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Sample records for mod 9cr-1mo steel

  1. Modification in the Microstructure of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo Ferritic Martensitic Steel Exposed to Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, T. N.; Sudha, Cheruvathur; Paul, V. Thomas; Bharasi, N. Sivai; Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Mod. 9Cr-1Mo is used as the structural material in the steam generator circuit of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Microstructural modifications on the surface of this steel are investigated after exposing to flowing sodium at a temperature of 798 K (525 °C) for 16000 hours. Sodium exposure results in the carburization of the ferritic steel up to a depth of ~218 µm from the surface. Electron microprobe analysis revealed the existence of two separate zones with appreciable difference in microchemistry within the carburized layer. Differences in the type, morphology, volume fraction, and microchemistry of the carbides present in the two zones are investigated using analytical transmission electron microscopy. Formation of separate zones within the carburized layer is understood as a combined effect of leaching, diffusion of the alloying elements, and thermal aging. Chromium concentration on the surface in the α-phase suggested possible degradation in the corrosion resistance of the steel. Further, concentration-dependent diffusivities for carbon are determined in the base material and carburized zones using Hall's and den Broeder's methods, respectively. These are given as inputs for simulating the concentration profiles for carbon using numerical computation technique based on finite difference method. Predicted thickness of the carburized zone agrees reasonably well with that of experiment.

  2. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  3. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  4. Probing Pulsed Current Gas Metal Arc Welding for Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Kulkarni, D. V.; De, A.

    2015-04-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo steels are commonly welded using gas tungsten arc welding process for its superior control over the rate of heat input and vaporization loss of the key alloying elements although the rate electrode deposition remains restricted. Recent developments in pulsed current gas metal arc welding have significantly improved its ability to enhance the rate of electrode deposition with a controlled heat input rate while its application for welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels is scarce. The present work reports a detailed experimental study on the pulsed current gas metal arc welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. The effect of the shielding gas, welding current, and speed on the weld bead profile, microstructure and mechanical properties are examined. The results show that the pulsed current gas metal arc welding with appropriate welding conditions can provide acceptable bead profile and mechanical properties in welds of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels.

  5. Basic investigation for life assessment technology of modified 9CR-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, Kazushige; Ishii, Ryuichi; Fujiyama, Kazunari; Hongo, Shigetada; Iseki, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroshi [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    For the basic study of life assessment technologies for aged components made of mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, specimens were artificially deteriorated by aging, creep and fatigue tests at elevated temperatures. And metallurgical and mechanical properties were examined. The change in the precipitates caused the decrease in toughness. The creep damage in base metal corresponded to the decrease in hardness. The fatigue damage in base metal correlated to the maximum length of a crack among micro-cracks initiated during fatigue cycle. In the welded joint, the creep fracture occurred by the formation and growth of voids in the fine grained region of HAZ near base metal. The creep damage was associated with the increase in both number and area fraction of voids. (orig.)

  6. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  7. Microstructural evolution of as-rolled modified 9Cr-1Mo steel during friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Gu; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Materials Development Div.; Kim, Ju-Myoung [Nano Technology Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). R and D Center

    2013-09-15

    Friction stir welding was tried on a modified 9Cr-1Mo (wt.%) ferritic steel in an as-rolled condition. The microstructure of the resultant weld was divided into four distinct regions according to each thermo-mechanical history experienced during welding; i.e., stir zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone, inner heat-affected zone, and outer heat-affected zone. The first three zones showed distinct martensite morphologies depending on the different recrystallization phenomena during the heating cycle in the single-phase austenite region. In the outer heat-affected zone, however, only tempering occurred without phase transformation owing to a relatively low heating temperature. Hardness distribution of the weld closely reflected such microstructural differences, indicating that a considerable softening occurred in the thermo-mechanically affected zone and outer heat-affected zone owing to the coarsening and tempering effects, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Transfer of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel technology through cooperative programs (1980-1985)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; DiStefano, J.R.; Patriarca, P.

    1986-06-01

    The principal objective of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) 9Cr-1Mo steel development program has been to provide the data and analyses required by designers for use of the alloy in advanced liquid metal reactors to reduce technical tasks and plant capital costs. It was recognized early that designers would not consider use of any material for nuclear applications unless there was a considerable body of experience already established. Toward this end, the plan has been to get the alloy accepted in Section I (Power Boilers), Section II (Materials Specifications), Section VIII (Pressure Vessels), and Section III (Nuclear power Plant Components) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code as logical steps in the process. To achieve this objective, extensive interaction with the industrial community was considered mandatory. Accordingly, an intensive effort to achieve technology transfer was initiated, which resulted in the involvement of many organizations. This report is a compilation of 47 status sheets describing 35 participating organizations and funding sources, purpose of the interactions, material and product forms utilized, summary of the work completed, findings, and appropriate references. These interactions contributed significantly toward the fulfillment of the program goals.

  9. Effect of dynamic plastic deformation on microstructure and annealing behaviour of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, N. R.;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dynamic plastic deformation on the microstructure of a modified 9Cr - 1Mo steel has been investigated in comparison with the effect of quasi- static compression. It is found that the boundary spacing after dynamic plastic deformation is smaller and the hardness is higher than those ...

  10. Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-04-03

    Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

  11. The Ductile to Brittle Transition Behavior of the Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel and Its Laser Welds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.C. Wu; R.K. Shiue; C. Chen

    2004-01-01

    The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and its laser welds was studied. The increase in grain size of the weld structure ascended the DBTT of the steel significantly. The transformation of retained austenite at martensite interlath boundaries into untempered and/or twinned martensite could also contribute to increased DBTTs of the steel and its welds tempered at 540℃.

  12. Isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue studies on a modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagesha, A., E-mail: nagesh@igcar.gov.in [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kannan, R. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sastry, G.V.S. [Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sandhya, R. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Singh, Vakil [Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhanu Sankara Rao, K. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Central University, Hyderabad (India); Mathew, M.D. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2012-09-30

    In-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were carried out on a modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic martensitic steel under a mechanical strain control mode employing a strain amplitude of {+-}0.4%. Different temperature ranges in the interval, 573-923 K were employed for the tests which were carried out using a constant strain rate of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. Isothermal low cycle fatigue tests were also performed concurrently at the maximum temperatures (T{sub max}) of TMF tests on similar specimens and employing the same strain amplitude and strain rate. The life variation was seen to follow the sequence: IF < OP TMF < IP TMF. However, the difference in lives narrowed down with an increase in the T{sub max} of TMF/test temperature of IF cycling. The cyclic stress response behaviour of the alloy was characterized by a continuous softening under all testing conditions. The lower lives observed under OP TMF in comparison with IP cycling was attributed to a combined influence of oxide cracking and a higher tensile hysteresis loop energy in the former. Cyclic life under IP TMF was observed to reduce more drastically compared to OP cycling with increase in T{sub max}, owing to the increasing prominence of dynamic recovery effects coupled with creep deformation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations revealed that IF cycling at the T{sub max} resulted in a significantly greater substructural recovery compared to that produced by TMF cycling as a consequence of which, the former led to lower lives compared to both the IP and OP TMF. Dynamic strain ageing (DSA) associated with serrated flow was observed as the deformation temperature under TMF cycling traversed the regime of 300-400 Degree-Sign C.

  13. Microstructure and annealing behavior of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel after dynamic plastic deformation to different strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N.R.;

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level...... of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization...

  14. Prediction and Monitoring Systems of Creep-Fracture Behavior of 9Cr-1Mo Steels for Teactor Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potirniche, Gabriel [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Barlow, Fred D. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Charit, Indrajit [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Rink, Karl [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2013-11-26

    A recent workshop on next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) topics underscored the need for research studies on the creep fracture behavior of two materials under consideration for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) applications: 9Cr-1Mo and SA-5XX steels. This research project will provide a fundamental understanding of creep fracture behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel welds for through modeling and experimentation and will recommend a design for an RPV structural health monitoring system. Following are the specific objectives of this research project: Characterize metallurgical degradation in welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel resulting from aging processes and creep service conditions; Perform creep tests and characterize the mechanisms of creep fracture process; Quantify how the microstructure degradation controls the creep strength of welded steel specimens; Perform finite element (FE) simulations using polycrystal plasticity to understand how grain texture affects the creep fracture properties of welds; Develop a microstructure-based creep fracture model to estimate RPVs service life; Manufacture small, prototypic, cylindrical pressure vessels, subject them to degradation by aging, and measure their leak rates; Simulate damage evolution in creep specimens by FE analyses; Develop a model that correlates gas leak rates from welded pressure vessels with the amount of microstructural damage; Perform large-scale FE simulations with a realistic microstructure to evaluate RPV performance at elevated temperatures and creep strength; Develop a fracture model for the structural integrity of RPVs subjected to creep loads; and Develop a plan for a non-destructive structural health monitoring technique and damage detection device for RPVs.

  15. A Creep Damage Model for High-Temperature Deformation and Failure of 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Basirat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A dislocation-based creep model combined with a continuum damage formulation was developed and implemented in the finite element method to simulate high temperature deformation behavior in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel welds. The evolution of dislocation structures was considered as the main driving mechanism for creep. The effect of void growth, precipitate coarsening, and solid solution depletion were considered to be the operating damage processes. A semi-implicit numerical integration scheme was developed and implemented in the commercial finite element code ABAQUS-Standard as a user material subroutine. Furthermore, several creep tests of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel welded specimens were conducted at temperatures between 550–700 °C and stresses between 80–200 MPa. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the finite element results with experiments. The comparison between the experimental and computational results showed excellent agreement. The model can be used to simulate and predict the creep-damage behavior of Cr-Mo steel components used as structural applications in power plants.

  16. Effect of Microalloy Precipitates on the Microstructure and Texture of Hot-Deformed Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Dutta, A.; Sk, Md Basiruddin; Mitra, R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2017-03-01

    Microalloying elements like Nb and V are added to modified 9Cr-1Mo steel to ensure excellent creep resistance by the formation of fine MX precipitates during tempering treatment. The effect of those elements on the evolution of microstructure (and texture) in hot-deformed steel has hardly been studied. Industrial processing of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel often develops deformed and elongated prior-austenite grain structure, which can be detrimental from property point of view. The present study shows that the formation of such structure can primarily be attributed to the pinning effect from strain-induced Nb(C,N) precipitation, which can effectively retard the static recrystallization of deformed-γ at high-deformation temperature and short inter-pass times ( 10 seconds). Based on the results, the application of either heavy deformation pass at high-temperature or multiple-lighter passes maintaining sufficient inter-pass interval (30 to 50 seconds) is recommended to achieve fine and equiaxed γ-grain structure by dynamic recrystallization and static recrystallization, respectively.

  17. Effect of Application of Short and Long Holds on Fatigue Life of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vani; Mariappan, K.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2013-11-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a heat-treatable steel and hence the microstructure is temperature sensitive. During welding, the weld joint (WJ) is exposed to various temperatures resulting in a complex heterogeneous microstructure across the weld joint, such as the weld metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ) (consisting of coarse-grained HAZ, fine-grained HAZ, and intercritical HAZ), and the unaffected base metal of varying mechanical properties. The overall creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) response of the WJ is hence due to a complex interplay between various factors such as surface oxides and stress relaxation (SR) occurring in each microstructural zone. It has been demonstrated that SR occurring during application of hold in a CFI cycle is an important parameter that controls fatigue life. Creep-fatigue damage in a cavitation-resistant material such as modified 9Cr-1Mo steel base metal is accommodated in the form of microstructural degradation. However, due to the complex heterogeneous microstructure across the weld joint, SR will be different in different microstructural zones. Hence, the damage is accommodated in the form of preferential coarsening of the substructure, cavity formation around the coarsened carbides, and new surface formation such as cracks in the soft heat-affected zone.

  18. Analysis of Tensile Stress-Strain and Work-Hardening Behavior in 9Cr-1Mo Ferritic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, B. K.; Palaparti, D. P. Rao; Samuel, E. Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Detailed analysis on tensile true stress ( σ)-true plastic strain ( ɛ) and work-hardening behavior of 9Cr-1Mo steel have been performed in the framework of the Voce relationship and Kocks-Mecking approach for wide range of temperatures, 300 K to 873 K (27 °C to 600 °C) and strain rates (6.33 × 10-5 to 6.33 × 10-3 s-1). At all test conditions, σ- ɛ data were adequately described by the Voce equation. 9Cr-1Mo steel exhibited two-stage work-hardening behavior characterized by a rapid decrease in instantaneous work-hardening rate ( θ = dσ/ dɛ) with stress at low stresses (transient stage) followed by a gradual decrease in θ at high stresses (stage III). The variations of work-hardening parameters and θ- σ as a function of temperature and strain rate exhibited three distinct temperature regimes. Both work-hardening parameters and θ- σ displayed signatures of dynamic strain aging at intermediate temperatures and dominance of dynamic recovery at high temperatures. Excellent correlations have been obtained between work-hardening parameters evaluated using the Voce relationship and the respective tensile properties. A comparison of work-hardening parameters obtained using the Voce equation and Kocks-Mecking approach suggested an analogy between the two for the steel.

  19. Effect of Microalloy Precipitates on the Microstructure and Texture of Hot-Deformed Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Dutta, A.; Sk, Md Basiruddin; Mitra, R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2017-05-01

    Microalloying elements like Nb and V are added to modified 9Cr-1Mo steel to ensure excellent creep resistance by the formation of fine MX precipitates during tempering treatment. The effect of those elements on the evolution of microstructure (and texture) in hot-deformed steel has hardly been studied. Industrial processing of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel often develops deformed and elongated prior-austenite grain structure, which can be detrimental from property point of view. The present study shows that the formation of such structure can primarily be attributed to the pinning effect from strain-induced Nb(C,N) precipitation, which can effectively retard the static recrystallization of deformed-γ at high-deformation temperature and short inter-pass times ( 10 seconds). Based on the results, the application of either heavy deformation pass at high-temperature or multiple-lighter passes maintaining sufficient inter-pass interval (30 to 50 seconds) is recommended to achieve fine and equiaxed γ-grain structure by dynamic recrystallization and static recrystallization, respectively.

  20. Characterizing microstructural changes in ferritic steels by positron annihilation spectroscopy: Studies on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari Babu, S., E-mail: shb@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Rajkumar, K.V. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Hussain, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kokilamedu 603 104, TN (India); Amarendra, G.; Sundar, C.S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Positron lifetime technique probing microstructure of ferritic/martensitic steels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation between positron lifetime, ultrasonic and hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complementary nature of positron annihilation spectroscopy in probing defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distinguishing precipitation stages by positron annihilation spectroscopy. - Abstract: Applicability of positron annihilation spectroscopy in probing the microstructural changes in ferritic steels has been investigated with thermal treatment studies on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, during 300-1273 K. Positron lifetime results are compared with those of ultrasonic velocity and hardness techniques with two initial microstructural conditions i.e., normalized and tempered condition as well as only normalized condition. In first case, positron lifetime is found to be sensitive to small changes in metal carbide precipitation which could not be probed by other two techniques. In later case, positron lifetime is found to be sensitive to defect annealing until 673 K and in distinguishing the growth and coarsening of metal carbide precipitation stages during 773-1073 K. The present study suggests that by combining positron lifetime, ultrasonic velocity and hardness measurements, it is possible to distinguish distinct microstructures occurring at different stages.

  1. Oxidation mechanism of a Fe-9Cr-1Mo steel by liquid Pb-Bi eutectic alloy (Part I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)], E-mail: laure.martinelli@cea.fr; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Terlain, A. [CEA, DEN, Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Delpech, S. [CNRS, UMR 7575 Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie de Paris, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie 75231 Paris (France); Santarini, G. [CEA, Cabinet du Haut-Commisaire, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Favergeon, J.; Moulin, G. [CNRS, centre de recherche de Royallieu FRE CNRS 2833, Laboratoire Roberval, 20529-60205 Compiegne (France); Tabarant, M. [CEA, DEN, Service de Chimie Physique, F- 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Picard, G. [CNRS, UMR 7575 Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie de Paris, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie 75231 Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    This paper is the first part of a global study on the oxidation process of a Fe-9Cr-1Mo martensitic steel (T91) in static liquid Pb-Bi. It focuses on the oxygen transport mode across the oxide scale. The oxide layer has a duplex structure composed of an internal Fe-Cr spinel layer and an external magnetite layer. Oxygen 18 tracer experiments are performed: they show that the magnetite layer grows at the Pb-Bi/ oxide interface whereas the Fe-Cr spinel layer grows at the metal/oxide interface. Oxygen seems to diffuse across the oxide scale dissolved inside nanometric lead penetrations called nano-channels. Specific experiments are performed to characterize the nano-channels.

  2. High temperature corrosion of 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel P91 modified, in oxidizing-carburizing atmospheres; Corrosion a temperatura alta del acero ferritico 9Cr-1Mo modificado P91, en atmosferas simuladas oxidantes-carburantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Ballesteros, D. Y.; Vazquez-Quintero, C.; Laverde-Catano, D.; Serna, G.

    2012-11-01

    High temperature corrosion in processing units of the chemical, petrochemical, and thermoelectric carbochemical is of high interest, due to the costs generated by sudden failures caused by deterioration in the mechanical properties of metals, being the carburization of the metallic matrix the most important corrosion mechanism resulting in loss of ductility and creep resistance. In this research a 9Cr-1Mo modified steel P91 was exposed to simulated atmospheres oxidant-fuel gas mixtures simultaneous in equilibrium of CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}, similar to those produced in the refining industry, at temperatures between 550 and 750 degree centigrade. The microstructural evolution of the metal matrix was analyzed, also the growth, evolution and behavior of oxide layers and carburized, establishing the mechanism of deterioration of the material and the extent of damage for times exceeding 700 h of exposure. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Comparison of creep crack growth rates on the base and welded metals of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Yun, Song Nam; Kim, Yong Wan; Kim, Sung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Young; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is to compare Creep Crack Growth Rates (CCGR) on the Base Metal (BM) and Welded Metal (WM) of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for Gen-IV reactors. Welded specimens were prepared by Shielded Metal Arc Weld (SMAW) method. To obtain material properties for the BM and welded metal, a series of creep and tensile tests was conducted at 600 .deg. C, and CCG tests was also performed using 1/2'' compact tension specimens under different applied loads at 600 .deg. C. Their CCGR behaviors were analyzed by using the empirical equation of the da/dt vs. C{sup *} parameter and compared, respectively. It appeared that, for a given value of C{sup *}, the rate of creep propagation was about 2.0 times faster than in the WM than the BM. This reason is that a creep rate in the WM was largely attributed when compared with that in the BM. From this result, it can be utilized for assessing the rate of creep propagation on the BM and WM of the G91 steel.

  4. Microstructure and annealing behavior of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel after dynamic plastic deformation to different strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Mishin, O. V.; Tao, N. R.; Pantleon, W.

    2015-03-01

    The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization takes place during annealing of the low-strain and high-strain samples for 1 h at 650 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Both coarsening and partial recrystallization occur in the high-strain sample during annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. For this sample, it is found that whereas coarsening alone results in a loss of strength with only a small gain in ductility, coarsening combined with pronounced partial recrystallization enables a combination of appreciably increased ductility and comparatively high strength.

  5. Effect of boron addition on pitting corrosion resistance of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel: Application of electrochemical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujar, M.G., E-mail: pujar55@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group (MMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Das, C.R.; Thirunavukkarasu, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group (MMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Brijitta, J.; Tata, B.V.R. [Materials Science Group (MSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Weibull probability plots separate pitting and passive corrosion events. {yields} Gumbel distribution analysis gives maximum metastable pit depths. {yields} Addition of boron results in superior pitting corrosion resistance in 0.1 M NaCl. {yields} Incorporation of B into M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides refines them and improves pitting resistance. {yields} Coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and delta-ferrite result in inferior pitting resistance. - Abstract: 9Cr-1Mo steels indigenously melted with the addition of boron (Alloy B) and without it (Alloy D) along with Alloy C (without boron addition with minor changes in the trace element concentrations) were studied for their pitting corrosion resistance in 0.001 M, 0.01 M, 0.05 M and 0.1 M sodium chloride solutions using electrochemical noise (EN) technique. Weibull probability plots were used to determine the pit embryo generation rates. Gumbel extreme value analysis was conducted to determine the maximum metastable as well as stable pit radii. The analysis of the data showed superior pitting corrosion resistance of the Alloy B compared to Alloy C as well as Alloy D.

  6. Microstructural Analysis of Orientation-Dependent Recovery and Recrystallization in a Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Deformed by Compression at a High Strain Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture during annealing of a modified ferritic/martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel compressed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to a strain of 2.3 has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is found...

  7. Interfacial microstructure and strength of diffusion brazed joint between Al2O3–TiC and 9Cr1MoV steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Juan; Li Yajiang; S A Gerasimov

    2007-08-01

    Joining of composite, Al2O3–TiC, with heat-resistant 9Cr1MoV steel, was carried out by diffusion brazing technology, using a combination of Ti, Cu and Ti as multi-interlayer. The interfacial strength was measured by shear testing and the result was explained by the fracture morphology. Microstructural characterization of the Al2O3–TiC/9Cr1MoV joint was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicate that a Al2O3–TiC/9Cr1MoV joint with a shear strength of 122 MPa can be obtained by controlling heating temperature at 1130°C for 60 min with a pressure of 12 MPa. Multi-interlayer Ti/Cu/Ti was fused fully and diffusion occurred to produce interfacial layer between Al2O3–TiC and 9Cr1MoV steel. The total thickness of the interfacial layer is about 100 m and Ti3AlC2, TiC, Cu and Fe2Ti are found to occur in the interface layer.

  8. Influence of Prior Fatigue Damage on Tensile Properties of 316L(N) Stainless Steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, K.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, the effect of prior low-cycle fatigue (LCF) damage on the tensile properties of 316L(N) stainless steel (SS) and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were systematically investigated. The LCF tests were interrupted at 5, 10, 30, and 50 pct of the total fatigue life followed by tensile tests on the same specimens at the same strain rate (3 × 10-3 s-1) and temperatures of 300 K, 823 K, and 873 K (27 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C). Prior strain cycling at elevated temperatures had remarkable effect on the tensile properties of both cyclically hardening and cyclically softening materials. An exponential relationship between the yield stress and the amount of pre-strain cycles is obtained for both the materials. The initial drastic change in the yield strength values up to 10 pct of fatigue life may be due to the microstructural changes that lead to hardening or softening in 316L(N) SS and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, respectively. Saturation in the yield strength values beyond 10 pct of fatigue life has practical importance for remnant fatigue life assessment. Evolution of fatigue damage in both the 316L(N) SS and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was analyzed using the surface replica technique.

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia-Coated 9Cr-1Mo Steel in Molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeswara Rao, Ch.; Venkatesh, P.; Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Ningshen, S.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-02-01

    For the electrorefining step in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent metallic fuels of future sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, 9Cr-1Mo steel has been proposed as the container material. The electrorefining process is carried out using 5-6 wt.% UCl3 in LiCl-KCl molten salt as the electrolyte at 500 °C under argon atmosphere. In the present study, to protect the container vessel from hot corrosion by the molten salt, 8-9% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic coating was deposited on 9Cr-1Mo steel by atmospheric plasma spray process. The hot corrosion behavior of YSZ-coated 9Cr-1Mo steel specimen was investigated in molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl salt at 600 °C for 100-, 500-, 1000- and 2000-h duration. The results revealed that the weight change in the YSZ-coated specimen was insignificant even after exposure to molten salt for 2000 h, and delamination of coating did not occur. SEM examination showed the lamellar morphology of the YSZ coating after the corrosion test with occluded molten salt. The XRD analysis confirmed the presence of tetragonal and cubic phases of ZrO2, without any phase change. Formation of UO2 in some regions of the samples was evident from XRD results.

  10. Study on static strengh and plasticity of 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb-N steel made in China%国产9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb-N钢的静力强塑性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束国刚; 刘树涛; 范长信; 梁昌乾; 薛飞; 刘江南; 王正品; 石崇哲

    2002-01-01

    对国产9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb-N钢厚壁管试制品与进口住友P91钢管在供货状态下进行了比较研究,测试了2者的化学成分及静力拉伸强塑性,分析了其间存在的差异.结果表明,国产试制品质量有明显提高,但钢中杂质元素的控制与住友钢管有一定差距,静力强塑性指标仍偏低,质量均匀性也有待提高.

  11. Heat treatment effects on impact toughness of 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW steels irradiated to 100 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Plates of 9Cr-1MoVNb and 12Cr-1MoVW steels were given four different heat treatments: two normalizing treatments were used and for each normalizing treatment two tempers were used. Miniature Charpy specimens from each heat treatment were irradiated to {approx}19.5 dpa at 365{degrees}C and to {approx}100 dpa at 420{degrees}C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). In previous work, the same materials were irradiated to 4-5 dpa at 365{degrees}C and 35-36 dpa at 420{degrees}C in FFTF. The tests indicated that prior austenite grain size, which was varied by the different normalizing treatments, had a significant effect on impact behavior of the 9Cr-1MoVNb but not on the 12Cr-1MoVW. Tempering treatment had relatively little effect on the shift in DBTT for both steels. Conclusions are presented on how heat treatment can be used to optimize impact properties.

  12. Microstructural Analysis of Orientation-Dependent Recovery and Recrystallization in a Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Deformed by Compression at a High Strain Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, Nairong; Pantleon, Wolfgang; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-09-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture during annealing of a modified ferritic/martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel compressed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to a strain of 2.3 has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that the duplex + fiber texture formed by DPD is transformed during annealing to a dominant fiber texture, and that crystallites of the component have an advantage during both nucleation and growth. Detailed characterization of the microstructural morphology, and estimation of the stored energies in - and -oriented regions in deformed and annealed samples, as well as investigations of the growth of recrystallizing grains, are used to analyze the annealing behavior. It is concluded that recrystallization in the given material occurs by a combination of oriented nucleation and oriented growth.

  13. Thermomechanical Model and Bursting Tests to Evaluate the Risk of Swelling and Bursting of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Steam Generator Tubes during a Sodium-Water Reaction Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The MECTUB code was developed to evaluate the risk of swelling and bursting of Steam Generator (SG tubes. This code deals with the physic of intermediate steam-water leaks into sodium which induce a Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR. It is based on a one-dimensional calculation to describe the thermomechanical behavior of tubes under a high internal pressure and a fast external overheating. The mechanical model of MECTUB is strongly correlated with the kind of the material of the SG tubes. It has been developed and validated by using experiments performed on the alloy 800. A change to tubes made of Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel requires more knowledge of Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel behavior which influences the bursting time at high temperatures (up to 1200°C. Studies have been initiated to adapt the mechanical model and to qualify it for this material. The first part of this paper focuses on the mechanical law modelling (elasticity, plasticity, and creep for Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and on overheating thermal data. In a second part, the results of bursting tests performed on Modified 9Cr-1Mo tubes in the SQUAT facility of CEA are used to validate the mechanical model of MECTUB for the Modified 9Cr-1Mo material.

  14. Impurity Antimony-Induced Creep Property Deterioration and Its Suppression by Rare Earth Ceriumfor a 9Cr-1Mo Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewei Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature creep properties of three groups of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel samples, undoped, doped with Sb, and doped with Sb and Ce, are evaluated under the applied stresses from 150 MPa to 210 MPa and at the temperatures from 873–923 K. The creep behavior follows the temperature-compensated power law as well as the Monkman-Grant relation. The creep activation energy for the Sb-doped steel (519 kJ/mol is apparently lower than that for the undoped one (541 kJ/mol, but it is considerably higher for the Sb+Ce-doped steel (621 kJ/mol. Based on the obtained relations, both the creep lifetimes under 50 MPa, 80 MPa, and 100 MPa in the range 853–923 K and the 105 h creep rupture strengths at 853 K, 873 K, and 893 K are predicted. It is demonstrated that the creep properties of the Sb-doped steel are considerably deteriorated but those of the Sb+Ce-doped steel are significantly improved as compared with the undoped steel. Microstructural and microchemical characterizations indicate that the minor addition of Ce can stabilize the microstructure of the steel by segregating to grain boundaries and dislocations, thereby offsetting the deleterious effect of Sb by coarsening the microstructure and weakening the grain boundary.

  15. High-temperature mechanical properties improvement on modified 9Cr-1Mo martensitic steel through thermomechanical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollner, S.; Fournier, B.; Le Pendu, J.; Cozzika, T.; Tournié, I.; Brachet, J.-C.; Pineau, A.

    2010-10-01

    In the framework of the development of generation IV nuclear reactors and fusion nuclear reactors, materials with an improved high temperature (≅650 °C) mechanical strength are required for specific components. The 9-12%Cr martensitic steels are candidate for these applications. Thermomechanical treatments including normalisation at elevated temperature (1150 °C), followed by warm-rolling in metastable austenitic phase and tempering, have been applied on the commercial Grade 91 martensitic steel in order to refine its microstructure and to improve its precipitation state. The temperature of the warm-rolling was set at 600 °C, and those of the tempering heat-treatment at 650 °C and 700 °C thanks to MatCalc software calculations. Microstructural observations proved that the warm-rolling and the following tempering heat-treatment lead to a finer martensitic microstructure pinned with numerous small carbide and nitride particles. The hardness values of thermomechanically treated Grade 91 steel are higher than those of the as-received Grade 91. It is also shown that the yield stress and the ductility of the thermomechanically treated Grade 91 steel are significantly improved compared to the as-received material. Preliminary creep results showed that these thermomechanical treatments improve the creep lifetime by at least a factor 14.

  16. Formation of Al2O3/FeAl coatings on a 9Cr-1Mo steel, and corrosion evaluation in flowing Pb-17Li loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanjib; Paul, Bhaskar; Chakraborty, Poulami; Kishor, Jugal; Kain, Vivekanand; Dey, Gautam Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Iron aluminide coating layers were formed on a ferritic martensitic grade 9Cr-1Mo (P 91) steel using pack aluminizing process. The formation of different aluminide compositions such as orthorhombic-Fe2Al5, B2-FeAl and A2-Fe(Al) on the pack chemistry and heat treatment conditions have been established. About 4-6 μm thick Al2O3 scale was formed on the FeAl phase by controlled heat treatment. The corrosion tests were conducted using both the FeAl and Al2O3/FeAl coated specimens in an electro-magnetic pump driven Pb-17Li Loop at 500 °C for 5000 h maintaining a flow velocity of 1.5 m/s. The detailed characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy, back-scattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectrometry revealed no deterioration of the coating layers after the corrosion tests. Self-healing oxides were formed at the cracks generated in the aluminide layers during thermal cycling and protected the base alloy (steel) from any kind of elemental dissolution or microstructural degradation.

  17. Experimental study and modelling of high temperature creep flow and damage behaviour of 9Cr1Mo-NbV steel weldments; Etude experimentale et modelisation, du comportement, de l'endommagement et de la rupture en fluage a haute temperature de joint soudes en acier 9Cr1Mo-NbV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffard, V

    2004-12-15

    Chromium martensitic stainless steels are under development since the 70's with the prospect of using them as structural components in thermal and nuclear power plants. The modified 9Cr1Mo-NbV steel is already used, especially in England and Japan, as a material for structural components in thermal power plants where welding is a commonly used joining technique. New generations of chromium martensitic stainless steels with improved mechanical properties for high pressure and temperature use are currently under development. However, observations of several in-service premature failures of welded components in 9Cr1Mo-NbV steel, outline a strong need for understanding the high temperature creep flow and damage behaviour of 9Cr1Mo-NbV steels and weldments. The present study aimed at experimentally determining and then modelling the high temperature creep flow and damage behaviour of both 9Cr1Mo-NbV steels and weldments (typically in the temperature range from 450 C to 650 C). The base metal was first studied as the reference material. It was especially evidenced that tempered chromium martensitic steels exhibit a change in both creep flow and damage behaviour for long term creep exposure. As a consequence, the classically performed extrapolation of 1,000 hours creep data to 100,000 hours creep lifetime predictions might be very hazardous. Based on experimental observations, a new model, integrating and coupling multiple creep flow and damage mechanisms, was developed in the framework of the mechanics of porous media. It was then successfully used to represent creep flow and damage behaviour of the base metal from high to low stress levels even for complex multiaxial loading conditions. Although the high temperature creep properties of the base metal are quite good, the occurrence of premature failure in weldments in high temperature creep conditions largely focused the attention of the scientific community. The lower creep strength of the weld component was also

  18. Influence of austenisation temperature and hold time on grain size of type 9Cr1MoVNb ferritic-martensitic steels used in supercritical boilers; Influencia de la temperature de austenizacion y tiempo de permanencia sobre el tamano de grano en aceros ferritico-martensiticos del tipo 9Cr1MoVNb utilizados en calderas supercriticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Urrutia, I.; Gutierrez, S.; San Juan, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of asutenitizing temperature holding time and heating velocity on grain size of ferritic-martensitic type 9Cr1MoVNb steels developed for Oak Ridge National Laboratories & Combustion Engineering, T91/P91 Steels (USA) and X10CrMoVNb 9.1 (Europe). The potential benefits of this materials, in term of high resistance, good ductily and oxidation resistance, weldability and in particular good high temperature creep strength, are now widely acknowledged, particulary by supercritical boilers (P=300 bar, T=550{+-}50 degree centigree). The studied steels have been produced in, high frequency induction vacum furnaces and hot-rolled. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. 国产9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb-N钢管的断口、组织及亚结构分析%Fracture morphology, microstructure and sub-microstructure analyses of 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb-N steel pipe made in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束国刚; 丁辉; 刘树涛; 范长信; 薛飞; 刘江南; 王正品; 石崇哲

    2004-01-01

    应用SEM、OM及TEM分析研究国产9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb-N钢厚壁无缝钢管供货状态和优化工艺热处理状态及进口P91钢厚壁无缝钢管供货状态的断口、组织和亚结构,比较其异同之处.断口获得纤维状拉延撕裂的微孔聚合型韧性破断,金相组织获得细的回火板条马氏体,亚结构获得多边化回复形成较完整位错网的马氏体碎化板条及未发生Ostwald熟化的细小短条状碳化物,是这种钢管断口、组织、亚结构令人满意的状态.

  20. Corrosión a temperatura alta del acero ferrítico 9Cr-1Mo modificado P91, en atmósferas simuladas oxidantes-carburantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Ballesteros, D. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperature corrosion in processing units of the chemical, petrochemical, and thermoelectric carbochemical is of high interest, due to the costs generated by sudden failures caused by deterioration in the mechanical properties of metals, being the carburization of the metallic matrix the most important corrosion mechanism resulting in loss of ductility and creep resistance. In this research a 9Cr-1Mo modified steel P91 was exposed to simulated atmospheres oxidant-fuel gas mixtures simultaneous in equilibrium of CO, CO2, CH4, H2O and H2, similar to those produced in the refining industry, at temperatures between 550 and 750 ºC. The microstructural evolution of the metal matrix was analyzed, also the growth, evolution and behavior of oxide layers and carburized, establishing the mechanism of deterioration of the material and the extent of damage for times exceeding 700 h of exposure.

    La corrosión a temperatura alta en unidades de transformación de la industria química, petroquímica, carboquímica y termoeléctrica es de alto interés, debido a los costos generados por fallas repentinas causadas por el deterioro en las propiedades mecánicas de los metales, siendo la carburación de la matriz metálica el mecanismo de corrosión más importante produciendo pérdida de ductilidad y resistencia a la termofluencia. En esta investigación un acero 9Cr-1Mo modificado P91 se expuso a atmósferas simuladas oxidantes-carburantes simultáneas de mezclas gaseosas en equilibrio de CO, CO2, CH4, H2O y H2, similares a las producidas en los equipos de la industria de refinación, a temperaturas entre 550 y 750 oC. Se analizó la evolución microestructural de la matriz metálica, también el crecimiento, evolución y el comportamiento de capas de óxidos y carburadas, estableciéndose el mecanismo de deterioro del material y la extensión de daño para

  1. Characterization of the structural details of residual austenite in the weld metal of a 9Cr1MoNbV welded rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liu; Hui-jun Ji; Peng Liu; Peng Wang; Feng-gui Lu; Yu-lai Gao

    2014-01-01

    The existence of residual austenite in weld metal plays an important role in determining the properties and dimensional accuracy of welded rotors. An effective corrosive agent and the metallographic etching process were developed to clearly reveal the characteristics of residual austenite in the weld metal of a 9Cr1MoNbV welded rotor. Moreover, the details of the distribution, shape, length, length-to-width ratio, and the content of residual austenite were systematically characterized using the Image-Pro Plus image analysis software. The results revealed that the area fraction of residual austenite was approximately 6.3% in the observed weld seam; the average area, length, and length-to-width ratio of dispersed residual austenite were quantitatively evaluated to be (5.5 ± 0.1)μm2, (5.0 ± 0.1)μm, and (2.2 ± 0.1), re-spectively. The newly developed corrosive agent and etching method offer an appropriate approach to characterize residual austenite in the weld metal of welded rotors in detail.

  2. Material properties of Grade 91 steel at elevated temperature and their comparison with a design code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Woo Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the material properties of tensile strength, creep properties, and creep crack growth model for Gr.91 steel at elevated temperature were obtained from material tests at KAERI, and the test data were compared with those of the French elevated temperature design code, RCC-MRx. The conservatism of the material properties in the French design code is highlighted. Mod.9Cr-1Mo (ASME Grade 91; Gr.91) steel is widely adopted as candidate material for Generation IV nuclear systems as well as for advanced thermal plants. In a Gen IV sodium-cooled fast reactor of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) being developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), Gr.91 steel is selected as the material for the steam generator, secondary piping, and decay heat exchangers. However, as this material has a relatively shorter history of usage in an actual plant than austenitic stainless steel, there are still many issues to be addressed including the long-term creep rupture life extrapolation and ratcheting behavior with cyclic softening characteristics.

  3. Neutron irradiation effects on the ductile-brittle transition of ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steels such as the conventional 9Cr-1MoVNb (Fe-9Cr-1Mo-0.25V-0.06Nb-0.1C) and 12Cr-1MoVW (Fe-12Cr-1Mo-0.25V-0.5W-0.5Ni-0.2C) steels have been considered potential structural materials for future fusion power plants. The major obstacle to their use is embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation. Observations on this irradiation embrittlement is reviewed. Below 425-450{degrees}C, neutron irradiation hardens the steels. Hardening reduces ductility, but the major effect is an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy, as measured by a Charpy impact test. After irradiation, DBTT values can increase to well above room temperature, thus increasing the chances of brittle rather than ductile fracture.

  4. Assessment of the integrity of ferritic-austenitic dissimilar weld joints of different grades of Cr-Mo ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, Sunil; Mathew, M.D. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    2010-07-01

    Integrity of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800, 9Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800 and 9Cr-1Mo-VNb / Alloy 800 ferritic-austenitic dissimilar joints, fusion welded employing Inconel 182 electrode, has been assessed under creep conditions at 823 K. The dissimilar weld joints displayed lower creep rupture strength than their respective ferritic steel base metals. The strength reduction was more for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel joint and least for 9Cr-1Mo steel joint. The failure location in the joints was found to shift from the ferritic steel base metal to the intercritical region of heat-affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic steel (type IV cracking) with decrease in stress. At still lower stresses the failure occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface. Localized creep deformation and cavitation in the soft intercritical HAZ induced type IV failure whereas creep cavitation at the weld interface particles induced ferritic / austenitic interface cracking due to high creep strength mismatch across it. Micromechanisms of type IV failure and interface cracking in the ferritic / austenitic joints and different susceptibility to failure for different grades of ferritic steels are discussed based on microstructural investigation, mechanical testing and finite element analysis. (Note from indexer: paper contains many typographical errors.)

  5. A Comparison of Creep Rupture Strength of Ferritic/Austenitic Dissimilar Weld Joints of Different Grades of Cr-Mo Ferritic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, Sunil; Mathew, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluations of creep rupture properties of dissimilar weld joints of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, and 9Cr-1MoVNb steels with Alloy 800 at 823 K were carried out. The joints were fabricated by a fusion welding process employing an INCONEL 182 weld electrode. All the joints displayed lower creep rupture strength than their respective ferritic steel base metals, and the strength reduction was greater in the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel joint and less in the 9Cr-1Mo steel joint. Failure location in the joints was found to shift from the ferritic steel base metal to the intercritical region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the ferritic steel (type IV cracking) with the decrease in stress. At still lower stresses, the failure in the joints occurred at the ferritic/austenitic weld interface. The stress-life variation of the joints showed two-slope behavior and the slope change coincided with the occurrence of ferritic/austenitic weld interface cracking. Preferential creep cavitation in the soft intercritical HAZ induced type IV failure, whereas creep cavitation at the interfacial particles induced ferritic/austenitic weld interface cracking. Micromechanisms of the type IV failure and the ferritic/austenitic interface cracking in the dissimilar weld joint of the ferritic steels and relative cracking susceptibility of the joints are discussed based on microstructural investigation, mechanical testing, and finite element analysis (FEA) of the stress state across the joint.

  6. Nanostructures in a ferritic and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel induced by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo

    fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...... place, when both steels after DPD are annealed. Both oriented nucleation and oriented growth of oriented lamellae are demonstrated to account for such an orientation dependence. The underlying mechanisms are discussed, including the differences in stored energy, structural variation, and recovery...

