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Sample records for mobile active impurities

  1. Phase transitions and steady-state microstructures in a two-temperature lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2000-01-01

    The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....

  2. Mobile impurities in ferromagnetic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantian, Adrian; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Recent work has shown that mobile impurities in one dimensional interacting systems may exhibit behaviour that differs strongly from that predicted by standard Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, with the appearance of power-law divergences in the spectral function signifying sublinear diffusion of the impurity. Using time-dependent matrix product states, we investigate a range of cases of mobile impurities in systems beyond the analytically accessible examples to assess the existence of a new universality class of low-energy physics in one-dimensional systems. Correspondence: Adrian.Kantian@unige.ch This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  3. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T −γ ) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced

  4. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  5. Neutron activation determination of impurities in molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmanova, M.M.; Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Obraztsova, T.V.; Saidakhmedov, K.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation techniques of impurity element determination in molybdenum and MoO 3 (solid and powdered samples) have been developed. When determining impurities of Na, K, Mn, Cu, W, Re molybdenum has been irradiated by thermal neutrons in reactor for 20 min, the sample mass constituted 200-300 mg, sample cooling time after irradiation - 2.5-3.5 h. It is shown that in the process of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn determination the samples should be irradiated with thermal neutrons, and in the process of Sb, Ta and Ni determination - with resonance and fast neutrons. Simultaneous determination of the elements during irradiation with neutrons with reactor spectrum is possible. When determining P and S the samples are irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons and β-activity of samples and comparison samples are measured using β-spectrometer with anthracene crystal. The techniques developed permit to determine impurities in Mo with a relative standard deviation 0.07-0.15 and lower boundaries of contents determined - 10 -4 - 10 -7 %

  6. Impurity concentration limits and activation in fusion reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines waste management problems related to impurity activation in first-wall, shield, and magnet materials for fusion reactors. Definitions of low activity based on hands-on recycling, remote recycling, and shallow land burial waste management criteria are discussed. Estimates of the impurity concentration in low-activation materials (elementally substituted stainless steels and vanadium alloys) are reported. Impurity activation in first-wall materials turns out to be critical after a comparison of impurity concentration limits and estimated levels. Activation of magnet materials is then considered: Long-term activity is not a concern, while short-term activity is. In both cases, impurity activation is negligible. Magnet materials, and all other less flux-exposed materials, have no practical limitation on impurities in terms of induced radioactivity

  7. Polarons and Mobile Impurities Near a Quantum Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkhoo, Shahriar

    This dissertation aims at improving the current understanding of the physics of mobile impurities in highly correlated liquid-like phases of matter. Impurity problems pose challenging and intricate questions in different realms of many-body physics. For instance, the problem of ''solvation'' of charged solutes in polar solvents, has been the subject of longstanding debates among chemical physicists. The significant role of quantum fluctuations of the solvent, as well as the break down of linear response theory, render the ordinary treatments intractable. Inspired by this complicated problem, we first attempt to understand the role of non-specific quantum fluctuations in the solvation process. To this end, we calculate the dynamic structure factor of a model polar liquid, using the classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We verify the failure of linear response approximation in the vicinity of a hydrated electron, by comparing the outcomes of MD simulations with the predictions of linear response theory. This nonlinear behavior is associated with the pronounced peaks of the structure factor, which reflect the strong fluctuations of the local modes. A cavity picture is constructed based on heuristic arguments, which suggests that the electron, along with the surrounding polarization cloud, behave like a frozen sphere, for which the linear response theory is broken inside and valid outside. The inverse radius of the spherical region serves as a UV momentum cutoff for the linear response approximation to be applicable. The problem of mobile impurities in polar liquids can be also addressed in the framework of the ''polaron'' problem. Polaron is a quasiparticle that typically acquires an extended state at weak couplings, and crossovers to a self-trapped state at strong couplings. Using the analytical fits to the numerically obtained charge-charge structure factor, a phenomenological approach is proposed within the Leggett's influence functional formalism, which

  8. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  9. Reduction of impurities and activation of lithium orthosilicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, Regina; Fischer, Ulrich; Herber, Stefan; Adelhelm, Christel

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of lithium orthosilicate pebbles by melt-spraying enables a facile reprocessing of irradiated material by direct remelting. However, the necessary waiting period for the reprocessing is determined by the long-term activation of the material under irradiation that is dominated by the impurities. The activation characteristics for the current composition of lithium orthosilicate pebbles were assessed on the basis of three-dimensional activation calculations for a fusion power reactor. The calculations were used to identify critical amounts of impurities and were compared to the results of a hypothetical, pure material without impurities, as well as to a calculated Li-6 enriched OSi composition.

