predict difficult airway in patients undergoing surgery for cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mao; Li, Xiaoxi; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Airway management is crucial in clinical anesthesia. Many complications associated with airway management result from unexpected difficult airway, but predicting a difficult airway is a major challenge. We investigated the efficacy of a new combined model including radiological indicators to predict difficult airway in patients undergoing surgery for cervical spondylosis, a population with a high incidence of difficult airway. We randomly enrolled 303 patients scheduled for elective surgery for cervical spondylosis at Peking University Third Hospital between August 2012 and March 2013. Preoperatively, patients were evaluated for difficult airway according to a clinical index and parameters on lateral cervical radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Difficult airway was defined as Cormack-Lehane grades III-IV. Logistic regression was used to identify a combined (clinical and radiological) model for difficult airway. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to describe the effectiveness of prediction. We identified three clinical predictive factors using the ROC curve: mouth opening, sternomental distance, and neck mobility. We created a clinical model using three factors: gender, age, and mouth opening, with odds ratios (OR) of 0.370, 1.034, and 0.358, respectively. Using the clinical and radiological parameters, we formulated a combined model with five risk factors: gender, mouth opening, atlanto-occipital gap, the angle from the second to sixth cervical vertebraes in the neutral position, and the angle difference of d (the angle between the laryngeal axis and the epiglottic axis) from the neutral position to extension (OR: 0.107, 0.355, 0.846, 1.057, and 0.952, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the combined model were 80.0% and 65.7%, respectively, and the ROC curve confirmed that the combined model was better than any single clinical predictor and the clinical model. The efficacy of the combined model including both clinical and

  11. Affecting coping: does neurocognition predict approach and avoidant coping strategies within schizophrenia spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca; Cohen, Alex S

    2013-09-30

    According to various diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia, life stress plays a defining role in the onset and course of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In this regard, individual differences in coping strategies and affective traits, variables related to the management and experience of stress, may play a large role in susceptibility to the disorder and symptom exacerbation. Furthermore, it has been posited that cognitive deficits may limit an individuals' ability to effectively respond to stressful situations. We investigated the relationships between attention, immediate memory, trait negative affect (NA), trait positive affect (PA) and specific coping strategies within three groups: chronic schizophrenia patients (n=27), psychometrically-defined schizotypy (n=89), and schizotypy demographically-matched controls (n=26). As hypothesized affective traits displayed predictable relationships with specific coping strategies, such that NA was associated with the greater use of avoidant coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy group, while PA was associated with greater use of approach coping styles within all groups. The schizotypy group reported significantly higher levels of NA and also greater use of avoidant coping strategies than both the control and schizophrenia group. As expected group differences were found in trait affect, coping strategies, and cognitive functioning. Importantly, these group differences remained significant even when demographic variables were entered as covariates. Contrary to our expectations, cognitive functioning displayed only a few tenuous relationships with coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups. Overall, results support the notion that affective traits and not cognitive functioning is the best predictor of approach and avoidant coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings ...

  13. Coping with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    explicitly refers to the actually existing economy or comments upon or relates to the question of theorizing versus reality. By analyzing (or generalizing) this empirical material it is demonstrated that Keynes copes with reality by generalizing from experience, giving priority to the most important parts...

  14. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with ......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home......-living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  15. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research...

  16. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocate for Heart.org Giving for Heart.org Media for Heart.org Arrhythmia About Arrhythmia Why Arrhythmia ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...

  17. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  18. Coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...

  19. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  20. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  1. Problem-Solving Therapy During Outpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Improves Coping and Health-Related Quality of Life: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marieke M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Van't Spijker, Adriaan; Lannoo, Engelien; Busschbach, Jan J V; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-solving therapy (PST) is an effective group intervention for improving coping strategy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with stroke. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, the intervention group received PST as add-on to standard outpatient rehabilitation, the control group received outpatient rehabilitation only. Measurements were performed at baseline, directly after the intervention, and 6 and 12 months later. Data were analyzed using linear-mixed models. Primary outcomes were task-oriented coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and psychosocial HRQoL as measured by the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale. Secondary outcomes were the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L utility score, emotion-oriented and avoidant coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, problem-solving skills as measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Included were 166 patients with stroke, mean age 53.06 years (SD, 10.19), 53% men, median time poststroke 7.29 months (interquartile range, 4.90-10.61 months). Six months post intervention, the PST group showed significant improvement when compared with the control group in task-oriented coping (P=0.008), but not stroke-specific psychosocial HRQoL. Furthermore, avoidant coping (P=0.039) and the utility value for general HRQoL (P=0.034) improved more in the PST group than in the control after 6 months. PST seems to improve task-oriented coping but not disease-specific psychosocial HRQoL after stroke >6-month follow-up. Furthermore, we found indications that PST may improve generic HRQoL recovery and avoidant coping. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2509. Unique identifier: CNTR2509. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Evaluative coping, emotional distress, and adherence in couples with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Lisa J; Novak, Joshua R; Anderson, Jared R; Mendenhall, Tai J; Johnson, Matthew D; Scheufler, Ann C; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C

    2018-03-01

    Spousal support is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of Type 2 diabetes treatment adherence. However, the effects of both spouses' evaluations of dyadic coping on emotional distress and patients' physical health remain largely unknown. Dyadic data from 117 married couples in which one member is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were evaluated in two separate models to explore the associations between (a) patients' and spouses' depression symptoms and patients' adherence to dietary and exercise regimens, and (b) patients' and spouses' acute stress levels and patients' adherence to dietary and exercise regimens. Finally, evaluative dyadic coping was included as a possible moderator between these associations. Results from an actor-partner interdependence model revealed significant actor effects of patients' depression symptoms on patients' adherence to dietary and exercise regimens. Spouses' evaluation of dyadic coping attenuated the direct paths between spouses' depression symptoms and patients' adherence to dietary regimens. No direct pathways were found from patients' or spouses' acute stress to patients' adherence to dietary and exercise regimens. However, spouses' evaluation of dyadic coping attenuated the direct paths between spouses' acute stress and patients' adherence to dietary regimens. Tapping into spouses' evaluations of dyadic coping has significant implications for patients' diabetes health outcomes (e.g., adherence to dietary and exercise treatment regimens). Findings from this study highlight the need for systemic interventions targeting both partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Denial and acceptance coping styles and medication adherence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebot, Stephanie; de Mamani, Amy G Weisman

    2009-08-01

    Antipsychotics are often the first line of treatment for individuals with schizophrenia (). One challenge to effective treatment is lack of adherence to prescribed medication. Lower rates of adherence are associated with considerably higher rates of relapse and poorer course of illness. Therefore studying the characteristics that may be related to medication adherence is important. Coping styles may be one such factor. Individuals use a variety of coping mechanisms to manage and navigate difficult life events, including mental illness (). In the present study, 40 individuals with schizophrenia were assessed regarding their coping styles and medication adherence practices. As hypothesized, it was found that denial coping was inversely related to medication adherence. However, contrary to expectations, acceptance coping was not related to medication adherence. These findings suggest that targeting denial coping strategies in treatment may help foster more optimal strategies for managing schizophrenia.