  7. Influencia de la temperatura de austenización y tiempo de permanencia sobre el tamaño de grano en aceros ferrítico-martensíticos del tipo 9Cr1MoVNb utilizados en calderas supercríticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Urrutia, L.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of austenitizing temperature holding time and heating velocity on grain size of ferritic-martensitic type 9CrlMoVNb steels developed for Oak Ridge National Laboratories & Combustion Engineering, T91/P91[1] Steels (USA and X10CrMoVNb 9.1 (Europe. The potential benefits of this material, in term of high resistance, good ductily and oxidation resistance, weldability and in particular good high temperature creep strength, are now widely acknowledged, particulary by supercritical boilers (P = 300 bar, T = 550±50 °C. The studied steels have been produced in, high frecuency induction vacum furnaces and hot-rolled.

    Se estudia la influencia de la temperatura de austenización, tiempo de permanencia a esta temperatura y velocidad de calentamiento sobre el tamaño de grano de varios aceros ferrítico-martensíticos de última generación del tipo 9CrlMoVNb, desarrollados por Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL conjuntamente con Combustion Enginering en USA, conocidos por ASME/ASTM por las designaciones T91/P91[1] y en Europa como X10CrMoVNb9.1. Son aceros ductiles y tenaces que presentan muy buenas propiedades de resistencia a fluencia, soldabilidad y conductividad térmica. Son cada vez más utilizados como tubos de alta temperatura (550±50 °C y presión (300 bar en calderas supercríticas para centrales térmicas avanzadas. Los aceros estudiados se han fabricado en hornos de inducción de alta frecuencia al vacío y laminados en caliente.

  8. Creep behavior and evolution of microstructure of modified Grade 91 welded joint after short term exposure at 500 deg C; Fluage a 500 deg C d'un joint soude d'un acier 9Cr-1Mo modifie. Evolution de la microstructure et comportement mecanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivier, F.

    2009-03-15

    With the increase in worldwide energy demand, the nuclear industry is a way of producing electricity on a large scale and to answer to this need. For the design of a new generation of fission nuclear reactors and among six chosen fission reactor systems, France develops in particularly the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concept. This implies the use of materials that are more and more resistant to high temperature for long-term exposure. AREVA focuses on materials already used in fossil-fuel power plant, so that the mechanical behaviour of Grade 91 (Fe{sub 9}Cr{sub 1}MoNbV) has to be investigated. This ferritic-martensitic steel is considered to be a potential candidate for welded components. Such structures are combined with welded joints, which have to be studied. Three industrial partners (AREVA, CEA, EDF) have launched a study with the Centre des Materiaux in order to investigate the creep of welded joint of Grade 91. The aim of this work is to complete the available database about the mechanical behaviour of Grade 91, base metal and welded joint, during creep tests performed at 500 C up to 4500 h exposure. Thermal aging tests, tensile tests, and creep tests were performed at 450 C and 500 C using both base metal and cross-weld samples. Several geometries of cross-weld creep specimens were tested. The microstructure has not remarkably changed after tests concerning both nature and size of precipitates, and the characteristic size of the matrix sub-structure. The creep damage is not developed in the ruptured specimens after creep tests. Only little damage by cavity nucleation and growth was found in the creep specimens. Creep fracture at 500 C takes places by viscoplastic flow, contrary to tests performed at 625 C where the creep-induced damage governs the creep rupture at least for long-term lifetime. From creep curves of base metal and cross-weld specimens, a phenomenological model is proposed. The flow rule is a Norton power law with a stress exponent

  9. Long-term Stability of 9- to 12 % Cr Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    of Mo with 1.8 % W combined with a slight amount of Boron led to steel P 92. The creep rupture strength of these new alloys are now secured with long-term tests up to 100,000 hours, which demonstrate improvements of 50% (P 91), 75 % (E 911) and 100 % (P 92) in strength compared to X 20CrMoV12 1....... and pressures. Newly developed steam pipe steels are based on modifications of well-established steels like the X 20CrMoV12 1. Balanced addition of V, Nb and N to a 9Cr 1 Mo steel led to the Modified 9 Cr steel P 91. Addition of 1% W to a 9Cr 1 MoVNbN base composition led to steel E 911 and partial replacement......In the recent 25 years creep rupture strength of 9- to 12 %Cr steels for steam pipes and turbines has been doubled by development of new alloys. This development has formed a basis for improved efficiency of fossil fired steam power plants by introduction of advanced steam temperatures...

  10. Microstructure characterization of heat affected zone after welding in Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, K., E-mail: sawada.kota@nims.go.jp [Materials Reliability Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hara, T. [Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tabuchi, M.; Kimura, K. [Materials Reliability Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Kubushiro, K. [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The microstructure of the heat affected zone after welding was investigated in Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel, using TEM and STEM-EDX. The microstructure of thin foil was observed at the fusion line, and at the positions of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 3.5 mm to the base metal side of the fusion line. Martensite structure with very fine lath and high dislocation density was confirmed at all positions. Twins with a twin plane of (112) were locally observed at all positions. Elemental mapping was obtained for all positions by means of STEM-EDX. Inclusions of mainly Si were formed at the fusion line but not at the other positions. No precipitates could be detected at the fusion line or at the position of 0.5 mm. On the other hand, MX particles were observed at the positions of 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 3.5 mm even after welding. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles were also confirmed at the positions of 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 3.5 mm. Very fine equiaxed grains were locally observed at the positions of 2.0 mm and 2.5 mm. The Cr content of the equiaxed grains was about 12 mass%, although the martensite area included about 8 mass% Cr. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nonequilibrium microstructure of heat affected zone was observed after welding in Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel. • Inclusions containing Si were detected at the fusion line. • Undissolved M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and MX particles were confirmed in heat affected zone. • Twins with a twin plane of (112) were locally observed at all positions. • Very fine ferrite grains with high Cr content were observed in fine grained heat affected zone.

  11. Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated nickel-containing martensitic steels: I. Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6151 (United States)]. E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Hashimoto, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6151 (United States); Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6151 (United States); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Tensile and Charpy specimens of 9Cr-1MoVNb (modified 9Cr-1Mo) and 12Cr-1MoVW (Sandvik HT9) steels and these steels doped with 2% Ni were irradiated at 300 and 400 deg. C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) up to {approx}12 dpa and at 393 deg. C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to {approx}15 dpa. In HFIR, a mixed-spectrum reactor (n, {alpha}) reactions of thermal neutrons with {sup 58}Ni produce helium in the steels. Little helium is produced during irradiation in FFTF. After HFIR irradiation, the yield stress of all steels increased, with the largest increases occurring for nickel-doped steels. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased up to two times and 1.7 times more in steels with 2% Ni than in those without the nickel addition after HFIR irradiation at 300 and 400 deg. C, respectively. Much smaller differences occurred between these steels after irradiation in FFTF. The DBTT increases for steels with 2% Ni after HFIR irradiation were 2-4 times greater than after FFTF irradiation. Results indicated there was hardening due to helium in addition to hardening by displacement damage and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  12. Embrittlement of Cr-Mo steels after low fluence irradiation in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this work is the determination of the possible effect of the simultaneous formation of helium and displacement damage during irradiation on the Charpy impact behavior. Subsize Charpy impact specimens of 9Cr-1MoVNb (modified 9Cr-1Mo) and 12Cr-1MoVW (Sandvik HT9) steels and 12Cr-1MoVW with 2%Ni (12Cr-1MOVW-2Ni) were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at 300 and 400{degree}C to damage levels up to 2.5 dpa. The objective was to study the effect of the simultaneous formation of displacement damage and transmutation helium on impact toghness. Despite the low fluence relative to previous irradiations of these steels, significant increases in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) occurred. The 12Cr-1MoVW-2Ni steel irradiated at 400{degree}C had the largest increase in DBTT and displayed indications of intergranular fracture. A mechanism is proposed to explain how helium can affect the fracture behaviour of this latter steel in the present tests, and how it affected all three steels in previous experiments, where the steels were irradiated to higher fluences.

  13. Fracture properties of neutron-irradiated martensitic 9Cr-WVTa steels below room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, F.; Narui, M.; Kayano, H.

    1994-09-01

    Fracture properties of the reduced activation martensitic 9Cr-1WVTa and 9Cr-3WVTa steels were investigated by carrying out instrumented Charpy impact tests and tensile tests at temperatures below room temperature after irradiation in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor at 493 and 538 K. Modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel was also examined for comparison. The irradiation-induced increase in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature was 53, 26 and 40 K for the {1}/{3} size Charpy specimens of 9Cr-1WVTa, 9Cr-3WVTa and 9Cr-1MoVNb steels, respectively, which resulted primarily from the irradiation-induced increase in yield stress. The cleavage fracture stress was 1820-1870 MPa for the three steels in unirradiated conditions, which was scarcely affected by irradiation. The deflections to the maximum load and to the brittle fracture initiation were decreased by irradiation. In the tensile test, quasi-cleavage fracture occurred at 77 K in both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. The cleavage fracture stress was 1320-1380 MPa for the tensile specimens of the three steels, which was about 1.4 times smaller than that for the Charpy specimens.

  14. Instrumented charpy impact tests of austenitic and ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H.; Miyata, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Narui, M.; Kayano, H.

    1985-08-01

    The instrumented Charpy impact test was applied to commercial Mn-steel and ferritic steels before and after JMTR irradiation ( 6.5 × 10 22 n/m 2). The load-deflection curves show typical characteristics of the fracture properties of the specimens; i.e. linear elastic behaviour for the brittle fracture and elastic-plastic behaviour for the ductile fracture. The fracture deflection and the absorption energy (fracture energy) dropped rapidly at the temperature of ductile to brittle transition. The ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) showed shifts of about 30 and 40 K due to the irradiation for 9Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-2Mo steels, respectively. In Mn-steel the transition from ductile to brittle did not appear at temperatures higher than 77 K. The lateral expansions measured from the scanning electron micrographs show good correspondence to the above results.

  15. Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated nickel-containing martensitic steels: II. Review and analysis of helium-effects studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division, Building 4500S, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6151 (United States)]. E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Hashimoto, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division, Building 4500S, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6151 (United States); Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division, Building 4500S, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6151 (United States); Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division, Building 4500S, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6151, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6151 (United States); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    In part I of this helium-effects study on ferritic/martensitic steels, results were presented on tensile and Charpy impact properties of 9Cr-1MoVNb (modified 9Cr-1Mo) and 12Cr-1MoVW (Sandvik HT9) steels and these steels containing 2% Ni after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to 10-12 dpa at 300 and 400 deg. C and in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to 15 dpa at 393 deg. C. The results indicated that helium caused an increment of hardening above irradiation hardening produced in the absence of helium. In addition to helium-effects studies on ferritic/martensitic steels using nickel doping, studies have also been conducted over the years using boron doping, ion implantation, and spallation neutron sources. In these previous investigations, observations of hardening and embrittlement were made that were attributed to helium. In this paper, the new results and those from previous helium-effects studies are reviewed and analyzed.

  16. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hardness of Grade 91 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triratna Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade 91 steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures of up to 650 °C. In this study, heat treatment of Grade 91 steel was performed by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures for different periods of time. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the microstructural evolution including precipitate structures and were correlated with mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-Calc™ calculations were used to support the experimental work. Furthermore, carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed.

  17. Elevated temperature properties of ferritic/martensitic steels for application to future nuclear reators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, Woo Seog; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-12-15

    The future nuclear systems such as nuclear hydrogen production reactors and fusion reactor require low activation and radiation embrittlement resistance in addition to excellent high temperature properties because their operating temperature are even higher than those of the light water reactors. The R and D of ferritic-martensitic steels in nuclear leading centuries like USA, Japan and EU has been continued for decades of years nuclear and they commercialized several steels. Korea consider modified 9Cr-1Mo steel as a candidate materials for reactor pressure vessel of very high temperature reactor. This state-of-the art report aimed to provide informations about the applicabilities of high Cr steels and low Cr steels through the analyses of their microstructures, mechanical properties and radiation characteristics. The metallurgical understanding of background of alloy evolutions might be helpful for the establishment of research orientation.

  18. Preparation and characterization of Al2O3 coating by MOD method on CLF-1 RAFM steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, J. J.; Feng, Y. J.; Li, F. Z.; Liao, J. L.; Yang, Y. Y.; Feng, K. M.; Liu, N.

    2017-04-01

    Metal organic decomposition (MOD) method was proposed to prepare Al2O3 TPB coatings on CLF-1 RAFM steel. A comprehensive characterization of SEM, XPS, and XRD demonstrated the formation of Al2O3 coatings. The effect of the preparation parameters, including annealing temperature Ta, withdrawal speed Vw and immersion time ti on the microstructure and properties of the coatings was investigated. It showed that amorphous aluminum oxide coating began to transform to γ-Al2O3 at temperature of Ta = 600 °C. The Al2O3 coating with Ta = 700 °C and Tb = 500 °C performed the best crystallization feature. The hardness of the coatings gradually increased with increasing Vw, while the corrosion resistance exhibited a reverse trend. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and corrosion resistance of the coating with ti = 300 s was improved as compared to the coating with ti = 0 s. Moreover, the effect of particle size and substrate oxidation on the mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the coatings was discussed.

  19. Creep-fatigue modelling in structural steels using empirical and constitutive creep methods implemented in a strip-yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    The phenomena of creep and fatigue have each been thoroughly studied. More recently, attempts have been made to predict the damage evolution in engineering materials due to combined creep and fatigue loading, but these formulations have been strictly empirical and have not been used successfully outside of a narrow set of conditions. This work proposes a new creep-fatigue crack growth model based on constitutive creep equations (adjusted to experimental data) and Paris law fatigue crack growth. Predictions from this model are compared to experimental data in two steels: modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and AISI 316L stainless steel. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a high-strength steel used in the construction of pressure vessels and piping for nuclear and conventional power plants, especially for high temperature applications. Creep-fatigue and pure creep experimental data from the literature are compared to model predictions, and they show good agreement. Material constants for the constitutive creep model are obtained for AISI 316L stainless steel, an alloy steel widely used for temperature and corrosion resistance for such components as exhaust manifolds, furnace parts, heat exchangers and jet engine parts. Model predictions are compared to pure creep experimental data, with satisfactory results. Assumptions and constraints inherent in the implementation of the present model are examined. They include: spatial discretization, similitude, plane stress constraint and linear elasticity. It is shown that the implementation of the present model had a non-trivial impact on the model solutions in 316L stainless steel, especially the spatial discretization. Based on these studies, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The constitutive creep model consistently performs better than the Nikbin, Smith and Webster (NSW) model for predicting creep and creep-fatigue crack extension. 2. Given a database of uniaxial creep test data, a constitutive material model such as the one developed for

  20. Corrosion fatigue studies on F82H mod. martensitic steel in reducing water coolant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maday, M.F.; Masci, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia

    1998-03-01

    Load-controlled low cycle fatigue tests have been carried out on F82H martensitic steel in 240degC oxygen-free water with and without dissolved hydrogen, in order to simulate realistic coolant boundary conditions to be approached in DEMO. It was found that water independently of its hydrogen content, determined the same fatigue life reduction compared to the base-line air results. Water cracks exhibited in their first propagation stages similar fracture morphologies which were completely missing on the air cracks, and were attributed to the action of an environment related component. Lowering frequency gave rise to an increase in F82H fatigue lifetimes without any change in cracking mode in air, and to fatigue life reduction by microvoid coalescence alone in water. The data were discussed in terms of (i) frequency dependent concurrent processes for crack initiation and (ii) frequency-dependent competitive mechanisms for crack propagation induced by cathodic hydrogen from F82H corrosion. (author)

  1. Long-term Creep Life Prediction and Its Reliability on HAZ Failure Data of Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Jang, Jin Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Young [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Long-term creep life prediction on Grade 91 HAZ failure data was performed by LM parameter, and its reliability was successfully demonstrated using SCRI model based on Z-parameter. To improve the creep life prediction at the low stress range of high temperature range, the master curve with a 'sinh' function was newly proposed. By Monte-Carlo simulation, reliability assessment was made using the chosen service temperature and stress conditions. carbide/nitride forming elements such as V and Nb along with controlled addition of N in the plain 9Cr. 1Mo steel, offers a good combination of high creep strength and ductility over prolonged exposures at elevated temperatures. The choice of Gr. 91 steel for sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) applications is guided by its low thermal expansion coefficient and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking in water-steam systems compared to austenitic stainless steels.

  2. Fracture toughness of irradiated modified 9Cr-lMo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Yoon, J.H.; Ryu, W.S.; Lee, C.B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, J.H. [KAERI - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Materials Technology Development Div., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Ferritic/martensitic steels have been used for a long time in the power generation industry as boiler and turbine materials. These steels are the proposed candidates for the crosscutting materials of the advanced nuclear power system. It is important to realize the change of mechanical properties by neutron irradiation for application these materials to nuclear power system. Irradiation effect on the fracture toughness of the structural materials is one of the concerns for the designing of the fusion devices. The test material was a 16 mm thick commercial Modified 9Cr-1Mo plate which was normalized at 1050 deg. C and tempered at 770 deg. C. The half sized pre-cracked Charpy specimens were irradiated at CT test hole in HANARO. Irradiation test was conducted at 340 deg. C and 400 deg. C to investigate the irradiation temperature effect on the degradation of the fracture toughness. And the irradiation fluence was 1.2x10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV). Toughness tests for the irradiated specimens will be performed in the hot cell at KAERI. The fracture toughness of the unirradiated condition was carried out in order to assess the changes in the materials properties caused by neutron irradiation. The K{sub JC} values in accordance at the ASTM E1921- 05 standard were obtained by three-point bending tests. Tests have been carried out at several temperatures within transition region. The multi-temperature method was used to determine reference temperature, T{sub o}. The applicability of the Master Curve method for irradiated and unirradiated ferritic/martensitic steel is another focus of this study. The reference temperature of the unirradiated specimen was -72.4 deg. C. And the Master Curve successfully expressed the trend of the fracture toughness change with temperature for unirradiated Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. (authors)

  3. Fracture mechanics behaviour of ductile cast iron and martensitic steel at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udoh, A.; Klenk, A.; Roos, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Sasikala, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Ductile cast iron is employed increasingly due to the advantages regarding foundry practice, design as well as economic advantages in the thermal machinery and power plant construction. It is employed preferably where higher toughness is required, e.g. in valves or thickwalled components of thermal or nuclear power plants. For this reason the safety and availability criteria for fracture mechanics assessment of components are necessary in addition to the conventional strength design. Alloys with silicon and molybdenum are developed for the application at higher temperatures. The increase in the thermal efficiency of fossil fired steam power plant that can be achieved by increasing the steam temperature and pressure has provided the incentive for development of the 9% chromium steels towards improved creep rupture strength. During the last twenty years, three such steels, P91 (9Cr-1Mo-VNb), E911 (9Cr-1Mo-1W-V-Nb) and P92 (9Cr-0,5Mo-1,8W-V-Nb), have been developed for commercial production. For application in piping systems and boiler construction sufficient reliable information concerning the long-term behaviour are necessary as well as knowledge about fracture mechanical behaviour in order to ensure integrity of components. Different methods to characterize fracture behaviour of ductile cast iron and martensitic steel at elevated temperature have been employed. The RBR method is a novel and simple method developed at IGCAR for characterizing the ductile fracture behaviour of materials from tensile tests of cylindrical specimens. Using the data evaluated at both institutes, a fracture mechanics characterisation by determining crack initiation and crack resistance by J{sub R}-curves and RBR parameters is presented. (orig.)

  4. Evolution of phases in P91 steel in various heat treatment conditions and their effect on microstructure stability and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandan, E-mail: chandanpy.1989@gmail.com; Giri, Anoj; Mahapatra, M.M.

    2016-05-10

    To achieve high thermal efficiency, modern day thermal power plants operate at higher operating temperature and pressure which necessitates use of steels with high creep rupture strength such as modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. In the present study, the evolution of phases in modified 9Cr-1Mo P91 steel and their effects on microstructural stability and mechanical properties have been studied for specimens that were subjected to different thermal heat treatment conditions. The main focus has been to study the effect of heat treatment temperature ranging from 623 K to 1033 K (350–760 °C) on P91 steel. Further, the effect of furnace cooling, water quenching, tempering at 1273 K (1000 °C) and austenitizing on the mechanical properties and microstructure has been studied. The techniques used for material characterization were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray diffraction. For low tempering temperature, i.e. 623 K (350 °C), M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M{sub 3}C, M{sub 7}C{sub 3,} and MX precipitates have been observed with high yield strength (YS), tensile strength (UTS), hardness and low toughness. In the high temperature range, 923–1033 K (650–760 °C), fine MX, M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M{sub 2}X, and M{sub 3}C precipitates have been observed with low YS, UTS, hardness and high toughness. The steel tempered at 1033 K (760 °C) was observed to be having best combination of YS, UTS, hardness, toughness and ductility.

  5. A comparison between different oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel ongoing in situ oxide dissolution in High Voltage Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, I., E-mail: monnet@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, BP5133-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, CEA/DEN/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Van den Berghe, T.; Dubuisson, Ph. [Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, CEA/DEN/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-05-15

    ODS materials are considered for nuclear applications but previous experimental studies have shown a partial dissolution of some oxides under neutron irradiation. In this work, electron irradiations were used to evaluate the stability of the oxides depending on the chemical composition of the oxide dispersion. Four ferritic steels based on EM10 (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and reinforced respectively by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were studied. These materials were irradiated with 1 MeV or 1.2 MeV electrons in a High Voltage Electron Microscope. This technique allows to follow one single oxide and to determine the evolution of its size during the irradiation. In situ HVEM observations indicate that the dissolution rate depends on the chemical composition of the oxide, on the temperature and on the irradiation dose.

  6. Building on knowledge base of sodium cooled fast spectrum reactors to develop materials technology for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Baldev; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara

    2009-04-01

    The alloys 316L(N) and Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel are the major structural materials for fabrication of structural components in sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Various factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of these alloys and different modes of deformation and failure in SFR systems, their analysis and the simulated tests performed on components for assessment of structural integrity and the applicability of RCC-MR code for the design and validation of components are highlighted. The procedures followed for optimal design of die and punch for the near net shape forming of petals of main vessel of 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR); the safe temperature and strain rate domains established using dynamic materials model for forming of 316L(N) and 9Cr-1Mo steels components by various industrial processes are illustrated. Weldability problems associated with 316L(N) and Mo. 9Cr-1Mo are briefly discussed. The utilization of artificial neural network models for prediction of creep rupture life and delta-ferrite in austenitic stainless steel welds is described. The usage of non-destructive examination techniques in characterization of deformation, fracture and various microstructural features in SFR materials is briefly discussed. Most of the experience gained on SFR systems could be utilized in developing science and technology for fusion reactors. Summary of the current status of knowledge on various aspects of fission and fusion systems with emphasis on cross fertilization of research is presented.

  7. Creep and Creep Crack Growth Behaviors for SMAW Weldments of Gr. 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Yin, Song Nan; Park, Ji Yeon; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Young [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    High Cr ferritic resistance steels with tempered martensite microstructures posses enhanced creep strength at the elevated temperatures. Those steels as represented by a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (ASME Grade 91, hereafter Gr.91) are regarded as main structural materials of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) and reactor pressure vessel materials of very high temperature reactors (VHTR). The SFR and VHTR systems are designed during long-term duration reaching 60 years at elevated temperatures and often subjected to non-uniform stress and temperature distribution during service. These conditions may generate localized creep damage and propagate the cracks and ultimately may cause a fracture. A significant portion of its life is spent in crack propagation. Therefore, a creep crack growth rate (CCGR) due to creep damage should be assessed for both the base metal (BM) and welded metal (WM). Enough CCGR data for them should be provided for assessing their structural integrities. However, their CCGR data for the Gr. 91 steels is still insufficient. In this study, the CCGR for the BM and the WM of the Gr. 91 steel was comparatively investigated. A series of the CCG tests were conducted under different applied loads for the BM and the WM at 600 .deg. C. The CCGR was characterized in terms of the C parameter, and their CCG behavior were compared, respectively

  8. Creep-rupture behavior of 3Cr-3W-V bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States)]. E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Evans, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    A nominally Fe-3.0Cr-3.0W-0.25 V (3Cr-3WV) steel and this composition with 0.07% Ta (3Cr-3WVTa) were developed for elevated-temperature service in the power-generation and petrochemical industries. Creep-rupture strengths of the new steels to 600 deg. C exceeded those of the two advanced commercial 2.25Cr steels T23 (Fe-2.25Cr-1.6W-0.25V-0.05Nb-0.07C) and T24 (Fe-2.25Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V-0.07Ti-0.005B-0.07C). Moreover, the strength of 3Cr-3WVTa approached that of modified 9Cr-1Mo (T91) at 650 deg. C. Elevated-temperature strength in the new steels is obtained from a bainitic microstructure with a high number density of fine needle-like MX precipitates in the matrix. The presence of tantalum promotes a finer MX precipitate in the 3Cr-3WVTa than in the 3Cr-3WV, and it suppresses the coarsening of these fine precipitates during creep.

  9. Improvement of ASME NH for Grade 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Riou

    2007-10-09

    This report has been prepared in the context of Task 3 of the ASME/DOE Gen IV material project. It has been identified that creep-fatigue evaluation procedures presently available in ASME (1) and RCC-MR (2) have been mainly developed for austenitic stainless steels and may not be suitable for cyclic softening materials such as mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel (grade 91). The aim of this document is, starting from experimental test results, to perform a review of the procedures and, if necessary, provide recommendations for their improvements.

  10. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CREEP-RESISTANT FERRITIC STEEL WELDMENTS THROUGH THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT AND ALLOY DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Babu, Prof. Sudarsanam Suresh [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shassere, Benjamin [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Two different approaches have been proposed for improvement of cross-weld creep properties of the high temperature ferrous structural materials for fossil-fired energy applications. The traditional creep strength-enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steel weldments suffer from Type IV failures which occur at the fine-grained heat affected zone (FGHAZ). In order to minimize the premature failure at FGHAZ in the existing CSEF steels, such as modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steels (Grade 91), a thermo-mechanical treatment consisting of aus-forging/rolling and subsequent aus-aging is proposed which promotes the formation of stable MX carbonitrides prior to martensitic transformation. Such MX remains undissolved during welding process, even in FGHAZ, which successfully improves the cross-weld creep properties. Another approach is to develop a new fully ferrtic, creep-resistant FeCrAl alloy which is essentially free from Type IV failure issues. Fe-30Cr-3Al base alloys with minor alloying additions were developed which achieved a combination of good oxidation/corrosion resistance and improved tensile and creep performance comparable or superior to Grade 92 steel.

  11. Toward Improving the Type IV Cracking Resistance in Cr-Mo Steel Weld Through Thermo-Mechanical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shassere, Benjamin A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Detailed microstructure characterization of Grade 91 (Modified 9Cr-1Mo, ASTM A387) steel subjected to a thermo-mechanical treatment process was performed to rationalize the cross-weld creep properties. A series of thermo-mechanical processing in the austenite phase region, followed by isothermal aging at temperatures at 973 K to 1173 K (700 °C to 900 °C), was applied to the Grade 91 steel to promote precipitation kinetics of MX (M: Nb and V, X: C and N) in the austenite matrix. Detailed characterization of the base metals after standard tempering confirmed the presence of fine MX dispersion within the tempered martensitic microstructure in steels processed at/and above 1073 K (800 °C). Relatively low volume fraction of M23C6 precipitates was observed after processing at 1073 K (800 °C). The cross-weld creep strength after processing was increased with respect to the increase of MX dispersion, indicating that these MX precipitates maintained during weld thermal cycles in the fine-grained heat-affected zone region and thereby contribute to improved creep resistant of welds in comparison to the welds made with the standard "normalization and tempering" processes. The steels processed in this specific processing condition showed improved cross-weld creep resistance and sufficient room temperature toughness. The above data are also analyzed based on existing theories of creep deformation based on dislocation climb mechanism.

  12. Pack Aluminide Coatings Formed at 650℃ for Enhancing Oxidation Resistance of Low Alloy Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.D.Xiang; S.R.Rose; P.K.Datta

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility of forming iron aluminide coatings on a commercial 9Cr-1Mo (wt.%) alloy steel by pack cementation at 650℃ in an attempt to improve its high temperature oxidation resistance. Pack powders containing Al, Al2O3 and a series of halide salts were used to carry out the coating deposition experiments, which enabled identification of the most suitable activator for the pack aluminising process at the intended temperature. The effect of pack aluminium content on the growth kinetics and microstructure of the coatings was then studied by keeping deposition conditions and pack activator content constant while increasing the pack aluminium content from 1.4 wt.% to 6 wt.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to analyse the phases and microstructures of the coatings formed and to determine depth profiles of coating elements in the coating layer. Oxidation resistance of the coating was studied at 650 ~C in air by intermittent weight measurement at room temperature. It was observed that the coating could substantially enhance the oxidation resistance of the steel under these testing conditions, which was attributed to the capability of the iron aluminide phases to form alumina scale on the coating surface through preferential A1 oxidation.

  13. Electron microscopy and microanalysis of steel weld joints after long time exposures at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, D.; Kasl, J.; Rek, A.

    2010-02-01

    The structural changes of three trial weld joints of creep resistant modified 9Cr-1Mo steels and low alloyed chromium steel after post-weld heat treatment and long-term creep tests were investigated. Smooth cross-weld specimens ruptured in different zones of the weld joints as a result of different structural changes taking place during creep exposures. The microstructure of the weld joint is heterogeneous and consequently microstructural development can be different in the weld metal, the heat affected zone, and the base material. Precipitation reactions, nucleation and growth of some particles and dissolution of others, affect the strengthening of the matrix, recovery at high temperatures, and the resulting creep resistance. Therefore, a detailed study of secondary phase's development in individual zones of weld joints can elucidate mechanism of cracks propagation in specific regions and the causes of creep failure. Type I and II fractures in the weld metal and Type IV fractures in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones occurred after creep tests at temperatures ranging from 525 to 625 °C and under stresses from 40 to 240 MPa. An extended metallographic study of the weld joints was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive and wave-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were prepared from individual weld joint regions and quantitative evaluation of dislocation substructure and particles of secondary phases has been performed.

  14. Different types of cracking of P91 steel weld joints after long-term creep tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Kasl, J.; Chvostova, E. (SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic))

    2010-05-15

    This paper deals with creep testing and microstructural investigation of trial weld joints prepared of wrought and cast 9Cr-1Mo-V steels using GTAW & SMAW method. Creep testing was carried out at temperature range from 525 degC to 625 degC, the longest time to rupture of 45 811 hrs was achieved. The creep strengths of weld joints for 100 000 hrs were calculated. Different types of cracking were observed in dependency on conditions of creep test and the type of weld joint. Type 1 and Type 2 fractures occurred at high applied stress at relatively low temperatures in the tube weld joint and also in two speciments of the cast plate weld joint after creep test at the lowest temperature and the highest temperature. All other fractures were of the Type 4. Causes of different fracture location in tested weld joints were elucidated on the base of substructure evolution in individual zones - the weld metal, the heat affected zone and the base material. Two processes occur simultaneously, which result in the creep damage: (i) softening of solid solution as a result of Laves phase precipitation and (ii) formation and coalescence of cavities in the soft fine grained parts of heat affected zone. (orig.)

  15. Development of an extensive database of mechanical properties for Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Ando, M.; Wakai, E.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Klueh, R.L. [0ak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States); Sokolov, M.; Stoller, R.; Zinklek, S. [0ak Ridge Noational Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States); Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. [UCSB, Dept. of Chemical Engineering UCSB, Santa-Barbara (United States); Kurtz, R.J. [Pacifie Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems, as they have been developed based on massive industrial experience of ferritic/martensitic steel replacing Mo and Nb of high chromium heat resistant martensitic steels (such as modified 9Cr-1Mo) with W and Ta, respectively. F82H (8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.04Ta-0.1C) and JLF-1 (9Cr-2W-0.2V-0.08Ta-0.1C) are RAFMs, which have been developed and studied in Japan and the various effects of irradiation were reported. F82H is designed with emphasis on high temperature property and weldablility, and was provided and evaluated in various countries as a part of the IEA fusion materials development collaboration. The Japan/US collaboration program also has been conducted with the emphasis on heavy irradiation effects of F82H, JLF-1 and ORNL9Cr2WVTa over the past two decades using Fast Flux Testing Facility (FFTF) of PNNL and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL, and the irradiation condition of the irradiation capsules of those reactors were precisely controlled by the well matured capsule designing and instrumentation. Now, among the existing database for RAFMs the most extensive one is that for F82H. The objective of this paper is to review the database status of RAFMs, mainly on F82H, to identify the key issues for the future development of database. Tensile, fracture toughness, creep and fatigue properties and microstructural studies before and after irradiation are summarized. (authors)

  16. Korstoget mod katharerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Korstog var ikke kun rettet mod saracenerne i Jerusalem, men i høj grad også mod afvigere fra den katolske kirke, bl.a. katharerne i Sydfrankrig, der blev udslettet i løbet af 1. halvdel af 1200-tallet. Ved massakren i Beziers for 800 år siden blev alle byens indbyggere dræbt uden forskel...

  17. Mod II engine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  18. A Study on Sodium Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Ferritic-Martensitic Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that uses fast neutrons as a fission process is considered one of the most probable candidates in next generation reactors. As an SFR core experiences high temperatures (650 .deg. C) and neutron doses (200 dpa), ferritic-martensitic steel, especially HT9 steel containing 12% Cr, is being considered due to its superior dimensional stability against high-energy neutron irradiation. After irradiation to 35 dpa at 420 .deg. C, at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), swelling of the reduced-activation 9Cr-2WV and 9Cr-2WVTa steels and the conventional 9Cr-1Mo-VNb and 12Cr-1Mo-VW steels was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to be 0.2%, 0.33%, 0.85%, and 0.007%, respectively. The irradiation creep coefficient for neutron-irradiated steels is 2 Χ 10{sup -7} Mpa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1} for HT9 at 440-500 .deg. C with 14 dpa (EBR-II), and 1.5 Χ 10{sup -7} Mpa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1} is a good estimate for such ferritic/martensitic steels. In this study, ASTM A192 Gr. 92 steels were exposed to liquid sodium at 650 .deg. C for 1583 h and 3095 h and evaluation of the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties using ring hoop tensile tests and ring hoop creep tests were conducted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of ferritic-martensitic steel (ASTM A192 Gr. 92) that has been exposed to a high-temperature sodium environment. In order to investigate the effect of the aging process on the precipitates and the mechanical properties of Gr. 92 steel, specimens were exposed to 650 .deg. C liquid sodium and aged in a 650 .deg. C argon environment for a given time. V-rich MX-type carbonitride and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were found in the as-received specimen. In the specimens which were exposed to sodium, mainly Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} was observed while the Laves phase was mainly observed in the specimen that was aged in an argon environment. The maximum load of Gr. 92 steel that was

  19. Mod II engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  20. Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Alcator C-Mod at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is operated as a DOE national user facility. Alcator C-Mod is a unique, compact tokamak facility that uses...

  1. Teaching Mods with Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Are games worthy of academic attention? Can they be used effectively in the classroom, in the research laboratory, as an innovative design tool, as a persuasive political weapon? Game Mods: Design, Theory and Criticism aims to answer these and more questions. It features chapters by authors chose...

  2. Idempotents a la mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Thomas Q.

    2012-01-01

    An idempotent satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] = x. In ordinary arithmetic, this is so easy to solve it's boring. We delight the mathematical palette here, topping idempotents off with modular arithmetic and a series of exercises determining for which n there are more than two idempotents (mod n) and exactly how many there are.

  3. A study of steel alloys for potential use in CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Rawers, James C.; Blankenship, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The effect of CO2 as a greenhouse gas, and the potential of global warming, has led to the study of sequestration of CO2 as a mineral carbonate. Some of the processes of mineral sequestration involve handing large tonnages of silicate minerals and reacting them with CO2. In this study the Albany Research Center evaluated the effects of wear and corrosion individually, and any possible synergetic effects resulting from a combination of wear and corrosion, on steel alloys that might be used in CO2 sequestration. By understanding the mechanism of slurry material loss, a better selection of erosion/corrosion resistant steel alloys can be chosen which in turn help plan construction costs. Four different conventional alloys were chosen. The alloys include AISI 1080 carbon steel, a 9Cr, 1 Mo steel, a 316 stainless steel, and a heat treatable 440C stainless steel. These materials covered a large range of alloy composition and cost. A variety of erosion and corrosion tests were used to evaluate the steels response to selected sequestration environments. The tests used included: (i) wear from dry Jet and HAET erosion tests, (ii) corrosion from immersion tests, and (iii) slurry erosion/corrosion tests. The slurry wear tests were conducted using a 270-μm silica abrasive in water and a solution (a mixture of sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, and sodium carbonate) saturated with CO2 at pH levels of 4.5 and 9.4. The results of these tests were compared with the results dry erosion and immersion corrosion tests. The results of the various tests were then used to evaluate the mechanism of material loss and determine is the presence of synergetic effects. The corrosion test showed little loss of material for all alloys. The erosion tests showed only a small difference between alloys. The slurry tests showed synergistic effect of combining erosion and corrosion resulted in a significant additional loss of material. It was further found both increasing the hardness and amounts of

  4. På vej mod arbejdsmarkedet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    På vej mod arbejdsmarkedet? tager udgangspunkt i en undersøgelse af samme navn, som er gennemført i 2006-2007 i et samarbejde mellem Aalborg Universitet og Landsforeningen Ligeværd. Undersøgelsen følger op på, hvordan det er gået en række unge de første år efter deres ophold på en af Ligeværds...

  5. Microstructural Changes of Al Hot-Dipped P91 Steel during High-Temperature Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Abro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9Cr-1Mo steel (ASTM P91 was hot-dip aluminized, and its microstructural changes during oxidation were studied. Before oxidation, the coating consisted of (Al-rich topcoat containing a small amount of Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4/(Al13Fe4-rich, Al13Fe4-containing alloy layer/(Al5Fe2 alloy layer containing a small amount of Al9Cr4 precipitates, from the surface. During oxidation at 700–900 °C for 20–100 h, Al diffused inward and the substrate elements migrated outward to broaden and soften the coating, and also to transform (high Al-Fe intermetallics to (low Al-Fe intermetallics. The phases in the coating progressively transformed during oxidation as follows; (Al-rich topcoat/(Al5Fe2–rich, Al13Fe4-containing alloy layer/(Al5Fe2 alloy layer→(α-Al2O3 scale/(Al13Fe4–rich, Al5Fe2-containing layer/(Al5Fe2 layer/(AlFe interlayer→(α-Al2O3 scale/(AlFe–rich, Al5Fe2-containing layer/(AlFe layer/(AlFe3 layer→((α-Al2O3, Fe2O3-mixed scale/(AlFe3 layer/(Fe(Al layer from the surface. As the oxidation progressed, the scale changed from α-Al2O3 to the (α-Al2O3, Fe2O3-mixture, which provided the necessary oxidation resistance.

  6. MODS: The Metadata Object Description Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Rebecca S.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) developed by the Library of Congress' Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Discuses reasons for MODS development; advantages of MODS; features of MODS; prospective uses for MODS; relationship with MARC and MARCXML; comparison with Dublin Core element set; and experimentation with…

  7. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  8. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  9. Development of 0.1C-11Cr-3W-3Co-V-Nb-Ta-Nd-N ferritic steel for USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, M.; Sawaragi, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan). Corporate Research and Development

    1997-12-31

    A high Cr ferritic steel: O.1C-11Cr-3W-3Co-V-Nb-Ta-Nd-N has been developed for main steam pipe and header materials in ultra super critical (USC) boilers in fossil fired power plants. This steel has a higher creep rupture strength at elevated temperatures of up to 630{degree}C than conventional steels such as 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel (ASME SA335 P91). High creep rupture strength is mainly achieved with a hard martensitic phase matrix and longer term phase stability of finely dispersed precipitates. The martensitic phase matrix has been found to be strengthened by the addition of Co to a great extent, although Co has only been recognized to suppress {delta}-ferrite in these steels. Finely dispersed MX type carbonitrides such as Nb(C,N) and V(C,N) are also essential to delay recovery of the martensitic phase. {mu}-phase (Fe{sub 7}W{sub 6} type) precipitation is found to be most effective for higher creep rupture strength at high temperatures of over 600{degree}C. W is the most important element for stabilizing the {mu}-phase and also M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type carbide and to delay coarsening of these precipitates, resulting in higher creep rupture strength at high temperatures. Co promotes the {mu}-phase precipitation, but not M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type carbide at high temperatures. Nd and Ta are found to be effective for increasing creep rupture strength of the weld joints of the steel. This is considered to be achieved by NdN and TaN type nitrides which are more stable than Nb(C,N) and V(C,N) at elevated temperatures of up to 1200{degree}C. It is thus concluded that the developed steel can be used for main steam pipe and header materials in ultra super critical boilers up to 630{degree}C. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Weldability of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel under ultra power density fiber laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, H.; Kawahito, Y.; Katayama, S. [Osaka Univ., Joining and Welding research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogiwara, H.; Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems as it has been developed based on massive industrial experience of ferritic/martensitic steel replacing Mo and Nb of high chromium heat resistant martensitic steels (such as modified 9Cr-1Mo) with W and Ta, respectively. As one of RAFMS, F82H, which has been developed and studied in Japan, is designed with emphasis on high temperature property and weldablility, and was provided and evaluated in various countries as a part of the collaboration of IEA fusion materials development. Although F82H is the well perceived RAFM as ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) structural material, the weldability was proved though TIG, EB and YAG laser weld tests using only 15 and 25 mm thickness plate. In order to reduce the welding distortion, the residual stress and the area of the heat affected zone, it is necessary to decrease the total heat input under the welding. Recently, as a result of R and D efforts about the sources of laser beam, a high-power fiber laser beam has been developed as one of the desirable heat sources for high-speed and deep-penetration welding. Since the power density of the fiber laser beam is very large, it is possible to increase the welding speed more than 10 m/min. So, in this study, the weldability of 1.5 mm thickness F82H plate and pipe was examined by using a ultra power density fiber laser, in order to reveal the excellent weldability of F82H. As a basic study of the butt welding between 1.5 mm plate and 1.5 mm thickness pipe with 11 mm outer diameter, the focus position, the beam position and the laser power were varied using 25 mm square plate and 25 mm length pipe. Then, by using the fiber laser with 1.1 MW/mm{sup 2} peak power density under the appropriate welding condition obtained from the basic study, a full penetrated weld bead with narrow width was formed in the butt

  11. An Approach to Maximize Weld Penetration During TIG Welding of P91 Steel Plates by Utilizing Image Processing and Taguchi Orthogonal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Debnath, Tapas; Dey, Vidyut; Rai, Ram Naresh

    2016-06-01

    P-91 is modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Fabricated structures and components of P-91 has a lot of application in power and chemical industry owing to its excellent properties like high temperature stress corrosion resistance, less susceptibility to thermal fatigue at high operating temperatures. The weld quality and surface finish of fabricated structure of P91 is very good when welded by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). However, the process has its limitation regarding weld penetration. The success of a welding process lies in fabricating with such a combination of parameters that gives maximum weld penetration and minimum weld width. To carry out an investigation on the effect of the autogenous TIG welding parameters on weld penetration and weld width, bead-on-plate welds were carried on P91 plates of thickness 6 mm in accordance to a Taguchi L9 design. Welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate were the three control variables in the investigation. After autogenous (TIG) welding, the dimension of the weld width, weld penetration and weld area were successfully measured by an image analysis technique developed for the study. The maximum error for the measured dimensions of the weld width, penetration and area with the developed image analysis technique was only 2 % compared to the measurements of Leica-Q-Win-V3 software installed in optical microscope. The measurements with the developed software, unlike the measurements under a microscope, required least human intervention. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) confirms the significance of the selected parameters. Thereafter, Taguchi's method was successfully used to trade-off between maximum penetration and minimum weld width while keeping the weld area at a minimum.