  10. Positron mobility measurements and their relevance to defect and impurity studies in semiconductors and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Simpson, R.I.; Stewart, M.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Wai, J.C.H.; Sun, T.N.

    1987-01-01

    Positron mobility measurements and their relevance to the study of defects and impurities in semiconductors and insulators are discussed. Since the short lifetime of the positron in condensed matter renders conventional mobility techniques unsuitable, positron mobility measurements rely on the observation of annihilation photons and of vacuum emission. Measurements utilising Doppler shift, angular correlation, profile shift and diffusion to surfaces are surveyed. New methods which observe the electric field drift of positrons by lifetime spectroscopy or vacuum emission are discussed. Lifetime measurements in Fe doped InP give a positron mobility, μ + = (15 ± 5) cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 77 K. (author)

  11. In situ mobile subaquatic archaeometry evaluated by non-destructive Raman microscopy of gemstones lying under impure waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David C.

    2003-08-01

    A series of laboratory simulations have been made in order to evaluate the credibility of carrying out physico-chemical analysis of cultural heritage items by Raman spectral fingerprinting using a mobile Raman microscope in situ under natural impure water in subaquatic or submarine conditions. Three different kinds of gemstone (zircon, microcline and sodalite) were successively placed under different kinds of impure water into which a low power microscope objective was immersed to eliminate the normal aerial pathway between the objective and the object to be analysed. According to the nature of the impurities (inorganic or organic, dissolved or suspended, transparent or coloured) the results obtained variously gave Raman band intensities stronger than, similar to or weaker than those of spectra obtained without water, i.e. in air. The significant point is that after only minor spectral treatment the less good spectra nevertheless yielded exploitable data with most, if not all, of the key Raman bands being detected. Thus the problems of fluorescence or peak absences under water are of a similar degree of magnitude to the other problems inherent with the Raman spectroscopic technique in aerial conditions, e.g. relative peak intensities varying with crystal orientation; peak positions varying with chemical composition. These results indicate that even if at certain sites of submerged cities or sunken ships, the combination of animal, vegetal, mineral and microbial impurities join together to inhibit or hinder the success of subaquatic or submarine archaeometry, there will certainly be other sites where such activity is indeed credible.

  12. Impurity diffusion activation energies in Al from first principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonovic, D.; Sluiter, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Activation energies for vacancy-mediated impurity diffusion in face-centered-cubic aluminum have been computed ab initio for all technologically important alloying elements, as well as for most of the lanthanides. The so-called five-frequency rate model is used to establish the limiting vacancy

  13. Impurities in Drug Products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kątny, M; Frankowski, M

    2017-05-04

    Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling. The aim of this article was to characterize the relevant classification of drug impurities and to review the methods of impurities determination for atorvastatin (ATV) and duloxetine (DLX) (both in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in different dosage forms). These drugs have an impact on two systems of the human body: cardiac and nervous. Simple characteristics of ATV and DLX, their properties and specificity of action on the human body, are also included in this review. The analyzed pharmaceuticals-ATV (brand name Lipiron) and DLX (brand name Cymbalta)-were selected for this study based on annual rankings prepared by Information Medical Statistics.

  14. Research of acceptor impurity thermal activation in GaN: Mg epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Mazalov

    2016-06-01

    The effect of thermal annealing of GaN:Mg layers on acceptor impurity activation has been investigated. Hole concentration increased and mobility decreased with an increase in thermal annealing temperature. The sample annealed at 1000 °C demonstrated the lowest value of resistivity. Rapid thermal annealing (annealing with high heating speed considerably improved the efficiency of Mg activation in the GaN layers. The optimum time of annealing at 1000 °C has been determined. The hole concentration increased by up to 4 times compared to specimens after conventional annealing.