  4. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  5. Тhe role of time perspective in coping behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotova, Alla K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research on the role of time perspective in a person’s choice of coping strategies in interpersonal conflicts. The interrelationship between different types of coping strategies (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral and the orientation of time perspective are considered. P. G. Zimbardo’s technique, which defines the orientation of time perspective, and E. Heim’s technique, which is directed at exploring coping strategies, are used in our research. The sample consisted of 295 participants: 156 women and 139 men, with an average age of 32 years. The research shows that a future orientation is directly connected with the choice of cognitive and behavioral coping strategies in interpersonal conflicts, while an orientation to the negative past results in emotional coping strategies. A person’s orientation to the fatalistic present engenders retreat and avoidance of conflict resolution, which are nonadaptive behavioral strategies that include few coping techniques.

  6. General and religious coping predict drinking outcomes for alcohol dependent adults in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Ellingsen, Victor J; Tzilos, Golfo K; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2015-04-01

    Religiosity is associated with improved treatment outcomes among adults with alcohol dependence; however, it is unknown whether religious coping predicts drinking outcomes above and beyond the effects of coping in general, and whether gender differences exist. We assessed 116 alcohol-dependent adults (53% women; mean age = 37, SD = 8.6) for use of religious coping, general coping, and alcohol use within 2 weeks of entering outpatient treatment, and again 6 months after treatment. Religious coping at 6 months predicted fewer heavy alcohol use days and fewer drinks per day. This relationship was no longer significant after controlling for general coping at 6 months. The relationship between the use of religious coping strategies and drinking outcomes is not independent of general coping. Coping skills training that includes religious coping skills, as one of several coping methods, may be useful for a subset of adults early in recovery. This novel, prospective study assessed the relationship between religious coping strategies, general coping, and treatment outcomes for alcohol-dependent adults in treatment with results suggesting that the use of religious coping as one of several coping methods may be useful for a subset of adults early in recovery. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.

    1992-01-01

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  8. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)

  9. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Impact and Frictional Motion Responses Including Fluid—Structure Coupling Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.

  10. The Impact of Early Recovery from Alcoholism on Spouses of Alcoholics: A Study of Stress, Coping and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary Ann; Bodine, George E.

    Alcohol abuse results in a variety of problems including employment difficulties and family problems. This study integrates a family systems model of alcoholism with a family crisis model for recovery to study spouses of alcoholics and their perceptions of family stress, coping styles, and quality of marriage. Participants (N=60) were husbands or…

  11. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  12. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  13. Couples’ Coping in Prodromal Huntington Disease: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nancy R.; Williams, Janet K.; Leserman, Anne L.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) includes a prodromal phase with behavioral, cognitive, and motor function decline occurring up to 15 years prior to diagnosis. This study used mixed methods to examine how people with prodromal HD and their companions coped with noticed changes. Twenty-three couples completed a semi-structured interview and Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used acceptance, emotional support, and planning most frequently; companions used acceptance, planning, and active coping. Least frequently used coping strategies for each were denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance use. Qualitative interviews revealed coping strategies not included in the Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used prescription medications, coping as a couple, hope, and self-monitoring; companions used hope and helping their partners. Many of the coping procedures were rated as effective, especially when changes were not severe. Couples may benefit from prodromal HD counseling that emphasizes using active coping strategies for changes that can be compensated for and acceptance for changes that cannot. Findings from this study may be helpful for counseling patients and significant others facing other neurodegenerative conditions with prodromal or early phases, such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:22278219

  14. Couples' coping in prodromal Huntington disease: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nancy R; Williams, Janet K; Leserman, Anne L; Paulsen, Jane S

    2012-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) includes a prodromal phase with behavioral, cognitive, and motor function decline occurring up to 15 years prior to diagnosis. This study used mixed methods to examine how people in the prodromal phase and their companions coped with noticed changes. Twenty-three couples completed a semi-structured interview and Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used acceptance, emotional support, and planning most frequently; companions used acceptance, planning, and active coping. Least frequently used coping strategies for each were denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance use. Qualitative interviews revealed coping strategies not included in the Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used prescription medications, coping as a couple, hope, and self-monitoring; companions used hope and helping their partners. Many of the coping procedures were rated as effective, especially when changes were not severe. Couples may benefit from counseling that emphasizes using active coping strategies for changes that can be compensated for and acceptance for changes that cannot in prodromal HD. Findings from this study may be helpful for counseling patients and significant others facing other neurodegenerative conditions with prodromal or early phases, such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  15. En las Manos de Dios [in God's Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping among Latinos with Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Sandra E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping…

  16. Insight in Psychosis: An Indicator of Severity of Psychosis, an Explanatory Model of Illness, and a Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies related to insight, explanatory models (EMs) of illness and their relationship to outcome of psychosis are reviewed. The traditional argument that insight predicts outcome in psychosis is not supported by recent longitudinal data, which has been analyzed using multivariable statistics that adjust for severity and quality of illness. While all cognition will have a neurobiological representation, if “insight” is related to the primary psychotic process, then insight cannot be seen as an independent predictor of outcome but a part of the progression of illness. The evidence suggests insight, like all EMs, is belief which interacts with the trajectory of the person's illness and the local culture to produce a unique understanding of the illness for the particular individual and his/her family. PMID:27335513

  17. Extensions of the Rosner-Colditz breast cancer prediction model to include older women and type-specific predicted risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.

  18. Mentoring as a Mediator or Moderator of the Association between Racial Discrimination and Coping Efficacy in Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Bernadette; Mroczkowski, Alison L; Liao, Lynn C; Cooper, Adina C; Rivera, Claudio; DuBois, David L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations among mentoring relationship quality (i.e., relational and instrumental quality), racial discrimination and coping efficacy with racial discrimination. Three social support models were tested, including the stress buffering, support mobilization, and support deterioration models. Participants were 257 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students, who completed surveys in both 9th and 10th grades. While controlling for gender and coping efficacy with discrimination in 9th grade, results supported the social support deterioration model. Specifically, there was a significant indirect effect of racial discrimination in 9th grade on coping efficacy in 10th grade through instrumental mentoring quality. As racial discrimination increased, mentoring quality decreased and then coping efficacy decreased. We also found that more racial discrimination in 9th grade was significantly associated with lower coping efficacy in 10th grade, and higher instrumental mentoring quality in 9th grade was significantly associated with higher coping efficacy in 10th grade, while controlling for gender and coping efficacy in 9th grade. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  20. How place attachments influence recreation conflict and coping behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang; Yin-Hsun. Chang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how place attachment influences recreation conflict and coping behaviors based on the Transactional Stress/Coping Model. The interference between bikers and walkers in Bali Zon-An Park in Taipei County, Taiwan was investigated in May and June of 2007. A total of 384 valid questionnaires were collected.