  12. Modélisation du procédé de soudage hybride Arc / Laser par une approche level set application aux toles d'aciers de fortes épaisseurs A level-set approach for the modelling of hybrid arc/laser welding process application for high thickness steel sheets joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaison Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage hybride Arc/Laser est une solution aux assemblages difficiles de tôles de fortes épaisseurs. Ce procédé innovant associe deux sources de chaleur : un arc électrique produit par une torche MIG et une source laser placée en amont. Ce couplage améliore le rendement du procédé, la qualité du cordon et les déformations finales. La modélisation de ce procédé par une approche Level Set permet une prédiction du développement du cordon et du champ de température associé. La simulation du soudage multi-passes d'une nuance d'acier 18MnNiMo5 est présentée ici et les résultats sont comparés aux observations expérimentales. The hybrid arc/laser welding process has been developed in order to overcome the difficulties encountered for joining high thickness steel sheets. This innovative process gathers two heat sources: an arc source developed by a MIG torch and a pre-located laser source. This coupling improves the efficiency of the process, the weld bead quality and the final deformations. The Level-Set approach for the modelling of this process enables the prediction of the weld bead development and the temperature field evolution. The simulation of the multi-passes welding of a 18MnNiMo5 steel grade is detailed and the results are compared to the experimental observations.

  13. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  14. The Escherichia coli modE gene: effect of modE mutations on molybdate dependent modA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, P M; Chiang, R C; Gunsalus, R P

    1996-11-15

    The Escherichia coli modABCD operon, which encodes a high-affinity molybdate uptake system, is transcriptionally regulated in response to molybdate availability by ModE. Here we describe a highly effective enrichment protocol, applicable to any gene with a repressor role, and establish its application in the isolation of transposon mutations in modE. In addition we show that disruption of the ModE C-terminus abolishes derepression in the absence of molybdate, implying this region of ModE controls the repressor activity. Finally, a mutational analysis of a proposed molybdate binding motif indicates that this motif does not function in regulating the repressor activity of ModE.

  15. TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located on 11,000 feet of test runway, the TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site has in-ground catapults identical to those aboard carriers. This test site...

  16. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver inks were investigated for front contact metallization of solar cells. Generic synthesis procedures were developed for all metallo-organic compounds investigated. Silver neodecanoate was found to be the most suitable silver metallo-organic compound for use in thick film inks, but the quality of the inks was found to be highly dependent on its purity. Although neither the process nor inks were completely optimized for solar cell front contact metallization, they show great promise for this application.

  17. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  18. Mod/Resc Parsimony Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nor, Igor; Charlat, Sylvain; Engelstadter, Jan; Reuter, Max; Duron, Olivier; Sagot, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper a new computational biology problem that aims at understanding a mechanism that could potentially be used to genetically manipulate natural insect populations infected by inherited, intra-cellular parasitic bacteria. In this problem, that we denote by \\textsc{Mod/Resc Parsimony Inference}, we are given a boolean matrix and the goal is to find two other boolean matrices with a minimum number of columns such that an appropriately defined operation on these matrices gives back the input. We show that this is formally equivalent to the \\textsc{Bipartite Biclique Edge Cover} problem and derive some complexity results for our problem using this equivalence. We provide a new, fixed-parameter tractability approach for solving both that slightly improves upon a previously published algorithm for the \\textsc{Bipartite Biclique Edge Cover}. Finally, we present experimental results where we applied some of our techniques to a real-life data set.

  19. B61 Mod 12 Life Extension Program Tailkit Assembly (B61 Mod 12 LEP TKA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-468 B61 Mod 12 Life Extension Program Tailkit Assembly (B61 Mod 12 LEP TKA) As of FY 2017...President’s Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 10:38:20 UNCLASSIFIED B61 Mod 12 LEP TKA December 2015...Unit Cost B61 Mod 12 LEP TKA December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 10:38:20 UNCLASSIFIED 3 PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element PEO - Program

  20. Working papers cage Mod 2A definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, L.D.

    1969-01-30

    This report presents working papers for the Cage Mod 2A program. Cost data are presented for manpower, irradiation, nuclear fuels and targets, security, transportation, reactor start-up and reactor shutdown.

  1. Analysis list: mod(mdg4) [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mod(mdg4) Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/mod(md...g4).1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/mod(mdg4).5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/mod(mdg4).10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/mod(mdg4).

  2. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  3. Distribution of the type III DNA methyltransferases modA, modB and modD among Neisseria meningitidis genotypes: implications for gene regulation and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimee; Hill, Dorothea M C; Harrison, Odile B; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Jennings, Michael P; Maiden, Martin C J; Seib, Kate L

    2016-02-12

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific bacterium that varies in invasive potential. All meningococci are carried in the nasopharynx, and most genotypes are very infrequently associated with invasive meningococcal disease; however, those belonging to the 'hyperinvasive lineages' are more frequently associated with sepsis or meningitis. Genome content is highly conserved between carriage and disease isolates, and differential gene expression has been proposed as a major determinant of the hyperinvasive phenotype. Three phase variable DNA methyltransferases (ModA, ModB and ModD), which mediate epigenetic regulation of distinct phase variable regulons (phasevarions), have been identified in N. meningitidis. Each mod gene has distinct alleles, defined by their Mod DNA recognition domain, and these target and methylate different DNA sequences, thereby regulating distinct gene sets. Here 211 meningococcal carriage and >1,400 disease isolates were surveyed for the distribution of meningococcal mod alleles. While modA11-12 and modB1-2 were found in most isolates, rarer alleles (e.g., modA15, modB4, modD1-6) were specific to particular genotypes as defined by clonal complex. This suggests that phase variable Mod proteins may be associated with distinct phenotypes and hence invasive potential of N. meningitidis strains.

  4. Mod II engine and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The second-generation automotive Stirling engine, known as the Mod II, will be used to accomplish the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program objectives. Preliminary design has advanced to the point of procuring long-lead components to evaluate manufacturability. The heater head castings of the Hot Engine System (working gas cycle) are being procured, while the V-block casting of the Cold Engine/Drive system is being sectioned for evaluation. The technology required for these designs, and their impact on Mod II performance, have progressed to the design substantiation stage, and successful accomplishment of the program objectives is expected.

  5. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod-2 wind turbine is now in a 2-year research/experimental operations phase which offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid, and the environment. This paper addresses the field operations and research testing experienced at the Mod-2 Cluster Goodnoe Hills Research Test Site near Goldendale, WA. Field operation, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed as well as the role of the participating utility. Technical areas discussed pertain to system performance and loads. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects are also discussed.

  6. Udvikling af vaccine mod dyr tarmsygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    DTU Veterinærinstituttet arbejder på at udvikle en effektiv vaccine mod bakterien Lawsonia intracellularis, der forårsager den antibiotikakrævende tarmsygdom proliferativ enteritis. Bakterien driller i laboratoriet, så forskerne må finde innovative veje til vaccinen. Målet er, at vaccinens...

  7. Del Mod System. 1972 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Charlotte H.

    The overall aim of the Del Mod System is the improvement of science programs taught in Delaware schools; it is a working agreement among the University of Delaware, Delaware Technical and Community College, Delaware State College, State Department of Public Instruction, industry, and the schools. It was formed to bring about changes in science…

  8. The ModCom modular simulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillyer, C.; Bolte, J.; Evert, van F.K.; Lamaker, A.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation models of agro-ecological systems are typically written in a manner that precludes reusability of parts of the model without a significant amount of familiarity with and rewriting of existing code. Similarly, replacing a part of a model with a functionally equivalent part from another mod

  9. Kyllinger har effektivt immunforsvar mod herpes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Forskere ved Københavns Universitet, Fakultet for Biovidenskab har studeret kyllingens MHC molekyler og kan derigennem forklare hvorfor en særlig stamme indenfor denne art er modstandsdygtige mod en særlig herpesvirus. Udgivelsesdato: 18. januar 2008...

  10. Printemps de la modélisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La formalisation, mathématique ou informatique, était d'abord comprise comme une contrainte qui oblige à expliciter une représentation de ce que l'on étudie. Cela aussi bien par les modélisateurs convaincus et besogneux, que par ceux qui, récupérant au passage le prestige du vocable, ont baptisé "modèles" d'incertaines représentations à peine ou pas du tout formalisées. Aujourd'hui, la formalisation peut être aussi une liberté. Les nouvelles représentations par des objets informatiques ont ac...

  11. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  12. Overview of RFX-mod results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Apolloni, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Annibaldi, S. V.; Antoni, V.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Brotankova, J.; Buffa, A.; Buratti, P.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavinato, M.; Chapman, B. E.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S.; DeLorenzi, A.; DeMasi, G.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Ferro, A.; Franz, P.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Grando, L.; Guazzotto, L.; Guo, S. C.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lorenzini, R.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Martines, E.; McCollam, K.; Menmuir, S.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Novello, L.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, L.; Pizzimenti, A.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Reusch, J. A.; Rostagni, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sarff, J. S.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spizzo, G.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Toigo, V.; Valisa, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; White, R. B.; Yadikin, D.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zohm, H.; Zuin, M.

    2009-10-01

    With the exploration of the MA plasma current regime in up to 0.5 s long discharges, RFX-mod has opened new and very promising perspectives for the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration, and has made significant progress in understanding and improving confinement and in controlling plasma stability. A big leap with respect to previous knowledge and expectations on RFP physics and performance has been made by RFX-mod since the last 2006 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. A new self-organized helical equilibrium has been experimentally achieved (the Single Helical Axis—SHAx—state), which is the preferred state at high current. Strong core electron transport barriers characterize this regime, with electron temperature gradients comparable to those achieved in tokamaks, and by a factor of 4 improvement in confinement time with respect to the standard RFP. RFX-mod is also providing leading edge results on real-time feedback control of MHD instabilities, of general interest for the fusion community.

  13. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  14. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  15. A Description of Del Mod and Its Final Evaluation, Final Report, Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Charlotte H.; Bolig, John R.

    This monograph presents an overview of five Del Mod System final reports, comments by the project director, financial structure of the Del Mod System, and descriptions of Del Mod Projects. The Del Mod System was concerned with changing the science and mathematics education programs in the state of Delaware. Between 1970 and 1976, Del Mod conducted…

  16. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  17. Steel Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Tarnished Hebei Iron and Steel Group regains chance to shine A lthough it is too early to tell whether the steel-making sector has emerged [from its gloom, a big divide is openling between China’s large and small producers. While most of the marginal players are still reeling from a market contagion, steel titans like the Shanghai-based Baosteel

  18. Orbit Representations from Linear mod 1 Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Correia Ramos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We show that every point $x_0in [0,1]$ carries a representationof a $C^*$-algebra that encodes the orbit structure of thelinear mod 1 interval map $f_{eta,alpha}(x=eta x +alpha$. Such $C^*$-algebra is generated by partial isometries arising from the subintervals of monotonicity of the underlying map $f_{eta,alpha}$. Then we prove that such representation is irreducible. Moreover two such of representations are unitarily equivalent if and only if the points belong to the same generalized orbit, for every $alphain [0,1[$ and $etageq 1$.

  19. Content and Specifications for the Mod 1 1970 Spelling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patricia A.

    This paper briefly describes the organization and content of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 1 Spelling Program and its relation to the SWRL Reading Program. The Mod 1 Spelling Program includes 190 words and consists of 22 lessons. Eighteen of the 22 lessons are based on review lists which are composed individually for each…

  20. Research and Evaluation Within the Del Mod System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolig, John R.

    Described is the Del Mod System, its inception, the fundings associated with it, and its objectives. A number of projects have already been completed and implemented. This monograph describes the evaluations of such projects and of the Del Mod systems-approach to science education. The area of evaluation and the method of data collection (with…

  1. Functional characterization of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum modA and modB genes involved in molybdenum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María J; Tresierra-Ayala, Alvaro; Talbi, Chouhra; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2006-01-01

    A modABC gene cluster that encodes an ABC-type, high-affinity molybdate transporter from Bradyrhizobium japonicum has been isolated and characterized. B. japonicum modA and modB mutant strains were unable to grow aerobically or anaerobically with nitrate as nitrogen source or as respiratory substrate, respectively, and lacked nitrate reductase activity. The nitrogen-fixing ability of the mod mutants in symbiotic association with soybean plants grown in a Mo-deficient mineral solution was severely impaired. Addition of molybdate to the bacterial growth medium or to the plant mineral solution fully restored the wild-type phenotype. Because the amount of molybdate required for suppression of the mutant phenotype either under free-living or under symbiotic conditions was dependent on sulphate concentration, it is likely that a sulphate transporter is also involved in Mo uptake in B. japonicum. The promoter region of the modABC genes has been characterized by primer extension. Reverse transcription and expression of a transcriptional fusion, P(modA)-lacZ, was detected only in a B. japonicum modA mutant grown in a medium without molybdate supplementation. These findings indicate that transcription of the B. japonicum modABC genes is repressed by molybdate.

  2. Molybdate binding by ModA, the periplasmic component of the Escherichia coli mod molybdate transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperial, J; Hadi, M; Amy, N K

    1998-03-13

    ModA, the periplasmic-binding protein of the Escherichia coli mod transport system was overexpressed and purified. Binding of molybdate and tungstate to ModA was found to modify the UV absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the protein. Titration of these changes showed that ModA binds molybdate and tungstate in a 1:1 molar ratio. ModA showed an intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum attributable to its three tryptophanyl residues. Molybdate binding caused a conformational change in the protein characterized by: (i) a shift of tryptophanyl groups to a more hydrophobic environment; (ii) a quenching (at pH 5.0) or enhancement (at pH 7.8) of fluorescence; and (iii) a higher availability of tryptophanyl groups to the polar quencher acrylamide. The tight binding of molybdate did not allow an accurate estimation of the binding constants by these indirect methods. An isotopic binding method with 99MoO42- was used for accurate determination of KD (20 nM) and stoichiometry (1:1 molar ratio). ModA bound tungstate with approximately the same affinity, but did not bind sulfate or phosphate. These KDs are 150- to 250-fold lower than those previously reported, and compatible with the high molybdate transport affinity of the mod system. The affinity of ModA for molybdate was also determined in vivo and found to be similar to that determined in vitro. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. RELAP5/MOD2 models and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Larson, J.R.; Johnson, R.W.; Larson, T.K.; Miller, C.S.; Streit, J.E.; Hanson, R.G.; Kiser, D.M.

    1988-08-01

    A review of the RELAP5/MOD2 computer code has been performed to assess the basis for the models and correlations comprising the code. The review has included verification of the original data base, including thermodynamic, thermal-hydraulic, and geothermal conditions; simplifying assumptions in implementation or application; and accuracy of implementation compared to documented descriptions of each of the models. An effort has been made to provide the reader with an understanding of what is in the code and why it is there and to provide enough information that an analyst can assess the impact of the correlation or model on the ability of the code to represent the physics of a reactor transient. Where assessment of the implemented versions of the models or correlations has been accomplished and published, the assessment results have been included.

  4. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...

  5. Overexpression, purification, and partial characterization of ADP-ribosyltransferases modA and modB of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, B; Depping, R; Rüger, W

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence that ADP-ribosylation of host proteins is an important means to regulate gene expression of bacteriophage T4. Surprisingly, this phage codes for three different ADP-ribosyltransferases, gene products Alt, ModA, and ModB, modifying partially overlapping sets of host proteins. While gene product Alt already has been isolated as a recombinant protein and its action on host RNA polymerases and transcription regulation have been studied, the nucleotide sequences of the two mod genes was published only recently. Their mode of action in the course of the infection cycle and the consequences of the ADP-ribosylations catalyzed by these enzymes remain to be investigated. Here we describe the cloning of the genes, the overexpression, purification, and partial characterization of ADP-ribosyltransferases ModA and ModB. Both proteins seem to act independently, and the ADP-ribosyl moieties are transferred to different sets of host proteins. While gene product ModA, similarly to the Alt protein, acts also on the alpha-subunit of host RNA polymerase, the ModB activity serves another set of proteins, one of which was identified as the S1 protein associated with the 30S subunit of the E. coli ribosomes.

  6. The Del Mod System: An External Evaluation, Final Report, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Donald W.; And Others

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This volume deals with the evaluation of the Del Mod System. Included are the following: (1) Del Mod Responsive Evaluation; (2) Evaluation Outcomes; (3) Validation of the Del Mod Responsive Evaluation Process; and (4) Conclusions. Appendices include: (A)…

  7. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  8. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  9. Compatibility tests on steels in molten lead and lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, C. E-mail: concetta@netbra.brasimone.enea.it; Benamati, G.; Martini, C.; Palombarini, G

    2001-07-01

    The compatibility of steels with liquid lead and liquid lead-bismuth is a critical issue for the development of accelerator-driven system (ADS). In this work the results of a set of preliminary tests carried out in stagnant molten lead at 737 K and in lead-bismuth at 573, 673 and 749 K are summarised. The tests were conducted for 700, 1200, 1500 and 5000 h. Three steels were tested: two martensitic steels (mod. F82H and MANET II) and one austenitic steel (AISI 316L). The martensitic steels underwent oxidation phenomena at the higher testing temperature, due to oxygen dissolved in the melts. At a lower test temperature (573 K) and higher exposure time (5000 h) the oxidation rate of the martensitic steel seems to be lower and the developed oxide layer protective against liquid metal corrosion. The austenitic steel, in turn, exhibited an acceptable resistance to corrosion-oxidation under the test conditions.

  10. On Using "Mods" and "Minis" to Individualize Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Aaron B.

    1974-01-01

    Minis (mini-courses) and mods (periods of time of varying length devoted to the development of language skills), are two innovations which have been incorporated into the language program at Gustavus Adolphus College, Minnesota. (DD)

  11. Vaccine mod halthed testes i besætning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll

    2012-01-01

    Ny vaccine mod ledbetændelse forårsaget af Mycoplasma hyosynoviae testes nu hos 200 svin i en problembesætning. Håbet er færre halte svin og en nedbringelse af antibiotikaforbruget.......Ny vaccine mod ledbetændelse forårsaget af Mycoplasma hyosynoviae testes nu hos 200 svin i en problembesætning. Håbet er færre halte svin og en nedbringelse af antibiotikaforbruget....

  12. On HMI's Mod-L Sequence: Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Baldner, Charles; Bogart, R. S.; Bush, R.; Couvidat, S.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Norton, Aimee Ann; Scherrer, Philip H.; Schou, Jesper

    2016-05-01

    HMI Mod-L sequence can produce full Stokes parameters at a cadence of 90 seconds by combining filtergrams from both cameras, the front camera and the side camera. Within the 90-second, the front camera takes two sets of Left and Right Circular Polarizations (LCP and RCP) at 6 wavelengths; the side camera takes one set of Linear Polarizations (I+/-Q and I+/-U) at 6 wavelengths. By combining two cameras, one can obtain full Stokes parameters of [I,Q,U,V] at 6 wavelengths in 90 seconds. In norminal Mod-C sequence that HMI currently uses, the front camera takes LCP and RCP at a cadence of 45 seconds, while the side camera takes observation of the full Stokes at a cadence of 135 seconds. Mod-L should be better than Mod-C for providing vector magnetic field data because (1) Mod-L increases cadence of full Stokes observation, which leads to higher temporal resolution of vector magnetic field measurement; (2) decreases noise in vector magnetic field data because it uses more filtergrams to produce [I,Q,U,V]. There are two potential issues in Mod-L that need to be addressed: (1) scaling intensity of the two cameras’ filtergrams; and (2) if current polarization calibration model, which is built for each camera separately, works for the combined data from both cameras. This presentation will address these questions, and further place a discussion here.

  13. High current regimes in RFX-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valisa, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Buratti, P.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Dal Bello, S.; Martin, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Spolaore, M.; Zanca, P.; Zanotto, L.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Cavinato, M.; Chitarin, G.; DeLorenzi, A.; DeMasi, G.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Franz, P.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Grando, L.; Guazzotto, L.; Guo, S. C.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Martines, E.; McCollam, K.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Novello, L.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piron, L.; Pizzimenti, A.; Piovesan, P.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Puiatti, M. E.; Rostagni, G.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Toigo, V.; Vianello, N.; Yadikin, D.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zilli, E.; Zuin, M.

    2008-12-01

    Optimization of machine operation, including plasma position control, density control and especially feedback control on multiple magnetohydrodynamic modes, has led RFX-mod to operate reliably at 1.5 MA, the highest current ever achieved on a reversed field pinch (RFP). At high current and low density the magnetic topology spontaneously self-organizes in an Ohmical helical symmetry, with the new magnetic axis helically twisting around the geometrical axis of the torus. The separatrix of the island disappears leaving a wide and symmetric thermal structure with large gradients in the electron temperature profile. The new topology still displays an intermittent nature but its overall presence has reached 85% of the current flat-top period. The large gradients in the electron temperature profile appear to be marginal for the destabilization of ion temperature gradient modes on the assumption that ions and electrons have the same gradients. There are indications that higher currents could provide the conditions under which to prove the existence of a true helical equilibrium as the standard RFP configuration.

  14. Specificity of the ModA11, ModA12 and ModD1 epigenetic regulator N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases of Neisseria meningitidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Kate L.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; Tan, Aimee; Scott, Adeana L.; Kumar, Ritesh; Power, Peter M.; Chen, Li-Tzu; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Luyten, Yvette A.; Morgan, Richard D.; Roberts, Richard J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Rao, Desirazu N.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Phase variation (random ON/OFF switching) of gene expression is a common feature of host-adapted pathogenic bacteria. Phase variably expressed N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alter global methylation patterns resulting in changes in gene expression. These systems constitute phase variable regulons called phasevarions. Neisseria meningitidis phasevarions regulate genes including virulence factors and vaccine candidates, and alter phenotypes including antibiotic resistance. The target site recognized by these Type III N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases is not known. Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis was used to identify the recognition site for three key N. meningitidis methyltransferases: ModA11 (exemplified by M.NmeMC58I) (5′-CGYm6AG-3′), ModA12 (exemplified by M.Nme77I, M.Nme18I and M.Nme579II) (5′-ACm6ACC-3′) and ModD1 (exemplified by M.Nme579I) (5′-CCm6AGC-3′). Restriction inhibition assays and mutagenesis confirmed the SMRT methylome analysis. The ModA11 site is complex and atypical and is dependent on the type of pyrimidine at the central position, in combination with the bases flanking the core recognition sequence 5′-CGYm6AG-3′. The observed efficiency of methylation in the modA11 strain (MC58) genome ranged from 4.6% at 5′-GCGCm6AGG-3′ sites, to 100% at 5′-ACGTm6AGG-3′ sites. Analysis of the distribution of modified sites in the respective genomes shows many cases of association with intergenic regions of genes with altered expression due to phasevarion switching. PMID:25845594

  15. Comparaison de deux modèles de comportement viscoplastique à variables internes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, E.; Delobelle, P.

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this paper is about the comparison between two unified models with internal variables which have been established with 17-12MoSPH austenitic stainless steel experimental results. One is developed at the National Office of Aerospatial Research and Studies, the other, at the Applied Mechanical Laboratory of Besançon. The study proved their validity when applicated to a well known experimental loadings at high temperature, 500-600 °C. The two models report correctly the phenomena corresponding to classical loadings like monotonic traction, creep and cyclic hardening. However, there are important differences about transient creep and cyclic hardening under stress control. In the present state of the models, the progressive strain under uni or bidirectional loading (1D and 2D ratchet) is strongly overestimated. However, it is shown that it is possible to correctly describe the two types of progressive strain after taking into account a few modifications in the definition of the evolutionary laws for the tensorial variables of kinematical hardenings. Finally, the comparison does not allow to prefer one of the two models. Il s'agit dans cet article de comparer deux modèles viscoplastiques unifiés à variables internes établis à partir de résultats expérimentaux concernant l'acier austénitique inoxydable 17-12MoSPH ; l'un développé à l'Office National d'Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales, l'autre au Laboratoire de Mécanique Appliquée de Besançon. L'étude a permis la validation des deux modèles par rapport à une base de données expérimentales aux températures élevées, 550 et 600 °C. Les deux modèles traduisent correctement les phénomènes inhérents à des chargements, classiques de traction monotone, fluage et d'écrouissage cyclique à déformation imposée. Par contre, on note des différences importantes en ce qui concerne l'hésitation au fluage et les essais cycliques à contrainte imposée. Dans leur version initiale les deux mod

  16. NetMOD Version 2.0 Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasonic networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This document describes the parameters that are used to configure the NetMOD tool and the input and output parameters that make up the simulation definitions.

  17. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet......Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet...

  18. MOD: An In-Situ Organic Detector for the MSR 2003 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; LaBaw, C. C.; Serviss, O. E.

    2000-01-01

    Looking for organic compounds that are essential for biochemistry or indicative of extraterrestrial organic influx is the primary goal of MOD (Mars Organic Detector). MOD can also quantify adsorbed and chemisorbed water and evolved carbon dioxide.

  19. Conceptual design of the 7 megawatt Mod-5B wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Similar to MOD-2, the MOD-5B wind turbine generator system is designed for the sole purpose of providing electrical power for distribution by a major utility network. The objectives of the MOD-2 and MOD-5B programs are essentially identical with one important exception; the cost-of-electricity (COE) target is reduced from 4 cent/Kwhr on MOD-2 to 3 cent/Kwhr on MOD-5B, based on mid 1977 dollars and large quantity production. The MOD-5B concept studies and eventual concept selection confirmed that the program COE targets could not only be achieved but substantially bettered. Starting from the established MOD-2 technology as a base, this achievement resulted from a combination of concept changes, size changes, and design refinements. The result of this effort is a wind turbine system that can compete with conventional power generation over significant geographical areas, increasing commercial market potential by an order of magnitude.

  20. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  1. Standard Tools for Measuring Post Implementation TECH MOD (Technology Modernization) Cost Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Another con- tractor developed a formula based on the Cost Performance Report ( CPR ) which provides unit cost savings. The final contractor measured...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INITIATIVES ........... 2 C. TECH MOD HISTORY ............ ...... ......... 3 D. THE TECH MOD PROCESS ........... ............ 4...Guide 4 Oct 1984). C. TECH MOD HISTORY The first Tech Mod planning started in late 1970 with the F-16 program and the need to improve the government

  2. Investigating chemical and microstructural evolution at dissimilar metal welds

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, John William Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) are widely used in steam vessels in thermal power stations to join low-temperature alloys, such as steels, to high temperature alloys, such as nickel-based alloys. This provides a cost-effective manufacturing solution. However, there is a history of DMWs failing due to creep in service environments. Many investigations have been performed on weld systems and failures in the traditional 2.25Cr-1Mo (P22) steels, but fewer have been performed on newer 9Cr-1Mo steels...

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of the Del Mod System's Field Agent Component, Final Report, Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golts, Uldis R.

    This monograph describes the field agent of the Delaware Del Mod System. The following sections are included in the report: (1) The Duties and Activities of the Del Mod System Field Agents; (2) The Field Agents' Mode of Operation; (3) The Conduct of Projects; (4) The Hiring and Training of Del Mod Field Agents; (5) The Administration of Del Mod…

  4. Cause for Concern or Moral Panic? The Prospects of the Swedish Mods in Retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Susanne; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish mods of the 1960s frightened the parental generation like few other youth cultures. Was the concern justified--was the mod culture a hotbed of social maladjustment? Or would the mods come to live conventional lives to the same extent as their peers? We present analyses from a large longitudinal study allowing for a follow-up of…

  5. A mod 2 index theorem for the twisted Signature operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟平

    1999-01-01

    A mod 2 index theorem for the twisted Signature operator on 4q+1 dimensional manifolds is established. This result generalizes a result of Farber and Turaev, which was proved for the case of orthogonal flat bundles, to arbitrary real vector bundles. It also provides an analytic interpretation of the sign of the Poincar(?)-Reidemeister scalar product defined by Farber and Turaev.

  6. NetMOD Version 2.0 Mathematical Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chael, Eric P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasonic networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probabilities of signal detection at each station and event detection across the network of stations can be computed given a detection threshold. The purpose of this document is to clearly and comprehensively present the mathematical framework used by NetMOD, the software package developed by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the monitoring capability of ground-based sensor networks. Many of the NetMOD equations used for simulations are inherited from the NetSim network capability assessment package developed in the late 1980s by SAIC (Sereno et al., 1990).

  7. Power oscillation of the Mod-0 wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Mod-0 power has noise components with varying frequency patterns. Magnitudes reach more than forty percent power at the frequency of twice per rotor revolution. Analysis of a simple torsional model of the power train predicts less than half the observed magnitude and does not explain the shifting frequencies of the noise patterns.

  8. MOD control center automated information systems security evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rich

    1991-01-01

    The role of the technology infusion process in future Control Center Automated Information Systems (AIS) is highlighted. The following subject areas are presented in the form of the viewgraphs: goals, background, threat, MOD's AISS program, TQM, SDLC integration, payback, future challenges, and bottom line.

  9. MOD: An Organic Detector for the Future Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Grunthaner, F.; Glavin, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Organic Detector (MOD) is designed to assess whether organic compounds, possibly associated with life, are present in Martian rock and soil samples. MOD has a detection limit that is at least two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the Viking GCMS. MOD is focused on detecting amino acids, amines and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Amino acids play an essential role in biochemistry on Earth and PAH are widespread throughout the universe and can provide an indication of the delivery of meteoritic organic material to Mars. The advantage of MOD is the absence of wet chemistry and its simple and robust design. The sample will be extracted from the mineral matrix (0.1 - 1 g of rock-powder) using sublimation and analyzed with a fluorescence detector. The isolation method is based on the fact that amino acids and PAH are volatile at temperatures greater than 150C. The fluorescence detection scheme is based on UV excitation with LED's, optical filters, PrN diode photon detector and a sample calibration reservoir. Fluorescamine is used as a fluorescing reagent for amino acids and amines, while PAH are naturally fluorescent. There is no sample preparation required and the turnaround time for a single analysis is on the order of minutes.

  10. Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, M.; Dal Bello, S.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Antoni, V.; Auriemma, F.; Barbisan, M.; Barbui, T.; Baruzzo, M.; Belli, F.; Bettini, P.; Bigi, M.; Bilel, R.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Bustreo, C.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cester, D.; Chacon, L.; Chitarin, G.; Cooper, W. A.; Cordaro, L.; Dalla Palma, M.; Deambrosis, S.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; De Masi, G.; Dong, J. Q.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Felici, F.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Gaio, E.; Ghezzi, F.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Gonzalez, W. A.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Hirshman, S. P.; Innocente, P.; Jackson, J. L.; Kiyama, S.; Komm, M.; Kudlacek, O.; Laguardia, L.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, S. F.; Liu, Y. Q.; López-Bruna, D.; Lorenzini, R.; Luce, T. C.; Luchetta, A.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marchiori, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martin, P.; Martines, E.; Martini, S.; Mazzitelli, G.; McCormack, O.; Miorin, E.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Narushima, Y.; Okabayashi, M.; Paccagnella, R.; Patel, N.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pilan, N.; Pigatto, L.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Predebon, I.; Pucella, G.; Rea, C.; Recchia, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Rostagni, G.; Ruset, C.; Sajò-Bohus, L.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Schmitz, O.; Schneider, W.; Siragusa, M.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D. A.; Spizzo, G.; Stevanato, L.; Suzuki, Y.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Tudisco, O.; Urso, G.; Valente, M.; Valisa, M.; Vallar, M.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; Vincenzi, P.; Visonà, N.; White, R. B.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Xu, X. Y.; Yanovskiy, V.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zilli, E.

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the main recent results of the RFX-mod fusion science activity. The RFX-mod device is characterized by a unique flexibility in terms of accessible magnetic configurations. Axisymmetric and helically shaped reversed-field pinch equilibria have been studied, along with tokamak plasmas in a wide range of q(a) regimes (spanning from 4 down to 1.2 values). The full range of magnetic configurations in between the two, the so-called ultra-low q ones, has been explored, with the aim of studying specific physical issues common to all equilibria, such as, for example, the density limit phenomenon. The powerful RFX-mod feedback control system has been exploited for MHD control, which allowed us to extend the range of experimental parameters, as well as to induce specific magnetic perturbations for the study of 3D effects. In particular, transport, edge and isotope effects in 3D equilibria have been investigated, along with runaway mitigations through induced magnetic perturbations. The first transitions to an improved confinement scenario in circular and D-shaped tokamak plasmas have been obtained thanks to an active modification of the edge electric field through a polarized electrode. The experiments are supported by intense modeling with 3D MHD, gyrokinetic, guiding center and transport codes. Proposed modifications to the RFX-mod device, which will enable further contributions to the solution of key issues in the roadmap to ITER and DEMO, are also briefly presented.

  12. Upgrade Plans for the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, R.; Garnier, D.; Irby, J.; Brower, D. L.; Xu, P.; Bergerson, W. F.; Ding, W. X.; Guttenfelder, W.; Marmar, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The 3-chord FIR polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout similar to that proposed for ITER. The details of this system and some results from the C-Mod 2012 campaign will be presented, along with the design of the upgrade that is now being implemented. The new system will provide horizontal chords near the mid-plane and low loss etalon windows to improve both the signal level and our ability to study magnetic fluctuations. The laser table has been relocated from the C-Mod cell to a shielded and climate controlled location, and improvements have been made to its acoustic isolation. New collimation optics, and a beam-line needed to convey the FIR beams into the tokamak port have been designed. Improvements to the detector electronics will also be discussed, as will initial testing of the laser system and reference detectors during C-Mod operation. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  13. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Kiev, 1993. 7. High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Inernational, Tokyo...the Corrosion of Iron and Steels,” High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

  14. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 3. 1973-1974 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolig, John R.

    A synopsis of the 1973-74 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented. The activities described were conducted by the University of Delaware, Delaware State College, Delaware Technical and Community College, and the Department of Public Instruction. Activities of field agents, several local district projects, and individual teacher grants…

  15. Characterization of microstructures in metallic materials using static and dynamic acoustic signal processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2006-07-01

    Stainless steels are used in the industrial components of many chemical, petrochemical, process and nuclear industries. The microstructural characteristics of these materials can be determined by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as ultrasonic and acoustic emissions. Ultrasonic techniques are used primarily for detecting defects and static changes in materials, while acoustic emission techniques (AET) reveal the dynamic changes occurring in materials. This paper focused on the use of ultrasonic techniques to detect welding defects in austenitic stainless steel and maraging steel. The study addressed issues facing the use of ultrasonic techniques based on time and frequency domain signal analysis for characterizing changes in the microstructure of type 316 stainless steel and 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel; thermomechanical processing of 15Cr-15Ni-2.3Mo-titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (alloy D9); and, the isothermal annealing behaviour of alloy D9. Ultrasonic spectral analysis based methodologies were also developed for grain size measurement in AISI type 316 stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel. The feasibility of using acoustic emission techniques for detecting fatigue crack growth in 316 stainless steel was also discussed along with the use of AET for on-line monitoring of the aluminium alloy forging process. This study revealed the possibility of finding viable solutions for characterizing conventional processes and components, based on careful selection of parameters of the techniques and appropriate signal analysis methods. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Apo and ligand-bound structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sum; Giuroiu, Iulia; Chernishof, Irina; Sawaya, Michael R; Chiang, Janet; Gunsalus, Robert P; Arbing, Mark A; Perry, L Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The trace-element oxyanion molybdate, which is required for the growth of many bacterial and archaeal species, is transported into the cell by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily uptake system called ModABC. ModABC consists of the ModA periplasmic solute-binding protein, the integral membrane-transport protein ModB and the ATP-binding and hydrolysis cassette protein ModC. In this study, X-ray crystal structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans (MaModA) have been determined in the apoprotein conformation at 1.95 and 1.69 A resolution and in the molybdate-bound conformation at 2.25 and 2.45 A resolution. The overall domain structure of MaModA is similar to other ModA proteins in that it has a bilobal structure in which two mixed alpha/beta domains are linked by a hinge region. The apo MaModA is the first unliganded archaeal ModA structure to be determined: it exhibits a deep cleft between the two domains and confirms that upon binding ligand one domain is rotated towards the other by a hinge-bending motion, which is consistent with the 'Venus flytrap' model seen for bacterial-type periplasmic binding proteins. In contrast to the bacterial ModA structures, which have tetrahedral coordination of their metal substrates, molybdate-bound MaModA employs octahedral coordination of its substrate like other archaeal ModA proteins.

  17. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the Mod-OA wind turbine test facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an eighteen month period (nearly 8,000 hr) before replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades was taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA-Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit.

  18. Vold mod førskolebørn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene; Lindstrøm, Maia; Korzen, Sara

    Denne rapport handler om praksis og barrierer for opsporing af og underretning om vold mod førskolebørn. Rapporten er baseret på 22 kvalitative interviews med fagfolk inden for dagpasning, sundhedsvæsen og det sociale system. Undersøgelsen viser bl.a., at en del af fagfolkene ofte tøver med...... kan være usikre på, hvad det overhovedet vil sige at lave en underretning. Dette er delrapport 3 af 3 i et større projekt om vold mod børn og unge i Danmark. Resultaterne fra de tre delrapporter sammenfattes i en afsluttende hovedrapport. Projektet er bestilt og finansieret af Socialministeriet....

  19. Plasma biomarkers of SIRS and MODS associated with canine babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V

    2016-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance PMODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program Mod I Stirling engine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simetkosky, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Mod I 4-cylinder automotive Stirling engine is discussed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, photographs, and graphs and tables of preliminary test data. The engine and its drive, cold-engine, hot-engine, external-heat, air/fuel, power-control, electronic-control, and auxiliary systems are characterized. Performance results from a total of 1900 h of tests on 4 prototype engines include average maximum efficiency (at 2000 rpm) 34.5 percent and maximum output power 54.4 kW. The modifications introduced in an upgraded version of the Mod I are explained; this engine has maximum efficiency 40.4 percent and maximum power output 69.2 kW.

  1. Helical flow in RFX-mod tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, L.; Zaniol, B.; Bonfiglio, D.; Carraro, L.; Kirk, A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, R.; Piron, C.; Piovesan, P.; Zuin, M.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the first evidence of helical flow in RFX-mod q(a)  Jardin et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 215001). Among them, the 3D fully non-linear PIXIE3D has been used to calculate synthetic flow measurements, using a 2D flow modelling code. Inputs to the code are the PIXIE3D flow maps, the ion emission profiles as calculated by a 1D collisional radiative impurity transport code (Carraro et al 2000 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 731) and a synthetic diagnostic with the same geometry installed in RFX-mod. Good agreement between the synthetic and the experimental flow behaviour has been obtained, confirming that the flow oscillations observed with the associated convective cells are a signature of helical flow.

  2. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Mod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J L; LaBombard, B; Brunner, D; Payne, J; Wurden, G A

    2010-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  3. Mod 1 wind turbine generator failure modes and effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was directed primarily at identifying those critical failure modes that would be hazardous to life or would result in major damage to the system. Each subsystem was approached from the top down, and broken down to successive lower levels where it appeared that the criticality of the failure mode warranted more detail analysis. The results were reviewed by specialists from outside the Mod 1 program, and corrective action taken wherever recommended.

  4. C-Mod Collaboration Informal Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth W. Gentle

    2007-12-31

    The aims of the collaboration have not changed. A specific list of tasks was agreed upon during the Fall of 2006 in preparation for the 2007 C-Mod campaign by Earl Marmar, Head of the Alcator Project, Kenneth Gentle, Principal Investigator, and William Rowan, Collaboration Coordinator with the facilitation of Adam Rosenberg (DOE grant monitor for the collaboration). The activities follow the list of tasks and are discussed in this progress report.