  15. Determination of impurities in beryl by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy

    2015-01-01

    Beryl is a chemically complex and highly compositionally variable gem-forming mineral found in a variety of locations worldwide. Pure beryl is colorless, but the presence of impurities imparts colors such as green, blue, yellow, red, and white. It is one of the most important gem minerals and the gems are named by their color. The impurities in beryl can be determined using various analytical techniques. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a sensitive technique for multielement analysis of geological samples. Four beryl samples, collected from Nayakund Mehandi Block, Parseoni, Maharashtra, were received from Geological Survey of India (GSI), Pune. Powdered samples (50-100 mg) along with comparators (IAEA Soil-7) were packed in aluminum foils, sealed in an aluminum container and irradiated for 7 days in tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After irradiation, samples were brought to laboratory. Samples were opened, transferred into polyethylene packets and weighed. Gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. For the determination of manganese, which produces relatively shorter lived activation product ( 56 Mn: T 1/2 = 2.56 h), samples were sealed in polyethylene pouches and irradiated in graphite reflector position of Critical facility reactor, BARC, Mumbai. Relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. IAEA reference material (RM), SL -1 (lake sediment) was analyzed for quality control. Percentage errors on the measured concentrations of the elements are within ± 8% with respect to the recommended/information values

  16. Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M

    2015-10-16

    We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments.

  17. Trace impurities analysis determined by neutron activation in the PbI 2 crystal semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M. M.; Oliveira, I. B.; Armelin, M. J.; Mesquita, C. H.

    2003-06-01

    In this work, a methodology for impurity analysis of PbI 2 was studied to investigate the effectiveness of the purification. Commercial salts were purified by the multi passes zone refining and grown by the Bridgman method. To evaluate the purification efficiency, samples from the bottom, middle and upper sections of the ZR ingot were analyzed after 200, 300 and 500 purification passes, by measurements of the impurity concentrations, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. There was a significant reduction of the impurities according to the purification numbers. The reduction efficiency was different for each element, namely: Au>Mn>Co˜Ag>K˜Br. The impurity concentration of the crystals grown after 200, 300 and 500 passes and the PbI 2 starting material were analyzed by NAA and plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

  18. Impurity content of reduced-activation ferritic steels and a vanadium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel and a vanadium alloy for low-level impurities that would compromise the reduced-activation characteristics of these materials. The ferritic steel was from the 5-ton IEA heat of modified F82H, and the vanadium alloy was from a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti. To compare techniques for analysis of low concentrations of impurities, the vanadium alloy was also examined by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Two other reduced-activation steels and two commercial ferritic steels were also analyzed to determine the difference in the level of the detrimental impurities in the IEA heat and steels for which no extra effort was made to restrict some of the tramp impurities. Silver, cobalt, molybdenum, and niobium proved to be the tramp impurities of most importance. The levels observed in these two materials produced with present technology exceeded the limits for low activation for either shallow land burial or recycling. The chemical analyses provide a benchmark for the improvement in production technology required to achieve reduced activation; they also provide a set of concentrations for calculating decay characteristics for reduced-activation materials. The results indicate the progress that has been made and give an indication of what must still be done before the reduced-activation criteria can be achieved

  19. Impurities and evaluation of induced activity of CVI SiCf/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Fujita, Mitsutane; Araki, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Impurity of SiC f /SiC composites prepared by CVI was analyzed by neutron activation analysis and glow discharge mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the induced activity of the composites based on the chemical compositions was made using a simulation calculation for fusion reactor blanket. Impurities of 35 elements were detected in the composites. However, the total concentration of metallic impurities was below 20 mass ppm. The analyses of induced activity of the composites show that the dose rate decreases by about six orders of magnitude in a day after the shutdown. It is recommended that the purification of SiC composites, especially reduction of Fe and Ni contents, is necessary to reduce the activity to satisfy the limit of remote handling recycling after several 10 years cooling of fusion reactors

  20. Impurities and evaluation of induced activity of SiCf/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Araki, Hiroshi; Ito, Shinji; Fujita, Mitsutane; Maki, Koichi

    1997-01-01

    Impurity of SiC f /SiC composites prepared by CVI was analyzed by neutron activation analysis and glow discharge mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the induced activity of the composites based on the chemical compositions was made using a simulation calculation for fusion reactor blanket. Impurities of 35 elements were detected in the composites. However the total concentration of metallic impurities was below 20 mass ppm. The analyses of induced activity of the composites show that the dose rate decreases by about 5 orders of magnitude in a day after the shutdown. It is recommended that the purification of SiC fibers is necessary to reduce the activity by 10 9 after several ten years cooling of fusion reactors. (author)

  1. Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy α particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.