  1. Stress-coping styles of 459 emergency care physicians in Germany : A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, M; Hessam, S; Sand, D; Bechara, F G; Vorstius, C; Bromba, M; Stockfleth, E; Shiue, I

    2016-11-01

    In addition to assessing stress-coping strategies in patients, equal attention should be paid to health-care professionals. The literature on the stress-coping strategies of emergency physicians - health-care professionals who are frequently subject to stress in a fast-paced clinical setting - is scant. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the stress-coping strategies of emergency-care physicians (ECPs) in Germany. We conducted a cross-sectional study by approaching German Associations of Emergency Medicine Physicians and the two largest ECP recruitment agencies in Germany to invite their members to participate. We used the German Stress Coping Strategies Inventory ("Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen" SVF-78) to generate stress-coping scores that would cover both positive and negative strategies. Differences according to sex were also examined. Analyses including chi-square test, t test, and multinomial logistic regression modeling were performed. A total of 459 German ECPs were included in the study. Compared with men, women tended to have negative coping strategies (beta = 1.77, p resignation (beta = 2.09, p psychological support should be considered, which may be of particular benefit for female ECPs.

  2. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  3. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  4. One Dimensional Analysis Model of a Condensing Spray Chamber Including Rocket Exhaust Using SINDA/FLUINT and CEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Barbara; Edwards, Daryl; Dickens, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Modeling droplet condensation via CFD codes can be very tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate. CFD codes may be tedious and time consuming in terms of using Lagrangian particle tracking approaches or particle sizing bins. Also since many codes ignore conduction through the droplet and or the degradating effect of heat and mass transfer if noncondensible species are present, the solutions may be inaccurate. The modeling of a condensing spray chamber where the significant size of the water droplets and the time and distance these droplets take to fall, can make the effect of droplet conduction a physical factor that needs to be considered in the model. Furthermore the presence of even a relatively small amount of noncondensible has been shown to reduce the amount of condensation [Ref 1]. It is desirable then to create a modeling tool that addresses these issues. The path taken to create such a tool is illustrated. The application of this tool and subsequent results are based on the spray chamber in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B2) located at NASA's Plum Brook Station that tested an RL-10 engine. The platform upon which the condensation physics is modeled is SINDAFLUINT. The use of SINDAFLUINT enables the ability to model various aspects of the entire testing facility, including the rocket exhaust duct flow and heat transfer to the exhaust duct wall. The ejector pumping system of the spray chamber is also easily implemented via SINDAFLUINT. The goal is to create a transient one dimensional flow and heat transfer model beginning at the rocket, continuing through the condensing spray chamber, and finally ending with the ejector pumping system. However the model of the condensing spray chamber may be run independently of the rocket and ejector systems detail, with only appropriate mass flow boundary conditions placed at the entrance and exit of the condensing spray chamber model. The model of the condensing spray chamber takes into account droplet

  5. Coping with fibromialgia: usefulness of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Pascual, Aida; Alda, Marta; Gonzalez Ramirez, Monica Teresa

    2007-11-01

    There are few studies on coping with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) in patients with FM. A random sample (N=402) of patients with FM was obtained from the Fibromyalgia Association of Aragon, Spain. Patients were assessed with the CPCI-42, the Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The psychometric properties of the CPCI-42 were valid and factor analyses supported the eight-factor structure described in patients with chronic pain. Illness-focused coping strategies (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) were strongly correlated with each other, positively correlated with disability and depression, and negatively correlated with quality of life, indicating construct validity. Seeking social support was weakly correlated with any other scale or outcome, confirming it belongs to a different group of coping strategies. The wellness-focused group of coping strategies was the most incoherent group. Task persistence correlated with illness-focused strategies and negative outcomes, indicating that it should be included in the illness-focused group. However, other wellness-focused strategies, including relaxation, exercise, and coping self-statements, were correlated with each other, negatively correlated with depression, and positively correlated with quality of life. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. A comparison of different ways of including baseline counts in negative binomial models for data from falls prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Kimber, Alan; Goodwin, Victoria A; Pickering, Ruth M

    2018-01-01

    A common design for a falls prevention trial is to assess falling at baseline, randomize participants into an intervention or control group, and ask them to record the number of falls they experience during a follow-up period of time. This paper addresses how best to include the baseline count in the analysis of the follow-up count of falls in negative binomial (NB) regression. We examine the performance of various approaches in simulated datasets where both counts are generated from a mixed Poisson distribution with shared random subject effect. Including the baseline count after log-transformation as a regressor in NB regression (NB-logged) or as an offset (NB-offset) resulted in greater power than including the untransformed baseline count (NB-unlogged). Cook and Wei's conditional negative binomial (CNB) model replicates the underlying process generating the data. In our motivating dataset, a statistically significant intervention effect resulted from the NB-logged, NB-offset, and CNB models, but not from NB-unlogged, and large, outlying baseline counts were overly influential in NB-unlogged but not in NB-logged. We conclude that there is little to lose by including the log-transformed baseline count in standard NB regression compared to CNB for moderate to larger sized datasets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in the first year of medical education at a Nigerian University. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... used included socio demographic, sources of stress, the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Maslachfs burnout inventory (MBI), and Brief COPE. Data were ...

  8. Toward a Multicultural Model of the Stress Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Lesley A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to expand Lazarus and Folkman's stress model to include culture-relevant dimensions. Discusses cultural factors that influence each component of the stress model, including types and frequency of events experienced, appraisals of stressfulness of events, appraisals of available coping resources, selection of coping strategies, and…

  9. Avoiding and nonexpressing: coping styles of patients with paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulsteijn, L T; Kaptein, A A; Louisse, A; Smit, J W A; Corssmit, E P M

    2013-09-01

    Paraganglioma (PGL) patients and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutation carriers at risk for PGLs have a decreased quality of life (QoL). QoL may be affected by the strategy an individual uses when dealing with a stressful situation, ie, specific coping styles. Understanding the various approaches to coping may allow the development of targeted interventions to improve patient QoL. The objective of the study was to assess coping styles in PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers. This was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Coping styles were assessed using the Utrecht Coping List. The results from the study cohort were compared with a control group and data derived from the literature. Potential differences in coping styles between the various SDH mutation carriers and PGL patients without an SDH mutation were explored. Of the 174 patients who responded, 122 were SDHD, 25 SDHB, and 2 SDHC mutation carriers. An additional 25 patients lacked an SDH mutation. They recruited 100 peers as controls. Compared with the general population, the study cohort was more avoidant of problems (P coping styles between the various categories of mutation carriers or PGL patients lacking a mutation. Coping styles of PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers differ from those of control and reference groups and include an avoidant coping style and a lack of emotional expression.

  10. Relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Megumi; Kitaoka-Higashiguchi, Kazuyo; Morikawa, Yuko; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses. Findings on effective stress management training are required in order to reduce nurse's stress and prevent it from becoming chronic. The study included 1291 nurses who completed the General Coping Questionnaire and the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. In women, a frequent use of cognitive reinterpretation predicted low exhaustion and cynicism and high professional efficacy. In men, a frequent use of problem solving predicted low cynicism and high professional efficacy. Although for women, a frequent use of problem solving predicted high professional efficacy that was similar to men, there was also a concurrent high exhaustion. These findings suggested that enhancement of cognitive coping skills for women and problem-solving skills for men could contribute to a reduction of burnout in nurses. Our findings suggested that effective intervention strategies in order to prevent hospital nurse's stress from becoming chronic might be different between men and women. This difference should be taken into account in nursing management.