  5. Proces frem mod bæredygtig trafik i marken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Noe, Egon

    2015-01-01

    RECARE er navnet på et stort EU-projekt, der løber fra november 2013 til november 2018 med deltagelse af i alt 18 lande (www.recare-pro-ject.eu). Formålet er at minimere skader fra en række trusler mod den dyrkede jord, herunder vanderosion, saltdannelse, jordpakning, ørken-dannelse, oversvømmels...

  6. Multiple quark scattering and the changing slope of d sigma /dt in the small mod t mod region (for pp scattering)

    CERN Document Server

    Klenk, K F

    1973-01-01

    The changing slope of d sigma /dt at small mod t mod observed in the CERN-ISR p-p scattering data can be reproduced in the Glauber multiple quark scattering model by a quark-quark scattering amplitude that is an undamped rapidly oscillating function of momentum transferred to the quark. (9 refs).

  7. Embrittlement behavior of neutron irradiated RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)]. E-mail: ermile.gaganidze@imf.fzk.de; Schneider, H.-C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dafferner, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2007-08-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 for different heat treatment conditions have been investigated. The irradiation to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 {sup o}C) was carried out in the Petten High Flux Reactor in the framework of the HFR Phase-IIb (SPICE) irradiation project. Several reference RAFM steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X) and MANET-I were also irradiated at selected temperatures. The embrittlement behavior and hardening were investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. The neutron irradiation induced embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 are comparable to those of investigated reference steels, being mostly pronounced for 250 {sup o}C and 300 {sup o}C irradiation temperatures. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at higher austenization temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behavior at irradiation temperatures of 250 {sup o}C and 350 {sup o}C.

  8. Embrittlement behavior of neutron irradiated RAFM steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaganidze, E.; Schneider, H.-C.; Dafferner, B.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 for different heat treatment conditions have been investigated. The irradiation to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 °C) was carried out in the Petten High Flux Reactor in the framework of the HFR Phase-IIb (SPICE) irradiation project. Several reference RAFM steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X) and MANET-I were also irradiated at selected temperatures. The embrittlement behavior and hardening were investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. The neutron irradiation induced embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 are comparable to those of investigated reference steels, being mostly pronounced for 250 °C and 300 °C irradiation temperatures. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at higher austenization temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behavior at irradiation temperatures of 250 °C and 350 °C.

  9. Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Puiatti, M. E.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Alonso, J. A.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Avino, F.; Barbalace, A.; Barbisan, M.; Barbui, T.; Barison, S.; Barp, M.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bigi, M.; Bilel, R.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Bustreo, C.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carralero, D.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Chacon, L.; Chapman, B.; Chitarin, G.; Ciaccio, G.; Cooper, W. A.; Dal Bello, S.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; Delzanno, G. L.; De Masi, G.; De Muri, M.; Dong, J. Q.; Escande, D. F.; Fantini, F.; Fasoli, A.; Fassina, A.; Fellin, F.; Ferro, A.; Fiameni, S.; Finn, J. M.; Finotti, C.; Fiorentin, A.; Fonnesu, N.; Framarin, J.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno, I.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Ghezzi, F.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Gonzales, W. A.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Hidalgo, C.; Hirano, Y.; Hirshman, S. P.; Ide, S.; In, Y.; Innocente, P.; Jackson, G. L.; Kiyama, S.; Liu, S. F.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lòpez Bruna, D.; Lorenzini, R.; Luce, T. C.; Luchetta, A.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marchiori, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Martines, E.; Mazzitelli, G.; McCollam, K.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Munaretto, S.; Novello, L.; Okabayashi, M.; Olofsson, E.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pesce, A.; Pilan, N.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Recchia, M.; Rigato, V.; Rizzolo, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rostagni, G.; Ruzzon, A.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Sartori, E.; Sattin, F.; Scaggion, A.; Scarin, P.; Schneider, W.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D. A.; Spizzo, G.; Takechi, M.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Theiler, C.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, G. L.; Valente, M.; Valisa, M.; Veltri, P.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; Wang, Z. R.; White, R. B.; Xu, X. Y.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the highlights of the RFX-mod fusion science programme since the last 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The RFX-mod fusion science programme focused on two main goals: exploring the fusion potential of the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration and contributing to the solution of key science and technology problems in the roadmap to ITER. Active control of several plasma parameters has been a key tool in this endeavour. New upgrades on the system for active control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability are underway and will be presented in this paper. Unique among the existing fusion devices, RFX-mod has been operated both as an RFP and as a tokamak. The latter operation has allowed the exploration of edge safety factor qedge < 2 with active control of MHD stability and studies concerning basic energy and flow transport mechanisms. Strong interaction has continued with the stellarator community in particular on the physics of helical states and on three-dimensional codes.

  10. Recueil de modèles aléatoires

    CERN Document Server

    Chafai, Djalil

    2016-01-01

    Ce recueil puise sa source dans les cours de master de mathématiques appliquées et de préparation à l’épreuve de modélisation de l’agrégation de mathématiques. Le parti pris de cet ouvrage est de polariser la rédaction par les modèles plutôt que par les outils, et de consacrer chaque chapitre à un modèle. Le premier public visé est celui des enseignants-chercheurs en probabilités, débutants ou confirmés. De nombreux chapitres peuvent également bénéficier directement à des étudiants de master ou préparant l’agrégation. Collected Stochastic Models This collection was inspired by applied mathematics Master classes in stochastic modeling. The focus is on models rather than on tools, and each chapter is devoted to a specific model. Though the book is primarily intended for academics in the field of probability theory, beginners and experienced researchers alike, many chapters will also benefit students preparing to pursue their Master degree in mathematics. .

  11. ModBack - simplified contaminant source zone delineation using backtracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, K.; Herold, M.; Ptak, T.

    2012-12-01

    Contaminated groundwater poses a serious threat to drinking water resources all over the world. Even though contaminated water might be detected in observation wells, a proper clean up is often only successful if the source of the contamination is detected and subsequently removed, contained or remediated. The high costs of groundwater remediation could be possibly significantly reduced if, from the outset, a focus is placed on source zone detection. ModBack combines several existing modelling tools in one easy to use GIS-based interface helping to delineate potential contaminant source zones in the subsurface. The software is written in Visual Basic 3.5 and uses the ArcObjects library to implement all required GIS applications. It can run without modification on any Microsoft Windows based PC with sufficient RAM and at least Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5. Using ModBack requires additional installation of the following software: Processing Modflow Pro 7.0, ModPath, CSTREAM (Bayer-Raich et al., 2003), Golden Software Surfer and Microsoft Excel. The graphical user interface of ModBack is separated into four blocks of procedures dealing with: data input, groundwater modelling, backtracking and analyses. Geographical data input includes all georeferenced information pertaining to the study site. Information on subsurface contamination is gathered either by conventional sampling of monitoring wells or by conducting integral pumping tests at control planes with a specific sampling scheme. Hydraulic data from these pumping tests together with all other available information are then used to set up a groundwater flow model of the study site, which provides the flow field for transport simulations within the subsequent contamination backtracking procedures, starting from the defined control planes. The backtracking results are then analysed within ModBack. The potential areas of contamination source presence or absence are determined based on the procedure used by Jarsjö et

  12. Market challenges for steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauprecht, W.E.; Bulla, W.

    1981-11-01

    Country-wise division of generation of high-alloyed steels, stainless steel and alloyed steel in Western Europe/the Western World. Review of expanding markets for alloyed steels on sectors like-oil field pipes, offshore structure gas- and oil transport in pipelines, coal conversion, nuclear energy, condenser tubes, solar energy, car industry, environmental protection and chemistry.

  13. Conceptual design of the 7 megawatt MOD-5B wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R. R.

    Similar to MOD-2, the MOD-5B wind turbine generator system is designed for the sole purpose of providing electrical power for distribution by a major utility network. The cost of electricity (COE) target is reduced from 4c/Kwhr on MOD-2 to 3c/Kwhr on MOD-5B. The MOD-5B concept studies and eventual concept studies and eventual concept selection confirmed that the program COE targets could not only be achieved but substantially bettered. Starting from the established MOD-2 technology as a base, this achievement resulted from a combination of concept changes, size changes, and design refinements. The result of this effort is a wind turbine system that can compete with conventional power generation over significant geographical areas, increasing commercial market potential by an order of magnitude.

  14. Structural and mechanical properties of welded joints of reduced activation martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filacchioni, G. E-mail: gianni.filacchioni@casaccia.enea.it; Montanari, R.; Tata, M.E.; Pilloni, L

    2002-12-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding methods were used to realise welding pools on plates of reduced activation martensitic steels. Structural and mechanical features of these simulated joints have been investigated in as-welded and post-welding heat-treated conditions. The research allowed to assess how each welding technique affects the original mechanical properties of materials and to find suitable post-welding heat treatments. This paper reports results from experimental activities on BATMAN II and F82H mod. steels carried out in the frame of the European Blanket Project - Structural Materials Program.

  15. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  16. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyamaday@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.j [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Tachikawa, K. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [SWCC Showa Cable System Co., LTD, 4-1-1 Minami-Hashimoto, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1133 (Japan); Tamura, H.; Mito, T. [NIFS National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I{sub c}) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 {mu}m in overall thickness. The 1.5 {mu}m thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy{sup TM} C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CeO{sub 2}. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 {mu}V at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I{sub c}), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  17. Modélisation de la maladie du Parkinson

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Pérez, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Le principal bût de ce projet est celui de, comme le titre bien l'indique, mod eliser la maladie du Parkinson. En outre, etudier la maladie d'un point de vue technique ou math ematique pour identi er quels sont les facteurs qui interviennent dans la maladie et, si c'est le cas, d eterminer comment les contrôler. Pour tel bût il faudra premi erement se familiariser avec le mal d'un point de vue biologique. Ensuite, identi er quels sont les el ements principales dans le cadre de ...

  18. Development of Low AC Loss TFA-MOD Coated Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K.; Machi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. Applying YBCO CCs to the power electric devices such as transformers and power cables, the reduction of alternating current (AC) loss for long wire is necessary. Multi-filamentation process, which is one of the most effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. We have developed the filamentation process using chemical etching. MOD derived CCs are, however, easily damaged in the chemical etching process due to existence of pores in a YBCO layer, resulting in critical current (Ic)-degradation and weak delamination strength. Consequently, it is difficult to scribe MOD derived CCs into 1mm-wide filaments for long length using the chemical etching process. Accordingly, we have studied a scribing process using an excimer laser without chemical etching. We defined P' value in this study as a function of irradiated laser power [J] divided by processing speed[m/s]. We studied relationship between the P' value and the results of scribing. It was found that we could scribe the C.C. with a sufficient depth in the condition of large P' value. Furthermore, we found that the Ic was degraded with further increase of the P' value. A 5 mm wide short sample was divided into 10 filaments by the excimer laser scribing process at the P' of 9[J/(m/s)]. The sample revealed reduction of the hysteresis loss down to 1/10 which could be expected from a theoretical prediction using the numbers of the filaments. Ic-degradation was suppressed as 28%, which was smaller than that of the scribed sample using chemical etching (Ic degradation was 38%). Subsequently, we applied the technique to a 100m long YBCO CC. The hysteresis loss of the 100m long MOD derived CC was reduced down to 1/10 (1/the number of filaments) after the multi-filamentation.

  19. Mods and Rockers, Drunken Debutants, and Sozzled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Thompson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, moral panic theory has affected a paradigm shift in the social construction of deviance and social problems in the United States, without any real debate about its viability. This article raises key questions about this perspective by offering the first ever critique of the seminal case study of British youth subcultures on which the paradigm is based. It argues that when analyzed in the context of contemporary criticism of vandalism, hooliganism, and delinquency, the Mods and Rockers case study never justified Cohen’s original criteria for a moral panic.

  20. Les modèles fractals en finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Idier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Pour rappeler l’apport du mathématicien Benoît Mandelbrot, connu pour la théorie des fractales élaborée dès les années 1960 et décédé le 14 octobre 2010, ce court article présente la pertinence économique de sa théorie pour la modélisation des marchés financiers, des événements extrêmes ou encore des phénomènes de contagion.

  1. M/OD Risk Assessment System and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-fu; YU Qing-bo; LIU You-ying; WANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment system named meteoroid & orbital debris risk assessment system (MODRAS) developed for assessing risks of the spacecraft under the meteoroid and debris environment (M/OD EM) is presented.The computing resolution of MODRAS has been verified by both the three generic spacecraft geometries of inter agency debris committee (IADC) and similar foreign software such as BUMPER,ESABASE,and MDPANTO.The results show that the system is fit well with the computing results of the foreign software.Typical applications of the system are also presented,including a manned spacecraft and a space shuttle.

  2. Flow visualization study of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu H.T.; Waite, J.W.; Hiester, T.R.; Tacheron, P.H.; Srnsky, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The specific objectives of the study reported were: to determine the geometry of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake in terms of wake height and width as a function of downstream distance under two conditions of atmospheric stability; to estimate the mean velocity deficit at several downstream stations in the turbine wake; and to investigate the behavior of the rotor-generated vortices, particularly their configuration and persistence. The background of the wake problem is briefly examined, including a discussion of the critical issues that the flow visualization study addresses. Experimental techniques and data analysis methods are described in detail. (LEW)

  3. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Properties of the periplasmic ModA molybdate-binding protein of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, S; Wolin, C; Gunsalus, R P

    1996-02-02

    The modABCD operon, located at 17 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, encodes the protein components of a high affinity molybdate uptake system. Sequence analysis of the modA gene (GenBank L34009) predicts that it encodes a periplasmic binding protein based on the presence of a leader-like sequence at its N terminus. To examine the properties of the ModA protein, the modA structural gene was overexpressed, and its product was purified. The ModA protein was localized to the periplasmic space of the cell, and it was released following a gentle osmotic shock. The N-terminal sequence of ModA confirmed that a leader region of 24 amino acids was removed upon export from the cell. The apparent size of ModA is 31.6 kDa as determined by gel sieve chromatography, whereas it is 22.5 kDa when examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A ligand-dependent protein mobility shift assay was devised using a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protocol to examine binding of molybdate and other anions to the ModA periplasmic protein. Whereas molybdate and tungstate were bound with high affinity (approximately 5 microM), sulfate, chromate, selenate, phosphate, and chlorate did not bind even when tested at 2 mM. A UV spectral assay revealed apparent Kd values of binding for molybdate and tungstate of 3 and 7 microM, respectively. Strains defective in the modA gene were unable to transport molybdate unless high levels of the anion were supplied in the medium. Therefore the modA gene product is essential for high affinity molybdate uptake by the cell. Tungstate interference of molybdate acquisition by the cell is apparently due in part to the high affinity of the ModA protein for this anion.

  5. Embrittlement of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in HFIR at 300 deg. C and 400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. E-mail: ku2@ornl.gov; Sokolov, M.A.; Shiba, K.; Miwa, Y.; Robertson, J.P

    2000-12-01

    Miniature tensile and Charpy specimens of four ferritic/martensitic steels were irradiated at 300 deg. C and 400 deg. C in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) to a maximum dose of {approx}12 dpa. The steels were standard F82H (F82H-Std), a modified F82H (F82H-Mod), ORNL 9Cr-2WVTa, and 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni, the 9Cr-2WVTa containing 2% Ni to produce helium by (n,{alpha}) reactions with thermal neutrons. More helium was produced in the F82H-Std than the F82H-Mod because of the presence of boron. Irradiation embrittlement in the form of an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature ({delta}DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy (USE) occurred for all the steels. The two F82H steels had similar {delta}DBTTs after irradiation at 300 deg. C, but after irradiation at 400 deg. C, the {delta}DBTT for F82H-Std was less than for F82H-Mod. Under these irradiation conditions, little effect of the extra helium in the F82H-Std could be discerned. Less embrittlement was observed for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated at 400 deg. C than for the two F82H steels. The 9Cr-2WVTa-2Ni steel with {approx}115 appm He had a larger {delta}DBTT than the 9Cr-2WVTa with {approx}5 appm He, indicating a possible helium effect.

  6. Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jerry, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rees, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.

  7. Correlation ECE diagnostic in Alcator C-Mod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung C.

    2015-01-01

    electron temperature, Te, fluctuations through standard cross-correlation analysis methods. In Alcator C-Mod, a new CECE diagnostic has been installed[Sung RSI 2012], and interesting phenomena have been observed in various plasma conditions. We find that local Te fluctuations near the edge (ρ ~ 0:8 decrease across the linearto- saturated ohmic confinement transition, with fluctuations decreasing with increasing plasma density[Sung NF 2013], which occurs simultaneously with rotation reversals[Rice NF 2011]. Te fluctuations are also reduced across core rotation reversals with an increase of plasma density in RF heated L-mode plasmas, which implies that the same physics related to the reduction of Te fluctuations may be applied to both ohmic and RF heated L-mode plasmas. In I-mode plasmas, we observe the reduction of core Te fluctuations, which indicates changes of turbulence occur not only in the pedestal region but also in the core across the L/I transition[White NF 2014]. The present CECE diagnostic system in C-Mod and these experimental results are described in this paper.

  8. On the mod-Gaussian convergence of a sum over primes

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We prove mod-Gaussian convergence for a Dirichlet polynomial which approximates $\\log\\zeta(1/2+it)$. Assuming the Riemann hypothesis we obtain an explicit error term in Selberg's central limit theorem. On the other hand, assuming the Riemann hypothesis again, we apply the theory of the Riemann zeta-function to extend this mod-Gaussian convergence to the complex plane.

  9. An Apple II Implementation of Man-Mod Manpower Planning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    TRANSMITTAL INTRODUCTION The objective of this thesis is to provide an inter- active learning aid in evaluating policies and their effect on manpower... prgram . 70 MAN-MOD/PROGRAM (PROGRAM LISTING) 1000 REM MAN-MOD/PROGRAM PROGRAM: "FOR" IS IN QUOTES IN LINES 1004,10518,10520,10524,10526,10528,1072

  10. Statistical Comparisons of Pre and Post Del Mod Data, Final Report, Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolig, John R.; Wall, Charles A.

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This report attempts to compare baseline data gathered in 1970-71 to post experimental data gathered in 1975-76. Sections include analyses of achievement test scores, research conducted under the auspices of the Del Mod System, and a follow-up study of…

  11. The Role of the State Department of Public Instruction in the Del Mod System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiher, John F.

    This is one of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System). The State Department of Public Instruction is the agency that represents the public schools of Delaware. The two branches of the state department with which Del Mod interacts are the Instructional Services…

  12. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

  13. Validation of the DynaPort MiniMod during sleep : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, Linda; Kosse, Nienke; ten Hacken, Nick; Gordijn, Marijke; van der Hoeven, Johannes; de Greef, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    To measure activity during sleep, polysomnography and actigraphy are often used. The DynaPort MiniMod measures movement intensity and body position day and night. The goal was to examine the validity of the DynaPort MiniMod in assessing physical activity and body posture during sleep. In Study A, 10

  14. Moving Past "Hello World": Learning to Mod in an Online Affinity Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shree Durga

    2012-01-01

    Game modding has increasingly become a mainstream and "cutting edge" medium to foster a broad range of critical software design and programming practices to learners coming from wide-ranging educational and professional backgrounds. Participatory practices, like game modding, are highly interest-driven and entail intense engagement with…

  15. Moving Past "Hello World": Learning to Mod in an Online Affinity Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shree Durga

    2012-01-01

    Game modding has increasingly become a mainstream and "cutting edge" medium to foster a broad range of critical software design and programming practices to learners coming from wide-ranging educational and professional backgrounds. Participatory practices, like game modding, are highly interest-driven and entail intense engagement with…

  16. Applying electron backscattering diffraction to macroscopic residual stress characterisation in a dissimilar weld

    OpenAIRE

    Abburi Venkata, K.; Truman, C.E.; Coules, H.E.; Warren, A D

    2017-01-01

    Dissimilar metal welds are complicated in nature because of the complex microstructure characteristics in the weld fusion zone. It is often necessary to know the phase distribution in a dissimilar metal weld especially at the interface such as fusion zone and heat affected zone to be able to predict the behaviour of the joint and its fitness for service. In this paper, a dissimilar metal weld made between ferritic/martensitic modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (P91) and austenitic AISI 316LN stainless st...

  17. Defects and diffusion in semiconductors XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2012-01-01

    This 14th volume in the series covers the latest results in the field of Defects and Diffusion in Semiconductor. The issue also includes some original papers: An Experimental Study of the Thermal Properties of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel; Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sintered Iron-Silica Sand Nanoparticle Composites: A Preliminary Study; Defect and Dislocation Density Parameters of 5251 Al Alloy Using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Technique; A Novel Computational Strategy to Enhance the Ability of Elaborate Search by Entire Swarm to Find the Best Solution in Optimization of AMCs; Synthesis and

  18. Reinforcing the Steel Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By pushing forward mergers between steel-makers, China gears up to consolidate the large but fragmented industryIn a government effort to consolidate the crowded steel industry and position it for fierce global competition, the state-

  19. ModA and ModB, two ADP-ribosyltransferases encoded by bacteriophage T4: catalytic properties and mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Bernd; Depping, Reinhard; Gineikiene, Egle; Kaliniene, Laura; Nivinskas, Rimas; Rüger, Wolfgang

    2004-11-01

    Bacteriophage T4 encodes three ADP-ribosyltransferases, Alt, ModA, and ModB. These enzymes participate in the regulation of the T4 replication cycle by ADP-ribosylating a defined set of host proteins. In order to obtain a better understanding of the phage-host interactions and their consequences for regulating the T4 replication cycle, we studied cloning, overexpression, and characterization of purified ModA and ModB enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that amino acids, as deduced from secondary structure alignments, are indeed decisive for the activity of the enzymes, implying that the transfer reaction follows the Sn1-type reaction scheme proposed for this class of enzymes. In vitro transcription assays performed with Alt- and ModA-modified RNA polymerases demonstrated that the Alt-ribosylated polymerase enhances transcription from T4 early promoters on a T4 DNA template, whereas the transcriptional activity of ModA-modified polymerase, without the participation of T4-encoded auxiliary proteins for middle mode or late transcription, is reduced. The results presented here support the conclusion that ADP-ribosylation of RNA polymerase and of other host proteins allows initial phage-directed mRNA synthesis reactions to escape from host control. In contrast, subsequent modification of the other cellular target proteins limits transcription from phage early genes and participates in redirecting transcription to phage middle and late genes.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS assay for pediatric tuberculosis in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinh Thi Tran

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopic [corrected] Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS has been shown to be an effective and rapid technique for early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. Thus far only a limited number of studies evaluating MODS have been performed in children and in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This study aims to assess relative accuracy and time to positive culture of MODS for TB diagnosis in children admitted to a general pediatric hospital in Vietnam. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens from children with suspected TB were tested by smear, MODS and Lowenstein-Jensen agar (LJ. 1129 samples from 705 children were analyzed, including sputum (n=59, gastric aspirate (n=775, CSF (n=148, pleural fluid (n=33, BAL (n=41, tracheal fluid (n=45, other (n=28. 113 TB cases were defined based on the "clinical diagnosis" (confirmed and probable groups as the reference standard, in which 26% (n=30 were diagnosed as extra-pulmonary TB. Analysis by patient shows that the overall sensitivity and specificity of smear, LJ and MODS against "clinical diagnosis" was 8.8% and 100%, 38.9% and 100%, 46% and 99.5% respectively with MODS significantly more sensitive than LJ culture (P=0.02. When analyzed by sample type, the sensitivity of MODS was significantly higher than LJ for gastric aspirates (P=0.004. The time to detection was also significantly shorter for MODS than LJ (7 days versus 32 days, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: MODS [corrected] is a sensitive and rapid culture technique for detecting TB in children. As MODS culture can be performed at a BSL2 facility and is inexpensive, it can therefore be recommended as a routine test for children with symptoms suggestive of TB in resource-limited settings.

  1. File list: Oth.Lar.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. Estimation of crop gross primary production (GPP): fAPAR_chl versus MOD15A2 FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within leaf chloroplasts chlorophylls absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for photosynthesis (PSN). The MOD15A2 FPAR (fraction of PAR absorbed by canopy, i.e., fAPARcanopy) product has been widely used to compute absorbed PAR for PSN (APARPSN). The MOD17A2 algorithm uses MOD15A2 FPAR i...

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  11. SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD2 code manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohorst, J.K. (ed.) (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the materials properties correlations and computer subcodes (MATPRO) developed for use with various light water reactor (LWR) accident analysis computer programs. Formulation of the materials properties are generally semiempirical in nature. The materials properties subcodes contained in this document are for uranium, uranium dioxide, mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel, zircaloy cladding, zirconium dioxide, stainless steel, stainless steel oxide, silver-indium-cadmium alloy, boron carbide, Inconel 718, zirconium-uranium-oxygen melts, and fill gas mixtures. 452 refs., 230 figs., 139 tabs.

  12. High-dose neutron irradiation embrittlement of RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: ermile.gaganidze@imf.fzk.de; Schneider, H.-C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Dafferner, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung II, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Irradiation was performed in the Petten High Flux Reactor within the HFR Phase-IIb (SPICE) irradiation project up to 16.3 dpa and at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). Several reference RAFM steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) were also irradiated at selected temperatures. The impact properties were investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement in terms of the parameter C = {delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates no hardening embrittlement.

  13. High-dose neutron irradiation embrittlement of RAFM steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaganidze, E.; Schneider, H.-C.; Dafferner, B.; Aktaa, J.

    2006-09-01

    Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Irradiation was performed in the Petten High Flux Reactor within the HFR Phase-IIb (SPICE) irradiation project up to 16.3 dpa and at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 °C). Several reference RAFM steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) were also irradiated at selected temperatures. The impact properties were investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement in terms of the parameter C = ΔDBTT/Δ σ indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 °C with 0.17 ⩽ C ⩽ 0.53 °C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 °C indicates no hardening embrittlement.

  14. Fooling the user? Modding in the video game industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Münch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the video game industry has grown into one of the largest, most profitable entertainment industries in the world. In a highly competitive industry, legal difficulties to safeguard successful game concepts from copycats contribute to a trend of risk aversion and reliance on established game franchises. It does not come as a surprise then, that user-driven innovation, or 'modding', has come to play a considerably important role for the industry in recent years. While modders are becoming increasingly aware of the financial weight of their activities, game companies seek to secure the legal ownership of the content they create. By means of a literature review this article seeks to investigate the ongoing juridification of the relationship between modders and the industry, in order to provide a brief insight into the complex issue of intellectual property in relation to user generated content and the tensions that arise due to a mesh of messy legal and social arrangements.

  15. PREFACE: Modern Technologies in Industrial Engineering (ModTech2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Comaneci, R.; Carausu, C.; Placzek, M.; Cohal, V.; Topala, P.; Nedelcu, D.

    2015-11-01

    The dominant feature of the current stage of society development is the update, refinement and innovation of the technological processes and products whose ultimate goal is to satisfy the market requirements. New and modern technologies should be considered in terms of their applicability in industry while the materials can lead to an increase in the quality of the end products. Replacing the existing technologies with innovative and eco-efficient technologies can contribute to an added value increase in the production of new materials. Materials are one of the most dynamic and prospective fields, with applications in all other fields. The development of new advanced materials and technologies shall contribute to the procurement of a wide range of reliable products, with competitive prices and worldwide performance, high sensitivity and functionality, user-friendly and reduced energy consumption, for different industrial applications. Research in the field of advanced/intelligent materials supposes a fundamental, experimental, laboratory and technological research and its approach has to be linked to the application. This involves, even for the niche fields, complex projects which result in scientific issues in top journals, patents and functional models. The third edition of ModTech International Conference was held in Mamaia, Romania, between June 17-20, with the Professional Association in Modern Manufacturing Technologies, ModTech, as main organizer, and the Constanta Maritime University, Constanta, Romania, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland, the Technical University of Chisinau, Republic of Moldova and the Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, Ukraine as co-organizers. The ModTech2015 International Conference brought together representatives of technology and materials manufacturers, various universities, professional associations and research institutes that exchanged the latest knowledge on the conference topics. This edition was

  16. Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .

  17. RLPORINC: the RELAP4/MOD5 interface to ORINC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff, S.B.

    1978-01-10

    The Oak Ridge Inverse code, ORINC, calculates the temperature distribution in an electric core pin from internal temperatures and the conditions in the surrounding environment. While the internal temperatures can be obtained from thermocouples in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility, the needed environmental conditions cannot be determined as directly from experimental data. However, this information can be determined from a modified version of the Reactor Linearized Analysis Program, RELAP. In particular, the IBM form of RELAP/MOD5 UPDATE2, as released by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, was modified to save the proper information in a convenient format. This document describes this RELAP-to-ORINC interface version of RELAP4 which has been named RLPORINC.

  18. Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The auxiliaries and the control system for the ASE MOD I: (1) provide the required fuel and air flows for a well controlled combustion process, generating heat to the Stirling cycle; (2) provide a driver acceptable method for controlling the power output of the engine; (3) provide adequate lubrication and cooling water circulation; (4) generate the electric energy required for engine and vehicle operation; (5) provide a driver acceptable method for starting, stopping and monitoring the engine; and (6) provide a guard system, that protects the engine at component or system malfunction. The control principles and the way the different components and sub-systems interact are described as well as the different auxiliaries, the air fuel system, the power control systems and the electronics. The arrangement and location of auxiliaries and other major components are also examined.

  19. Artists' Game Mods and the New Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brin, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010, there are 183 million active gamers in the United States, each of whom plays at an average of 13 hours a week. Forty-nine percent of these players are between the ages of 18 and 49, and two out of every five of them are female. Following in a tradition of tactical interventions in mai...... Gage’s Lose/Lose (2009) confront these issues by creating “mods,” or alterations of popular games. These artists use familiar reference points as catalysts for engaging new publics in conversations about contemporary art and the culture industry....... in mainstream media, contemporary North American artists are working with videogames as a means to engage the public in a discussion of the repercussions and possibilities of an increasingly digitized world. Artists’ games like Anne-Marie Schleiner, Brody Condon and Joan Leandre’s Velvet Strike (2002) and Zach...

  20. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  1. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczewski, A.P.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism. 146 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States.

  3. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  4. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  5. Development and validation of the water hammer program DYVRO Mod.3; Entwicklung und Validierung des Druckstossprogramms DYVRO Mod. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas; Ronneberger, Rolf [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Altstadt, Eberhard [Forschungszentrum Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung (IFS)

    2008-07-01

    Water hammer events in piping systems develop in case of a sudden opening or closure of armatures, changes or pump rotation speeds or as consequence of pipe breaks. The propagation speed of pressure waves depend on the properties of the fluid (compressibility, density) and the mechanical properties (Young modulus, Poisson ratio) and geometry of the piping system. Water hammer effects induce very often damage of the piping and the pipe mountings. The TUeV Nord Sys Tec GmBH and Co KG has developed and qualified the water hammer program DYVRO for two-phase fluids. The contribution covers the improved version of the program DYVRO Mod3. The validation of the calculation procedure includes the Simpson experiment and experiments at the cold water hammer test facility CWHTF in Rossendorf with and without vapor lock.

  6. Vers un instrumentarium pour les modèles musicaux CORDIS-ANIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Tache, Olivier; Cadoz, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Session: "Plates-formes pour la diffusion et pour la creation"; National audience; La modélisation physique propose un changement de paradigme dans l'Informatique Musicale, en se concentrant sur la modélisation de corps sonores virtuels plutôt que sur la modélisation des sons eux-mêmes. Elle conduit à reconsidérer en profondeur la relation entre le musicien et l'ordinateur, aussi bien au niveau conceptuel que pratique, en particulier lorsqu'il s'agit pour le musicien ou le compositeur de prat...

  7. Concepts de modélisation pour la commande des convertisseurs statiques

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaud, Xavier; Hautier, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    L'article propose un formalisme et un vocabulaire visant à rendre systématique la modélisation d'un processus de conversion statique en vue de sa commande. Après avoir rappelé la décomposition fonctionnelle conduisant au modèle de connaissance, les auteurs définissent les concepts utiles à la description de chacun des blocs. Les notions de commandabilité et de valeur moyenne de connexion induisent ensuite les relations biunivoques nécessaires à l'établissement du modèle de commande dans le ca...

  8. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 with condensation experiment for pure steam condensation in a vercal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jae; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The film condensation models in RELAP5/MOD3.1 and RELAP5/MOD3.2 are assessed with the data of experiment performed in the scaled down condensation experimental facility with a single vertical tube of inner diameter of 46 mm in the range of pressure 0.1 {approx} 7.5 MPa for the PSCS(Passive Secondary Condenser System). Both MOD3.1 and MOD3.2 don`t shows any reliable predictions of the experimental data. The RELAP5/MOD3.1 overpredicts the heat transfer coefficients of experiment, whereas the RELAP5/MOD3.2 underpredicts those data. It is recommended that the film condensation model in RELAP5/MOD3.2 should be modified to have a larger heat transfer coefficient than those of the present model to give the reliable predictions. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. ModM DNA methyltransferase methylome analysis reveals a potential role for Moraxella catarrhalis phasevarions in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, Luke V; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; Worboys, Sam R; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R; Seib, Kate L

    2014-12-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we characterize a phase-variable DNA methyltransferase (ModM), which contains 5'-CAAC-3' repeats in its open reading frame that mediate high-frequency mutation resulting in reversible on/off switching of ModM expression. Three modM alleles have been identified (modM1-3), with modM2 being the most commonly found allele. Using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) genome sequencing and methylome analysis, we have determined that the ModM2 methylation target is 5'-GAR(m6)AC-3', and 100% of these sites are methylated in the genome of the M. catarrhalis 25239 ModM2 on strain. Proteomic analysis of ModM2 on and off variants revealed that ModM2 regulates expression of multiple genes that have potential roles in colonization, infection, and protection against host defenses. Investigation of the distribution of modM alleles in a panel of M. catarrhalis strains, isolated from the nasopharynx of healthy children or middle ear effusions from patients with otitis media, revealed a statistically significant association of modM3 with otitis media isolates. The modulation of gene expression via the ModM phase-variable regulon (phasevarion), and the significant association of the modM3 allele with otitis media, suggests a key role for ModM phasevarions in the pathogenesis of this organism.

  10. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  11. Simulation of research loop LOBI-MOD2 with RELAP5/MOD3.3 code for LOBI thermo hydraulic test A1-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Farshad; Barati, Ramin [Islamic Azad Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2016-06-15

    RELAP5/MOD3.3 is one of the used computer codes for the simulation of event thermal-hydraulics of nuclear power plants. The LOBI test facility is a full-power high-pressure integral system test facility, representing an approximately 1: 700 scale model of a 4-loop, 1300 MWe PWR. A new simulation of the small break LOCA test A1-93 has been carried out in a LOBI/Mod2 facility for reaching good agreement and to evaluate the performance of the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Good agreement was obtained in general between the code predictions and the experimental data in transient state.

  12. Characteristics and laws of MODS coupling relation in arid zone under global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ranghui; ZHANG Huizhi; HUANG Qing

    2006-01-01

    Global change has influenced the distribution pattern and spatio-temporal changes of resources in arid zone, and has restrained the land use and land cover change, which is shown by water-heat state, landscape structure, climate effect, and human activities. The above-mentioned characteristics have a close coupling relation with the mountain-oasisdesert system (MODS). The climate in Central Asia arid zone is warm and wet, which is different from that in northern China which takes a tendency of aridity, and the mechanism has restricted the characteristics and laws of MODS. Systematic interface characteristics and process, especially the formation,transformation and consumption laws of water resource reflect directly MODS's response to global change in arid zone. Spatio-temporal pattern, dynamic change, scale change and coupling mode of MODS reflect the ecology mechanism between the systems and within the systems.

  13. MOD: An Instrument for the 2005 Mars Explorer Program HEDS Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Grunthaner, F. J.; McDonald, G. D.; Webster, C. R.; Duke, M.; Mathies, R. A.; McKay, C. P.; Paige, D. A.; Ride, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Organic Detector (MOD) was recently selected for the definition phase of the HEDS '05 (originally scheduled for '03) lander instrument package for fundamental biology and in situ resource utilization. MOD is designed to detect organic compounds in rock and soil samples directly on the surface of Mars in order to assess the biological potential of the planet. In addition, a MOD Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer (TDLS) will provide information on desorption and decomposition temperatures, as well as the release rates and quantities of water and carbon dioxide that can be liberated from regolith samples, thereby providing the parameters needed for the design of systems for the future large-scale in situ extraction of valuable consumable resources. A MOD TDLS will also measure the atmospheric water and carbon dioxide content, as well as the atmospheric carbon dioxide isotopic composition, in order to determine whether there is an isotopic offset between atmospheric and surface carbon.

  14. Ultrahigh Carbon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Steels have been utilized to prepare compacted powders of white cast iron (2 to 3%C) which exhibit superplastic be- havior at 650 0C and which are ductile ...strength and ductility than many of these commercially-avail- able steels. In particular, austempered fine-grained UHC steels exhibit good co7,binations of... Ductility of Rapidly Solidified White Cast Irons ", Powd. Metall., 26 (1983), pp. 155-160. (29) L. E. Eiselstein, 0. A. Ruano, J. Wadsworth, and 0. D

  15. Overview of the Alcator C-Mod program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, M.; Andelin, D.; Basse, N.; Bernabei, S.; Bonoli, P.; Böse, B.; Boswell, C.; Bravenec, R.; Carreras, B.; Cziegler, I.; Edlund, E.; Ernst, D.; Fasoli, C.; Ferrara, M.; Fiore, C.; Granetz, R.; Grulke, O.; Hender, T.; Hosea, J.; Howell, D. H.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Hutchinson, I.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Irby, J.; La Bombard, B.; La Haye, R.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Liptac, J.; Lisgo, S.; Lynn, A.; Marmar, E.; Marr, K.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; McDermott, R.; Mossessian, D.; Parisot, A.; Parker, R.; Phillips, C.; Phillips, P.; Porkolab, M.; Redi, M.; Rice, J.; Rowan, W.; Sampsell, M.; Schilling, G.; Scott, S.; Scoville, J. T.; Smick, N.; Snipes, J.; Stangeby, P.; Tang, V.; Terry, J.; Ulrickson, M.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D.; Wilson, J.; Wright, J.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Youngblood, B.; Yuh, H.; Zhurovich, K.; Zweben, S.

    2005-10-01

    Research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has emphasized RF heating, self-generated flows, momentum transport, scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence and transport and the physics of transport barrier transitions, stability and control. The machine operates with PRF up to 6 MW corresponding to power densities on the antenna of 10 MW m-2. Analysis of rotation profile evolution, produced in the absence of external drive, allows transport of angular momentum in the plasma core to be computed and compared between various operating regimes. Momentum is clearly seen diffusing and convecting from the plasma edge on time scales similar to the energy confinement time and much faster than neo-classical transport. SOL turbulence and transport have been studied with fast scanning electrostatic probes situated at several poloidal locations and with gas puff imaging. Strong poloidal asymmetries are found in profiles and fluctuations, confirming the essential ballooning character of the turbulence and transport. Plasma topology has a dominant effect on the magnitude and direction of both core rotation and SOL flows. The correlation of self-generated plasma flows and topology has led to a novel explanation for the dependence of the H-mode power threshold on the ∇B drift direction. Research into internal transport barriers has focused on control of the barrier strength and location. The foot of the barrier could be moved to larger minor radius by lowering q or BT. The barriers, which are produced in C-Mod by off-axis RF heating, can be weakened by the application of on-axis power. Gyro-kinetic simulations suggest that the control mechanism is due to the temperature dependence of trapped electron modes which are destabilized by the large density gradients. A set of non-axisymmetric coils was installed allowing intrinsic error fields to be measured and compensated. These also enabled the determination of the mode locking threshold and, by comparison with data from other machines, provided

  16. Ultrahigh Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherby, O. D.; Oyama, T.; Kum, D. W.; Walser, B.; Wadsworth, J.

    1985-06-01

    Recent studies and results on ultrahigh carbon (UHC) steels suggest that major development efforts on these steels are timely and that programs to evaluate prototype structural components should be initiated. These recent results include: the development of economical processing techniques incorporating a divorced eutectoid transformation, the improvement of room temperature strength and ductility by heat treatment, the enhancement of superplastic properties through dilute alloying with silicon, and the attainment of exceptional notch impact strength in laminated UHC steel composites manufactured through solid state bonding. The unique mechanical properties achieved in UHC steels are due to the presence of micron-size fer-rite grains and ultrafine spheroidized carbides.

  17. An Evaluation of the MOD17 Gross Primary Production Algorithm in a Mangrove Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Though coastal wetlands occupy a small fraction of the Earth's surface, they are extremely active ecosystems and play a significant role in the global carbon budget. However, coastal wetlands are still poorly understood, especially when compared to open-ocean and terrestrial ecosystems. This is partly due to the limited in situ observations in these areas. One of the ways around the limited in situ data is to use remote sensing products. Here we present the first evaluation of the MOD17 remote sensing algorithm of gross primary productivity (GPP) in a mangrove forest using data from a flux tower in the Florida Everglades. MOD17 utilizes remote sensing products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and meteorological fields from the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2. MOD17 is found to capture the long-term mean and seasonal amplitude of GPP but has significant errors describing the interannual variability, intramonthly variability, and the phasing of the annual cycle in GPP. Regarding the latter, MOD17 overestimates GPP when salinity is high and underestimates it when it is low, consistent with the fact that MOD17 ignores salinity and salinity tends to decrease GPP. Including salinity in the algorithm would then most likely improve its accuracy. MOD17 also assumes that GPP is linear with respect to PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which does not hold true in the mangroves. Finally, the estimated PAR and air temperature inputs to MOD17 were found to be significantly lower than observed. In summary, while MOD17 captures some aspects of GPP variability at this mangrove site, it appears to be doing so for the wrong reasons.