  2. Instrumental neutron-activation determination of impurities in lead and titanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, I L

    1980-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine 22 impurities in lead and titanium compounds (e.g. PbO, Pb/NO3/2, and TiO2) used as raw materials for ferroelectrics. Five elements (Al, V, Mn, Sc, and Se) were determined by short-lived isotopes and 17 elements were determined by long-lived isotopes. The detection limits were 7 x 10 to the -3rd to 2 x 10 to the -8th %. A substantial difference in concentrations of certain impurity elements has been found in different series of lead and titanium oxides of similar purity.

  3. The effects of impurity composition and concentration in reactor structure material on neutron activation inventory in pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Gil Yong; Kim, Soon Young [RADCORE, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Min [TUV Rheinland Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The neutron activation inventories in reactor vessel and its internals, and bio-shield of a PWR nuclear power plant were calculated to evaluate the effect of impurity elements contained in the structural materials on the activation inventory. Carbon steel is, in this work, used as the reactor vessel material, stainless steel as the reactor vessel internals, and ordinary concrete as the bio-shield. For stainless steel and carbon steel, one kind of impurity concentration was employed, and for ordinary concrete five kinds were employed in this study using MCNP5 and FISPACT for the calculation of neutron flux and activation inventory, respectively. As the results, specific activities for the cases with impurity elements were calculated to be more than twice than those for the cases without impurity elements in stainless and carbon steel. Especially, the specific activity for the concrete material with impurity elements was calculated to be 30 times higher than that without impurity. Neutron induced reactions and activation inventories in each material were also investigated, and it is noted that major radioactive nuclide in steel material is Co-60 from cobalt impurity element, and, in concrete material, Co-60 and Eu-152 from cobalt and europium impurity elements, respectively. The results of this study can be used for nuclear decommissioning plan during activation inventory assessment and regulation, and it is expected to be used as a reference in the design phase of nuclear power plant, considering the decommissioning of nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities.

  4. Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient and impurities in sildenafil citrate obtained from the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Nutan, Mohammad T; Dodla, Uday Krishna Reddy

    2014-10-01

    The accessibility of prescription drugs produced outside of the United States, most notably sildenafil citrate (innovator product, Viagra®), has been made much easier by the Internet. Of greatest concern to clinicians and policymakers is product quality and patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings to potential buyers that the safety of drugs purchased from the Internet cannot be guaranteed, and may present a health risk to consumers from substandard products. The objective of this study was to determine whether generic sildenafil citrate tablets from international markets obtained via the Internet are equivalent to the US innovator product regarding major aspects of pharmaceutical quality: potency, accuracy of labeling, and presence and level of impurities. This will help identify aspects of drug quality that may impact public health risks. A total of 15 sildenafil citrate tablets were obtained for pharmaceutical analysis: 14 generic samples from international Internet pharmacy websites and the US innovator product. According to US Pharmacopeial guidelines, tablet samples were tested using high-performance liquid chromatography for potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and levels of impurities (impurities A, B, C, and D). Impurity levels were compared with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) limits. Among the 15 samples, 4 samples possessed higher impurity B levels than the ICH qualification threshold, 8 samples possessed higher impurity C levels than the ICH qualification threshold, and 4 samples possessed more than 1% impurity quantity of maximum daily dose (MDD). For API, 6 of the samples failed to fall within the 5% assay limit. Quality assurance tests are often used to detect formulation defects of drug products during the manufacturing and/or storage process. Results suggest that manufacturing standards for sildenafil citrate generic drug products compared with the US innovator product are not