  11. Unlocking the Black Box: A Multilevel Analysis of Preadolescent Children's Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Bendezú, Jason J; Loughlin-Presnal, John; Ahlkvist, Jarl A; Tilghman-Osborne, Emile; Bianco, Hannah; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana

    2016-03-30

    This random assignment experimental study examined the intersection of children's coping and physiologic stress reactivity and recovery patterns in a sample of preadolescent boys and girls. A sample of 82 fourth-grade and fifth-grade (M age  = 10.59 years old) child-parent dyads participated in the present study. Children participated in the Trier Social Stress Test and were randomly assigned to one of two post-Trier Social Stress Test experimental coping conditions-behavioral distraction or cognitive avoidance. Children's characteristic ways of coping were examined as moderators of the effect of experimental coping condition on cortisol reactivity and recovery patterns. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that children's characteristic coping and experimental coping condition interacted to predict differential cortisol recovery patterns. Children who characteristically engaged in primary control engagement coping strategies were able to more quickly down-regulate salivary cortisol when primed to distract themselves than when primed to avoid, and vice versa. The opposite pattern was true for characteristic disengagement coping in the context of coping condition, suggesting that regulatory fit between children's characteristic ways of coping and cues from their coping environment may lead to more and less adaptive physiologic recovery profiles. This study provides some of the first evidence that coping "gets under the skin" and that children's characteristic ways of coping may constrain or enhance a child's ability to make use of environmental coping resources.

  12. Predictors of perceived coping effectiveness in patients awaiting a heart transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowiec, Anne; Grady, Kathleen L; White-Williams, Connie

    2007-01-01

    The wait for a heart transplant (HT) is a very stressful time for patients; how well they cope is essential to quality of life. However, in previous research, factors that contribute to perceived coping effectiveness in HT candidates have not been identified. To identify predictors of perceived coping effectiveness during the wait for a HT. Adult HT candidates (N = 535) completed a booklet on multiple factors impacting on quality of life (coping, stressors, symptoms, disability, social support, interventions), plus medical data were collected from charts. The Jalowiec Coping Scale assessed coping behavior. Hierarchical regression was used to analyze five sets of predictors (total = 34) based on Lazarus' theory of stress and coping. The regression model explained 23% of the variance in perceived coping effectiveness. Coping styles explained the most variance, followed by coping resources, illness-related situation factors, stress appraisal, and person factors. Nine predictors were significant: less use of emotive, evasive, and fatalistic coping styles; feeling that the interventions of the HT team were very helpful; longer wait for the HT; foreseeing a favorable post-HT prognosis; more use of optimistic coping; urgent transplant status; and greater satisfaction with social support resources. Coping styles, social support, HT wait, perceived prognosis, and transplant status contributed the most to predicting perceived coping effectiveness.

  13. Prenatal stress perception and coping strategies: Insights from a longitudinal prospective pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, J; Kocalevent, R-D; Hansen, G; Rose, M; Becher, H; Hecher, K; Arck, P C; Diemert, A

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal distress has been linked to pregnancy complications and poor offspring's health, despite the fact that longitudinal assessments of various stress dimensions are still lacking. Hence, we aimed to assess perceived stress over the course of pregnancy. Moreover, we examined whether social support and coping styles are linked to prenatal stress trajectories. Data from 543 women participating in the PRINCE (Prenatal Identification of Children Health) study, a prospective population-based cohort study, was used for the present analyses. Once per trimester the women completed questionnaires regarding different psychometric measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Linear mixed regression models were used to examine perceived stress development longitudinally and to relate social support and coping styles to stress trajectories during pregnancy. A significant decrease of perceived stress was observed over the course of pregnancy. Stratifying the study sample according to parity, women delivering their first child had continuously lower perceived stress scores compared to women having already one or more children, and a significant decrease during pregnancy was exclusively observed in primiparous women. Both, positive coping strategies and higher perceived and received social support were independently associated with lower perceived stress, while evasive coping strategies were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Our study reveals stress perception trajectories during pregnancies in primi- and multiparous women. Our findings underscore the need for intervention strategies aiming to improve social support and positive coping strategies especially in multiparous women in order to reduce the risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Young children's grief: parents' understanding and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Kari E; Darbyshire, Philip; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Helseth, Solvi

    2014-01-01

    The grief experiences of young children and the interactional dynamics between parents and children leading to healthy grieving remain comparatively under researched. This article reports a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian Bereavement Support Program where 8 parents described their young child's grief reactions and coping and how these intersected with their own grief. Successful parental coping with their child's grief involves understanding the child's genuine concerns following the death and an intricately holistic balance between shielding and including, between informing and frightening, and between creating a new life while cherishing the old.

  15. Coping with infertility: a transcultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Botao; Li, Min

    2014-09-01

    To review the most important and interesting articles in infertility published in the last year. This systematic review covers 60 studies published in journals or dissertations in Science Direct and PubMed in the last year, including those related to prevention and treatment as well as related psychosocial services in infertility. We also propose some suggestions about coping with infertility in China. Infertility is a multidisciplinary problem that requires medical, social, and political efforts to prevent and offer infertile patients the best diagnostic, therapeutic, and psychosocial services. Cultural factors should be taken into consideration when designing coping strategies.

  16. Coping with Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og det...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur...... trussel mod samfundsbygningen. Men kap. 6 viser de mange måder hvori gennem turismen bidrager til samfundsbygningen, og det er en historie som indledes med en grundig diskussion af opdagelsesrejsernes grundlæggende betydning, også kulturelt. Begge disse kapitler tilføjer coping tilgangen flere analytiske...

  17. Analysis of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engine Operation Including Turbocharger Cut-Out by Using a Zero-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the operation of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine including various cases with turbocharger cut-out was thoroughly investigated by using a modular zero-dimensional engine model built in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model was developed by using as a basis an in-house modular mean value engine model, in which the existing cylinder block was replaced by a more detailed one that is capable of representing the scavenging ports-cylinder-exhaust valve processes. Simulation of the engine operation at steady state conditions was performed and the derived engine performance parameters were compared with the respective values obtained by the engine shop trials. The investigation of engine operation under turbocharger cut-out conditions in the region from 10% to 50% load was carried out and the influence of turbocharger cut-out on engine performance including the in-cylinder parameters was comprehensively studied. The recommended schedule for the combination of the turbocharger cut-out and blower activation was discussed for the engine operation under part load conditions. Finally, the influence of engine operating strategies on the annual fuel savings, CO2 emissions reduction and blower operating hours for a Panamax container ship operating at slow steaming conditions is presented and discussed.

  18. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  19. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that

  20. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  1. Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in a solution: Including mass transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqshenas, S. R.; Ford, I. J.; Saffari, N.