  18. International Code Assessment and Applications Program: Summary of code assessment studies concerning RELAP5/MOD2, RELAP5/MOD3, and TRAC-B. International Agreement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Members of the International Code Assessment Program (ICAP) have assessed the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) advanced thermal-hydraulic codes over the past few years in a concerted effort to identify deficiencies, to define user guidelines, and to determine the state of each code. The results of sixty-two code assessment reviews, conducted at INEL, are summarized. Code deficiencies are discussed and user recommended nodalizations investigated during the course of conducting the assessment studies and reviews are listed. All the work that is summarized was done using the RELAP5/MOD2, RELAP5/MOD3, and TRAC-B codes.

  19. Assessment and improvement of condensation models in RELAP5/MOD3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Park, Hyun Sik; Kim, Sang Jae; No, Hee Chen [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The condensation models in the standard RELAP5/MOD3.2 code are assessed and improved based on the database, which is constructed from the previous experimental data on various condensation phenomena. The default model of the laminar film condensation in RELAP5/MOD3.2 does not give any reliable predictions, and its alternative model always predicts higher values than the experimental data. Therefore, it is needed to develop a new correlation based on the experimental data of various operating ranges in the constructed database. The Shah correlation, which is used to calculate the turbulent film condensation heat transfer coefficients in the standard RELAP5/MOD3.2, well predicts the experimental data in the database. The horizontally stratified condensation model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 overpredicts both cocurrent and countercurrent experimental data. The correlation proposed by H.J.Kim predicts the database relatively well compared with that of RELAP6/MOD3.2. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 model should use the liquid velocity for the calculation of the liquid Reynolds number and be modified to consider the effects of the gas velocity and the film thickness. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. MOD-5A wind turbine generator program design report: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.

  1. NetMOD Version 2.0 User?s Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydracoustic, and infrasonic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with simulation datasets for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic networks for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the reviewers of this document for their contributions.

  2. Udvikling af antistoffer efter vaccination mod og podning med PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne Kristensen, Charlotte; Qvist Pawlowski, Mia; Thoning, Henrik

    SEGES Videncenter for Svineproduktion har undersøgt, om det er muligt at opnå den samme udvikling i antistoffer i grise, der var dobbelt-vaccineret med MLV-vaccine mod både PRRSV Type 1 og Type 2 samtidig, sammenlignet med grise, der kun havde fået den ene af vaccinerne. Ud fra forsøget kan vi...... konkludere, at det er muligt at vaccinere med begge PRRS vacciner på samme tid og opnå antistofsvar for begge typer PRRSV. Husk dog altid at give forskellige vacciner i hver sin side af nakken. Blodprøver fra grisene viste, at de havde dannet antistoffer og blev positive i ELISA-testen for PRRSV Type 1 21......-35 dage og PRRSV Type 2 6-14 dage efter vaccination. I IPT-testen testede grisene positive 6-14 dage efter vaccination. Den østeuropæiske PRRSV Type 1 subtype 2 (PRRSV Type Øst), som 1/3 af grisene blev podet med, gav ligeledes anledning til antistofudvikling, der kunne måles i både ELISA-EU og ELISA...

  3. Overview of Recent Alcator C-Mod Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.

    2006-10-01

    An emphasis of C-Mod research is to address physics and technological issues related to ITER and future burning plasma devices. Among the most critical is plasma facing materials. Recent experiments have indicated that RF sheaths localized to field lines connected to the antenna were responsible for the erosion of the boron layer and subsequent impurity generation on the outer divertor. To obtain broad current profiles, efficient off-axis current drive is required. Initial experiments with LH current drive have observed up to 200 kA of current can be driven for 0.6 MW coupled power. The H-mode transition, pedestal, and dynamics have significant impact on plasma performance. For discharges with high L->H mode threshold, a improvement in the thermal confinement is observed before improved particle confinement. Fast framing camera images of ELMs and intermittent turbulent structures show they travel coherently through the entire SOL. The radial velocity distribution peaks at about 1% of the ion sound speed. Massive gas-jet impurity puffing disruption mitigation has reduced disruption divertor surface heating and halo currents by ˜50% at high plasma pressures and short disruption times. The measured evolution of Alfven cascades agrees well with NOVA-K simulations and a number of additional modes have been observed and simulated during sawteeth and EDA H-mode.

  4. Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Wilson, S. Bernabei, P. Bonoli, A. Hubbard, R. Parker, A. Schmidt, G. Wallace, J. Wright, and the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2007-10-09

    A Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system has been installed on the Alcator C-MOD tokamak at MIT. Twelve klystrons at 4.6 GHz feed a 4x22 waveguide array. This system was designed for maximum flexibility in the launched parallel wave-number spectrum. This flexibility allows tailoring of the lower hybrid deposition under a variety of plasma conditions. Power levels up to 900 kW have been injected into the tokomak. The parallel wave number has been varied over a wide range, n|| ~ 1.6–4. Driven currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage and by direct comparison to Fisch-Karney theory, yielding an efficiency of n20IR/P ~ 0.3. Modeling using the CQL3D code supports these efficiencies. Sawtooth oscillations vanish, accompanied with peaking of the electron temperature (Te0 rises from 2.8 to 3.8 keV). Central q is inferred to rise above unity from the collapse of the sawtooth inversion radius, indicating off-axis cd as expected. Measurements of non-thermal x-ray and electron cyclotron emission confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population that varies with phase and plasma density. The x-ray emission is observed to be radialy broader than that predicted by simple ray tracing codes. Possible explanations for this broader emission include fast electron diffusion or broader deposition than simple ray tracing predictions (perhaps due to diffractive effects).

  5. Initial Active MHD Spectroscopy Experiments on Alcator C-MOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittdiel, D. A.; Snipes, J. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Parker, R. R.; Wolfe, S. M.; Fasoli, A.

    2002-11-01

    The Active MHD Spectroscopy system is a new diagnostic on C-MOD that will be used to study low frequency MHD modes and TAE's present at high B_tor, n_e, and Te ˜= T_i. The present system consists of two antennas, power amplifiers, and an impedance matching network. Each antenna is 15 × 25 cm with five turns, an inductance of ˜10 μH, and is covered by boron nitride tiles. The two antennas are placed at the same toroidal location, symmetrically above and below the midplane. Each antenna is driven by a ˜1 kW power amplifier in the range of 1 kHz - 1 MHz with an expected antenna current ˜10 A, which will produce a vacuum field of ˜0.5 G at the q = 1.5 surface. This diagnostic is designed to excite high n ( ˜20) stable TAE's and initial results regarding their frequency, mode structure, and damping rate will be presented. Evolution of these modes could also provide information on the q profile to compare with MSE measurements, which will be important for planned lower hybrid current drive operation in 2003.

  6. Stormløb mod grænsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    Franz Kafkas forfatterskab blev berømt i årene efter Anden Verdenskrig, i skyggen af det korte 20. århundredes totalitarisme og atomtrussel, og i dette intellektuelle klima lå det lige for at fortolke hans litterære værker som en skildring af en skæbneagtig verden som det ikke står i menneskenes...... magt at forandre. Den meget velkendte forestilling om "det kafkaske" rummer en politisk ontologi, et grundlæggende billede af tingenes orden, der trækker en skarp grænse mellem det magtesløse enkeltmenneske og de meningsløse skæbnemagter. I Stormløb mod grænsen forsøger jeg at redde Kafka ud af den...... kolde krigs skygge ved at insistere på at det politiske spiller en afgørende rolle – ikke bare for værkernes indhold, men også for værkernes form. Kafkas litterære værker er ikke "kafkaske" i dette ords gængse betydning. Kafka forsøgte i en berømt dagbogsoptegnelse fra januar 1922, to år før sin død...

  7. Stormløb mod grænsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    Franz Kafka blev berømt i årene efter Anden Verdenskrig, i skyggen af atomtruslen og det 20. århundredes totalitarisme. Dengang lå det lige for at fortolke hans forfatterskab som et budskab fra en "kafkask" verden hvor det magtesløse menneske uvægerligt må bukke under for meningsløse bureaukratiske...... magter. Men Kafkas litterære værker er ikke "kafkaske". Tværtimod drømte han lige fra sine tidligste år om en politisk begivenhed, om et mirakuløst øjeblik hvor menneskene ikke er passive ofre for uforanderlige skæbnemagter, men selvstændige aktører der er i stand til at rokke ved fundamenterne for det...... fælles liv. Kafka beskrev selv sit forfatterskab som et stormløb mod grænsen. Hvis man tager ham på ordet, bliver opgaven at forstå hans værker som angreb, som litterære manøvrer der gennemføres for at ændre på den eksisterende tingenes orden. Hans værker er med andre ord ikke budskaber der fortæller om...

  8. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  9. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 2. A Synopsis of the 1972-73 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas M.

    A synopsis of the 1972-73 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented together with a brief description of the projects within the local schools. Individual teacher research projects are listed by teacher name, school district, and project title. Field agent programs and some conclusions and recommendations about their work are described.…

  10. Creep damage development in welded X20 and P91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, Steve; Holmstrom, Stefan; Hald, John; Borg, Ulrik; Aakjaer Jensen, Soeren; Vulpen, Rijk Van; Degnan, Craig; Vinter Dahl, Kristian; Vilhelmsen, Tommy

    2011-03-15

    The Martensitic steel X20CrMoV121 (hereinafter called X20) and the modified 9Cr1Mo steel (hereinafter called P91) have been used for a number of years in high temperature applications since they posses superior creep strength compared to low alloyed steels. Due to the simple fact that very few failures were observed, almost no knowledge as to the evolution of creep damage in welds were available despite long operation times exceeding well over 100.000 hours. It has been suggested that X20 will develop creep damage in a different manner compared to low alloyed steel, i.e damage initiation should be slow followed by accelerated growth. The research work presented in this report included systematic investigations of the first components of X20, which has developed creep during long-term operation. All of the investigated components showed creep damage evolution similar to low alloy steels

  11. HumMod: A modeling environment for the simulation of integrative human physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHester

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models and simulations are important tools in discovering key causal relationships governing physiological processes. Simulations guide and improve outcomes of medical interventions involving complex physiology. We developed HumMod, a Windows-based model of integrative human physiology. HumMod consists of 5000 variables describing cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, neural, endocrine, skeletal muscle and metabolic physiology. The model is constructed from empirical data obtained from peer-reviewed physiological literature. All model details, including variables, parameters and quantitative relationships, are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML files. The executable (HumMod.exe parses the XML and displays the results of the physiological simulations. The XML description of physiology in HumMod¹s modeling environment allows investigators to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. Additional or revised XML content is parsed and incorporated into the model. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and quantitative changes in clinical and experimental responses. The model is useful in understanding proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that are not evident, allowing one to observe higher level emergent properties of the complex physiological systems. HumMod has many uses, for instance, analysis of renal control of blood pressure, central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Users simulate different physiological and pathophysiological situations by interactively altering numerical parameters and viewing time-dependent responses. HumMod provides a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. HumMod can be downloaded at http://hummod.org

  12. Preliminary validation of RELAP5/Mod4.0 code for LBE cooled NACIE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Indu; Khanna, Ashok, E-mail: akhanna@iitk.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Detail discussion of thermo physical properties of Lead Bismuth Eutectic incorporated in the code RELAP5/Mod4.0 included. • Benchmarking of LBE properties in RELAP5/Mod4.0 against literature. • NACIE facility for three different power levels (10.8, 21.7 and 32.5 kW) under natural circulation considered for benchmarking. • Preliminary validation of the LBE properties against experimental data. • NACIE facility for power level 22.5 kW considered for validation. - Abstract: The one-dimensional thermal hydraulic computer code RELAP5 was developed for thermal hydraulic study of light water reactor as well as for nuclear research reactors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the code RELAP5/Mod4.0 for analysis of research reactors. This paper consists of three major sections. The first section presents detailed discussions on thermo-physical properties of Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) incorporated in RELAP5/Mod4.0 code. In the second section, benchmarking of RELAP5/Mod4.0 has been done with the Natural Circulation Experimental (NACIE) facility in comparison with Barone’s simulations using RELAP5/Mod3.3. Three different power levels (10.8 kW, 21.7 kW and 32.5 kW) under natural circulation conditions are considered. Results obtained for LBE temperatures, temperature difference across heat section, pin surface temperatures, mass flow rates and heat transfer coefficients in heat section heat exchanger are in agreement with Barone’s simulation results within 7% of average relative error. Third section presents validation of RELAP5/Mod4.0 against the experimental data of NACIE facility performed by Tarantino et al. test number 21 at power of 22.5 kW comparing the profiles of temperatures, mass flow rate and velocity of LBE. Simulation and experimental results agree within 7% of average relative error.

  13. HumMod: A Modeling Environment for the Simulation of Integrative Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert L; Brown, Alison J; Husband, Leland; Iliescu, Radu; Pruett, Drew; Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulations are important tools in discovering key causal relationships governing physiological processes. Simulations guide and improve outcomes of medical interventions involving complex physiology. We developed HumMod, a Windows-based model of integrative human physiology. HumMod consists of 5000 variables describing cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, neural, endocrine, skeletal muscle, and metabolic physiology. The model is constructed from empirical data obtained from peer-reviewed physiological literature. All model details, including variables, parameters, and quantitative relationships, are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. The executable (HumMod.exe) parses the XML and displays the results of the physiological simulations. The XML description of physiology in HumMod's modeling environment allows investigators to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. Additional or revised XML content is parsed and incorporated into the model. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and quantitative changes in clinical and experimental responses. The model is useful in understanding proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that are not evident, allowing one to observe higher level emergent properties of the complex physiological systems. HumMod has many uses, for instance, analysis of renal control of blood pressure, central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Users simulate different physiological and pathophysiological situations by interactively altering numerical parameters and viewing time-dependent responses. HumMod provides a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. HumMod can be downloaded at http://hummod.org.

  14. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial ({approx} 2 cm) and high temporal ({le} 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) and 4 HeNe (.6328 {mu}m) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO{sub 2} degrees or 2.3 {times} 10{sup 16}m{sup {minus}2} theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment.

  15. NASA/MOD Operations Impacts from Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Michael; Mattes, Gregory; Grabois, Michael; Griffith, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Operations plays a pivotal role in the success of any human spaceflight program. This paper will highlight some of the core tenets of spaceflight operations from a systems perspective and use several examples from the Space Shuttle Program to highlight where the success and safety of a mission can hinge upon the preparedness and competency of the operations team. Further, awareness of the types of operations scenarios and impacts that can arise during human crewed space missions can help inform design and mission planning decisions long before a vehicle gets into orbit. A strong operations team is crucial to the development of future programs; capturing the lessons learned from the successes and failures of a past program will allow for safer, more efficient, and better designed programs in the future. No matter how well a vehicle is designed and constructed, there are always unexpected events or failures that occur during space flight missions. Preparation, training, real-time execution, and troubleshooting are skills and values of the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controller; these operational standards have proven invaluable to the Space Shuttle Program. Understanding and mastery of these same skills will be required of any operations team as technology advances and new vehicles are developed. This paper will focus on individual Space Shuttle mission case studies where specific operational skills, techniques, and preparedness allowed for mission safety and success. It will detail the events leading up to the scenario or failure, how the operations team identified and dealt with the failure and its downstream impacts. The various options for real-time troubleshooting will be discussed along with the operations team final recommendation, execution, and outcome. Finally, the lessons learned will be summarized along with an explanation of how these lessons were used to improve the operational preparedness of future flight control teams.

  16. Overview of the Alcator C-MOD Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Scott, A. Bader, M. Bakhtiari, N. Basse, W. Beck, T. Biewer, S. Bernabei, P. Bonoli, et al.

    2007-11-13

    Recent research on the high-field, high-density diverted Alcator C-MOD tokamak has focussed on the plasma physics and plasma engineering required for ITER and for attractive fusion reactors. Experimental campaigns over the past two years have focused on understanding the physical mechanisms that affect the plasma performance realized with all-molybdenum walls versus walls with low-Z coatings. RF sheath rectification along flux tubes that intersect the RF antenna is found to be a major cause of localized boron erosion and impurity generation. Initial lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments (PLH < 900 kW) have demonstrated fully noninductive current drive at Ιρ ~ 1.0 MA with good efficiency, Ιdrive = 0.4PLH/neoR (MA,MW,1020m-3,m). Disruption mitigation via massive gas-jet impurity puffing has proven successful at high plasma pressure, indicating this technique has promise for implementation on ITER. Pressure gradients in the near SOL of Ohmic L-mode plasmas are observed to scale consistently as Ι 2(over)ρ, and show a significant dependence on X-point topology. Modeling of H-mode edge fueling indicates high self-screening to neutrals in the pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL), and reproduces experimental density pedestal response to changes in neutral source. Detailed measurements of the temperature and density profiles in the near sol and fast framing movies of the turbulent structures provide improved understanding of the mechanisms that control transport in the edge region.

  17. Scaling of Global LHCD Efficiency in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S.; Bonoli, P.; Mumgaard, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D.

    2014-10-01

    A database of global current-drive efficiency by Lower Hybrid waves has been assembled covering nine years of C-Mod operation. Plasma conditions were averaged over 50-ms time slices during equilibrated current-profile time periods, excluding transient events such as Prad spikes. The database comprises 1800 time slices spanning: PLH 0.9), while 17 percent experience low m,n MHD that degrades the LHCD efficiency. During LHCD, a simple Spitzer model is used to estimate the residual inductively-driven current which scales the pre-LH current by the ratio of the loop voltage to the pre-LH loop voltage, correcting also for the change in conductivity. The current-drive efficiency is defined as η = nebar R ILHCD /PLH [1020 MA/m2 MW], where ILHCD is the current driven by LH waves and PLH is the forward-directed LH power. In approximately non-inductive, MHD-free plasmas, the global current drive efficiency shows a striking positive correlation with plasma current, η = 0.065 + 0.40 x Ip [MA], reaching a value of η = 0.47 at Ip =1.02 MA. A positive but weaker correlation between η and Teo does not explain the η dependence on Ip. Preliminary GENRAY/CQL3D simulations at Ip =1.0 MA predict 900 kA of driven current versus 1000 kA observed. Comparisons of η to numerical simulations over a wide parameter range will be discussed. Work supported by DoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Double Transport Barrier Experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.

    2001-10-01

    Double transport barrier modes (core and edge barrier) have been observed with intense, off-axis ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. An internal transport barrier (ITB) is routinely produced in enhanced D_α H-mode, 4.5 T, sawtoothing discharges with the minority resonance layer r/a ~ -0.5 to the high field side of the magnetic axis during current flat top. The measured density and calculated \\chi_eff (from TRANSP) profiles suggest the central particle and thermal barriers are formed less than one energy confinement time after the H-mode develops. The density, radiation and \\chi_eff profiles indicate that the foot of the barrier is r/a ~ 0.5. Furthermore, the thermal and particle confinement are improved across the entire region inside the barrier. Interestingly, the central toroidal rotation reverses from co-current direction, typical of H-mode plasmas, to the counter-current direction as the density profile becomes more peaked. Typically, increased core impurity radiation, presumably due to improved particle confinement, leads to a barrier collapse after ~ 10 energy confinement times. A BT scan showed that the double barrier mode was accessed for B_T=4.1-4.5 T with the foot of the ITB remaining at r/a ~ 0.5. Importantly, experiments with additional central ICRF heating maintained the double barrier mode for as long as the ICRF was applied ( ~ 6 confinement times). With the application of central heating, the central rotation reversed back to the co-current direction. In addition, the density peaking and impurity accumulation were arrested with the application of the central heating. Thus, the additional central heating appears to provide a means for controlling this mode.

  19. Specyfika hydrochemiczna wód jeziora Modła wynikająca z uwarunkowań geograficznych

    OpenAIRE

    Cieśliński, Roman; Olszewska, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    There is a lot of articles about coastal lakes where Modła Lake is unfortunately pass over. Modła Lake is situated on Polish coast of South Baltic. The results of research indicated that Modła Lake should be classified to coastal lakes because of being similar to typical coastal lakes in spite of some attributes differentiating it from that group. Occurrent periodically the increasing salination of waters in Modła Lake and moreover batymetry of describing Lake, is main attribut...

  20. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  1. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-31

    Inland Steel. He had also acquired a major Mexican producer, the integrated steel works on the Pacific coast at Lazaro Cardenas . But his major coup...Steel-Producing Countries Launch Talks on Banning Subsidies at OECD Meeting” (Dec. 20, 2002). 76 Nancy E. Kelly, “Steel Talks to Kick Off in Paris, Six

  2. Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF and MODS assay for the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhu Nguyen Thi Quynh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in children is rarely confirmed due to the lack of effective diagnostic tools; only 10 to 15% of pediatric TB is smear positive due to paucibacillary samples and the difficulty of obtaining high-quality specimens from children. We evaluate here the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF in comparison with the Micoroscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay for diagnosis of TB in children using samples stored during a previously reported evaluation of the MODS assay. Methods Ninety-six eligible children presenting with suspected TB were recruited consecutively at Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City Viet Nam between May to December 2008 and tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, MODS and Mycobacterial growth Indicator (MGIT, Becton Dickinson culture. All samples sent by the treating clinician for testing were included in the analysis. An aliquot of processed sample deposit was stored at −20°C and tested in the present study by Xpert MTB/RIF test. 183 samples from 73 children were available for analysis by Xpert. Accuracy measures of MODS and Xpert were summarized. Results The sensitivity (% in detecting children with a clinical diagnosis of TB for smear, MODS and Xpert were 37.9 [95% CI 25.5; 51.6], 51.7 [38.2; 65.0] and 50.0 [36.6; 63.4], respectively (per patient analysis. Xpert was significantly more sensitive than smear (P=0.046. Testing of additional samples did not increase case detection for MODS while testing of a second sputum sample by Xpert detected only two additional cases. The positive and negative predictive values (% of Xpert were 100.0 [88.0; 100.0] and 34.1 [20.5; 49.9], respectively, while those of MODS were 96.8 [83.3; 99.9] and 33.3 [19.6; 49.5]. Conclusion MODS culture and Xpert MTB/RIF test have similar sensitivities for the detection of pediatric TB. Xpert MTB RIF is able to detect tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance within two hours. MODS allows isolation of cultures for further drug

  3. Culture and Creativity: World of Warcraft Modding in China and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kow, Yong Ming; Nardi, Bonnie

    Modding - end-user modification of commercial hardware and software - can be traced back at least to 1961 when Spacewar! was developed by a group of MIT students on a DEC PDP-1. Spacewar! evolved into arcade games including Space Wars produced in 1977 by Cinematronics (Sotamaa 2003). In 1992, players altering Wolfenstein 3-D (1992), a first person shooter game made by id Software, overwrote the graphics and sounds by editing the game files. Learning from this experience, id Software released Doom in 1993 with isolated media files and open source code for players to develop custom maps, images, sounds, and other utilities. Players were able to pass on their modifications to others. By 1996, with the release of Quake, end-user modifications had come to be known as "mods," and modding was an accepted part of the gaming community (Kucklich 2005; Postigo 2008a, b). Since late-2005, we have been studying World of Warcraft (WoW) in which the use of mods is an important aspect of player practice (Nardi and Harris 2006; Nardi et al. 2007). Technically minded players with an interest in extending the game write mods and make them available to players for free download on distribution sites. Most modders work for free, but the distribution sites are commercial enterprises with advertising.

  4. Specific adsorption of tungstate by cell surface display of the newly designed ModE mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Nishitani, Takashi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    By cell surface display of ModE protein that is a transcriptional regulator of operons involved in the molybdenum metabolism in Escherichia coli, we have constructed a molybdate-binding yeast (Nishitani et al., Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:641-648, 2010). In this study, the binding specificity of the molybdate-binding domain of the ModE protein displayed on yeast cell surface was improved by substituting the amino acids involved in oxyanion binding with other amino acids. Although the displayed S126T, R128E, and T163S mutant proteins adsorbed neither molybdate nor tungstate, the displayed ModE mutant protein (T163Y) abolished only molybdate adsorption, exhibiting the specific adsorption of tungstate. The specificity of the displayed ModE mutant protein (T163Y) for tungstate was increased by approximately 9.31-fold compared to the displayed wild-type ModE protein at pH 5.4. Therefore, the strategy of protein design and its cell surface display is effective for the molecular breeding of bioadsorbents with metal-specific adsorption ability based on a single species of microorganism without isolation from nature.

  5. The molybdate-binding protein (ModA) of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Andrea; Santacruz, Carolina P; Moutran, Alexandre; Ferreira, Rita C C; Medrano, Francisco J; Pérez, Carlos A; Ramos, Carlos H I; Ferreira, Luís C S

    2006-12-01

    The modABC operon of phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. citri) encodes a putative ABC transporter involved in the uptake of the molybdate and tungstate anions. Sequence analyses showed high similarity values of ModA orthologs found in X. campestris pv. campestris (X. campestris) and Escherichia coli. The X. citri modA gene was cloned in pET28a and the recombinant protein, expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain, purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein remained soluble and specifically bound molybdate and tungstate with K(d) 0.29+/-0.12 microM and 0.58+/-0.14 microM, respectively. Additionally binding of molybdate drastically enhanced the thermal stability of the recombinant ModA as compared to the apoprotein. This is the first characterization of a ModA ortholog expressed by a phytopathogen and represents an important tool for functional, biochemical and structural analyses of molybdate transport in Xanthomonas species.

  6. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  7. Recent ICRF results on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Boivin, R. L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Fiore, C.; Greenwald, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Hosea, J.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Irby, J.; Lee, W. D.; Marmar, E.; Mazurenko, A.; Nelson-Melby, E.; Phillips, C. K.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2001-10-01

    Internal transport barrier (ITB) modes have been observed with intense, off-axis ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. This barrier mode is routinely produced in enhanced Dα H-mode, 4.5 T, 0.8 MA discharges (H cyclotron position is r/a˜0.5 to the high field side). From TRANSP analysis, the χeff is significantly reduced inside r/a˜0.4 where the density peaking is observed. With the barrier formation, the toroidal plasma rotation near the axis reversed from co-current (+50 km/sec) to counter current direction (-20 km/sec). In an effort to maintain the barrier, experiments utilizing a third antenna, operated at 70 MHz, allowed central ICRF heating of the ITB mode. Initial experiments with up to 1.2 MW confirmed the energy transport barrier and allowed significant increase in the ion temperatures. With the central heating, the ITB was sustained and the density and impurity peaking were arrested. Furthermore, the central rotation was observed to rotate in the co-current direction with the central heating. We have also had success in detecting electron density fluctuations at the RF frequency with a heterodyned phase contrast imaging diagnostic. The fast wave was observed with peaked density profiles and the measured wave number was in reasonable agreement with the cold plasma dispersion relationship. The mode-converted ion Bernstein wave (IBW) has also been observed in H (3He,D) plasmas The measured wave number is in good agreement with the hot plasma dispersion relationship and indicates the wave is a backward wave as expected from the dispersion relationship, Simulations, utilizing the full wave code TORIC have been critical to this analysis. TORIC has recently been upgraded to allow for higher poloidal mode number resolution. The predicted electron absorbed power more accurately reflects the measured values. Recent success in commissioning a 4-strap (J-port) antenna has allowed the maximum injected power to reach 2.5 MW from this antenna. To obtain this power, some

  8. Overview of the Alcator C-MOD research programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S.; Bader, A.; Bakhtiari, M.; Basse, N.; Beck, W.; Biewer, T.; Bernabei, S.; Bonoli, P.; Bose, B.; Bravenec, R.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Childs, R.; Cziegler, I.; Doerner, R.; Edlund, E.; Ernst, D.; Fasoli, A.; Ferrara, M.; Fiore, C.; Fredian, T.; Graf, A.; Graves, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenough, N.; Greenwald, M.; Grimes, M.; Grulke, O.; Gwinn, D.; Harvey, R.; Harrison, S.; Hender, T. C.; Hosea, J.; Howell, D. F.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Irby, J.; Jernigan, T.; Johnson, D.; Ko, J.; Koert, P.; La Bombard, B.; Kanojia, A.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Liptac, J.; Lynn, A.; MacGibbon, P.; Marmar, E.; Marr, K.; May, M.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; McDermott, R.; Parisot, A.; Parker, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Phillips, P.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J.; Rowan, W.; Sampsell, M.; Schilling, G.; Schmidt, A.; Smick, N.; Smirnov, A.; Snipes, J.; Stotler, D.; Stillerman, J.; Tang, V.; Terry, D.; Terry, J.; Ulrickson, M.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Wright, J.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Wurden, G.; Yuh, H.; Zhurovich, K.; Zaks, J.; Zweben, S.

    2007-10-01

    Alcator C-MOD has compared plasma performance with plasma-facing components (PFCs) coated with boron to all-metal PFCs to assess projections of energy confinement from current experiments to next-generation burning tokamak plasmas. Low-Z coatings reduce metallic impurity influx and diminish radiative losses leading to higher H-mode pedestal pressure that improves global energy confinement through profile stiffness. RF sheath rectification along flux tubes that intersect the RF antenna is found to be a major cause of localized boron erosion and impurity generation. Initial lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments (PLH PLH/neoR (MA, MW, 1020 m-3,m). The potential to mitigate disruptions in ITER through massive gas-jet impurity puffing has been extended to significantly higher plasma pressures and shorter disruption times. The fraction of total plasma energy radiated increases with the Z of the impurity gas, reaching 90% for krypton. A positive major-radius scaling of the error field threshold for locked modes (Bth/B ~ R0.68±0.19) is inferred from its measured variation with BT that implies a favourable threshold value for ITER. A phase contrast imaging diagnostic has been used to study the structure of Alfvén cascades and turbulent density fluctuations in plasmas with an internal transport barrier. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for regulating the H-mode pedestal height is also crucial for projecting performance in ITER. Modelling of H-mode edge fuelling indicates high self-screening to neutrals in the pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL), and reproduces experimental density pedestal response to changes in neutral source, including a weak variation of pedestal height and constant width. Pressure gradients in the near SOL of Ohmic L-mode plasmas are observed to scale consistently as I_p^2 , and show a significant dependence on X-point topology. Fast camera images of intermittent turbulent structures at the plasma edge show they travel coherently

  9. Modélisation : Des micro-algues numériques par Olivier Bernard et Antoine Sciandra. Entre complexité des modèles et fiabilité, entretien avec James Orr, propos recueillis par Dominique Chouchan.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine; Orr, James

    2008-01-01

    National audience; Les modèles de croissance du phytoplancton devraient non seulement permettre d'accroître la précision des modèles climatiques, mais aussi d'optimiser le potentiel de production de biocarburant par ces micro-algues.

  10. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  11. Performance Steel Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    alloys , foundry, muzzle brake, supply center, tooling, sources Notice Distribution Statement A Format Information Report created in Microsoft Word...Development of Sand Properties 103 Advanced Modeling Dataset.. 105 High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels 107 Steel Casting and Engineering Support...University, University of Northern Iowa, Non- Ferrous Founders’ Society, QuesTek, buyCASTINGS.com, Spokane Industries, Nova Precision Casting, Waukesha

  12. Therapeutic application of molecular adsorbents recirculating system in various pathogenic MODS/MOF patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hong-tao; GUO Li-min; WU Min; LIU Quan-mei; WANG Min-min

    2005-01-01

    @@ Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or multiple organ failure (MOF) is a syndrome which is frequently related to shock and sepsis, and has been described as the most common cause of death in the noncoronary critical care unit. The potential pathogenesis of the septic and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) response has been increasingly associated with the development and aggravation of MODS or MOF. And studies in this respect have also demonstrated that there is a higher risk of mortality associated with some specific organ systems when they are dysfunctional, thus leading to the failures of the liver, brain, lung, and kidney.1 The liver interacts with many other organ systems, and liver dysfunction may act collectively in the production of organ system dysfunction, thus finally ending up with MODS.2

  13. FunMod: A Cytoscape Plugin for Identifying Functional Modules in Undirected Protein–Protein Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Natale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the interacting behaviors of complex biological systems is a primary objective in protein–protein network analysis and computational biology. In this paper we present FunMod, an innovative Cytoscape version 2.8 plugin that is able to mine undirected protein–protein networks and to infer sub-networks of interacting proteins intimately correlated with relevant biological pathways. This plugin may enable the discovery of new pathways involved in diseases. In order to describe the role of each protein within the relevant biological pathways, FunMod computes and scores three topological features of the identified sub-networks. By integrating the results from biological pathway clustering and topological network analysis, FunMod proved to be useful for the data interpretation and the generation of new hypotheses in two case studies.

  14. Initial utility experience with cluster of three Mod-2 wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, D. B.; Warchol, E. J.; Butler, N. G.; Ciranny, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the initial utility experiences of operating three MOD-2s during the Engineering Acceptance Testing. Electrical quantities of bus voltage, phase currents and power are initially being recorded to evaluate impacts to customers on the 69-kV subtransmission line during synchronization and operation of one or more WTSs. To date, effects on the system have been essentially undetectable. Measurements of television signal strengths were taken at an existing television remote pickup and relay station at the WTS site. Potential TV signal interference problems from the WTSs have been avoided by replacing the remote pickups with microwave repeater links for the four TV channels received from Portland, Oregon. Preliminary measurements of audible and sub-audible noise levels indicate that the upwind rotor, tubular tower design of the MOD-2 does not have the pulsing high intensity infrasound problems experienced by the MOD-1 machine at Boone, North Carolina.

  15. Modélisation probabiliste en biologie cellulaire et moléculaire

    OpenAIRE

    Yvinec, Romain

    2012-01-01

    De nombreux travaux récents ont démontré l'importance de la stochasticité dans l'expression des gènes à différentes échelles. On passera tout d'abord en revue les principaux résultats expérimentaux pour motiver l'étude de modèles mathématiques prenant en compte des effets aléatoires. On étudiera ensuite deux modèles particuliers où les effets aléatoires induisent des comportements intéressants, en lien avec des résultats expérimentaux: une dynamique intermittente dans un modèle d'auto-régulat...

  16. Real-time sensing and gas jet mitigation of VDEs on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granetz, R. S.; Wolfe, S. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Zhurovich, K.; Whyte, D. G.; Bakhtiari, M.; Wurden, G.

    2006-10-01

    Experiments have been carried out in Alcator C-Mod to test the effectiveness of gas jet disruption mitigation of VDEs with real-time detection and triggering by the C-Mod digital plasma control system (DPCS). The DPCS continuously computes the error in the plasma vertical position from the magnetics diagnostics. When this error exceeds an adjustable preset value, the DPCS triggers the gas jet valve (with a negligible latency time). The high-pressure gas (argon) only takes a few milliseconds to enter the vacuum chamber and begin affecting the plasma, but this is comparable to the VDE timescale on C-Mod. Nevertheless, gas jet injection reduced the halo current, increased the radiated power fraction, and reduced the heating of the divertor compared to unmitigated disruptions, but not quite as well as in earlier mitigation experiments with vertically stable plasmas. Presumably a faster overall response time would be beneficial, and several ways to achieve this will also be discussed.

  17. Corrosion behavior of EUROFER steel in flowing eutectic Pb-17Li alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konys, J. E-mail: juergen.konys@imf.fzk.de; Krauss, W.; Voss, Z.; Wedemeyer, O

    2004-08-01

    Reduced-activation-ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels are considered for application in fusion technology as structural materials. The alloy EUROFER 97 was developed on the basis of the experience gained with steels of the OPTIFER, MANET and F82H-mod. type. These alloys will be in contact with the liquid breeder Pb-17Li and their corrosion behavior is of significance for their successful application. Corrosion tests of EUROFER 97 in flowing Pb-17Li at 480 deg. C were performed up to about 12 000 h to evaluate the kinetics of the dissolution attack. The exposed samples were analysed by metallography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX. The results show that EUROFER 97 is attacked by flowing liquid Pb-17Li with a flow velocity of about 0.3 m/s similar to the earlier examined steels and that the typical steel elements are dissolved. The observed attack is of uniform type with values of about 90 {mu}m/year. The corrosion rate is a somewhat smaller for EUROFER compared to the other RAFM steels but with equal activation energy.

  18. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  19. Modèles de choix discrets pour la reconnaissance des expressions faciales statiques

    OpenAIRE

    Danalet, Antonin

    2007-01-01

    Ce projet de semestre présente l’utilisation des modèles de choix discret pour construire un modèle de perception des expressions faciales statiques potentiellement utilisable pour la reconnaissance et la classification de ces expressions. La description de ces expressions s’inspire du système Facial Action Coding System (FACS) de Paul Ekman, basé sur une analyse anatomique de l’action faciale. L’ensemble de choix contient 6 expressions faciales universelles plus l’expression neutre. Chaque a...

  20. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This volume contains 5 books of which this is the fourth, providing drawings 47A380128 through 47A387125. In addition to the parts listing and where-used list, the logic design of the controller software and the code listing of the controller software are provided. Also given are the aerodynamic profile coordinates.

  1. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the second book of volume four. Some of the items it contains are specs for the emergency shutdown panel, specs for the simulator software, simulator hardware specs, site operator terminal requirements, control data system requirements, software project management plan, elastomeric teeter bearing requirement specs, specs for the controls electronic cabinet, and specs for bolt pretensioning.

  2. Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4: Drawings and Specifications, Book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the first of five books of volume four. It contains structural design criteria, generator step-up transformer specs, specs for design, fabrication and testing of the system, specs for the ground control enclosure, systems specs, slip ring specs, and control system specs.

  3. Code Development and Analysis Program: developmental checkout of the BEACON/MOD2A code. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsthaler, J. A.; Lime, J. F.; Sahota, M. S.

    1978-12-01

    A best-estimate transient containment code, BEACON, is being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reactor safety research program. This is an advanced, two-dimensional fluid flow code designed to predict temperatures and pressures in a dry PWR containment during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The most recent version of the code, MOD2A, is presently in the final stages of production prior to being released to the National Energy Software Center. As part of the final code checkout, seven sample problems were selected to be run with BEACON/MOD2A.

  4. Assessment and improvement of condensation model in RELAP5/MOD3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Hui Cheon; Choi, Kee Yong; Park, Hyeon Sik; Kim, Sang Jae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Il [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The objective of this research is to remove the uncertainty of the condensation model through the assessment and improvement of the various heat transfer correlations used in the RELAP5/MOD3 code. The condensation model of the standard RELAP5/MOD3 code is systematically arranged and analyzed. A condensation heat transfer database is constructed from the previous experimental data on various condensation phenomena. Based on the constructed database, the condensation models in the code are assessed and improved. An experiment on the reflux condensation in a tube of steam generator in the presence of noncondensable gases is planned to acquire the experimental data.

  5. Chromate Binding and Removal by the Molybdate-Binding Protein ModA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpus, Jason; Bosscher, Michael; Ajiboye, Ifedayo; Zhang, Liang; He, Chuan

    2017-04-04

    Effective and cheap methods and techniques for the safe removal of hexavalent chromate from the environment are in increasingly high demand. High concentrations of hexavalent chromate have been shown to have numerous harmful effects on human biology. We show that the E. coli molybdate-binding protein ModA is a genetically encoded tool capable of removing chromate from aqueous solutions. Although previously reported to not bind chromate, we show that ModA binds chromate tightly and is capable of removing chromate to levels well below current US federal standards. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Contrôle non destructif par courants de Foucault : expérience et modélisation pour la conception et l'optimisation de capteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, O.; Cahouet, J.; Giordano, P.

    1993-03-01

    For inspecting tubular steel subsea structures, the conventional non destructive testing techniques require the removal of the marine fouling and corrosion protection coatings. These costly cleaning operations down to bare metal can be avoided with a new contactless technique which has been developed by the “Institut Français de Recherche et d'Exploitation de la Mer”. This technique consists in inducing a strong alternative electric current flow at several frequencies in the material. Corresponding localized perturbations of this current flow caused by defects such as inclusions or cracks are then detected. The current perturbation is sensed with a small non contacting probe to detect the associated magnetic flux signal at the surface of the structure. Exploratory experiments allow us to conclude that this technique is very promising. The improvements in sensitivity and in characterization of the defects need a better quantitative understanding of the way in which slots in conducting materials interact with electric currents. We propose a numerical model, using our software : the Trifou code. This code solves tridimensionnal electromagnetic problems, by computing the current density in massive conductors under the effect of a known and time varying electromagnetic excitation. By taking advantage of our experience in modelling the eddy current testing of the french nuclear power plants, we have reproduced one of the experiments. Numerical results are presented and make the deflection of current lines at slot edges visible. The electric activity of the modeled slot has been pointed out and we suggest that the flaw may be interpreted as a back electromotive force source which creates divergence free local currents. Then, we have established a numerical method based on a local approach, to obtain the defect signal with a low computing cost. Numerical results fit the shape of the experimental results. In particular, we can determine the position of the crack. A

  7. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 3: Final design and system description, book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation is described in detail.

  8. Modèle multi-physiques par éléments discrets Applications à la modélisation du troisième corps

    OpenAIRE

    Champelovier, Thibaut; Renouf, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Lorsque deux corps sont en contact, on peut observer à l'interface l'apparition d'une couche hétérogène de quelques micromètres d'épaisseur, plus communément appelée troisième corps. Grâce à la modélisation numérique, on commence aujourd'hui à comprendre sa rhéologie, son rôle mécanique mais aussi thermique. Dans ce contexte, le présent travail propose d'étendre un outil de modélisation discrète aux phénomènes multi-physiques (mécanique, thermique et physico-chimie) et...