  5. Analysis of mobile ionic impurities in polyvinylalcohol thin films by thermal discharge current and dielectric impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Egginger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylalcohol (PVA is a water soluble polymer frequently applied in the field of organic electronics for insulating thin film layers. By-products of PVA synthesis are sodium acetate ions which contaminate the polymer material and can impinge on the electronic performance when applied as interlayer dielectrics in thin film transistors. Uncontrollable voltage instabilities and unwanted hysteresis effects are regularly reported with PVA devices. An understanding of these effects require knowledge about the electronic dynamics of the ionic impurities and their influence on the dielectric properties of PVA. Respective data, which are largely unknown, are being presented in this work. Experimental investigations were performed from room temperature to 125°C on drop-cast PVA films of three different quality grades. Data from thermal discharge current (TDC measurements, polarization experiments, and dielectric impedance spectroscopy concurrently show evidence of mobile ionic carriers. Results from TDC measurements indicate the existence of an intrinsic, build-in electric field of pristine PVA films. The field is caused by asymmetric ionic double layer formation at the two different film-interfaces (substrate/PVA and PVA/air. The mobile ions cause strong electrode polarization effects which dominate dielectric impedance spectra. From a quantitative electrode polarization analysis of isothermal impedance spectra temperature dependent values for the concentration, the mobility and conductivity together with characteristic relaxation times of the mobile carriers are given. Also shown are temperature dependent results for the dc-permittivity and the electronic resistivity. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility to partly remove contaminants from a PVA solution by dialysis cleaning. Such a cleaning procedure reduces the values of ion concentration, conductivity and relaxation frequency.

  6. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  7. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  8. Electronically Active Impurities in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Carey, Graham H.

    2014-11-25

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dot films have seen rapid progress as active materials in photodetection, light emission, and photovoltaics. Their processing from the solution phase makes them an attractive option for these applications due to the expected cost reductions associated with liquid-phase material deposition. Colloidally stable nanoparticles capped using long, insulating aliphatic ligands are used to form semiconducting, insoluble films via a solid-state ligand exchange in which the original ligands are replaced with short bifunctional ligands. Here we show that this ligand exchange can have unintended and undesired side effects: a high molecular weight complex can form, containing both lead oleate and the shorter conductive ligand, and this poorly soluble complex can end up embedded within the colloidal quantum dot (CQD) active layer. We further show that, by adding an acidic treatment during film processing, we can break up and wash away these complexes, producing a higher quality CQD solid. The improved material leads to photovoltaic devices with reduced series resistance and enhanced fill factor relative to controls employing previously reported CQD solids. (Figure Presented).

  9. Electronically Active Impurities in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Carey, Graham H.; Kramer, Illan J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Rollny, Lisa; Tang, Joel A.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dot films have seen rapid progress as active materials in photodetection, light emission, and photovoltaics. Their processing from the solution phase makes them an attractive option for these applications due to the expected cost reductions associated with liquid-phase material deposition. Colloidally stable nanoparticles capped using long, insulating aliphatic ligands are used to form semiconducting, insoluble films via a solid-state ligand exchange in which the original ligands are replaced with short bifunctional ligands. Here we show that this ligand exchange can have unintended and undesired side effects: a high molecular weight complex can form, containing both lead oleate and the shorter conductive ligand, and this poorly soluble complex can end up embedded within the colloidal quantum dot (CQD) active layer. We further show that, by adding an acidic treatment during film processing, we can break up and wash away these complexes, producing a higher quality CQD solid. The improved material leads to photovoltaic devices with reduced series resistance and enhanced fill factor relative to controls employing previously reported CQD solids. (Figure Presented).

  10. Study of trace impurities in heroin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Yang, J.H.; Ouyang, H.; Li, Z.J.; Chai, Z.F.; Zhu, J.; Xi'an JiaoTong Univ., Shaanxi; Zhao, J.Z.; Yu, Z.S.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two heroin samples were analyzed for their contents of 15 trace elements (Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Large variations of elemental concentrations between samples were found to possess statistical significance. Of all the elements calcium was the most abundant element, followed by zinc and sodium. The concentrations of Au, Ce, Co, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, and Th in all the samples were below 1 μg x g -1 . Classification of these heroin samples was achieved by the application of hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that NAA can provide useful information on the origin of the illicit drugs. (author)