    2018-01-01

    Effects of acoustic waves on a phase transformation in a metastable phase were investigated in our previous work [S. R. Haqshenas, I. J. Ford, and N. Saffari, "Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation," J. Chem. Phys. 145, 024315 (2016)]. We developed a non-equimolar dividing surface cluster model and employed it to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation induced by an acoustic field in a mass-conserved system. In the present work, we developed a master equation based on a hybrid Szilard-Fokker-Planck model, which accounts for mass transportation due to acoustic waves. This model can determine the kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters including the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. It was solved numerically to calculate the kinetics of an isothermal sonocrystallisation process in a system with mass transportation. The simulation results show that the effect of mass transportation for different excitations depends on the waveform as well as the imposed boundary conditions and tends to be noticeable in the case of shock waves. The derivations are generic and can be used with any acoustic source and waveform.

  2. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...

  3. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  4. Helping Gifted Adolescents Cope with Social Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Mary Ann

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways of helping gifted adolescents cope with a perceived stigma. Research is cited showing that many gifted adolescents believe they are treated differently because of their abilities and behave differently because of this belief, including denial of one's giftedness. The school's role, ability grouping, and special needs of gifted girls…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Master Casts Obtained using Different Surface Treatments on Impression Copings for Single Tooth Implant Replacement -An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Surbhi; Nagpal, Archana; Kaur, Rupandeep; Verma, Ramit; Katna, Vishal; Gupt, Parikshit

    2017-08-01

    Minor rotation of impression coping secured in the impression is an avoidable error that needs to be minimized to ensure precise positioning of implant analog in master cast. The aim of the study was to compare the precision in obtaining master casts by improving the stability of impression copings in the impression with the use of tray adhesive along various surface treatments to increase surface area and by mechanical locking. A total of 60 samples were made (15 samples for each group). A total of 15 samples for Group I were prepared with untreated impression copings, 15 samples for Group II with impression copings treated and modified by application of tray adhesive only. Group III includes 15 samples which were fabricated with impression copings modified by making four vertical grooves on surface of impression coping and coated with adhesive. Group IV had 15 samples which were fabricated with impression copings sandblasted with 50 μm aluminum oxide powder and coated with adhesive. Profile projector was used to evaluate the rotational accuracy of the implant analogs by comparing Molar Implant Angle (MIA) and Premolar Implant Angle (PIA) of test samples with reference model. One-way ANOVA and Student t-test were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA didn't show any significant differences for both MIA and PIA between the Groups I, II, III and IV. Student's unpaired t-test revealed no significant difference in the mean MIA and mean PIA. Conclusion: Though results were statistically non-significant, all types of surface treatments of the impression copings showed more accurate transfer than those with no treatment. Sandblasted and adhesive coated impression copings showed minimum amount of rotation followed by those with vertical slots and adhesive coated impression copings.

  6. Actor-partner interdependence analysis in depressed patient-caregiver dyads: Influence of emotional intelligence and coping strategies on anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite, Serres; Laurent, Boyer; Marine, Alessandrini; Tanguy, Leroy; Karine, Baumstarck; Pascal, Auquier; Xavier, Zendjidjian

    2017-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of suffering for both patients and their natural caregivers. A preliminary study highlights the association of emotional intelligence (EI) and coping strategies with quality of life. However, there is a lack of studies concerning dyadic (i.e., patient and natural caregiver) characteristics' impact on anxious and depressive symptoms. In a sample of MDD patients-caregivers dyads, we explored the influence of EI and coping strategies on anxious and depressive symptoms using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). The cross-sectional study included 79 MDD patient-caregiver dyads. Self-reported data, completed by patients and their primary caregivers, were collected including socio-demographic, EI using TEIQue-SF, coping strategies using BriefCope, depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory, anxious symptoms using STAI. The APIM was used to test the dyadic effects of EI and coping strategies on anxious and depressive symptoms, using structural equation modelling. Patients and caregivers reported both anxious and depressive symptoms. Coping strategies, such as problem solving, positive thinking and avoidance, exhibited evidence of actor (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with their own anxiety or depression level) and partner effect (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with the anxiety or depression level of the other member of the dyad). The caregivers' EI was associated with a decrease of their own depression level contrary to patients for which the results were not significant. The patients' and caregivers' EI was associated with a decrease of their own level of anxiety. EI and coping strategies were moderately associated with anxious and depressive symptomatology among MDD patient-caregiver dyads. These results suggest that targeted interventions could be proposed to both patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Internet addiction: Coping Styles, Expectancies, and Treatment Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBrand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of Internet addiction, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users showed that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations increased the risk for generalized Internet addiction. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of generalized Internet addiction and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  8. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students: A Moderated-Mediated Model of Mindfulness and Drinking to Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Stevens, Leah E; Henson, James M

    2016-07-01

    In college student samples, the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems has been found to be mediated by drinking-to-cope motives. Mindfulness-based interventions suggest that mindfulness may attenuate the conditioned response of using substances in response to negative emotional states, and trait mindfulness has been shown to be a protective factor associated with experiencing fewer alcohol-related problems. In the present study, we examined trait mindfulness as a moderator of the indirect associations of depressive symptoms on alcohol-related problems via drinking-to-cope motives. Participants were undergraduate students at a large, southeastern university in the United States who drank at least once in the previous month (n = 448). Participants completed an online survey regarding their personal mental health, coping strategies, trait mindfulness, and alcohol use behaviors. The majority of participants were female (n = 302; 67.4%), identified as being either White non-Hispanic (n = 213; 47.5%) or African American (n = 119; 26.6%), and reported a mean age of 22.74 (SD = 6.81) years. Further, 110 (25%) participants reported having a previous and/or current experience with mindfulness mediation. As hypothesized, the indirect effects from depressive symptoms to alcohol-related problems via drinking-to-cope motives were weaker among individuals reporting higher levels of mindfulness than among individuals reporting lower and average levels of mindfulness. The present study suggests a possible mechanism through which mindfulness-based interventions may be efficacious among college students: decoupling the associations between depressive symptoms and drinking-to-cope motives.

  10. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  11. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the

  12. Depression and Coping Behaviors Are Key Factors in Understanding Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muere, Abi; Tripp, Dean A; Nickel, J Curtis; Kelly, Kerri-Lynn; Mayer, Robert; Pontari, Michel; Moldwin, Robert; Carr, Lesley K; Yang, Claire C; Nordling, Jorgen

    2018-02-28

    Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome with suboptimal treatment outcomes. Catastrophizing is an empirically supported risk factor for greater IC/BPS pain. In this study, a moderated multiple mediation model is tested in which several additional psychosocial risk factors (depression, illness and wellness-focused behavioral coping strategies) are proposed as mediators or moderators in the existing relationship between catastrophizing and IC/BPS pain. The present questionnaire study employed a cross-sectional design. Female patients with an IC/BPS diagnosis (n = 341) were recruited at tertiary care sites. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pain, catastrophizing, behavioral coping strategies, and depressive symptoms. Aggregate factor scores were calculated following exploratory factor analyses. It was found that patients with a greater tendency to catastrophize were more likely to engage in illness-focused coping strategies, which contributed to the reporting of greater sensory and affective pain. Furthermore, this mediating effect of illness-focused coping on affective pain was more likely to occur in those patients reporting greater depressive symptoms. Illness-focused behavioral coping is an important mechanism between maladaptive pain cognition and aspects of patient pain, with patients reporting greater depressive symptoms at increased risk for elevated pain. Patient management techniques, including screening for catastrophizing, coping, and depression, are recommended to enrich IC/BPS management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Coping Knowledge on Emergency Preparedness in Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…