  9. User`s manual for FLUFIX/MOD2: A computer program for fluid-solids hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Bouillard, J.X.; Folga, S.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes FLUFIX/MOD2, a computer program that was developed as a two-dimensional analytical tool, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for application to fluid-flow simulation in fluid-solids systems and replaces the Interim User`s Manual for FLUFIX/MOD1. The field equations that constitute the two-fluid model used in FLUFIX/MOD2 and the constitutive relationships required to close this system of equations, as well as the finite-difference equations that approximate these equations and their solution procedure, are presented and discussed. The global structure of FLUFIX/MOD2 that implements this solution procedure is discussed. The input data for FLUFIX/MOD2 are given, and a sample problem for a fluidized bed is described.

  10. Numerics and implementation of the UK horizontal stratification entrainment off-take model into RELAP5/MOD3. International Agreement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, W.M. [AEA Thermal Reactor Services, Winfrith (United Kingdom). Physics and Thermal Hydraulics

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the numerics and implementation details to add the same improved discharge quality correlations into RELAP5/MOD3. In the light of experience with the modified RELAP5/MOD2 code, some of the numerics has been slightly changed for RELAP5/MOD3. The description is quite detailed in order to facilitate change by some future code developer. A simple test calculation was performed to confirm the coding of the correlations implemented in RELAP5/MOD3.

  11. Evaluating the Auto-MODS assay, a novel tool for tuberculosis diagnosis for use in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linwei; Mohammad, Sohaib H; Chaiyasirinroje, Boonchai; Li, Qiaozhi; Rienthong, Somsak; Rienthong, Dhanida; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Yasui, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for simple, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) to combat the great burden of the disease in developing countries. The microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) is a promising tool to fill this need, but it is not widely used due to concerns regarding its biosafety and efficiency. This study evaluated the automated MODS (Auto-MODS), which operates on principles similar to those of MODS but with several key modifications, making it an appealing alternative to MODS in resource-limited settings. In the operational setting of Chiang Rai, Thailand, we compared the performance of Auto-MODS with the gold standard liquid culture method in Thailand, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 plus the SD Bioline TB Ag MPT64 test, in terms of accuracy and efficiency in differentiating TB and non-TB samples as well as distinguishing TB and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB samples. Sputum samples from clinically diagnosed TB and non-TB subjects across 17 hospitals in Chiang Rai were consecutively collected from May 2011 to September 2012. A total of 360 samples were available for evaluation, of which 221 (61.4%) were positive and 139 (38.6%) were negative for mycobacterial cultures according to MGIT 960. Of the 221 true-positive samples, Auto-MODS identified 212 as positive and 9 as negative (sensitivity, 95.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92.4% to 98.1%). Of the 139 true-negative samples, Auto-MODS identified 135 as negative and 4 as positive (specificity, 97.1%; 95% CI, 92.8% to 99.2%). The median time to culture positivity was 10 days, with an interquartile range of 8 to 13 days for Auto-MODS. Auto-MODS is an effective and cost-sensitive alternative diagnostic tool for TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Origin of the diversity in DNA recognition domains in phasevarion associated modA genes of pathogenic Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Beatson, Scott A; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Phase variable restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a range of pathogenic bacteria. In some it has been demonstrated that the random switching of the mod (DNA methyltransferase) gene mediates the coordinated expression of multiple genes and constitutes a phasevarion (phase variable regulon). ModA of Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae contain a highly variable, DNA recognition domain (DRD) that defines the target sequence that is modified by methylation and is used to define modA alleles. 18 distinct modA alleles have been identified in H. influenzae and the pathogenic Neisseria. To determine the origin of DRD variability, the 18 modA DRDs were used to search the available databases for similar sequences. Significant matches were identified between several modA alleles and mod gene from distinct bacterial species, indicating one source of the DRD variability was via horizontal gene transfer. Comparison of DRD sequences revealed significant mosaicism, indicating exchange between the Neisseria and H. influenzae modA alleles. Regions of high inter- and intra-allele similarity indicate that some modA alleles had undergone recombination more frequently than others, generating further diversity. Furthermore, the DRD from some modA alleles, such as modA12, have been transferred en bloc to replace the DRD from different modA alleles.

  13. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  14. Investigation on hot-dip aluminised and subsequent HIP'ped steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasbrenner, H.; Konys, J. E-mail: juergen.konys@imf.fzk.de

    2001-11-01

    Tritium permeation can be reduced significantly by a suitable coating on the structural material. Since alumina has the capability of tritium permeation reduction the development of such coatings on ferritic martensitic steels by hot-dip aluminising of F82H-mod. steel sheets was already performed successfully. An improvement of these coatings were achieved by subsequent HIP'ping at 1040 deg. C for 0.5 h at 250, 500 and 750 bar and subsequently tempered at 750 deg. C for 1 h at 1 bar. All samples were investigated by means of metallographical examination, EDX line scan analysis and Vickers micro hardness measurements. The high pressure produced two observed changes: firstly, with increasing pressure the thickness of the FeAl phase increases and the thickness of the {alpha}-Fe(Al) phase decreases, and secondly the formation of pores could be suppressed successfully. The Vickers micro hardness of the base material F82H-mod. is not influenced by the heat-treatment under pressure and is about 215 HV.

  15. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  16. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  17. Influence of Substrate-Film Reactions on YBCO Grown by Fluorine-Free MOD Route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Tang, Xiao; Wu, W.

    2017-01-01

    deposited by the FF-MOD route, while the BaCeO3 by-product is a dominating phase in the fully reacted film. Based on the structural analysis of the partially converted films, we found that interfacial reactions between the film and the CLO cap layer play an essential role on the epitaxial growth of YBCO......Recently, fluorine-free metal organic deposition routes (FF-MOD) for growth of YBCO superconducting films have attracted increased attentions. In this paper, a comparison study was performed on the YBCO-Ag superconducting thin films deposited on two types substrates, LaAlO3 and CSD-Ce0.9La0.1O2-y......-Ag films from the FF-MOD solution. Because of the different chemical reaction path compared to conventional TFA-MOD routes, it seems that the polycrystalline BaCeO3 formation takes place prior to the YBCO-Ag epitaxial growth associated with the melting process, which results in structural deterioration...

  18. Influence of preparation features on retention and resistance. Part I: MOD onlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, M; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G

    1983-01-01

    Four variations of an MOD onlay preparation were studied for retention and resistance. Boxes were more effective than an isthmus in increasing retention value. The combination of boxes and isthmus showed the highest retention. The combination of boxes and isthmus also exhibited the highest resistance. There was no difference in resistance between boxes and the isthmus.

  19. Nouveau modèle empirique du gonflement libre des sols argileux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Yaakoubi A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le gonflement des sols argileux est un phénomène très complexe et fortement influencé par les propriétés chimiques, minéralogiques et hydriques. Ce phénomène provoque l'instabilité des fondations construites sur ce type de sols, en provoquant par la suite leur détérioration. La modélisation permet une meilleure compréhension du comportement hydromécanique de ces sols argileux lorsqu’ils sont soumis à différents paramètres (teneur en eau, succion, degré de saturation, humidité etc…. Différents modèles, reposant essentiellement sur des concepts hydro-thermomécanique et la théorie double couche diffuse, sont proposées dans les littératures [1-4]. Dans le présent travail nous proposerons un modèle simplifié du gonflement des sols argileux dans un milieu non saturé en fonction du temps. Pour le valider, nous allons comparer ses résultats avec les résultats expérimentaux obtenus dans notre laboratoire par la nouvelle technique optique basée sur l'interférométrie laser ainsi qu’avec ceux obtenue par le modèle de Vayassade [5].

  20. The Role of a Technical and Community College in the Del Mod System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantis, Ethel L.

    One of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System) to several audiences, this monograph is intended for those interested in creating cooperative programs with technical schools or community colleges. Program characteristics are stated showing what a two-year…

  1. Comparison of Form Class Usage in Children's Speech and the Mod 2 Kindergarten Storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Shari Young

    Recent research supports the view that the beginning reader's comprehension is aided by a similarity between written materials and the child's own oral language production. The content of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Kindergarten Storybooks was analyzed by surface linguistic form class and compared to an analysis of 5.5- to…

  2. Story Specifications for Mod 2 Third-Year and Fourth-Year Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Howard J.

    The Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program is planned as a four-year program (K-3) for teaching reading skills to primary-grade children. To date, all stories have been written for the first-year and second-year segments of the program. This paper describes the selection of rules and words, the number and type of stories, and…

  3. Comparison of tungsten nano-tendrils grown in Alcator C-Mod and linear plasma devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, G. M.; D. Brunner,; Baldwin, M. J.; Bystrov, K.; Doerner, R. P.; Labombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; De Temmerman, G.; J.L. Terry,; Whyte, D. G.; Woller, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Growth of tungsten nano-tendrils (“fuzz”) has been observed for the first time in the divertor region of a high-power density tokamak experiment. After 14 consecutive helium L-mode discharges in Alcator C-Mod, the tip of a tungsten Langmuir probe at the outer strike point was fully covered with a la

  4. Intervention rettet mod sproget hos børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Sprogniveauet hos børn med autisme er afgørende for deres muligheder for udfoldelse og udvikling, og sproget er et udviklingsområde, der er meget modtageligt for intensiv intervention. Imidlertid modtager danske børn med autisme kun sjældent intensiv intervention rettet mod sproget. De intensive...

  5. EU-lande i fælles front mod kartoffelskimmel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul; Nielsen, Bent J.;

    2006-01-01

    Hvis der er rådne kartofler i den nyindkøbte pose, har kartoflerne med stor sandsynlighed kartoffelskimmel - en alvorlig plantesygdom, som skyldes angreb af mikroorganismen, Phytophthora infestans. En ny type kartoffelskimmel har bredt sig i Europa, og det giver nye smitteveje og øget pres mod...

  6. Blob sizes and velocities in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kube, R.; Garcia, O.E.; LaBombard, B.

    A new blob-tracking algorithm for the GPI diagnostic installed in the outboard-midplane of Alcator C-Mod is developed. I t tracks large-amplitude fluctuations propagating through the scrape-off layer and calculates blob sizes and velocities. We compare the results of this method to a blob velocity...

  7. Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M. J.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2017-02-01

    Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal region of five Alcator C-Mod discharges, representing a collisionality scan is analyzed. The understanding of anomalous transport in the pedestal region is important for the development of a comprehensive model for the H-mode pedestal slope. In this research, a possible role of the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (Rafiq et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 082511) in the edge of Alcator C-Mod discharges is analyzed. The stability analysis, carried out using the TRANSP code, indicates that the DRIBM modes are strongly unstable in Alcator C-Mod discharges with large electron collisionality. An improved interpretive analysis of H-mode pedestal experimental data is carried out utilizing the additive flux minimization technique (Pankin et al 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102501) together with the guiding-center neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code. The neoclassical and neutral physics are simulated in the XGC0 code and the anomalous fluxes are computed using the additive flux minimization technique. The anomalous fluxes are reconstructed and compared with each other for the collisionality scan Alcator C-Mod discharges. It is found that the electron thermal anomalous diffusivities at the pedestal top increase with the electron collisionality. This dependence can also point to the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes as the modes that drive the anomalous transport in the plasma edge of highly collisional discharges.

  8. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  9. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  10. Morphological characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a MODS culture for an automatic diagnostics through pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Alicia; Aquino, Fredy; Gilman, Robert H; Olivares, Carlos; Requena, David; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Caviedes, Luz; Coronel, Jorge; Larson, Sandra; Sheen, Patricia; Moore, David A J; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis control efforts are hampered by a mismatch in diagnostic technology: modern optimal diagnostic tests are least available in poor areas where they are needed most. Lack of adequate early diagnostics and MDR detection is a critical problem in control efforts. The Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) assay uses visual recognition of cording patterns from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to diagnose tuberculosis infection and drug susceptibility directly from a sputum sample in 7-10 days with a low cost. An important limitation that laboratories in the developing world face in MODS implementation is the presence of permanent technical staff with expertise in reading MODS. We developed a pattern recognition algorithm to automatically interpret MODS results from digital images. The algorithm using image processing, feature extraction and pattern recognition determined geometrical and illumination features used in an object-model and a photo-model to classify TB-positive images. 765 MODS digital photos were processed. The single-object model identified MTB (96.9% sensitivity and 96.3% specificity) and was able to discriminate non-tuberculous mycobacteria with a high specificity (97.1% M. avium, 99.1% M. chelonae, and 93.8% M. kansasii). The photo model identified TB-positive samples with 99.1% sensitivity and 99.7% specificity. This algorithm is a valuable tool that will enable automatic remote diagnosis using Internet or cellphone telephony. The use of this algorithm and its further implementation in a telediagnostics platform will contribute to both faster TB detection and MDR TB determination leading to an earlier initiation of appropriate treatment.

  11. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  12. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  13. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  14. La ville fonctionnelle et les modèles urbains qui lui ont succédé

    OpenAIRE

    Wusten, Herman van der

    2016-01-01

    Dans le discours public et les pratiques de la gestion urbaine, plusieurs modèles apportent des réponses à la question de savoir comment faire évoluer la/notre ville. Cet article présente une typologie d’une douzaine de ces modèles selon leur portée et leur approche du phénomène urbain. L’origine et la diffusion des modèles sont décrits depuis la ville fonctionnelle de Le Corbusier/CIAM.

  15. Precipitates in electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Keith [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Limited, Corporation Road, Newport, South Wales NP19 OXT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: keith.jenkins@cogent-power.com; Lindenmo, Magnus [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Limited, Corporation Road, Newport, South Wales NP19 OXT (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    Precipitates heavily influence the magnetic properties of electrical steels, either as a key controlled requirement as part of the manufacturing process or as an unwanted harmful residual in the final product. In this current work copper-manganese sulphides precipitates are the primary inhibitor species in the conventional grain-oriented (CGO) steels examined and grain boundary pinning is effective at a mean precipitate size of 30-70 nm. The growth of CuMnS has been studied and the results show that a precipitate size above {approx}100 nm allows the onset of secondary recrystallisation in the heating conditions applied. The effect of precipitates on the magnetic properties of both grain-oriented and non-oriented steels in their final product form is then examined. Examples of grain-oriented material still containing large numbers of precipitates clearly show the detrimental effects with increases in total power loss of 40% or more. Loss deterioration by about 20% is also seen in samples of high silicon non-oriented material in which titanium carbo-nitride precipitates have been observed. In this case the precipitates are believed to have formed during cooling after final annealing. Finally a grain-oriented steel with a large number of very small precipitates, which do not seem to have any harmful effect on the magnetic properties, is demonstrated.

  16. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  17. Research and development in welding and hardfacing towards construction of prototype fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2012-07-01

    India's 500MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam and this reactor is expected to be commissioned in the year 2013. Extensive research and development activities in various fields like material development, welding, forming, non-destructive testing etc. were undertaken before the actual construction of the reactor began. Many of these activities are still continuing with the objectives of conducting functional tests, generating data, validating the design and meeting the various regulatory requirements. In welding, initial challenge was to develop indigenous welding consumables with a specification more stringent than that is given in most of the national and international standards. The welding consumable specified for 316LN austenitic stainless steel is E316-15M with strict control on delta ferrite content, toughness requirement after 750 C/100 h ageing to ensure adequate resistance to embrittlement during prolonged high temperature exposure and good slag detachability. This consumable was successfully developed in collaboration with Indian consumable manufacturers and is being used for fabrication of almost all PFBR components and piping made of 316LN stainless steel. Similarly, electrodes of welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (material of construction for PFBR steam generator) with requirement of RTNDT requirement of ≤ -5 C was also developed indigenously. Extensive studies were also carried out on weldability of various austenitic stainless steels and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel used in PFBR. Hot cracking susceptibility of alloy D9 (15Cr-15Ni-2Mo-Ti alloy), the material chosen for fuel clab tube and fuel sub-assembly, and 316LN stainless steel was extensively studied using varestraint testing and Gleeble simulation. Results from these steels were used in developing welding procedures for various reactor components. Hydrogen assisted cracking susceptibility (HAC) of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied using

  18. Evaluation of the MODS culture technique for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Caws

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating condition. The rapid instigation of appropraite chemotherapy is vital to reduce morbidity and mortality. However rapid diagnosis remains elusive; smear microscopy has extremely low sensitivity on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in most laboratories and PCR requires expertise with advanced infrastructure and has sensitivity of only around 60% under optimal conditions. Neither technique allows for the microbiological isolation of M. tuberculosis and subsequent drug susceptibility testing. We evaluated the recently developed microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay format for speed and accuracy in diagnosing TBM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred and thirty consecutive CSF samples collected from 156 patients clinically suspected of TBM on presentation at a tertiary referal hospital in Vietnam were enrolled into the study over a five month period and tested by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN smear, MODS, Mycobacterial growth Indicator tube (MGIT and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture. Sixty-one samples were from patients already on TB therapy for >1day and 19 samples were excluded due to untraceable patient records. One hundred and fifty samples from 137 newly presenting patients remained. Forty-two percent (n = 57/137 of patients were deemed to have TBM by clinical diagnostic and microbiological criteria (excluding MODS. Sensitivity by patient against clinical gold standard for ZN smear, MODS MGIT and LJ were 52.6%, 64.9%, 70.2% and 70.2%, respectively. Specificity of all microbiological techniques was 100%. Positive and negative predictive values for MODS were 100% and 78.7%, respectively for HIV infected patients and 100% and 82.1% for HIV negative patients. The median time to positive was 6 days (interquartile range 5-7, significantly faster than MGIT at 15.5 days (interquartile range 12-24, and LJ at 24 days (interquartile range 18-35 days (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown MODS to be a

  19. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  20. S7-200 PLC与单片机间ModBus主从通信方式%Research on master-slave communications between S7-200 PLC with SCM based on ModBus protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹益民

    2015-01-01

    介绍一种基于ModBus协议的S7-200 PLC扩展方式,该系统可使用主站或从站方式,与MCS51单片机进行ModBus数据通信,最终扩展S7-200的数据计算、人机接口等应用功能。该文对S7-200的ModBus-RTU主站及从站通信指令,单片机ModBus通信编程以及MCS51单片机基于Preteus与VSPD虚拟串口的仿真调试技术等进行了较详细的介绍。文中给出的系统设计方案可给PLC的功能扩展应用提供借鉴。%A S7-200 PLC expansion mode based on ModBus protocol was introduced. In master or slave mode, PLC achieved ModBus data communications with SCM, and ultimately expanded PLC’s data computing and human-computer interface application features. In this paper,detailed descriptions about the S7-200 communication instruction for ModBus-RTU, the ModBus communication programming of SCM and the debugging techniques of MCS51 based on Preteus and VSPD virtual serial port were also presented. The system design scheme could provide reference for the PLC function expansion.

  1. Graphite-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Hull Mod 2 for the Advanced Unmanned Search System Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Weight Factor 4 Steel ( HY80 ) 0.283 80 280 1.25 Steel (HY130) 0.283 130 460 1.25 Aluminum (7075-T6) 0.10 73 730 1.25 Titanium (GAL-4V) 0.16 125 780 1.25...1 2, and 3. A quick glance at the numbers is sufficient to recogrnize that high-strength steel doexs not meet the rigid requirements. Stated simply...the poor weight-to- strength ratio will sink deep-submergence vehicles constructed from steel . Other metallic materials, like high-strength aluminum or

  2. 基于RS485的小型PLC ModBus总线通信与实现%Bus Communication and Achieve of the Small PLC ModBus Based on RS485

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2012-01-01

    ModBus作为一种开放式通信协议,愈来愈多地被小型PLC厂家选用,并逐渐成为产品的标准配置之一。首先介绍了汇川H2U系列PLC的ModBus总线通信技术,然后给出了实现H2UPLC与MD320变频器ModBus总线通信的硬件连接、变频器参数设置以及PLC通信程序。实际应用表明该方案工程实现容易、性价比高。%ModBus is increasing to choose by small PLC manufacturers as an open communication protocol, and becoming to one of the standard configuration of the product. Firstly the paper introduces bus communication technology of inovance H2U series PLC ModBus, and then achieves hardware connection,inverters parameter settings and PLC communication program of the H2U PLC and MD320 inverter ModBus bus communication. Practical application shows that the program works easily and cost -effectivly.

  3. User`s manual for EROSION/MOD1: A computer program for fluids-solids erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Bouillard, J.X.; Folga, S.M.; Chang, S.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes EROSION/MOD1, a computer program that was developed as a two-dimensional analytical tool for the general analysis of erosion in fluid-solids systems and the specific analysis of erosion in bubbling fluidized-bed combustors. Contained herein are implementations of Finnie`s impaction erosion model, Neilson and Gilchrist`s combined ductile and brittle erosion model, and several forms of the monolayer energy dissipation erosion model. These models and their implementations are described briefly. The global structure of EROSION/MOD1 that contains these models is also discussed. The input data for EROSION/MOD1 are given, and a sample problem for a fluidized bed is described. The hydrodynamic input data are assumed to come from the output of FLUFIX/MOD2.

  4. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 3: Final design and system description, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 3, book 2 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. The subsystem for power generation, control, and instrumentation subsystems is described in detail. The manufacturing and construction plans, and the preparation of a potential site on Oahu, Hawaii, are documented. The quality assurance and safety plan, and analyses of failure modes and effects, and reliability, availability and maintainability are presented.

  5. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E J; Neill, A P [UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK)

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, cold leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3 using the best-estimate computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-3 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. Results of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculation are found to be generally consistent with those reported, by members of the OECD LOFT Program Review Group, in the LP-SB-3 Comparison Report.'' Overall trends with respect to pressure histories, minimum primary system mass inventory and accumulator behaviour are reasonably well reproduced by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 17 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  7. Nouvelle formulation du modèle de Kubelka et Munk avec application aux encres fluorescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Emmel, P.

    2000-01-01

    Parmi les modèles de prédiction couleur courants, celui de Kubelka et Munk occupe une position centrale. En dépit de son caractère phénoménologique et de sa simplicité, il conduit à des résultats intéressants, et est toujours employé dans les systèmes d'aide à la formulation d'encres, de peintures et de teintures. Après un bref rappel du modèle, une nouvelle formulation mathématique basée sur une écriture matricielle sera présentée. On montrera qu'elle permet une manipulation plus aisée des é...

  8. PADC Detected External Neutron Field by Nuclear Tracks at RFX-mod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measured neutron signals relevant for plasma diagnostics on Reversed Field pinch eXperiment, RFX-mod, are obtained by nuclear track methodology with PADC-NTD’s. This technique provides the external neutron field values around the RFX-mod installation during pulsed operation. Charged particles from (n, p and (n, α reactions are related to formed latent tracks. These are etched in a thermoregulated water bath with a 6.25M, KOH solution at 60o C. Observed tracks were analyzed to determine track density from which neutron fluence spatial values should be derived. Results indicate that the neutron density in the surrounding environment change at most 40%. The epithermal component is 60% higher than that corresponding to the thermal region. The estimated neutron fluence for the whole experiment is 7.5×1010 neutrons cm2 /s.

  9. MOD* Lite: An Incremental Path Planning Algorithm Taking Care of Multiple Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Tugcem; Polat, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The need for determining a path from an initial location to a target one is a crucial task in many applications, such as virtual simulations, robotics, and computer games. Almost all of the existing algorithms are designed to find optimal or suboptimal solutions considering only a single objective, namely path length. However, in many real life application path length is not the sole criteria for optimization, there are more than one criteria to be optimized that cannot be transformed to each other. In this paper, we introduce a novel multiobjective incremental algorithm, multiobjective D* lite (MOD* lite) built upon a well-known path planning algorithm, D* lite. A number of experiments are designed to compare the solution quality and execution time requirements of MOD* lite with the multiobjective A* algorithm, an alternative genetic algorithm we developed multiobjective genetic path planning and the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm.

  10. Intelligence artificielle et agents collectifs : le modèle EUROSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available EUROSIM est un modèle multi-agents conçu pour simuler l’évolution à moyen terme du système des villes européennes. Les agents sont des entités collectives, les grandes villes caractérisées par leur taille et leur fonction dans le système des villes, et dont les interactions (échanges modulés par des relations de proximité ou de réseau déterminent la dynamique relative, tandis que la croissance d’ensemble dépend de l’innovation. Des outils d’analyse multiscalaire ont été développés afin d’interpréter les sorties du modèle et faciliter le calibrage.

  11. Introduction aux modèles espace état et au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, Matthieu; Pelgrin, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Nous détaillons ici les principaux concepts et problèmes liés aux modèles espace-état, ainsi que leurs applications. Nous présentons d'abord ces modèles dans leur généralité. Ensuite, nous explicitons les algorithmes utilisés afin de procéder à l'estimation par le maximum de vraisemblance, c'est-à-dire fondamentalement le filtre de Kalman et l'algorithme EM. Nous considérons enfin quatre applications : les décompositions tendance-cycle, l'extraction d'indicateurs coïncidents d'activité, l'est...

  12. Modeling of BWR core meltdown accidents - for application in the MELRPI. MOD2 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, B R; Kim, S H; Taleyarkhan, R P; Podowski, M Z; Lahey, Jr, R T

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes improvements and modifications made in the MELRPI computer code. A major difference between this new, updated version of the code, called MELRPI.MOD2, and the one reported previously, concerns the inclusion of a model for the BWR emergency core cooling systems (ECCS). This model and its computer implementation, the ECCRPI subroutine, account for various emergency injection modes, for both intact and rubblized geometries. Other changes to MELRPI deal with an improved model for canister wall oxidation, rubble bed modeling, and numerical integration of system equations. A complete documentation of the entire MELRPI.MOD2 code is also given, including an input guide, list of subroutines, sample input/output and program listing.

  13. Plant application uncertainty evaluation of LBLOCA analysis using RELAP5/MOD3/KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Chung, Bub Dong; Hwang, Tae Suk; Lee, Guy Hyung; Chang, Byung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    A practical realistic evaluation methodology to evaluate the ECCS performance that satisfies the requirements of the revised ECCS rule has been developed and this report describes the application of new REM to large break LOCA. A computer code RELAP5/MOD3/KAERI, which was improved from RELAP5/ MOD3.1 was used as the best estimated code for the analysis and Kori unit 3 and 4 was selected as the reference plant. Response surfaces for blowdown and reflood PCTs were generated from the results of the sensitivity analyses and probability distribution functions were established by using Monte-Carlo sampler for each response surface. This study shows that plant application uncertainty can be quantified and demonstrates the applicability of the new realistic evaluation methodology. (Author) 29 refs., 40 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. TNF-alpha gene (TNFA) variants increase risk for multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Sharma, Arun; Stello, Kimberly; Toth, Chad; O'Connell, Michael Richard; Evans, Anna C; LaRusch, Jessica; Muddana, Venkata; Papachristou, Georgios I; Whitcomb, David C

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a complex inflammatory syndrome with unpredictable progression to systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that may link inflammation to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which usually precedes MODS. Small genetic cohort studies of the TNFA promoter in AP produced ambiguous results. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of TNFA promoter variants to assess both susceptibility to AP and risk of progression to MODS. We prospectively ascertained 401 controls and 211 patients with AP that were assessed for persistent SIRS (>48 h) and MODS. MODS was defined as failure of ≥2 organ systems (cardiovascular, pulmonary, and/or renal) persisting more than 48 h. Subjects were genotyped by DNA sequencing and analyzed for SNPs at -1031 C/T (rs1799964), -863 A/C (rs1800630), -857 C/T (rs1799724), -308 A/G (rs1800629), and -238 A/G (rs361525). Twenty-three of 211 AP patients (11%) developed MODS. TNFA promoter variants were not associated with susceptibility to AP, but progression to MODS was associated with the minor allele at -1031C (56.5% vs. 32.4% P = 0.022, OR: 2.7; 95%CI: 1.12-6.51) and -863A (43.5% vs. 21.8% P = 0.022, OR: 2.76; 95%CI: 1.12-6.74). TNFA promoter variants do not alter susceptibility to AP, but rather the TNF-α expression-enhancing -1031C and -863A alleles significantly increased the risk of AP progression to MODS. These data, within the context of previous studies, clarify the risk of specific genetic variants in TNFA and therefore the role of TNF-α in the overall AP syndrome. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. All rights reserved.

  15. Modèle d'éolienne pour mini-réseau HT/MT

    OpenAIRE

    Gabathuler, Shadya; Roggo, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Concevoir le modèle de l’entrainement électrique d’une éolienne moderne, représentative du marché actuel. Le modèle d’éolienne doit permettre: L’étude du fonctionnement et de la commande d’une éolienne ; L’étude du comportement en puissance en fonction du vent ; La réinjection de la puissance dans le réseau

  16. A study of the dispersed flow interfacial heat transfer model of RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Analytis, G.T.; Aksan, S.N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The model of interfacial heat transfer for the dispersed flow regime used in the RELAP5 computer codes is investigated in the present paper. Short-transient calculations of two low flooding rate tube reflooding experiments have been performed, where the hydraulic conditions and the heat input to the vapour in the post-dryout region were controlled for the predetermined position of the quench front. Both RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3 substantially underpredicted the exit vapour temperature. The mass flow rate and quality, however, were correct and the heat input to the vapour was larger than the actual one. As the vapour superheat at the tube exit depends on the balance between the heat input from the wall and the heat exchange with the droplets, the discrepancy between the calculated and the measured exit vapour temperature suggested that the inability of both codes to predict the vapour superheat in the dispersed flow region is due to the overprediction of the interfacial heat transfer rate.

  17. Conception d’un automate cellulaire non stationnaire à base de graphe pour modéliser la structure spatiale urbaine: le modèle Remus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Banos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nous proposons dans cet article une formalisation originale des automates cellulaires géographiques, à même de mieux prendre en compte grâce à une structure de graphe le voisinage irrégulier et dynamique d’entités spatiales. Le modèle Remus permet ainsi de représenter sous la forme d’un graphe mathématique les entités spatiales du bâti et les réseaux de transport urbain (graphe urbain ; il permet aussi de calculer la distance-temps entre bâtiments par le réseau. Le modèle Remus permet l’extraction de différents graphes, dont le graphe fonctionnel des distances-temps entre les immeubles et le graphe de relations de voisinage qui représente le voisinage par le réseau pour un certain seuil de temps de trajet et pour un mode de transport donné.

  18. On the orders of transformation matrices (mod n) and two types of generalized Arnold transformation matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhen; CHEN Kefei

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the structure of the orders of matrices (mod n), and present the relation between the orders of matrices over finite fields and their Jordan normal forms. Then we generalize 2-dimensional Arnold transformation matrix to two types of n-dimensional Arnold transformation matrices: A-type Arnold transformation matrix and B-type transformation matrix, and analyze their orders and other properties based on our earlier results about the orders of matrices.

  19. Évaluation des ressources halieutiques et modèles

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Les impacts parfois irréversibles de la pêche sur les écosystèmes sont devenus une préoccupation majeure. L'évaluation et la modélisation des ressources halieutiques et des pêcheries ainsi qu'une meilleure compréhension des écosystèmes sont devenues aujourd'hui des outils essentiels pour l'aide à la décision des gestionnaires.

  20. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  1. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing drawings 47A380074 through 47A380126. A full breakdown parts listing is provided as well as a where used list.

  2. Tableaux et modèles: «vive la sintayse»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian GERMANAZ

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available L’image géographique et la peinture présentent beaucoup de similitudes. Il est possible d’analyser l’image picturale sous l’angle de la modélisation. Par l’intermédiaire de la chorématique une équivalence dans le langage plastique et pictural a été trouvée Le Christ jaune de Gauguin permet de tester cette transposition.

  3. On $\\omega_3$-chains in P($\\omega_1$) mod finite

    CERN Document Server

    Irrgang, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    We prove that if there exists a simplified $(\\omega_1,2)$-morass, then there is a ccc forcing which adds an $\\omega_3$-chain in P($\\omega_1$) mod finite and a ccc forcing which adds a family of $\\omega_3$-many strongly almost disjoint functions from $\\omega_1$ to $\\omega$. The idea is to use a finite support iteration of countable forcings which is not linear but three-dimensional.

  4. Study of ITG modes in RFX-mod using TRB code

    CERN Document Server

    Sattin, F; Guo, S C

    2010-01-01

    We present here a study about the stability of Ion-Temperature-Gradient drift turbulence in the Quasi-Single-Helicity regime of RFX-mod Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) using the TRB fluid electrostatic turbulence code. Our results suggest that present-days RFP plasmas are marginally stable against this kind of turbulence. The onset of the instability may be envisaged for close future regimes, in the presence of hotter plasmas with sharper internal transport barriers.

  5. Government review of the Mod-2 wind turbine (as-built)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. R.; Birchenough, A. G.; Linscott, B. S.; Reagan, J. R.; Sirocky, P. J.; Sizemore, R. L.; Sullivan, T. L.; Holeman, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Government committee formed to conduct an as-built review of the three Mod-2 wind turbine units at Goldendale, Washington are given. The purpose of the review was to identify any critical deficiencies in machine components that could result in failure, and to recommend any necessary corrective action before resuming safe machine operation. The review concluded that one of the deficiencies identified would preclude planned attended or unattended operation, provided that certain corrective actions were implemented.

  6. MODIS Cloud Microphysics Product (MOD_PR06OD) Data Collection 6 Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Gala; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Product (MOD_PR060D) for Data Collection 6 has entered full scale production. Aqua reprocessing is almost completed and Terra reprocessing will begin shortly. Unlike previous collections, the CHIMAERA code base allows for simultaneous processing for multiple sensors and the operational CHIMAERA 6.0.76 stream is also available for VIIRS and SEVIRI sensors and for our E-MAS airborne platform.

  7. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  8. A new formulation of the law of octic reciprocity for primes ≡±3(mod8 and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Hudson

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Let p and q be odd primes with q≡±3(mod8, p≡1(mod8=a2+b2=c2+d2 and with the signs of a and c chosen so that a≡c≡1(mod4. In this paper we show step-by-step how to easily obtain for large q necessary and sufficient criteria to have (−1(q−1/2q(p−1/8≡(a−bd/acj(modp for j=1,…,8 (the cases with j odd have been treated only recently [3] in connection with the sign ambiguity in Jacobsthal sums of order 4. This is accomplished by breaking the formula of A.E. Western into three distinct parts involving two polynomials and a Legendre symbol; the latter condition restricts the validity of the method presented in section 2 to primes q≡3(mod8 and significant modification is needed to obtain similar results for q≡±1(mod8. Only recently the author has completely resolved the case q≡5(mod8, j=1,…,8 and a sketch of the method appears in the closing section of this paper.

  9. NetMOD version 1.0 user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J

    2014-01-01

    NetMOD (Network Monitoring for Optimal Detection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of seismic monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform seismic detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with a simulation dataset for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation.

  10. Concepts de modélisation pour la commande des convertisseurs statiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaud, Xavier; Hautier, Jean-Paul

    1994-04-01

    The formalism and the vocabulary which are proposed in this paper are useful to a systematic modelization of a power converter control. In first, the establishment of a general model needs the splitting in several parts which are described by appropriate tools. The idea of controlability and connection mean value drives then to the control model for Pulse Width Modulation converter. This formalism is applied to a single-phased converter working as a rectifier with an input current spectral optimisation. L'article propose un formalisme et un vocabulaire visant à rendre systématique la modélisation d'un processus de conversion statique en vue de sa commande. Après avoir rappelé la décomposition fonctionnelle conduisant au modèle de connaissance, les auteurs définissent les concepts utiles à la description de chacun des blocs. Les notions de commandabilité et de valeur moyenne de connexion induisent ensuite les relations biunivoques nécessaires à l'établissement du modèle de commande dans le cadre général de la Modulation de Largeur d'Impulsion. L'illustration du formalisme proposé est alors donnée par l'exemple d'un système monophasé assurant une transformation alternatif/continu, sur les bases d'une optimisation de la qualité spectrale du courant d'entrée.

  11. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 Test S-06-5. (LOFT counterpart test). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-06-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 LOFT counterpart test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-06-5 was conducted from initial conditions of 2272 psia and 536/sup 0/F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold legs of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The purpose of Test S-06-5 was to assess the influence of the break nozzle geometry on core thermal and system response and on the subcooled and low quality mass flow rates at the break locations.

  12. Contribution à la modélisation des convertisseurs statiques pour la simulation à topologie variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Omar; Gerbaud, Laurent; Normand, Olivier; Roudet, James

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a simple and structured method of static converter modelling with variable topology, for the simulation of controlled converter-machine drives. The methodology is based on the notion of switching cells which enables a modular decomposition of converters in structures easy to be studied and henceforth called independent converter legs. These independent legs will be stored in libraries (algorithms or programs, and models) in order to be re-used for the study of other converters. Cet article propose une méthode simple et structurée pour la modélisation des convertisseurs statiques par des modèles à topologie variable, en vue de la simulation d'associations machine-convertisseur-commande complètes. Cette démarche s'appuie sur la notion de cellule de commutation pour permettre de dégager une décomposition modulaire du convertisseur en structures élémentaires, faciles à étudier, qui seront appelées bras indépendants. Ces derniers sont stockés en bibliothèque (sous forme d'algorithme ou programme, et sous forme de modèle), pour être réutilisés dans l'étude d'autres convertisseurs.

  13. RFX-mod: A multi-configuration fusion facility for three-dimensional physics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Auriemma, F.; Bonomo, F.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Fassina, A.; Franz, P.; Gobbin, M.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piron, L.; Valisa, M.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Zaniol, B.; Agostini, M. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); and others

    2013-05-15

    RFX-mod [Sonato et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 66, 161 (2003)] exploits its 192 active coils in both reversed-field pinch (RFP) and tokamak configurations with varying degrees of 3D shaping, providing also a test bed for validating stellarator codes and 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic codes. This makes RFX-mod a unique and flexible facility for comparative studies on 3D shaping and control. The paper discusses how 3D fields allow access to RFP and tokamak advanced regimes. 3D fields are used to feedback control Single Helicity (SH) RFP equilibria with 1/7 helicity up to ∼2 MA. They also allow accessing SH regimes with higher density (Greenwald fraction up to 0.5), presently inaccessible in spontaneous SH regimes. Feedback on the 2/1 resistive-wall mode in RFX-mod tokamak plasmas allows for safe operation at q(a)<2, an almost unexplored promising regime. Forcing the 2/1 mode to saturate at finite but small level, a helical tokamak equilibrium with significant n = 1 modulation is produced and a new way to tailor sawteeth is found. The effects of different levels of 3D shaping on momentum transport in both RFP and tokamak helical states are discussed.

  14. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    alternative coatings qualified to MIL-PRE-23377 Class N and an electroplated zinc - nickel alloy passivated with a trivalent chromium solution which is...effect of a non-chromate primer and zinc - nickel plating with non-chromate passivation as alternatives to the chromate primer and cadmium plating with...NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 COATED 4340 STEEL by E. U. Lee C. Lei M. Stanley B. Pregger C. Matzdorf 26 August 2013

  15. Ferrium M54 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    Examination ................................................................................................. 2 Zinc - Nickel Alloy Plating...resistance measurements using scans from 100 mV below to 100mV above at a scan rate of 0.167 mV/s. ZINC - NICKEL ALLOY PLATING The Zn-14% Ni alloy...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Bare and Zn-14% Ni alloy coated Ferrium M54 steels were studied to

  16. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  17. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL USING STEEL SLAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z. Lan; S. Zhang; J.K. Wang; R. W. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Steel slag is a byproduct produced in large amounts in the steel-making process. It is an important resource that can be effectively utilized. An experiment was described in which steel slag was tested as an adsorbent for the removal of phosphorus from waste water. Phosphorus removal depended on the amount of steel slag added, the pH value, the contact time, and the initial concentration. Under laboratory conditions when the added slag was 7.5g/L, the contact time 2h, and the pH value was equivalent to 6.5, over 99% of the phosphorus was removed; the experimental data on steel slag adsorption of phosphorus in the water fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. Steel slag was found to be very effective in adsorbing phosphorus.

  18. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tirumalasetty, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP steels, highlighting the importance of microstructure - mechanical properties - applications relationships. In Chapter 2 the material properties and material processing are described into more detai...

  19. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  20. Tough Year Ahead for Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN WEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The steel industry, a top beneficiary of the country's sizzling economic growth, is this year likely to see only a meager profit or even report losses, according to a report by the National Development and Reform Commission. Mounting demand for steel in real estate construction and auto making during the past years resulted in an investment craze into the sector, and has caused a glut on the market. Average steel prices fell by a third last year, though domestic steel makers still managed to post a profit of 127.4 billion yuan (US$15.9 billion) on aggregate.

  1. High strength, tough alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  2. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  3. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib

    2017-04-01

    We will give a short overview and update on the current status of the national climate modelling initiative PalMod (Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de). PalMod focuses on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. The initiative is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. PalMod kicked off in February 2016. The first phase focuses on the last deglaciation (app. the last 23.000 years). From the ESM perspective PalMod pushes forward model development by coupling ESM with dynamical ice sheet models. Computer scientists work on speeding up climate models using different concepts (like parallelisation in time) and one working group is dedicated to perform a comprehensive data synthesis to validate model performance. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes

  4. Les industries culturelles en mutation : des modèles en question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien Perticoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La présente contribution se propose de questionner la notion de modèles socio-économiques dans le cadre des travaux relatifs aux mutations des industries culturelles. À cette fin, l’exposé se déroulera en trois temps : nous reviendrons tout d’abord sur les caractéristiques essentielles des modèles génériques (modèle éditorial et de flot ainsi que sur leurs principaux apports ; nous expliquerons ensuite dans quelle mesure ils doivent être considérés, non comme une description fidèle de la réalité dont ils entendent rendre compte, mais davantage comme des règles du jeu permettant d’appréhender les mutations à l’œuvre ; enfin, à l’aune de la numérisation des contenus et de leur consommation via Internet, nous interrogerons l’hypothèse de l’émergence de nouveaux modèles génériques. En conclusion, nous insisterons sur la nécessité, à notre sens, de prendre en compte l’évolution des pratiques culturelles médiatiques en tant que dimension structurante de ces modèles.This paper aims to question the concept of socio-economic models within the framework of research about cultural industries mutations. For this purpose, our presentation will proceed in three parts : first of all, we will reconsider the essential characteristics of the generic models (publishing model and flow model and their main contributions to the research ; we will explain then why they must be considered, not as a faithful description of the reality of which they intend to give an account, but more like rules of the game allowing to understand the mutations of cultural industries ; finally, considering the digitalization of contents and their consumption using Internet, we will question the hypothesis of the emergence of new generic models. In conclusion, we will insist on the importance, from our opinion, to take into account the evolution of the media cultural practices as a structuring dimension of these models.