  14. Cross-Ethnicity Measurement Equivalence of Family Coping for Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Townsend, Aloen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examines the equivalence of a measure of family coping, the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation scales (F-COPES), in Chinese American and Korean American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods: Factor structure and cross-ethnicity equivalence of the F-COPES were tested using structural equation modeling with 157…

  15. Spirituality and Creativity in Coping, Their Association and Transformative Effect: A Qualitative Enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Anna S. Corry; Anne P. Tracey; Christopher Alan Lewis

    2015-01-01

    While the beneficial effects on mental health of spirituality and creativity as separate entities have been well documented, little attention has been given to the interactive effect of the two constructs in coping. Recently, the theory of transformative coping and associated Transformative Coping Model have been developed and examined from both theoretical and quantitative perspectives. To extend this work, the present study critically examined the theory of transformative coping and associa...

  16. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Coping as a Multifaceted Construct: Associations With Psychological Outcomes Among Family Members of Mechanical Ventilation Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Nandita; Huff, Nidhi G; Cox, Christopher E; Ford, Dee W

    2016-09-01

    To develop and evaluate a preliminary multifaceted model for coping among family members of patients who survive mechanical ventilation. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, we interviewed family members of mechanically ventilated patients at the time of transfer from the ICU to the hospital ward. We constructed a theoretic model of coping that included characteristics attributable to family members, family-clinician rapport, and patients. We then explored relationships between coping factors and symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress). Fifty-six family members of survivors of mechanical ventilation. Psychological distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Posttraumatic Stress Scale. Optimism measured using the Life Orientation Test scale, resiliency by Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and social support using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System inventory. Family members had moderate levels of psychological distress with median total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale equal to 14 (interquartile range, 5-20) and Posttraumatic Stress Scale equal to 22 (interquartile range, 15-31). Among family member characteristics, greater optimism (p = 0.001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; p = 0.010, Posttraumatic Stress Scale), resilience (p = 0.012, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and social support (p = 0.013, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were protective against psychological distress. On the contrary, characteristics of family-clinician rapport such as communication quality and presence of conflict did not have any associations with psychological distress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore coping as a multifaceted construct and its relationship with family psychological outcomes among survivors of mechanical ventilation. We found certain family characteristics of coping such as optimism, resilience, and social support to be

  18. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  19. Spectral element modelling of seismic wave propagation in visco-elastoplastic media including excess-pore pressure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Elif; Gélis, Céline; Bonilla, Luis Fabián; Delavaud, Elise

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation, considering soil nonlinearity, has become a major topic in seismic hazard studies when strong shaking is involved under particular soil conditions. Indeed, when strong ground motion propagates in saturated soils, pore pressure is another important parameter to take into account when successive phases of contractive and dilatant soil behaviour are expected. Here, we model 1-D seismic wave propagation in linear and nonlinear media using the spectral element numerical method. The study uses a three-component (3C) nonlinear rheology and includes pore-pressure excess. The 1-D-3C model is used to study the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake (ML 6.6), which was recorded at the Wildlife Refuge Liquefaction Array, USA. The data of this event present strong soil nonlinearity involving pore-pressure effects. The ground motion is numerically modelled for different assumptions on soil rheology and input motion (1C versus 3C), using the recorded borehole signals as input motion. The computed acceleration-time histories show low-frequency amplification and strong high-frequency damping due to the development of pore pressure in one of the soil layers. Furthermore, the soil is found to be more nonlinear and more dilatant under triaxial loading compared to the classical 1C analysis, and significant differences in surface displacements are observed between the 1C and 3C approaches. This study contributes to identify and understand the dominant phenomena occurring in superficial layers, depending on local soil properties and input motions, conditions relevant for site-specific studies.

  20. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...... et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. SCAN 2 2007, 227–233...

  1. Dyadic coping within couples dealing with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2015-01-01

    coping as a couple were associated with change in relationship quality and depressive symptoms over time. METHOD: Women with breast cancer and their male partners (N = 538 couples) participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤ 4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Dyadic coping was assessed......OBJECTIVE: The way couples deal with stressors is likely to influence their adjustment after breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the systemic-transactional model, this study examined whether the supportive, delegated and negative dyadic coping provided by patients and partners and their common dyadic...... using the Dyadic Coping Inventory (Bodenmann, 2008). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) and the Relationship Ladder (Kuijer, Buunk, De Jong, Ybema, & Sanderman, 2004) measured depressive symptoms and relationship quality, respectively. RESULTS: Negative dyadic coping...

  2. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  3. Including cetaceans in multi-species assessment models using strandings data: why, how and what can we do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Saavedra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-species models have been commonly used to assess fish stocks in the past. Since these models have relatively simple data requirements, they sometimes provide the only tool available to assess the status of a stock when data are not enough to develop more complex models. However, these models have been criticized for several reasons since they provide reference points independently for each species assessed ignoring their interactions. For example, several studies suggest that even more substantial reductions in fishing mortality may be necessary to ensure MSY is reached when taking into consideration multiespecies interactions. Therefore, and as Pauly et al. (1998 stated, single-species analysis may mislead researchers and managers into neglecting the gear and trophic interactions which ultimately determine stocks long-term yields and ecosystem health. Ecosystem or multispecies models offer a number of advantages over single-species models. As stated in the workshop “Incorporating ecosystem considerations into stock assessments and management advice” (Mace, 2000 two general improvements are: a better appreciation of the fishing on ecosystem structure and function, and a better appreciation of the need to consider de value of marine ecosystems for functions other than harvesting fish. As disadvantages, multispecies models are statistically complex and include trophic relationships requiring more information (e.g. good estimations of biological parameters of each species and generally a full quantification of the diet sometimes available though the analysis of stomach contents. To reduce the number of species and therefore the amount of information needed, Minimum Realistic Models (MRMs represent an intermediate level of complexity, where only the subset of the ecosystem, important for the issue under consideration, is modeled. This approach offers the advantage of allowing a refinement of our estimates and can help answer more targeted

  4. Social Support and Coping of Indonesian Family Caregivers Caring for Persons with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social support and coping of family caregivers caring for persons with schizophrenia in West Java Province, Indonesia. Methods: This study used the correlational design. Eighty eight family caregivers who cared for persons with schizophrenia were recruited from the Outpatient Department of West Java Province Mental Hospital, West Java, Indonesia through purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by self-report questionnaires using the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire (PSSQ and the Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS. Then, data was analyzed by descriptive and Pearson’s product-moment correlation statistic.Results: Overall social support was perceived at a moderate level. The most often coping methods used was optimistic optimistic, followed by self-reliant coping, confrontative coping, and supportant coping. There were significant positive correlation between social support and confrontative coping (r = .68, p < .01, optimistic coping (r = .42, p < .01, and supportant coping (r = .46, p < .01. Social support was significantly and negatively correlate with evasive coping (r = -.52, p < .01 and fatalistic coping (r = -.41, p < .05.Conclusion: For nurses, providing social support including emotional, informational, instrumental, and appraisal support were to be important for caregiver to determine effective coping strategies. Key words: Social support, coping, family caregiver, schizophrenia

  5. [Coping strategy and its effect on occupational stress among rail freight dispatchers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa; Li, Kui-rong; Jiang, Kai-you

    2010-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between coping strategy and occupational stress in rail freight dispatchers. 115 rail freight dispatchers were investigated by using group sampling method, investigation contents included coping strategies, occupational stressors, strains and personalities. The proportion of using coping strategy in rail freight dispatchers is lower. The scores of job future ambiguity, type A behavior and work locus of control in workers with insufficient coping strategy were higher than those in workers with sufficient strategy (P personality variables between workers with insufficient and those with sufficient in social support, job-family balance, job involvement coping factors of coping strategy were remarkable significant (P personality variables between workers with insufficient and those with sufficient in ask, logic and time management factors of coping strategy weren't significant (P > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that risk of being job dissatisfaction and daily life stress in workers with insufficient social support coping was three or four times than those with sufficient coping (OR = 3.06 or 4.38, respectively), risk of being daily life stress in workers with insufficient job involvement coping was three times than those with sufficient coping (OR = 3.26). The proportion of using coping strategy in rail freight dispatchers is lower. Coping strategy has influence on the individual's perception of occuaptional stressors, strains and personalities.

  6. A Self-consistent Model of the Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Including Compressible and Incompressible Heating Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Munehito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel one-dimensional model that includes both shock and turbulence heating and qualify how these processes contribute to heating the corona and driving the solar wind. Compressible MHD simulations allow us to automatically consider shock formation and dissipation, while turbulent dissipation is modeled via a one-point closure based on Alfvén wave turbulence. Numerical simulations were conducted with different photospheric perpendicular correlation lengths {λ }0, which is a critical parameter of Alfvén wave turbulence, and different root-mean-square photospheric transverse-wave amplitudes δ {v}0. For the various {λ }0, we obtain a low-temperature chromosphere, high-temperature corona, and supersonic solar wind. Our analysis shows that turbulence heating is always dominant when {λ }0≲ 1 {Mm}. This result does not mean that we can ignore the compressibility because the analysis indicates that the compressible waves and their associated density fluctuations enhance the Alfvén wave reflection and therefore the turbulence heating. The density fluctuation and the cross-helicity are strongly affected by {λ }0, while the coronal temperature and mass-loss rate depend weakly on {λ }0.

  7. Hydraulic Model for Drinking Water Networks, Including Household Connections; Modelo hidraulico para redes de agua potable con tomas domiciliarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.

  8. Coping with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Bränström, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations between different types of coping and psychological well-being and physical health among women with breast cancer. A second aim was to explore the potential moderating influences of situational and measurement factors on the associations between coping and psychological well-being and physical health. Methods On 14 February 2011, a literature search was made for articles published in the PubMed and PsycINFO databases before January 2010. On 5 September 2013, a repeated literature search was made for articles published before May 2013. In the final analyses, 78 studies with 11 948 participants were included. Results Efforts to facilitate adaptation to stress, such as Acceptance and Positive Reappraisal, were related to higher well-being and health. Disengagement and avoidance types of coping were associated with lower well-being and health. The analyses indicated that, in several circumstances, coping effectiveness was dependent on cancer stage, treatment, disease duration, and type of coping measure. Conclusions Use of coping targeting adjustment and avoiding use of disengagement forms of coping were related to better psychological well-being and physical health. Adaptive strategies and avoiding disengagement forms of coping seemed particularly beneficial for women undergoing treatment. PMID:25423095

  9. Couples coping with cancer: exploration of theoretical frameworks from dyadic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tim W; Lambert, Sylvie D; Kelly, Brian; Falconier, Mariana; Kissane, David; Levesque, Janelle V

    2015-12-01

    A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent treatment are distressing not only for the person directly affected, but also for their intimate partner. The aim of this review is to (a) identify the main theoretical frameworks underpinning research addressing dyadic coping among couples affected by cancer, (b) summarise the evidence supporting the concepts described in these theoretical frameworks, and (c) examine the similarities and differences between these theoretical perspectives. A literature search was undertaken to identify descriptive studies published between 1990 and 2013 (English and French) that examined the interdependence of patients' and partners' coping, and the impact of coping on psychosocial outcomes. Data were extracted using a standardised form and reviewed by three of the authors. Twenty-three peer-reviewed manuscripts were identified, from which seven theoretical perspectives were derived: Relationship-Focused Coping, Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, Systemic-Transactional Model (STM) of dyadic coping, Collaborative Coping, Relationship Intimacy model, Communication models, and Coping Congruence. Although these theoretical perspectives emphasised different aspects of coping, a number of conceptual commonalities were noted. This review identified key theoretical frameworks of dyadic coping used in cancer. Evidence indicates that responses within the couple that inhibit open communication between partner and patient are likely to have an adverse impact on psychosocial outcomes. Models that incorporate the interdependence of emotional responses and coping behaviours within couples have an emerging evidence base in psycho-oncology and may have greatest validity and clinical utility in this setting. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The impact of coping flexibility on the risk of depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Kato

    Full Text Available According to the dual-process theory, coping flexibility is defined as the ability to produce and implement a new coping strategy in place of an ineffective coping strategy. Specifically, coping flexibility includes two processes: evaluation coping and adaptive coping. Evaluation coping refers to sensitivity to feedback about the efficacy of a coping strategy, and adaptive coping involves the willingness to implement alternative coping strategies. The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH postulates that more flexible coping will be associated with more adaptive outcomes; importantly, there are numerous theories and studies that support the CFH. The main purpose of this study was to test the CFH based on dual-process theory.A total of 1,770 Japanese college students participated and, completed a set of questionnaires that measured coping flexibility (evaluation coping and adaptive coping and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.The proportions of women and men who reported depressive symptoms were 58.69% (95% CIs [55.74, 61.66] and 54.17% (95% CIs [50.37, 57.95], respectively when a cut-off score of 16 on the CES-D was used. A multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that evaluation coping (OR = 0.86, 95% CIs [0.83, 0.0.89] and adaptive coping (OR = 0.91, 95% CIs [0.88, 0.93] were significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms.The results of the present study indicated that the CFH based on dual-process theory was supported in a Japanese sample.

  11. Fears, coping and perceived efficacy of coping mechanisms among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study examined common childhood fears, coping strategies and perceived efficacy of coping mechanisms among 8- to 13-year-old South African children (n = 141) living in four children\\'s homes. Method: Fears were assessed by means of the Fear List Method (FLM) and the Fear Survey Schedule ...