  5. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  6. In Vitro and in Vivo Characterization of MOD-4023, a Long-Acting Carboxy-Terminal Peptide (CTP)-Modified Human Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Oren; Bar-Ilan, Ahuva; Guy, Rachel; Felikman, Yana; Moschcovich, Laura; Hwa, Vivian; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Fima, Eyal; Hart, Gili

    2016-02-01

    MOD-4023 is a novel long-acting version of human growth hormone (hGH), containing the carboxy-terminal peptide (CTP) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). MOD-4023 is being developed as a treatment for adults and children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which would require fewer injections than currently available GH formulations and thus reduce patient discomfort and increase compliance. This study characterizes MOD-4023's binding affinities for the growth hormone receptor, as well as the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics, toxicology, and safety profiles of repeated dosing of MOD-4023 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Rhesus monkeys. Although MOD-4023 exhibited reduced in vitro potency and lower affinity to the GH receptor than recombinant hGH (rhGH), administration of MOD-4023 every 5 days in rats and monkeys resulted in exposure comparable to daily rhGH, and the serum half-life of MOD-4023 was significantly longer. Repeated administration of MOD-4023 led to elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and twice-weekly injections of MOD-4023 resulted in larger increase in weight gain with fewer injections and a lower accumulative hGH dose. Thus, the increased half-life of MOD-4023 in comparison to hGH may increase the frequency of protein-receptor interactions and compensate for its decreased in vitro potency. MOD-4023 was found to be well-tolerated in rats and monkeys, with minimal adverse events, suggesting an acceptable safety profile. These results provide a basis for the continued clinical development of MOD-4023 as a novel treatment of GHD in children and adults.

  7. Validation of Global Evapotranspiration Product (MOD16 using Flux Tower Data in the African Savanna, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ramoelo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, water is an important resource required for the survival of human beings. Water is a scarce resource in the semi-arid environments, including South Africa. In South Africa, several studies have quantified evapotranspiration (ET in different ecosystems at a local scale. Accurate spatially explicit information on ET is rare in the country mainly due to lack of appropriate tools. In recent years, a remote sensing ET product from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MOD16 has been developed. However, its accuracy is not known in South African ecosystems. The objective of this study was to validate the MOD16 ET product using data from two eddy covariance flux towers, namely; Skukuza and Malopeni installed in a savanna and woodland ecosystem within the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Eight day cumulative ET data from the flux towers was calculated to coincide with the eight day MOD16 products over a period of 10 years from 2000 to 2010. The Skukuza flux tower results showed inconsistent comparisons with MOD16 ET. The Malopeni site achieved a poorer comparison with MOD16 ET compared to the Skukuza, and due to a shorter measurement period, data validation was performed for 2009 only. The inconsistent comparison of MOD16 and flux tower-based ET can be attributed to, among other things, the parameterization of the Penman-Monteith model, flux tower measurement errors, and flux tower footprint vs. MODIS pixel. MOD16 is important for global inference of ET, but for use in South Africa's integrated water management, a locally parameterized and improved product should be developed.

  8. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  9. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  10. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP s

  11. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  12. CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR CARBON STEELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 3% ac]neon.s' NaCl solution (pH 6) ... compared to stainless steels (Buchweishaija & Hagen 1997). Organic compounds are ... resistant dust for break and clutch linings, wood binders and mould (Gedam.

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Structural Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines; however, it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittlement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a well-established failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. This pressure cycling represents one of the key differences in operating conditions between current hydrogen pipelines and those anticipated in a hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Applying structural integrity models in design codes coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of the reliability/integrity of steel hydrogen pipelines subjected to pressure cycling. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of physics-based predictive models, which provide important insights such as the effects of microstructure on hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth. Successful implementation of these structural integrity and physics-based models enhances confidence in the design codes and enables decisions about materials selection and operating conditions for reliable and efficient steel hydrogen pipelines.

  14. Great Challenge in Steel Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlsea Liu

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2008, the export of China steel products experienoeu, a splendid period f fast growing, and then disappointedly followed by fast depression. Until lest December, China in 2008 exported steel products of 59.21 million tons, less than the same term in 2007 by 3.48 million tons, declining about 5.6%.

  15. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  16. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  17. Relap5/mod2 post-test calculation of a loss of feedwater experiment at the Pactel test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protze, M. [Siemens-KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Post-test calculations for verification purposes of the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 are of fundamental importance for the licensing procedure. The RELAP5/MOD2 code has a large international assessment base regarding western PWR. WWER-reactors are russian designed PWRs with some specific differences compared with the western PWR`s, especially the horizontal steam generators. For that reason some post-test calculations have to be performed to verify the RELAP5/MOD2 code for these WWER typical phenomena. The impact of the horizontal steam generators on the accident behaviour during transients or pipe ruptures on the secondary side is significant. The nodalization of the test facility PACTEL was chosen equally to WWER plant nodalization to verify the use of a coarse modelling of the steam generator secondary side for analyses of transient with decreasing water level in the SG secondary side. The calculational results showed a good compliance to the test results, demonstrating the correct use of a coarse nodalization. To sum up, the RELAP5/ MOD2 results met the test results appropriately thereby the RELAP5/ MOD2 code is validated for analyses of transients with decreasing water level in a horizontal steam generator secondary side. (orig.). 4 refs.

  18. Advantages of a workbench reshaped AR1 mod catheter for right coronary angiography by right radial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Cesare; Mirra, Marco; Di Maio, Marco; Attisano, Tiziana; Di Muro, Michele Roberto; Vigorito, Francesco; Farina, Rosario; Polito, Maria Vincenza; Giudice, Pietro; Piscione, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Transradial approach in cardiac catheterization is increasing. In daily practice, coronary angiography via radial artery is usually performed by using catheters designed for femoral approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate advantages in the use of a workbench reshaped AR1 mod catheter, in terms of procedural duration time, number of catheters per procedure, fluoroscopy time, contrast agent administered volume, images quality and costs. Two hundred patients, submitted to coronary angiography via right radial artery in our institution, have been retrospectively reviewed. Patients have been divided in two groups, depending on whether a workbench reshaped Cordis Amplatz AR1 mod catheter (rAR1 mod), or catheters in their original shape (OC) have been employed. In the rAR1 mod group (100 patients) a lower number of catheters per procedure (1.07 ± 0.25 vs. 1.47 ± 1.65; p right coronary selective engagement (76.76% vs. 53.12%; p right coronary angiography via right radial approach is performed, the utilization of rAR1 mod catheter correlates with multiple advantages in terms of procedural parameters.

  19. Influence of the steel scrap classes on the liquid steel output molten in electric steel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This is why we have analysed in the paper, using statistical analysing methods, the influence of use in the electric arc furnace charges of steel scrap of different qualities on the index of liquid steel output from a melt.Design/methodology/approach: The used research methodology consists in analytical simulation of variations in mass of liquid steel obtained from melts differing in steel scrap content in the metallic charge and statistical analyses of industrial results acquired from the corresponding process documentation (so called melt cards.Findings: Basing on the analytical and statistical analyses carried out we have determine resulting variations in the liquid steel per melt ratios depending on the content of steel scrap in the metallic charge.Research limitations/implications: The research results obtained can be utilized in each steelmaking facility, which employs the Electric Steelmaking process, in order to “design” the metallic charge compositions, having in view the quality and economic aspects.Practical implications: The research results presented in the paper can be used for steel production of high purity steels.Originality/value: The results presented in this paper are directed to the steelmakers employing the Electric Steelmaking process and constitute the authors’ original study.

  20. Transport of cosmic rays in magnetosphere and heliosphere: GeoMag and HelMod webmodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Kudela, K.; La Vacca, G.; Mallamaci, M.; Pensotti, S.; Putis, M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.

    2014-06-01

    Our codes to evaluate the solar modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays (HelMod) and to trace the the charged particles inside the Earth magnetosphere (GeoMag) have been implemented as webmodels in the two websites, helmod.org and geomagsphere.org. HelMod model uses a 2D Monte Carlo approach to solves the Parker transport equation, obtaining a modulated flux of Cosmic Rays for a period starting from 1990. We implemented a web interface to get a catalog of: 1) proton energy spectra at a fixed time, and 2) time modulated flux at a fixed energy. A beta-version of HelMod for more complex simulations of protons, antiprotons, electrons and positrons, at any distance from the Sun is also available to the users. The GeoMag back-tracing code reconstructs the charged particle trajectories in the Earth Magnetosphere back in time. We use the last models of internal (IGRF-11) and external (Tsyganenko 1996 -T96- and 2005 -T05-) field components valid up to 2015. The user can get the vertical rigidity cutoff estimation obtained with the backtracing technique and the asymptotic coordinates and directions for several rigidities at a fixed position and date, starting from Jan. 1st, 1968 (for T96) and Jan. 1st, 1995 (for T05) respectively till 31st Dec 2012. The website geomagsphere.org reports, in addition, a list of the most intense solar flares registered by several observatories in space, starting from January 2011, together with the evaluation of the dynamic pressure of solar energetic particles, related to the major solar events occurred in the same period.

  1. Study of the Relap5/mod3.2 wall heat flux partitioning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A and M University, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The performance of the subcooled boiling model adapted in RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed in detail for low-pressure conditions and it has been found that the void fraction profile is under-predicted. In general, any subcooled boiling model is composed of individual sub-models that account for the different physical mechanism that govern the overall process, as the wall vapor generation, interfacial shear and condensation etc. The wall heat flux partitioning model is one of the important sub-models that is a constituent of any subcooled boiling model. The function of this model is to apportion the wall heat flux to the different components (as the single/two phase fluid or bubble), as the case may be, in a two-phase flow-boiling scenario adjacent to a heated wall. The ''pumping factor'' approach is generally followed by most of the wall heat flux partitioning models, for partitioning the wall heat flux. In this work, the wall heat flux partitioning model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code is studied; in particular, the ''pumping factor'' formulation in the present code version is assessed for its performance under low-pressure conditions. In addition, three different ''pumping factor'' formulations available in the literature have been introduced into the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. Simulations of two low-pressure subcooled flow boiling experiments were performed with the refined code versions to determine the appropriate pumping factor to be used under these conditions. (author)

  2. Perturbative thermal diffusivity from partial sawtooth crashes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; White, A. E.; Edlund, E. M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Perturbative thermal diffusivity has been measured on Alcator C-Mod via the use of the extended-time-to-peak method on heat pulses generated by partial sawtooth crashes. Perturbative thermal diffusivity governs the propagation of heat pulses through a plasma. It differs from power balance thermal diffusivity, which governs steady state thermal transport. Heat pulses generated by sawtooth crashes have been used extensively in the past to study heat pulse thermal diffusivity (Lopes Cardozo 1995 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37 799), but the details of the sawtooth event typically lead to non-diffusive ‘ballistic’ transport, making them an unreliable measure of perturbative diffusivity on many tokamaks (Fredrickson et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 5051). Partial sawteeth are common on numerous tokamaks, and generate a heat pulse without the ‘ballistic’ transport that often accompanies full sawteeth (Fredrickson et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 5051). This is the first application of the extended-time-to-peak method of diffusivity calculation (Tubbing et al 1987 Nucl. Fusion 27 1843) to partial sawtooth crashes. This analysis was applied to over 50 C-Mod shots containing both L- and I-Mode. Results indicate correlations between perturbative diffusivity and confinement regime (L- versus I-mode), as well as correlations with local temperature, density, the associated gradients, and gradient scale lengths (a/L Te and a/L n ). In addition, diffusivities calculated from partial sawteeth are compared to perturbative diffusivities calculated with the nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO. We find that standard ion-scale simulations (ITG/TEM turbulence) under-predict the perturbative thermal diffusivity, but new multi-scale (ITG/TEM coupled with ETG) simulations can match the experimental perturbative diffusivity within error bars for an Alcator C-Mod L-mode plasma. Perturbative diffusivities extracted from heat pulses due to partial sawteeth provide a new constraint that can be used to

  3. Du teikei à l’AMAP, un modèle acculturé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lagane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article compare à travers deux ethnographies en France et au Japon le modèle français de l’AMAP – association de maintien de l’agriculture paysanne – au modèle dont il se réclame, le teikei, système japonais de partenariat agricole entre producteurs et consommateurs. Terrain en mutation permanente, le développement des formes de circuit court et leurs emprunts accentuent lors de la transposition la nécessité de coller le plus étroitement possible à la réalité du terrain, à son histoire sociétale, à ses traditions institutionnelles et culturelles, à ses crises, à ses dynamiques. L’analyse fait apparaître à travers les similitudes, dissemblances et adaptations de ce modèle d’emprunt, l’incidence et la complexité de la prise en compte de facteurs culturels.After two ethnological fieldworks completed in France and Japan, this article deals with the French system of Community Supported Agriculture - AMAP - and its Japanese inspiration counterpart, the Teikei system built upon local solidarity-based partnerships between farmers and members. Constantly evolving, the growing process of agriculture one-shot sale circuits and the way they are received in other cultures recalls the necessity to tune with the reality of these societies, their history, their institutional and cultural traditions as well as their crises and dynamics. The analysis emphasizes the complexity of the acculturation process related with points of convergence and discrepancy.

  4. Développement de modèles d'évaporation multi-composants et modélisation 3D des systèmes de réduction de NOx (SCR)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimian Shiadeh, Seyed Vahid

    2011-01-01

    L'objectif de cette thèse est de développer un ensemble de modèles numériques afin de simuler les processus physico-chimiques dans la chambre de combustion ainsi que dans le système de post-traitement des gaz d'échappement des moteurs à combustion interne. Dans la première partie de cette thèse, deux nouveaux modèles d'évaporation de gouttelettes et de film liquide multi-composants sont proposés. Dans le modèle d'évaporation des gouttelettes, une nouvelle expression du débit d'évaporation a é...

  5. Mod-two cohomology of symmetric groups as a Hopf ring

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Chad; Sinha, Dev

    2009-01-01

    We compute the mod-2 cohomology of the collection of all symmetric groups as a Hopf ring, using the transfer product of Strickland and Turner, which sheds considerable light on the cup product structure of the cohomology of an individual symmetric group. The main ingredient is a primitivity result for the coproduct on homology dual to the transfer product. We also briefly develop related Hopf ring structures on rings of symmetric invariants. Our primary generating set consists of classes which are linearly dual to homology classes in Nakaoka's basis, but we also develop a generating set consisting of Stiefel-Whitney classes of regular representations.

  6. Development and assessment of a modified version of RELAP5/MOD3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, G.T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    A summary of a number of modifications introduced in RELAP/MOD3 is presented. These include implementation of different heat transfer packages for different processes, modification of the low mass-flux Groeneveld CHF look-up table and of the dispersed flow interfacial area (and shear) as well as of the criterion for transition into and out from this regime, elimination of the under-relaxation schemes of the interfacial closure coefficients etc. The modified code is assessed against a number of separate-effect and integral test experiments and in contrast to the frozen version, is shown to result in physically sound predictions which are close to the measurements.

  7. La cautiva como mujer modélica The captive as model woman

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo propone una lectura no androcéntrica del personaje femenino de la tragedia de Sófocles, Áyax. El objetivo es mostrar que la cautiva Tecmesa, a través de su silencio, su prudencia y su desvalorización con respecto a la mujer de la épica, constituye una representación modélica para el imaginario del arquetipo viril del siglo V.This article proposes an interpretation not centred on the male of the female character of Sophocles's tragedy Ajax. The aim is to show that the captive Tec...

  8. Quasi-coherent fluctuations limiting the pedestal growth on Alcator C-Mod: Experiment and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hughes, J. W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baek, S. -G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); LaBombard, Brian [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Terry, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cziegler, I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Davis, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Walk, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Reinke, M. L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Theiler, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Churchhill, R. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Edlund, E. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Canik, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snyder, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); White, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Performance predictions for future fusion devices rely on an accurate model of the pedestal structure. The candidate for predictive pedestal structure is EPED, and it is imperative to test the underlying hypotheses to further gain confidence for ITER projections. Here, we present experimental work testing one of the EPED hypotheses, namely the existence of a soft limit set by microinstabilities such as the kinetic ballooning mode. Furthermore, this work extends recent work on Alactor C-Mod (Diallo et al 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 115001), to include detailed measurements of the edge fluctuations and comparisons of edge simulation codes and experimental observations.

  9. ModFossa: A library for modeling ion channels using Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneyhough, Gareth B; Thibealut, Corey M; Dascalu, Sergiu M; Harris, Frederick C

    2016-06-01

    The creation and simulation of ion channel models using continuous-time Markov processes is a powerful and well-used tool in the field of electrophysiology and ion channel research. While several software packages exist for the purpose of ion channel modeling, most are GUI based, and none are available as a Python library. In an attempt to provide an easy-to-use, yet powerful Markov model-based ion channel simulator, we have developed ModFossa, a Python library supporting easy model creation and stimulus definition, complete with a fast numerical solver, and attractive vector graphics plotting.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the semiscale Mod-1 blowdown heat transfer test series. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzuol, J.M.

    1976-06-01

    Selected experimental thermal-hydraulic data from the recent Semiscale Mod-1 blowdown heat transfer test series are analyzed from an experimental viewpoint with emphasis on explaining those phenomena which influence core fluid behavior. Comparisons are made between the trends measured by the system instrumentation and the trends predicted by the RELAP4 computer code to aid in obtaining an understanding of the interactions between phenomena occurring in different parts of the system. The analyses presented in this report are valuable for evaluating the adequacy and improving the predictive capability of analytical models developed to predict the system response of a pressurized water reactor during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA).

  11. Varian CL1800加速器"MOD"故障检修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查玉华; 王维梁

    2002-01-01

    @@ 故障现象:美国Varian公司CL1800医用直线加速器,装机近13年.正常开机,选择能量、剂量,检查、验证通过,"准备(Ready)键灯亮,同时按下"Ready"和"Beam on"(出束)键,没有束流输出,而出现"MOD"灯同时连锁机器,导致"Beam off"(无束流)键灯亮.

  12. Varian CL1800加速器"MOD"故障检修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查玉华; 王维梁

    2002-01-01

    故障现象:美国Varian公司CL1800医用直线加速器,装机近13年.正常开机,选择能量、剂量,检查、验证通过,"准备(Ready)键灯亮,同时按下"Ready"和"Beam on"(出束)键,没有束流输出,而出现"MOD"灯同时连锁机器,导致"Beam off"(无束流)键灯亮.……

  13. A modular ex situ conversion process for thick MOD-fluoride RBCO precursors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, R.; List, F. A.; Li, X. P.; Rupich, M. W.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Zhang, Y.; Thompson, J. R.; Christen, D. K.; Materials Science Division; ORNL; American Superconductor Corp.

    2009-06-01

    Following a review of heating induced chemical and structural changes in RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (RBCO) fluoride precursors (R = rare earth of Y) deposited by metalorganic deposition (MOD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD), a modular process comprising successive, functionally distinct, brief annealing steps (modules) is introduced. By decoupling events that otherwise occur simultaneously, the modular process provides a framework for addressing the complex kinetics associated with the temperature ramp of the ex situ conversion anneal. Modules for modifying the F concentration, porosity and microstructure, and RBCO nucleation are described.

  14. Vanishing magnetic shear and electron transport barriers in the RFX-mod reversed field pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbin, M; Bonfiglio, D; Escande, D F; Fassina, A; Marrelli, L; Alfier, A; Martines, E; Momo, B; Terranova, D

    2011-01-14

    We define the safety factor q for the helical plasmas of the experiment RFX-mod by accounting for the actual three-dimensional nature of the magnetic flux surfaces. Such a profile is not monotonic but goes through a maximum located in the vicinity of the electron transport barriers measured by a high resolution Thomson scattering diagnostic. Helical states with a single axis obtained in viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations exhibit similar nonmonotonic q profiles provided that the final states are preceded by a magnetic island phase, like in the experiment.

  15. Essai de modélisation de l'espace gabonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukossou MOULEINGUI

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Un milieu physique exubérant et de penetration difficile, des potentialités économiques énormes s'opposant à un sous-peuplement accentué à l'intérieur du pays par un exode rural massif, tels sont, au premier abord, les aspects saillants de l'espace gabonais. A partir de ces quelques éléments de hase, nous aboutissons à un essai de modèle graphique tourné vers le littoral atlantique nord.

  16. Modélisations et analyses de réseaux de capteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Samper, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    Cette thèse a été préparée dans le cadre d'un financement CIFRE avec France Telecom R&D Meylan.; Global modeling of energy consumption in sensor networks (including the hardware, the protocols, the application, and the physical environment).Application of formal validation methods to sensor networks.Case study from the projet ANR ARESA; Modélisation globale de l'énergie dans les réseaux de capteurs (incluant le matériel, les couches protocolaires, l'application, et l'environnement physique).A...

  17. Integrity assessment of the ferritic / austenitic dissimilar weld joint between intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator in fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T.; Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, S.; Kumar, J. G.; Mathew, M. D. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam- 603 102 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Integrity of the modified 9Cr-1Mo / alloy 800 dissimilar joint welded with Inconel 182 electrodes has been assessed under creep condition based on the detailed analysis of microstructure and stress distribution across the joint by finite element analysis. A hardness peak at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface and a hardness trough at the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic base metal developed. Un-tempered martensite was found at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface to impart high hardness in it; whereas annealing of martensitic structure of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel by inter-critical heating during welding thermal cycle resulted in hardness tough in the inter-critical HAZ. Creep tests were carried out on the joint and ferritic steel base metal at 823 K over a stress range of 160-320 MPa. The joint possessed lower creep rupture strength than its ferritic steel base metal. Failure of the joint at relatively lower stresses occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface; whereas it occurred at inter-critical region of HAZ at moderate stresses. Cavity nucleation associated with the weld interface particles led to premature failure of the joint. Finite element analysis of stress distribution across the weld joint considering the micro-mechanical strength inhomogeneity across it revealed higher von-Mises and principal stresses at the weld interface. These stresses induced preferential creep cavitation at the weld interface. Role of precipitate in enhancing creep cavitation at the weld interface has been elucidated based on the FE analysis of stress distribution across it. (authors)

  18. Evaluation and assessment of reflooding models in RELAP5/Mod2.5 and RELAP5/Mod3 codes using Lehigh University and PSI-Neptun bundle experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencar, M.; Aksan, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    An extensive analysis and assessment work on reflooding models of RELAP5/Mod2.5 and, RELAP5/Mod3/v5m5 and RELAP/Mod3/v7j have been performed. Experimental data from LehighUniversityv. and PSI-NEPTUN bundle reflooding experiments have been used for the assessment, since both of these tests cover a broad range of initial conditions. Within the range of these initial conditions, it was tried to identify their separate impacts on the calculated results. A total of six Lehigh University reflooding bundle tests and two PSI-NEPTUN tests with bounding initial conditions are selected for the analysis. Detailed nodalisation studies both for hydraulic and conduction heat transfer were done. On the basis of the results obtained from these cases, a base nodalisation scheme was established. All the other analysis work was performed by using this base nodalisation. RELAP5/Mod2.5 results do not change with renodalisation but RELAP5/Mod3 results are more sensitive to renodalisation. The results of RELAP5/Mod2.5 versions show very large deviations from the used experimental data. These results indicate that some of the phenomenology of the events occurring during the reflooding could not be identified. In the paper, detailed discussions on the main reasons of the deviations from the experimental data will be presented. Since, the results and findings of this study are meant to be a developmental aid, some recommendations have been drawn and some of these have already been implemented at PSI with promising results.

  19. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  20. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  1. A Field Evaluation of the Hardy TB MODS Kit™ for the Rapid Phenotypic Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura; Coronel, Jorge; Faulx, Dunia; Valdez, Melissa; Metzler, Mutsumi; Crudder, Chris; Castillo, Edith; Caviedes, Luz; Grandjean, Louis; Rodriguez, Mitzi; Friedland, Jon S.; Gilman, Robert H.; Moore, David A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Even though the WHO-endorsed, non-commercial MODS assay offers rapid, reliable TB liquid culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) at lower cost than any other diagnostic, uptake has been patchy. In part this reflects misperceptions about in-house assay quality assurance, but user convenience of one-stop procurement is also important. A commercial MODS kit was developed by Hardy Diagnostics (Santa Maria, CA, USA) with PATH (Seattle, WA, USA) to facilitate procurement, simplify procedures through readymade media, and enhance safety with a sealing silicone plate lid. Here we report the results from a large-scale field evaluation of the MODS kit in a government service laboratory. Methods & Findings 2446 sputum samples were cultured in parallel in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), conventional MODS and in the MODS kit. MODS kit DST was compared with conventional MODS (direct) DST and proportion method (indirect) DST. 778 samples (31.8%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive. Compared to conventional MODS the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (95% confidence intervals) of the MODS Kit were 99.3% (98.3–99.8%), 98.3% (97.5–98.8%), 95.8% (94.0–97.1%), and 99.7% (99.3–99.9%). Median (interquartile ranges) time to culture-positivity (and rifampicin and isoniazid DST) was 10 (9–13) days for conventional MODS and 8.5 (7–11) for MODS Kit (pMODS kit was almost universally concordant with conventional MODS (97.9% agreement, 665/679 evaluable samples) and reference indirect DST (97.9% agreement, 687/702 evaluable samples). Conclusions MODS kit delivers performance indistinguishable from conventional MODS and offers a convenient, affordable alternative with enhanced safety from the sealing silicone lid. The availability in the marketplace of this platform, which conforms to European standards (CE-marked), readily repurposed for second-line DST in the near future, provides a fresh opportunity for improving

  2. A field evaluation of the Hardy TB MODS Kit™ for the rapid phenotypic diagnosis of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martin

    Full Text Available Even though the WHO-endorsed, non-commercial MODS assay offers rapid, reliable TB liquid culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST at lower cost than any other diagnostic, uptake has been patchy. In part this reflects misperceptions about in-house assay quality assurance, but user convenience of one-stop procurement is also important. A commercial MODS kit was developed by Hardy Diagnostics (Santa Maria, CA, USA with PATH (Seattle, WA, USA to facilitate procurement, simplify procedures through readymade media, and enhance safety with a sealing silicone plate lid. Here we report the results from a large-scale field evaluation of the MODS kit in a government service laboratory.2446 sputum samples were cultured in parallel in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ, conventional MODS and in the MODS kit. MODS kit DST was compared with conventional MODS (direct DST and proportion method (indirect DST. 778 samples (31.8% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive. Compared to conventional MODS the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (95% confidence intervals of the MODS Kit were 99.3% (98.3-99.8%, 98.3% (97.5-98.8%, 95.8% (94.0-97.1%, and 99.7% (99.3-99.9%. Median (interquartile ranges time to culture-positivity (and rifampicin and isoniazid DST was 10 (9-13 days for conventional MODS and 8.5 (7-11 for MODS Kit (p<0.01. Direct rifampicin and isoniazid DST in MODS kit was almost universally concordant with conventional MODS (97.9% agreement, 665/679 evaluable samples and reference indirect DST (97.9% agreement, 687/702 evaluable samples.MODS kit delivers performance indistinguishable from conventional MODS and offers a convenient, affordable alternative with enhanced safety from the sealing silicone lid. The availability in the marketplace of this platform, which conforms to European standards (CE-marked, readily repurposed for second-line DST in the near future, provides a fresh opportunity for improving equity of

  3. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  4. Development of low-cost inverted microscope to detect early growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MODS culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Zimic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay for rapid, low-cost detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant tuberculosis depends upon visualization of the characteristic cording colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid media. This has conventionally required an inverted light microscope in order to inspect the MODS culture plates from below. Few tuberculosis laboratories have this item and the capital cost of $5,000 for a high-end microscope could be a significant obstacle to MODS roll-out. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that the precise definition provided by costly high-specification inverted light microscopes might not be necessary for pattern recognition. SIGNIFICANCE: In this work we describe the development of a low-cost artesenal inverted microscope that can operate in both a standard or digital mode to effectively replace the expensive commercial inverted light microscope, and an integrated system that could permit a local and remote diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  5. Introduction au numéro : Quel modèle de développement ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rolland

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available La thématique de ce deuxième numéro électronique de la Revue Interventions Économiques qui porte sur le modèle québécois de développement, nous interroge, plus largement, sur le modèle ou les politiques qui conviennent au XXIe siècle, "Y a-t-il un modèle québécois ? Défis et perspectives, telle était la question que posaient les organisateurs du colloque de l’année 2000 de l’Association d’Économie Politique. Les articles et documents audiovisuels composant ce numéro sont issus de cette rencon...

  6. Modèles de l’acquisition lexicale en L2 : où en sommes-nous ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Heather,

    2010-01-01

    Malgré l’importance évidente du lexique dans l’acquisition d’une L2, nous manquons de modèles fiables pour guider nos recherches et nos démarches pédagogiques dans le domaine de l’apprentissage du vocabulaire. Après une brève synthèse des modèles existants pour l’acquisition lexicale en L1, nous relèverons les zones encore indéterminées des modèles d’acquisition lexicale en L2. Nous procéderons ensuite à des propositions didactiques pour l’acquisition lexicale en situation institutionnelle, e...

  7. Développements récents des matériels de modélisation physique en centrifugeuse

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La modélisation physique en centrifugeuse géotechnique est une technique apparue dans les années 1930, mais qui s'est surtout développée à partir des années 1980. Elle s'inscrit dans la méthodologie des sciences expérimentales s'appuyant sur des modèles réduits. Elle vient en complément d'autres démarches contribuant au dimensionnement des ouvrages géotechniques, telles que les méthodes empiriques fondées sur des essais de laboratoire et in situ ou la modélisation numérique. Depuis les débuts...

  8. Modèles pour les assemblées de particules: application aux mouvements de foule

    OpenAIRE

    Pecol, Philippe; Erlicher, Silvano; DAL PONT, Stéfano; Argoul, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Dans cette communication, nous nous intéressons à la modélisation des mouvements d'une assemblée de particules et à la gestion de l'interaction entre elles et avec le milieu environnant. L'objectif final est de proposer un modèle d'une foule de piétons dans plusieurs situations de marche (libre, évacuation d'urgence, etc.). Ce modèle doit permettre de traiter les interactions locales piéton-piéton et piéton-obstacle (mur, etc.) afin de mieux comprendre la dynamique globale d'un trafic piétonn...

  9. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.2 with condensation experiment in the presence of noncondensables in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The standard RELAP5/MOD3.2 code were assessed with the condensation experiment in the presence of noncondensable gas in a vertical tube of PCCS of CP-1300. There are two wall film condensation models, the default model and the alternative model, in RELAP5/MOD3.2. The experimental apparatus was modeled with the two models, and simulations were performed for several sub-tests to be compared with the experimental results. In overall sense the simulation results showed that the default model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 under-predicts the heat transfer coefficients, while the alternative model over-predicts them throughout the condensing tube. 10 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  10. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  11. The modA10 phasevarion of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae R2866 regulates multiple virulence-associated traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagoner, Timothy M; Atack, John M; Nelson, Kevin L; Smith, Hannah K; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P; Stull, Terrence L; Smith, Arnold L

    2016-03-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a human restricted commensal and pathogen that elicits inflammation by adhering to and invading airway epithelia cells: transcytosis across these cells can result in systemic infection. NTHi strain R2866 was isolated from the blood of a normal 30-month old infant with meningitis, and is unusual for NTHi in that it is able to cause systemic infection. Strain R2866 is able to replicate in normal human serum due to expression of lgtC which mimics human blood group p(k). R2866 contains a phase-variable DNA methyltransferase, modA10 which switches ON and OFF randomly and reversibly due to polymerase slippage over a long tetrameric repeat tract located in its open reading frame. Random gain or loss of repeats during replication can results in expressed (ON), or not expressed (OFF) states, the latter due to a frameshift or transcriptional termination at a premature stop codon. We sought to determine if the unusual virulence of R2866 was modified by modA10 phase-variation. A modA10 knockout mutant was found to have increased adherence to, and invasion of, human ear and airway monolayers in culture, and increased invasion and transcytosis of polarized human bronchial epithelial cells. Intriguingly, the rate of bacteremia was lower in the infant rat model of infection than a wild-type R2866 strain, but the fatality rate was greater. Transcriptional analysis comparing the modA10 knockout to the R2866 wild-type parent strain showed increased expression of genes in the modA10 knockout whose products mediate cellular adherence. We conclude that loss of ModA10 function in strain R2866 enhances colonization and invasion by increasing expression of genes that allow for increased adherence, which can contribute to the increased virulence of this strain.

  12. The modA10 phasevarion of Nontypeable H. influenzae R2866 regulates multiple virulence-associated traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Atack, John M.; Nelson, Kevin L.; Smith, Hannah K.; Fox, Kate L.; Jennings, Michael P.; Terrence, L. Stull; Smith, Arnold L.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a human restricted commensal and pathogen that elicits inflammation by adhering to and invading airway epithelia cells: transcytosis across these cells can result in systemic infection. NTHi strain R2866 was isolated from the blood of a normal 30-month old infant with meningitis, and is unusual for NTHi in that it is able to cause systemic infection. Strain R2866 is able to replicate in normal human serum due to expression of lgtC which mimics human blood group pk. R2866 contains a phase-variable DNA methyltransferase, modA10 which switches ON and OFF randomly and reversibly due to polymerase slippage over a long tetrameric repeat tract located in its open reading frame. Random gain or loss of repeats during replication can results in expressed (ON), or not expressed (OFF) states, the latter due to a frameshift or transcriptional termination at a premature stop codon. We sought to determine if the unusual virulence of R2866 was modified by modA10 phase-variation. A modA10 knockout mutant was found to have increased adherence to, and invasion of, human ear and airway monolayers in culture, and increased invasion and transcytosis of polarized human bronchial epithelial cells. Intriguingly, the rate of bacteremia was lower in the infant rat model of infection than a wild-type R2866 strain, but the fatality rate was greater. Transcriptional analysis comparing the modA10 knockout to the R2866 wild-type parent strain showed increased expression of genes in the modA10 knockout whose products mediate cellular adherence. We conclude that loss of ModA10 function in strain R2866 enhances colonization and invasion by increasing expression of genes that allow for increased adherence, which can contribute to the increased virulence of this strain. PMID:26718097

  13. A Unified Model for Slug Flow Generation Modélisation de la formation des bouchons : vers un modèle stochastique unifié

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernicot M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the global safety and reliability level of multi-phase production systems and to guarantee their economical efficiency, we need a better understanding and control of hydraulic instabilities observed at the outlet of multi-phase sea-lines. This may be obtained through the development of slug flow stochastic models, which must be able to explain:(a The generation of the various types of slug length distributions which are observed on experimental data sets. (b The evolution of these distributions along the sea-lines up to their outlets, where large hydraulic fluctuations may be dangerous for the treatment installations. Based on experimental as well as theoretical arguments, we present such a model with emphasis on slug generation. We give a detailed theoretical analysis, together with a discussion of the underlying assumptions which justify the introduction of this model. Ce résumé contient des formules (*** qui ne peuvent s'afficher à l'écran. Pour garantir à la fois la sûreté de fonctionnement et la rentabilité des systèmes de production avec transport polyphasique, il est nécessaire de mieux comprendre et maîtriser les phénomènes d'instabilité hydraulique dans les conduites polyphasiques. Ceci suppose la mise au point et l'utilisation de Modèles de Simulation des écoulements portant, non seulement sur l'évolution dans le temps et en tout point de la conduite des valeurs moyennes des diverses variables (cf. le modèle TACITE, mais aussi sur leurs aspects stochastiques en prenant spécialement en compte : - les lois statistiques propres des divers mécanismes fondamentaux de formation des bouchons (distribution des longueurs de bouchons de liquide et de poches de gaz; - l'évolution de ces lois statistiques dans le temps et tout le long de la conduite (et ceci, jusqu'à son extrémité, extrémité dont les caractéristiques intéressent tout spécialement l'opérateur de la conduite. Nous présenterons ici

  14. Mod Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Watkinson School head John Bracker was able to accomplish the school's plan of having a new science building that would meet all of their needs: innovative building that offers a range of eco-friendly features, an inspiring learning environment, and even better, the right price. Bracker contemplates on a structure that…

  15. Mod Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Watkinson School head John Bracker was able to accomplish the school's plan of having a new science building that would meet all of their needs: innovative building that offers a range of eco-friendly features, an inspiring learning environment, and even better, the right price. Bracker contemplates on a structure that…

  16. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  17. Design of a new optical system for Alcator C-Mod motional Stark effect diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jinseok; Scott, Steve; Bitter, Manfred; Lerner, Scott

    2008-10-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod uses an in-vessel optical system (five lenses and three mirrors) to relay polarized light to an external polarimeter because port access limitations on Alcator C-Mod preclude a direct view of the diagnostic beam. The system experiences unacceptable, spurious drifts of order several degrees in measured pitch angle over the course of a run day. Recent experiments illuminated the MSE diagnostic with polarized light of fixed orientation as heat was applied to various optical elements. A large change in measured angle was observed as two particular lenses were heated, indicating that thermal-stress-induced birefringence is a likely cause of the spurious variability. Several new optical designs have been evaluated to eliminate the affected in-vessel lenses and to replace the focusing they provide with curved mirrors; however, ray tracing calculations imply that this method is not feasible. A new approach is under consideration that utilizes in situ calibrations with in-vessel reference polarized light sources.

  18. Modélisation des profils de raie dans les plasmas : PPP nouvelle version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Mossé, C.

    2006-12-01

    Le code de calcul de profils de raie PPP a été développé à l'origine avec l'objectif de synthétiser les raies spectrales émises par les plasmas et ce pour n'importe quel émetteur et n'importe quelles conditions de plasmas. Les motivations de ce travail ont été d'une part le diagnostic et d'autre part les études de la dynamique non linéaire des charges dans les plasmas. Le code numérique basé sur des modèles originaux met en jeu des algorithmes qui réalisent le meilleur compromis entre précision et rapidité. En particulier, le mouvement des charges perturbatrices est pris en compte par le Modèle de Fluctuation de Fréquences qui transforme le profil statique en profil dynamique. Ce code a été sans cesse amélioré au cours des dix dernières années avec l'aide d'une technique de simulation numérique basée sur la méthode de dynamique moléculaire qui fournit des profils dits de référence.

  19. ICRF antenna matching system with ferrite tuners for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Binus, A.; Wukitch, S. J.; Koert, P.; Murray, R.; Pfeiffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time fast ferrite tuning (FFT) has been successfully implemented on the ICRF antennas on Alcator C-Mod. The former prototypical FFT system on the E-port 2-strap antenna has been upgraded using new ferrite tuners that have been designed specifically for the operational parameters of the Alcator C-Mod ICRF system (˜ 80 MHz). Another similar FFT system, with two ferrite tuners and one fixed-length stub, has been installed on the transmission line of the D-port 2-strap antenna. These two systems share a Linux-server-based real-time controller. These FFT systems are able to achieve and maintain the reflected power to the transmitters to less than 1% in real time during the plasma discharges under almost all plasma conditions, and help ensure reliable high power operation of the antennas. The innovative field-aligned (FA) 4-strap antenna on J-port has been found to have an interesting feature of loading insensitivity vs. plasma conditions. This feature allows us to significantly improve the matching for the FA J-port antenna by installing carefully designed stubs on the two transmission lines. The reduction of the RF voltages in the transmission lines has enabled the FA J-port antenna to deliver 3.7 MW RF power to plasmas out of the 4 MW source power in high performance I-mode plasmas.

  20. Modèles aléatoires en écologie et évolution

    CERN Document Server

    Méléard, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Le but du livre est de définir et développer une grande gamme d'outils probabilistes pour la modélisation en biologie des populations, afin de décrire des dynamiques temporelles de quantités biologiques telles que la taille d'une ou plusieurs populations, la proportion d'un allèle dans une population ou la position d'un individu. En partant de modèles markoviens discrets (marches aléatoires, processus de Galton-Watson), nous abordons progressivement le calcul stochastique et les équations différentielles stochastiques, puis les processus markoviens de saut, tels les processus de branchement à temps continu et les processus de naissance et mort. Nous étudions également les processus discret et continu pour l'évolution génétique et les généalogies: processus de Wright-Fisher et coalescent. Le livre détaille systématiquement les calculs de quantités d'intérêt pour les biologistes. De nombreux exercices d'application sont proposés. Le dernier chapitre montre l'apport de ces outils pour des...