  12. Fight, Flight or Freeze: Common Responses for Follower Coping with Toxic Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Vicki; Brough, Paula; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-10-01

    Sustained destructive leadership behaviours are associated with negative outcomes that produce serious workplace problems, yet there is scant research into how followers effectively cope with toxic leader behaviours. Despite numerous attempts to develop typologies of coping behaviours, there remains much to learn, especially in relation to this specific workplace stressor. This mixed method research investigates the coping strategies reported by 76 followers to cope with the psychological, emotional and physical consequences of their leader's adverse behaviour. Coping instances were categorized using two existing theoretical coping frameworks, and the ability of these frameworks to explain responses to real-world experiences with toxic leadership are discussed. Common coping strategies reported included assertively challenging the leader, seeking social support, ruminating, taking leave and leaving the organization. Organizational interventions to increase effectiveness of follower coping with the impact of toxic leadership are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  14. Coping styles and disability in patients with hand osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rani; Damman, Wendy; Kaptein, Adrian A; Rosendaal, Frits R; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2016-03-01

    Coping responses have been shown to determine health outcomes in chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the role of joint-specific factors and coping styles on disability in patients with hand OA. Primary hand OA patients who consulted secondary care, underwent physical examination to assess the number of joints with bony joint enlargements, pain upon palpation, soft tissue swelling, deformities and limitations in motion. Coping styles were assessed with Coping with Rheumatic Stressors. Disability (score ≥5) was assessed by the Functional Index for Hand OA (possible score 0-30) cross-sectionally and after 1 year. With multivariate logistic regression, joint-specific variables and coping styles were associated with disability cross-sectionally and after 1 year, adjusted for age, sex and BMI. A total of 314 patients (88% women, mean age 61.4 years) were included in the cross-sectional analyses; 68% were considered as disabled. Longitudinal data after 1 year were available in 173 patients (71% disabled). In multivariate analysis including all joint-specific factors, only painful joints and joints with limitations in motion were associated with disability. Disadvantageous scores for the coping scales (comforting cognitions, decreasing activity and pacing) were positively associated with disability cross-sectionally. Disability after 1 year was only associated with the coping scales decreasing activity and pacing. Joint-specific factors were also associated with disability, independent of coping styles. In patients with hand OA, joint-specific factors and coping styles decreasing activity and pacing were both associated with disability. Our results suggest that interventions should aim at joint-specific complaints as well as changing coping styles to improve functional outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Modeling tumor growth and irradiation response in vitro--a combination of high-performance computing and web-based technologies including VRML visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, G S; Zacharaki, E I; Makropoulou, M I; Mouravliansky, N A; Marsh, A; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N K

    2001-12-01

    A simplified three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation model of in vitro tumor growth and response to fractionated radiotherapeutic schemes is presented in this paper. The paper aims at both the optimization of radiotherapy and the provision of insight into the biological mechanisms involved in tumor development. The basics of the modeling philosophy of Duechting have been adopted and substantially extended. The main processes taken into account by the model are the transitions between the cell cycle phases, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and the cell survival probabilities following irradiation. Specific algorithms satisfactorily describing tumor expansion and shrinkage have been applied, whereas a novel approach to the modeling of the tumor response to irradiation has been proposed and implemented. High-performance computing systems in conjunction with Web technologies have coped with the particularly high computer memory and processing demands. A visualization system based on the MATLAB software package and the virtual-reality modeling language has been employed. Its utilization has led to a spectacular representation of both the external surface and the internal structure of the developing tumor. The simulation model has been applied to the special case of small cell lung carcinoma in vitro irradiated according to both the standard and accelerated fractionation schemes. A good qualitative agreement with laboratory experience has been observed in all cases. Accordingly, the hypothesis that advanced simulation models for the in silico testing of tumor irradiation schemes could substantially enhance the radiotherapy optimization process is further strengthened. Currently, our group is investigating extensions of the presented algorithms so that efficient descriptions of the corresponding clinical (in vivo) cases are achieved.

  16. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  17. Modelling the residual stresses and microstructural evolution in Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 including the Wagner-Kampmann precipitation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    In this work, a numerical finite element model for friction stir welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgical softening of the material is properly considered and included...

  18. Fracture load of zirconia crowns according to the thickness and marginal design of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hwan; Park, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Bum; Moon, Hong Seok

    2012-08-01

    The opaque color of zirconia copings may compromise esthetics, especially in the facial cervical area. A collarless zirconia coping can be an alternative. However, the strength of zirconia crowns with collarless copings is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture load of zirconia crowns according to coping thickness and facial collar design. Forty-eight zirconia crowns were fabricated and divided into 4 groups: standard coping group (0.5 mm coping thickness, 0.2 mm facial collar height); collarless coping group (0.5 mm coping thickness, no facial collar); modified thicker coping group (0.7 mm coping thickness, 0.2 mm facial collar height); and thicker coping group (0.7 mm coping thickness including collar height). The fracture load for the crowns was measured in a universal testing machine. One-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test for post hoc analysis were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). Ten additional zirconia crowns were fabricated to test the effect of cyclic loading on fracture resistance between the standard coping group and the collarless coping group, and data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. The fracture load in the collarless coping group (2329.1 N±948.3) was not significantly different from that of the other groups. The thicker coping group (3179.3 N±1137.7) resulted in significantly greater fracture load than the standard (2126.9 N±576.9) and modified thicker coping groups (2112.7 N±623.9) (F=4.193; P=.011). The fracture load after cyclic loading did not differ significantly between the standard coping group and the collarless coping group. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the thicker coping group had the highest fracture strength, but the collarless coping group using a 0.5 mm thickness coping was not significantly different from the standard coping group. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. INCLUDING RISK IN ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS:A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR BLUEBERRY INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN LOBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  20. Thomas Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions' applied to exercise science paradigm shifts: example including the Central Governor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Flávio de Oliveira; de Oliveira Pires, Flávio

    2013-07-01

    According to Thomas Kuhn, the scientific progress of any discipline could be distinguished by a pre-paradigm phase, a normal science phase and a revolution phase. The science advances when a scientific revolution takes place after silent period of normal science and the scientific community moves ahead to a paradigm shift. I suggest there has been a recent change of course in the direction of the exercise science. According to the 'current paradigm', exercise would be probably limited by alterations in either central command or peripheral skeletal muscles, and fatigue would be developed in a task-dependent manner. Instead, the central governor model (GCM) has proposed that all forms of exercise are centrally-regulated, the central nervous system would calculate the metabolic cost required to complete a task in order to avoid catastrophic body failure. Some have criticized the CGM and supported the traditional interpretation, but recently the scientific community appears to have begun an intellectual trajectory to accept this theory. First, the increased number of citations of articles that have supported the CGM could indicate that the community has changed the focus. Second, relevant journals have devoted special editions to promote the debate on subjects challenged by the CGM. Finally, scientists from different fields have recognized mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the exercise limits. Given the importance of the scientific community in demarcating a Kuhnian paradigm shift, I suggest that these three aspects could indicate an increased acceptance of a centrally-regulated effort model, to understand the limits of exercise.