  1. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bitter, M.; Ellis, R.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Brandstetter, S.; Eikenberry, E.; Hofer, P.; Schneebeli, M. [Dectris Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    A new energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera has been recently installed on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic is capable of 1D or 2D imaging with a spatial resolution of Almost-Equal-To 1 cm, an energy resolution of Almost-Equal-To 1 keV in the range of 3.5-15 keV and a maximum time resolution of 5 ms. A novel use of a Pilatus 2 hybrid-pixel x-ray detector [P. Kraft et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 368 (2009)] is employed in which the lower energy threshold of individual pixels is adjusted, allowing regions of a single detector to be sensitive to different x-ray energy ranges. Development of this new detector calibration technique was done as a collaboration between PPPL and Dectris Ltd. The calibration procedure is described, and the energy resolution of the detector is characterized. Initial data from this installation on Alcator C-Mod is presented. This diagnostic provides line-integrated measurements of impurity emission which can be used to determine impurity concentrations as well as the electron energy distribution.

  2. After the bomb drops: a new look at radiation-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline P; McBride, William H

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing concern that, since the Cold War era, there has been little progress regarding the availability of medical countermeasures in the event of either a radiological or nuclear incident. Fortunately, since much is known about the acute consequences that are likely to be experienced by an exposed population, the probability of survival from the immediate hematological crises after total body irradiation (TBI) has improved in recent years. Therefore focus has begun to shift towards later down-stream effects, seen in such organs as the gastrointestinal tract (GI), skin, and lung. However, the mechanisms underlying therapy-related normal tissue late effects, resulting from localised irradiation, have remained somewhat elusive and even less is known about the development of the delayed syndrome seen in the context of whole body exposures, when it is likely that systemic perturbations may alter tissue microenvironments and homeostasis. The sequence of organ failures observed after near-lethal TBI doses are similar in many ways to that of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), leading to multiple organ failure (MOF). In this review, we compare the mechanistic pathways that underlie both MODS and delayed normal tissue effects since these may impact on strategies to identify radiation countermeasures.

  3. Analysis of the ductility dip cracking in the nickel-base alloy 617mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, A.; Nellesen, J.; Zielke, R.; Tillmann, W.

    2017-03-01

    While testing steam leading power plant components made of the nickel-base alloy A617mod at elevated temperatures (700 °C), ductility dip cracking (DDC) was observed in welding seams and their surroundings. In order to clarify the mechanism of crack formation, investigations were carried out on welded specimens made of A617mod. Interrupted tensile tests were performed on tensile specimens taken from the area of the welding seam. To simulate the conditions, the tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 700 °C and with a low strain rate. Local strain fields at grain boundaries and inside single grains were determined at different deformation states by means of two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC). Besides the strain fields, local hardnesses (nanoindentation), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed. Besides information concerning the grain orientation, the EBSD measurement provides information on the coincidence site lattice (CSL) at grain boundaries as well as the Schmid factor of single grains. All results of the analysis methods mentioned above were correlated and compared to each other and related to the crack formation. Among other things, correlations between strain fields and Schmid factors were determined. The investigations show that the following influences affect the crack formation: orientation of the grain boundaries to the direction of the loading, the orientation of the grains to each other (CSL), and grain boundary sliding.

  4. Acoustic noise generation by the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of measurements taken over the past year of the acoustic emissions from the DOE/NASA MOD-1 Wind Turbine show the maximum acoustic energy is concentrated in the low frequency range, often below 100 Hz. The temporal as well as the frequency characteristics of the turbine sounds have been shown to be important since the MOD-1 is capable of radiating both coherent and incoherent noise. The coherent sounds are usually impulsive and are manifested in an averaged frequency domain plot as large numbers of discrete energy bands extending from the blade passage frequency to beyond 50 Hz on occasion. It is these impulsive sounds which are identified as the principal source of the annoyance to a dozen families living within 3 km of the turbine. The source of the coherent noise appears to be the rapid, unsteady blade loads encountered as the blade passes through the wake of the tower structure. Annoying levels are occasionally reached at nearby homes due to the interaction of the low frequency, high energy peaks in the acoustic impulses and the structural modes of the homes as well as by direct radiation outdoors. The peak levels of these impulses can be enhanced or subdued through complete propagation.

  5. Design and operation of the RFX-mod plasma shape control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, G., E-mail: giuseppe.marchiori@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Finotti, C. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Kudlacek, O. [Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Villone, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell’Informazione (DIEI), Università di Cassino (Italy); Zanca, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Abate, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell’Informazione (DIEI), Università di Cassino (Italy); Cavazzana, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Jackson, G.L.; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Marrelli, L. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Linearized plasma response model of RFX-mod Tokamak Double/Single Null discharges. • Model based design of a vertical stability control system. • Model based design of a plasma shape LQG control system with Kalman state estimator. • Real time plasma boundary reconstruction algorithm. • Tracking and disturbance rejection experimental tests. - Abstract: The aim of executing Single Null discharges in RFX-mod operating as a Tokamak led to the design and implementation of a plasma shape feedback control system. A fully model-based approach was followed which allowed dealing with critical issues such as the presence of a conducting shell, the strong coupling of the poloidal field coils and the voltage limits of the power supplies. A Linear Quadratic regulator and a Kalman state estimator were designed and implemented in the real time MARTe framework together with an algorithm for the real-time plasma boundary reconstruction. The problem of a number of sensors along the poloidal direction adequate only for circular discharges was also successfully tackled. The development of the system and its performances in terms of tracking and disturbance rejection capability are presented in the paper.

  6. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD21 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, G.; Malakar, N.; Hughes, T.; Islam, T.; Hook, S.

    2016-01-01

    This document outlines the theory and methodology for generating the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level-2 daily daytime and nighttime 1-km land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity product using the Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm. The MODIS-TES (MOD21_L2) product, will include the LST and emissivity for three MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) bands 29, 31, and 32, and will be generated for data from the NASA-EOS AM and PM platforms. This is version 1.0 of the ATBD and the goal is maintain a 'living' version of this document with changes made when necessary. The current standard baseline MODIS LST products (MOD11*) are derived from the generalized split-window (SW) algorithm (Wan and Dozier 1996), which produces a 1-km LST product and two classification-based emissivities for bands 31 and 32; and a physics-based day/night algorithm (Wan and Li 1997), which produces a 5-km (C4) and 6-km (C5) LST product and emissivity for seven MODIS bands: 20, 22, 23, 29, 31-33.

  7. Evaluation of the RELAP4/MOD6 thermal-hydraulic code. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, W.S.; Margolis, S.G.; Rice, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The NRC RELAP4/MOD6 computer code was recently released to the public for use in thermal-hydraulic analysis. This code has a unique new capability permitting analysis of both the blowdown and reflood portions of a postulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A principal code evaluation objective is to assess the accuracy of the code for computing LOCA behavior over a wide range of system sizes and scaling concepts. The scales of interest include all LOCA experiments and will ultimately encompass full-sized PWR systems for which no experiments or data are available. Quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the code when it is applied to large PWR systems is still in the future. With RELAP4/MOD6, however, a technique has been demonstrated for using results derived from small-scale blowdown and reflood experiments to predict the accuracy of calculations for similar experiments of significantly different scale or component size. This demonstration is considered a first step in establishing confidence levels for the accuracy of calculations of a postulated LOCA.

  8. Integrated Plasma Simulation of Lower Hybrid Current Drive Modification of Sawtooth in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Schmidt, A. E.; Wright, J. C.; Kessel, C. E.; Batchelor, D. B.; Berry, L. A.; Harvey, R. W.

    2010-11-01

    Experiments were performed in Alcator C-Mod, where the onset time for sawteeth was delayed significantly (up to 0.5 s) relative to ohmically heated plasmas, through injection of off-axis LH current drive power [1]. In this poster we discuss simulations of these experiments using the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) [2], through which driven current density profiles and hard x-ray spectra are computed using a ray tracing code (GENRAY) and Fokker Planck code (CQL3D) [3], that are executed repeatedly in time. The background plasma is evolved in these simulations using the TSC transport code with the Porcelli sawtooth model [4]. [4pt] [1] C. E. Kessel et al, Bull. of the Am. Phys. Soc. 53, Poster PP6.00074 (2008). [0pt] [2] D. Batchelor et al, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 125, 012039 (2008). [0pt] [3] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, Proc. of the IAEA Tech. Comm. Mtg. on Sim. and Mod. of Therm. Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992). [0pt] [4] S. C. Jardin et al, Journal Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).

  9. An assessment of the CORCON-MOD3 code. Part 1: Thermal-hydraulic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhov, V.; Kanukova, V.; Vinogradova, T.; Askenov, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Safety; Nikulshin, V. [Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.

    1996-09-01

    This report deals with the subject of CORCON-Mod3 code validation (thermal-hydraulic modeling capability only) based on MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) experiments conducted under different programs in the past decade. Thermal-hydraulic calculations (i.e., concrete ablation, melt temperature, melt energy, concrete temperature, and condensible and non-condensible gas generation) were performed with the code, and compared with the data from 15 experiments, conducted at different scales using both simulant (metallic and oxidic) and prototypic melt materials, using different concrete types, and with and without an overlying water pool. Sensitivity studies were performed in a few cases involving, for example, heat transfer from melt to concrete, condensed phase chemistry, etc. Further, special analysis was performed using the ACE L8 experimental data to illustrate the differences between the experimental and the reactor conditions, and to demonstrate that with proper corrections made to the code, the calculated results were in better agreement with the experimental data. Generally, in the case of dry cavity and metallic melts, CORCON-Mod3 thermal-hydraulic calculations were in good agreement with the test data. For oxidic melts in a dry cavity, uncertainties in heat transfer models played an important role for two melt configurations--a stratified geometry with segregated metal and oxide layers, and a heterogeneous mixture. Some discrepancies in the gas release data were noted in a few cases.

  10. allied Bio330 full course [ all discussions homework  all check understanding and mod 6 progress test

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

     allied Bio330 full course [ all discussions homework  all check understanding and mod 6 progress test Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bio330-full-course/   mod 1 Hello! Please respond to the following questions (minimum of 150 words). What biome do you live in? Describe its climate including seasonal temperatures and precipitation. List 3 ways that humans have impacted the local environment. List 2 common animals and 2 common plants. List one adaptat...

  11. Prospective evaluation of simply modified MODS assay: an effective tool for TB diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyasirinroje B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Boonchai Chaiyasirinroje1,*, Myo Nyein Aung2,3,*, Saiyud Moolphate1,4, Yuthichai Kasetjaroen5, Somsak Rienthong5, Dhanida Rienthong5, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan6, Wiravoot Sangchun6, Narin Suriyon7, Satoshi Mitarai4, Norio Yamada41TB/HIV Research Project, RIT, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 4Research Institute of Tuberculosis (RIT, Tokyo, Japan; 5Bureau of Tuberculosis, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Chiang Rai Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground and setting: Thailand is one of the highest tuberculosis (TB-burdened countries. Chiang Rai, the northernmost province of Thailand has high tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and the laboratory workload for TB culture and drug susceptibility testing is increasing.Objectives: To evaluate the simply modified microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay (MODS in the setting of a developing country.Methods: In this cross-sectional diagnostic study, a total of 202 sputum samples of clinically diagnosed TB patients were used to test the performance of MODS assay in reference to gold standard BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 liquid culture system and Ogawa solid culture. Sputum samples were collected from clinically diagnosed TB patients. Culture growth rate and time to culture positivity were compared among three methods. Performance of modified MODS assay was evaluated for detection of mycobacterium drug resistance in reference to MGIT antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST.Result: Median time to culture positivity by MODS, solid, and liquid culture were 12, 30, and 6 days respectively. Compared to the drug susceptibility test (DST result of reference liquid culture, the sensitivity and specificity of MODS for

  12. Sensitivity of MODIS evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) to the acuracy of meteorological data and land use and land cover parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhoff, Anderson; Santini Adamatti, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    MODIS evapotranspiration (MOD16) is currently available with 1 km of spatial resolution over 109.03 Million km2 of vegetated land surface areas and this information is widely used to evaluate the linkages between hydrological, energy and carbon cycles. The algorithm is driven by meteorological reanalysis data and MODIS remotely-sensed data, which include land use and land cover classification (MCD12Q1), leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) (MOD15A2) and albedo (MOD43b3). For calibration and parameterization, the algorithm uses a Biome Property Look-up Table (BPLUT) based on MCD12Q1 land cover classification. Several studies evaluated MOD16 accuracy using evapotranspiration measurements and water balance analysis, showing that this product can reproduce global evapotranspiration effectively under a variety climate condition, from local to wide-basin scale, with uncertainties up to 25%. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of MOD16 algorithm to land use and land cover parameterization and to meteorological data. Considering that MCD12Q1 has an accuracy between 70 and 85% at continental scale, we changed land cover parametererization to understand the influence of land use and land cover classification on MOD16 evapotranspiration estimations. Knowing that meteorological reanalysis data also have uncertainties (mostly related to the coarse spatial resolution), we compared MOD16 evapotranspiration driven by observed meteorological data to those driven by the reanalysis data. Our analysis were carried in South America, with evapotranspiration and meteorological measurements from the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) at 8 different sites, including tropical rainforest, tropical dry forest, selective logged forest, seasonal flooded forest and pasture/agriculture. Our results indicate that land use and land cover classification has a strong influence on MOD16 algorithm. The use of

  13. Approches orientées modèle pour la capture des mouvements du visage en vision par ordinateur

    OpenAIRE

    Malciu, Marius

    2001-01-01

    Modèle 3D d'objet, séquences vidéos monoscopiques, estimation de la pose 3D, recalage 3D/2D, texture, flot optique, translation et rotation de grande amplitude, occultation, appariement par bloc, interpolation temporelle, modélisation ondulatoire, critère de visibilité, analyse de déformations faciales, description MPEG-4 du visage, prototype déformable, bouche, yeux, B-splines, classification floue non supervisée, méthode du simplexe, synthèse de déformations faciales..

  14. Effect of vortex generators on the power conversion performance and structural dynamic loads of the Mod-2 wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Applying vortex generators from 20 to 100 percent span of the Mod-2 rotor resulted in a projected increase in annual energy capture of 20 percent and reduced the wind speed at which rated power is reached by nearly 3 m/sec. Application of vortex generators from 20 to 70 percent span, the fixed portion of the Mod-2 rotor, resulted in a projected increase in annual energy capture of about half this. This improved performance came at the cost of a small increase in cyclic blade loads in below rated power conditions. Cyclic blade loads were found to correlate well with the change in wind speed during one rotor revolution.

  15. Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Edward A.

    1980-10-01

    Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

  16. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  17. 3D neutronic calculations: CAD-MCNP methodology applied to vessel activation in KOYO-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreras, Y.; Lafuente, A.; Sordo, F.; Cabellos, O.; Perlado, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for 3D neutronic calculations suitable for complex and extensive geometries. The geometry of the system design is first fully modelled with a CAD program, and subsequently processed through a MCNP-CAD interface in order to generate an MCNP geometry file. Neutronic irradiation results are finally achieved running the MCNPX program, where the geometry input card used is directly the MCNP-CAD interface output. This methodology enables accurate neutronic calculations for complex geometries characterised by high detail levels. This procedure will be applied to the Fast Ignition Fusion Reactor KOYO-F to determine first neutron fluxes calculations along the blanket as well as the material activation in the reduced martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel vessel.

  18. Microstructures of friction surfaced coatings. A TEM study; Gefuege durch Reibauftragschweissen aufgetragener Beschichtungen. Eine TEM-Untersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Javed; Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Misra, Mano [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Dilip, J. John Samuel [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; Pal, Deepankar; Stucker, Brent [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; 3D Sim, Park City, UT (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The microstructures of dissimilar metal welds between 9Cr-1Mo (Modified) (P91) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) with Ni-based alloy interlayers (Inconel 625, Inconel 600 and Inconel 800H) are reported. These interlayers were deposited by the friction surfacing method one over the other on P91 alloy, which was finally friction welded to AISI 304. In this paper, the results of microstructural evolution in the friction surfaced coated interlayers (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) are reported. For comparative purposes, the microstructures of consumable rods (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) and dissimilar metal base metals (P91 and AISI 304) were also reported. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited dynamic recrystallization. In friction surfaced coatings, the carbide particles were found to be finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix, compared to their rod counterparts.

  19. Evaluation of Iron Aluminide Coatings for Oxidation Protection in Water Vapor Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University; Wang, Y. Q. [Tennessee Technological University; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Long-term (> 10,000h) oxidation behavior of aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or pack cementation on representative ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (type 304L stainless steel) are being studied in air + 10% water vapor in the temperature range of 650-800 C. Unlike the uncoated alloys, which are severely attacked in this environment, the CVD aluminide coatings have not failed after 16,000h at 700 C or 10,000h at 800 C. The pack aluminide coatings also show good oxidation protection after testing for {approx}5,000h at 700 C. In addition, initial efforts have been made to fabricate coatings at lower aluminizing temperatures and the current results suggest that FeAl coatings can be synthesized at temperatures as low as 700 C.

  20. 3D neutronic calculations: CAD-MCNP methodology applied to vessel activation in KOYO-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreras, Y; Cabellos, O; Perlado, J M [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM)/ETSII/Universidad Politecnica, Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, A; Sordo, F [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: yuri@denim.upm.es

    2008-05-15

    This paper presents a methodology for 3D neutronic calculations suitable for complex and extensive geometries. The geometry of the system design is first fully modelled with a CAD program, and subsequently processed through a MCNP-CAD interface in order to generate an MCNP geometry file. Neutronic irradiation results are finally achieved running the MCNPX program, where the geometry input card used is directly the MCNP-CAD interface output. This methodology enables accurate neutronic calculations for complex geometries characterised by high detail levels. This procedure will be applied to the Fast Ignition Fusion Reactor KOYO-F to determine first neutron fluxes calculations along the blanket as well as the material activation in the reduced martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel vessel.

  1. MODIS/TERRA MOD44W Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid MOD44W The new MODIS 250 m land-water mask (Short Name: MOD44W) is an improvement over the...

  2. Steels for cryogenic power engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakov, B.S.; Nikolaich A.Y.; Oparin, V.A.

    1986-09-01

    The authors investigated steels containing 0.9% C and 30% Mnwhich were additionally alloyed with 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 11% Al. Phase analysis on a diffractometer established that steels containing up to 10% Al have a single-phase austenitic structure and do not undergo any transformations whatsoever in plastic deformation and when cooled to 4 K. The magnetic permeability in an external magnetic field with intensity 620 kA/m and the mechanical properties of the investigated steels are presented in a table. These properties improve when their aluminum content increases to 10%; further alloying with aluminum causes some impairment of the plastic and ductile properties which is connected with the formation of alpha-phase in the structure of the steels.

  3. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot...

  4. Development of ODS ferritic-martensitic steels for application to high temperature and irradiation environment; Developpement d'une nouvelle nuance martensitique ODS pour utilisation sous rayonnement a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambard, V

    2000-07-01

    Iron oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are candidate for nuclear fuel cladding. Therefore, it is crucial to control their microstructure in order to optimise their mechanical properties at temperatures up to 700 deg C. The industrial candidates, ODS ferritic alloys, present an anisotropic microstructure which induces a weakening of mechanical properties in transversal direction as well as the precipitation of brittle phases under thermal aging and irradiation. For this purpose, we tried to develop a material with isotropic properties. We studied several 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic alloys, strengthened or not by oxide dispersion. The mechanical alloying was performed by attribution and powders were consolidated by hot extrusion. In this work, different metallurgical characterisation techniques and modelling were used to optimise a new martensitic ODS alloy. Microstructural and chemical characterization of matrix has been done. The effect of austenitizing and isochronal tempering treatments on microstructure and hardness has been studied. Oxide distribution, size and chemical composition have been studied before and after high temperature thermal treatment. The study of phase transformation upon heating has permitted the extrapolation to the equilibrium temperature formation of austenite. Phase transformation diagrams upon cooling have been determined and the transformation kinetics have been linked to austenite grain size by a simple relation. Fine grain size is unfavourable for the targeted application, so a particular thermal treatment inducing a coarser grain structure has been developed. Finally, tensile properties have been determined for the different microstructures. (author)

  5. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  7. Prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels after multiple trauma for the development of multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasper, C; Kalmbach, M; Dikos, G D; Meller, R; Müller, C; Krettek, C; Hildebrand, F; Frink, M

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in treatment of severe injured patients, e.g. due to damage control orthopaedics, multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and sepsis are major complications in daily practice. During one year 94 patients were prospectively collected. ISS 16, age 18-60 y, primary admission to our level-1 trauma center, survival > 48 hours after trauma. The development of MODS and sepsis were observed and different groups were formed (+/-). Demographic data revealed no significant differences between the subgroups. Comparing groups +MODS and -MODS significant differences on admission day were observed, when PCT showed first on day 2 after trauma differences. Regarding the development of sepsis PCT was advantageous to IL-6 showing significant higher plasma levels in group +sepsis from the first day after trauma. Serum levels of IL-6 and PCT could be useful in early identification of high risk patients to develop posttraumatic MODS. For sepsis PCT is the better prognostic factor.

  8. Streamlining Iron and Steel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eliminating unproductive iron and steel facilities is vital to environmental protection and sustainable development of this industry The Chinese Government is once again shutting down unproductive plants in tune with its green policy and the march toward sustainable development.This time it’s the iron and steel industry to feel the brunt of the Chinese Government’s stringent measures. The deafening buzz of factory floors have

  9. Rapid Cycle Casting of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    such as macrosegregation, hot tears, and blowholes are also difficult to control. Rheocasting l on the other hand, is a recent development which...viscosity. Advantages of the rheocasting process are: * Reduced attack of die or mold because of the reduced tempera- ture (by 1000 C for steel) and...4W W ’ V6W 4 1.2 THE SD PROCESS Many metals, including steel, can be cast at still lower tempera- soliifiction(2) tures than rheocasting by

  10. Analysis of plasma nitrided steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  11. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  12. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib; Claussen, Martin; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We will give a short overview of the national climate modelling initiative (PalMod - Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de) on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. PalMod is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes internal to the Earth system to climate variability at different time scales. Third, in order to achieve a higher level of understanding of natural climate variability at time scales of millennia, its governing processes and implications for the future climate, we bring together three different research communities: the Earth system modeling community, the proxy data community and the computational science community. The consortium consists of 18 partners including all major modelling centers within

  13. Modélisation des boucles d'immunisation magnétique des navires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dorze, F.; Bongiraud, J. P.; Coulomb, J. L.; Meunier, G.; Brunotte, X.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents the problem of the three-dimensional modeling of degaussing coils in ships with a finite elements method. We show that these current coils are so close to the ferromagnetic sheets of the ship that they require a local very fine mesh which would be unrealistic for the whole complex structure of a real ship. We propose an alternative to the expensive mesh refinement called "reduced scalar potential jump”. The idea is to previously solve the local problem by another method and to use the result in the whole FEM modelling. We present the method of implementation in the FEM software FLUX3D and comparative results on a simple geometry. Cet article présente le problème de la modélisation en trois dimensions des boucles d'immunisation des navires par la méthode des éléments finis. Nous montrons que ces boucles de courant sont si proches des tôles ferromagnétiques du navire que leur modélisation requiert un maillage localement très fin, ce qui est irréaliste pour la structure complexe d'un navire réel. Nous proposons une alternative à ce coûteux affinage du maillage, appelée "saut de potentiel réduit”. L'idée est de résoudre au préalable le problème local par une autre méthode que les éléments finis et d'utiliser le résultat dans la modélisation globale. Nous présentons la méthode utilisée pour l'implantation de cette technique dans le logiciel d'éléments finis FLUX3D, et des résultats comparatifs sur une géométrie simple.

  14. Modèle d’alerte des crises bancaires basé sur une approche hybride : modèle bayésien – machines à vecteurs supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Zaghdoudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ces dernières années, la succession des crises bancaires, qui dans la plupart ont été soldées par des pertes économiques et financières énormes, a suscité l’intérêt de plusieurs chercheurs. Empiriquement, ces auteurs ont opté pour des modèles d’alerte précoce (Early Warning System pour prévenir leurs occurrences. L’objectif de ce papier est de construire un Modèle d’alerte des crises bancaires basé sur une approche hybride. Sur la base des données relatives à 22 pays qui ont subi des crises bancaires observées sur la période 1990–2011, nous avons développé un modèle d’alerte des crises bancaires. Ce modèle est basé sur une approche hybride Bayesian model averaging–Support vectors machine. Sur les 25 variables explicatives retenues, les résultats empiriques du modèle hybride ont fait ressortir 9 indicateurs qui sont considérés comme les principaux facteurs déterminants du déclenchement des crises bancaires. Ces derniers ont une probabilité postérieure d’inclusion supérieure à 0,5. Ces indicateurs potentiels sont la rentabilité nette des actifs, la compétitivité de l’intermédiation bancaire, les provisions sur les créances douteuses, les investissements directs étrangers, la concentration bancaire, la stabilité financière des banques, les produits nets financiers, le taux d’intérêt réel et le taux d’inflation.

  15. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  16. Training on the Structural-Functional Relationships of Spelling-To-Sound Correspondences in the Mod 2 Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John, Jr.

    The linear sequencing of correspondence rules in the Mod 2 reading programs creates problems for rule instruction and the efficient application of the rules during word decoding. Training forms are suggested for overriding possible interference brought on by isolating the alternative pronunciations of graphemes. Learning to classify major rule…

  17. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  18. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 2: Conceptual and preliminary design, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind tunnel generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 2 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The development tests, which determined or characterized many of the materials and components of the wind turbine generator, are described.

  19. Design for Sequencing Spelling-to-Sound Correspondences in Mod 2 Reading Program, Volume 1 and 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiansky, Betty; And Others

    The purpose of the study contained in this report is to provide research and design data for the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, a four-year program (K-3) for teaching reading skills to primary-grade children. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume one describes sequencing and methodology, and the specific rule…

  20. The Evolution of the Del Mod System's Science and Mathematics Resource Centers, 1971-1976, Final Report, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah

    This report describes the creation, funding, promotion, and evaluation of the three resource centers and the instrument repair center of the Del Mod System. Included in the document are descriptions of the three science-mathematics resource centers at the University of Delaware, Delaware State College, and Delaware Technical and Community College.…

  1. The Dynamics of The Potts-Bethe Mapping over ℚ p : The Case p ≡ 2 (mod 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburov, Mansoor; Khameini Ahmad, Mohd Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of the Potts-Bethe mapping associated with the p-adic q-state Potts model over the Cayley tree of order three. Namely, we establish the regularity of the Potts-Bethe mapping for the case p ≡ 2 (mod 3) with p ≥ 5.

  2. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  3. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander SHRAMKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosion nucleation and their influence on corrosion depends on type of inclusion. Mechanism of corrosion of wheel steel corrosion was discussed.

  4. Modélisation grands signaux de convertisseurs à résonance série

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, S.; Chniba, S.; Hassan, A.; Brunello, M.; Ferrieux, J. P.

    1992-05-01

    The modelling of a resonant converter is quite difficult due to its periodic variable framework. The variation of its states implies a global nonlinear behavior. The model proposed in this paper is obtained by using the series expansion of the set of solution of the differential equations which describes the dynamic behavior of the converter. Once the method is introduced, it is applied to an example of a series resonant converter. Furthermore we show that the result can be extended to a family of converters. Experimental results are obtained and a comparison with the model actually in use is given. Finally, this model is applied to a stability analysis of this kind of converter. La modélisation des convertisseurs statiques à résonance est complexe car le circuit, de par sa topologie périodiquement modifiée au cours du fonctionnement, a un comportement global non linéaire. Le modèle proposé se base sur un développement harmonique à l'ordre supérieur au premier ordre, facile à mettre en œuvre et tenant compte du facteur d'amortissement du circuit oscillant. Ce modèle permet en outre l'étude dynamique du circuit. La méthode un fois introduite est appliquée sur un exemple de convertisseur à résonance série. A partir des résultats obtenus, le modèle est étendu à toute une classe de convertisseurs à résonance pour aboutir à un modèle général unique. Il est, par la suite, procédé à une validation expérimentale ainsi qu'à une comparaison avec le modèle classique du générateur de courant moyen équivalent. Cet article se termine par une application du modèle à l'analyse de la stabilité de ce type de convertisseur.

  5. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Gunes

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the case properties and diffusion kinetics of GS18NiMoCr36 (GS18), GS22NiMoCr56 (GS22) and GS32NiCrMo6.4 (GS32) gear steels borided in Ekabor-II powder were investigated by conducting a series of experiments at temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and microVickers hardness tester. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steels revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB and Cr2B compounds. The thickness of the boride layer increases by increasing boriding time and temperature for all steels. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 ranged from 1624 to 1905 HV0,05, 1702 to 1948 HV0,05, and 1745 to 2034 HV0,05 respectively, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 were 335 HV0,05, 358 HV0,05 and 411 HV0,05, respectively. The activation energies (Q) of borided steels were 228.644 kJ/mol for GS18, 280.609 kJ/mol for GS22 and 294.359 kJ/mol for GS32. The growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on the GS18, GS22 and GS32 steels and the thickness of boride layers were also investigated.

  6. 多脏器功能不全综合征(MODS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹积秋

    2010-01-01

    @@ 多脏器功能不全综合征(MODS)作为一个新的综合征近年来受到广泛重视.早在1969年Skillman报道呼吸衰竭伴低血压、黄疸、败血症与应激性溃疡,最后死于肾功能衰竭,命名为"序贯器官衰竭".后期有学者亦命名为"多器官衰竭" (MOF)及"多系统器官衰竭" (MSOF),实质上MSOF足MODS病情发展到最后阶段的表现.

  7. FRBRizing an E-Library : Migrating from Dublin Core to FRBR and MODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Nelson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Western State College in Gunnison, Colorado developed an open-source eCataloger Framework, based on Dublin Core metadata, on Google's App Engine to manage and serve electronic resources to the library's patrons. Pressed to find new solutions for failing manual workflows for serials and government document resource management, the eCataloger Framework was extended to FRBR to automate and enhance serials management and government documents receiving. Based on successfully FRBRizing the eCataloger, Western State College converted their e-Library management from Dublin Core to FRBR and MODS. This paper examines the processes of each of these implementations using Python, AJAX, and jQuery, the details of the FRBR data model, including using FRBRoo, and the successful user interface supported by a FRBRized catalog.

  8. Magnetic self organization, MHD active control and confinement in RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrelli, L; Zanca, P; Valisa, M; Marchiori, G; Alfier, A; Bonomo, F; Gobbin, M; Piovesan, P; Terranova, D; Agostini, M; Alessi, C; Antoni, V; Apolloni, L; Auriemma, F; Barana, O; Bettini, P; Bolzonella, T; Bonfiglio, D; Brombin, M; Buffa, A; Canton, A; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Cavinato, M; Chitarin, G; Bello, S Dal; Lorenzi, A De; Escande, D F; Fassina, A; Franz, P; Gadani, G; Gaio, E; Gazza, E; Giudicotti, L; Gnesotto, F; Grando, L; Guo, S C; Innocente, P; Lorenzini, R; Luchetta, A; Malesani, G; Manduchi, G; Marcuzzi, D; Martin, P; Martini, S; Martines, E; Masiello, A; Milani, F; Moresco, M; Murari, A; Novello, L; Ortolani, S; Paccagnella, R; Pasqualotto, R; Peruzzo, S; Piovan, R; Pizzimenti, A; Pomaro, N; Predebon, I; Puiatti, M E; Rostagni, G; Sattin, F; Scarin, P; Serianni, G; Sonato, P; Spada, E; Soppelsa, A; Spizzo, G; Spolaore, M; Taccon, C; Taliercio, C; Toigo, V; Vianello, N; Zaccaria, P; Zaniol, B; Zanotto, L; Zilli, E; Zollino, G; Zuin, M [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127-Padova (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    RFX-mod is a reversed field pinch (RFP) experiment equipped with a system that actively controls the magnetic boundary. In this paper we describe the results of a new control algorithm, the clean mode control (CMC), in which the aliasing of the sideband harmonics generated by the discrete saddle coils is corrected in real time. CMC operation leads to a smoother (i.e. more axisymmetric) boundary. Tearing modes rotate (up to 100 Hz) and partially unlock. Plasma-wall interaction diminishes due to a decrease of the non-axisymmetric shift of the plasma column. With the ameliorated boundary control, plasma current has been successfully increased to 1.5 MA, the highest for an RFP. In such regimes, the magnetic dynamics is dominated by the innermost resonant mode, the internal magnetic field gets close to a pure helix and confinement improves.

  9. Magnetic self organization, MHD active control and confinement in RFX-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, L.; Zanca, P.; Valisa, M.; Marchiori, G.; Alfier, A.; Bonomo, F.; Gobbin, M.; Piovesan, P.; Terranova, D.; Agostini, M.; Alessi, C.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Bettini, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavinato, M.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S.; DeLorenzi, A.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Franz, P.; Gadani, G.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Luchetta, A.; Malesani, G.; Manduchi, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martin, P.; Martini, S.; Martines, E.; Masiello, A.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Murari, A.; Novello, L.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Pizzimenti, A.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Puiatti, M. E.; Rostagni, G.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Taccon, C.; Taliercio, C.; Toigo, V.; Vianello, N.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.

    2007-12-01

    RFX-mod is a reversed field pinch (RFP) experiment equipped with a system that actively controls the magnetic boundary. In this paper we describe the results of a new control algorithm, the clean mode control (CMC), in which the aliasing of the sideband harmonics generated by the discrete saddle coils is corrected in real time. CMC operation leads to a smoother (i.e. more axisymmetric) boundary. Tearing modes rotate (up to 100 Hz) and partially unlock. Plasma-wall interaction diminishes due to a decrease of the non-axisymmetric shift of the plasma column. With the ameliorated boundary control, plasma current has been successfully increased to 1.5 MA, the highest for an RFP. In such regimes, the magnetic dynamics is dominated by the innermost resonant mode, the internal magnetic field gets close to a pure helix and confinement improves.

  10. La cautiva como mujer modélica The captive as model woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mantelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una lectura no androcéntrica del personaje femenino de la tragedia de Sófocles, Áyax. El objetivo es mostrar que la cautiva Tecmesa, a través de su silencio, su prudencia y su desvalorización con respecto a la mujer de la épica, constituye una representación modélica para el imaginario del arquetipo viril del siglo V.This article proposes an interpretation not centred on the male of the female character of Sophocles's tragedy Ajax. The aim is to show that the captive Tecmessa, through her silence, her prudence and her devaluation with regard to the woman of the epic constitutes a model representation for the virile archetype of the fifth century.

  11. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Code structure, system models, and solution methods. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling, approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I provides modeling theory and associated numerical schemes.

  12. Modèles types de lettres et courriers électroniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fayet, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Bien rédiger les lettres et mails professionnels renforce l'image de qualité de votre entreprise. La 2e édition de ce livre vous offre les clés essentielles pour améliorer la rédaction de votre courrier professionnel et vous propose, par le CD-Rom joint, des modèles de lettres et e-mails directement utilisables. Ils couvrent les situations les plus courantes rencontrées quotidiennement dans une entreprise : les demandes de renseignements, les commandes, les livraisons, les facturations, le recrutement, la gestion du personnel, les échanges avec les partenaires, les banques, les administrations. Indispensable pour rédiger des courriers efficaces, ce guide est un outil de travail incontournable pour tous salariés en charge de la rédaction du courrier, et particulièrement pour les secrétaires et assistantes.

  13. TMI-2 analysis using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Siefken, L.J.; Allison, C.M.; Dobbe, C.A.

    1994-11-01

    SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1, an integrated thermal hydraulic analysis code developed primarily to simulate severe accidents in nuclear power plants, was used to predict the progression of core damage during the TMI-2 accident. The version of the code used for the TMI-2 analysis described in this paper includes models to predict core heatup, core geometry changes, and the relocation of molten core debris to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. This paper describes the TMI-2 input model, initial conditions, boundary conditions, and the results from the best-estimate simulation of Phases 1 to 4 of the TMI-2 accident as well as the results from several sensitivity calculations.

  14. Parallel and perpendicular flows in the RFX-mod edge region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolaore, M., E-mail: monica.spolaore@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); De Masi, G.; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Bonfiglio, D.; Cavazzana, R.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Spagnolo, S.; Zuin, M. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between edge flow features and local magnetic topology has been studied by means of ad hoc transient experiments, so that different plasma equilibria are compared within the same discharge, and of the edge flow monitor of helical magnetic islands in the RFX-mod Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The different components of the plasma flow characterizing the edge region and their shear are obtained by combining and comparing information provided by a noticeable set of edge diagnostics including insertable probes, toroidally distributed arrays of sensors and optical diagnostics. In particular a Gundestrup probe head is applied which allows obtaining information on both parallel and perpendicular Mach number. This probe head has been used with all the pins collecting floating potential signals and a model has been developed in order to reconstruct the flow.

  15. Modélisation de la liaison os-ligament dans l'articulation du genou

    OpenAIRE

    SUBIT, D

    2001-01-01

    Cette thèse est une contribution à l'amélioration de la connaissance des comportements mécaniques des tissus biologiques, en particulier dans le contexte accidentologique. L'objectif de cette étude biomécanique est de faire le lien entre les notions de lésions utilisées en clinique et celles d'endommagement et de rupture utilisées en mécanique. Elle porte sur la modélisation du comportement des ligaments dans l'articulation du genou humain, et s'intéresse plus particulièrement à l'insertion d...

  16. Overview of Results from the Upgraded ICRF System on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, G.; Wukitch, S. J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Boivin, R. L.; Fiore, C.; Goetz, J. A.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Lee, W. D.; Marmar, E.; Mazurenko, A.; Nelson-Melby, E.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.; Hosea, J.; Perkins, F. W.; Phillips, C. K.; Taylor, G.; White, R.; Wilson, J. R.

    2000-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod's ICRF program has added to existing physics studies and generated new physics results. Simulations of mode conversion physics using the full-wave code TORIC are in good agreement with experimental measurements of electron power deposition profiles. Phase contrast imaging has detected density fluctuations associated with the propagation of the launched fast wave and also ion Bernstein waves in the plasma core. During experiments to measure toroidal rotation, a core transport barrier was observed in addition to the edge H-mode barrier with the minority ion resonance on the high-field side of the axis. Initial operation of the PPPL 4-strap ICRF antenna was hindered by impurity generation problems and antenna arcing which were largely eliminated by improvements made in January 2000. Subsequently, more than 3 MW of power have been launched into plasma. A closed-box configuration for this antenna will be tested.

  17. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2000-01-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It canalso be used for flux calculations of radon...... decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning ofradon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may...... from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understandingof the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics...

  18. Environmental noise characteristics of the MOD5-B (3.2 MW) wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Both narrow band and broad band acoustic data were obtained for the MOD5-B wind turbine for a range of wind speeds from 5.8 to 14.3 m/s; for a range of power outputs from 300 to 3100 kW; and for various azimuth angles and distances. Comparisons are made with those of other large machines and with predictions by available methods. The highest levels occur at the lower frequencies and generally decrease as the frequency increases. Low frequency rotational noise components were more intense than expected for an upwind machine and are believed to result from localized wind gradients across the rotor disk due to upwind terrain features. Predicted broad band spectra follow the general trends of the data but tend to underestimate the levels in the frequency range where the turbulent boundary layer-trailing edge interaction noise is expected to be significant.

  19. Modèle énergétique de la serre agricole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, C.; Issanchou, G.; Amouroux, M.

    1991-03-01

    The authors present a complete thermal model of a greenhouse. This model takes into account the various physical processes (conduction, convection, evaporation, condensation, solar and long-wave radiations) which are involved in the dynamic energy balance of the whole system (cover, inside air, plant canopy, heat exchanger, screen and soil layers). The main features of this model are the followings : 1) A detailed study of the long-wave radiative exchanges by the use of shape-factors calculations. An example shows that the geometrical configuration of the heat exchanger has a great effect on its efficiency. 2) The use of an analytic periodic solution to set convenient initial values for the temperatures of the ground layers, in order to accelerate the convergence. This method optimizes the dynamic response of the model on a standard microcomputer. This model is a basic ingredient of a friendly user software developed for greenhouses heating systems design : Thermi-Serre^{{}}. Les auteurs présentent un modèle énergétique complet de la serre agricole, qui intègre l'ensemble des processus qui régissent les échanges thermiques entre la couverture, l'écran thermique, l'air intérieur, les plantes, le sol et les échangeurs de chaleur: conduction, convection, évaporation, condensation, rayonnements solaires et de grande longueur d'onde, inertie thermique. Cet article développe, puis illustre les particularités de ce modèle: 1) L'analyse approfondie des échanges infrarouges de grande longueur d'onde où l'on tient compte, par le biais des facteurs de forme, de la géométrie et de la position respective des échangeurs de chaleur et des cultures. Un exemple montre que la position d'un échangeur dans la serre peut modifier son efficacité. 2) Le choix d'une solution analytique périodique pour initialiser judicieusement, au départ d'une simulation dynamique, la température a priori inconnue des diverses couches de sol. On montre que cette méthode, qui r

  20. Fluctuation statistics in the scrape-off layer of Alcator C-Mod

    CERN Document Server

    Kube, Ralph; LaBombard, Brian; Terry, James L

    2014-01-01

    We study long time series of the ion saturation current and floating potential, obtained by Langmuir probes dwelled in the far-scrape off layer and installed in the divertor baffle of Alcator C-Mod, for a series of discharges with increasing line averaged plasma particle density. Using the ion saturation current as a proxy for the plasma particle density, we compare particle density amplitude histograms to best fits of a Gamma distribution, the Log-normal distribution and the sheath distribution [1]. Best fits of all three models agree with the observed histograms over multiple decades in normalized probability. Analysis of ion saturation current time series sampled at outboard midplane and at the divertor show that their dynamics are governed by intermittent large amplitude burst events and present a comparable conditionally averaged waveform. In both cases are histograms of the waiting times between successive large amplitude burst events and of the burst amplitudes well described by an exponential distribu...