  11. Neutron activation determination of impurities in molybdenite and galena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, V.A.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Zherekhov, V.G.; Egorov, Yu.E.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructive neutron-activation determination of 14 chemical elements (Na, Ag, Zn, Sc, La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Sb, Ta, Gr, Se, Fe and Co) in molybdenite and galenite minerals. The samples and standards of Ag, Se, Co and Np have been wrapped in an aluminium foil and packed in an aluminium container; they have been then irradiated for 10 hr in the vertical channel of a nuclear reactor with flux of thermal neutrons (3.0, 0.45)x10 13 n/cm 2 xsec to record the γ-spectra of the samples and standards 1, 5, 16, 65, 265 and 350 days after irradiation on a γ-spectrometer with a Ge(Li)-detector. The results are found to be in a good agreement with the spectra of Ag, Sb, La and Fe

  12. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.

    2011-01-01

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally

  13. Chemometrically assisted development and validation of LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of potential genotoxic impurities in meropenem active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigori, Katerina; Loukas, Yannis L; Malenović, Anđelija; Samara, Vicky; Kalaskani, Anastasia; Dimovasili, Efi; Kalovidouri, Magda; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2017-10-25

    A sensitive Liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of three potential genotoxic impurities (318BP, M9, S5) in meropenem Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). Due to the requirement for LOD values in ppb range, a high concentration of meropenem API (30mg/mL) had to be injected. Therefore, efficient determination of meropenem from its impurities became a critical aim of this study, in order to divert meropenem to waste, via a switching valve. ‎ After the selection of the important factors affecting analytes' elution, a Box-Behnken design was utilized to set the plan of experiments conducted with UV detector. As responses, the separation factor s between the last eluting impurity and meropenem, as well as meropenem retention factor k were used. Grid point search methodology was implemented aiming to obtain the optimal conditions that simultaneously comply to the conflicted criteria. Optimal mobile phase consisted of ACN, methanol and 0.09% HCOOH at a ratio 71/3.5/15.5v/v. All impurities and internal standard omeprazole were eluted before 7.5min and at 8.0min the eluents were directed to waste. The protocol was transferred to LC-MS/MS and validated according to ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evaluation Method for Activation Analysis using Pre-evaluated Contribution of Nuclides with Impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gee Suck [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclides in radiation facilities become unstable from nuclear reaction. It emits residual radiation to be stable. Some unstable nuclides remain after operation in the material. It continuously emits the radiation, which has a harmful effect to worker when they try maintenance and plant decommissioning. It is known that residual radiation from impurity occupies a large portion of the radiation dose. If impurity concentration is higher than expectation, the effects of residual radiation could be underestimated. Therefore, estimation of residual radiation is repeatedly calculated according to impurity concentration. In this study, an approach estimating the activation was proposed using pre-evaluated nuclide's contribution to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker. In this study, in order to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker, activation analysis method based on pre-evaluated nuclide contribution was proposed. This method was verified using concreate activation problem, which is located in nuclear power plant. The results show that our proposed method has good agreement with Bateman equation.

  15. Determination of oxygen impurity in high purity materials by charged particle activation analysis using alpha projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Pal, S.; Arunachalam, J.; Verma R.; Gangadharan, S.

    1992-01-01

    40 MeV α-particles have been used to determine oxygen impurity at ppm levels in silicon, copper, and stainless steel, through the radiochemical separation of 18 F from the matrix. The separation of 18 F has been carried out by two techniques, viz. distillation of H 2 SiF 6 and precipitation of KBF 4 and some modification has been applied in the separation, depending on the nature of interferences from the matrix. Instrumental approach was also carried out to determine the oxygen impurity at ≥ 100 ppm in Si matrix because this approach is not possible in Cu and stainless steel samples due to matrix activity. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  16. An investigation of the impurities in native gold by neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erasmus, C.S.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Hallbauer, D.K.; Novak, E.

    1980-01-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical methods of neutron-activation analysis, developed for the determination of major, minor, and trace impurities in native gold, are described. The gold was obtained from Witwatersrand reefs and from deposits in the Barberton area. It was extracted by decomposition of the ore in cold hydrofluoric acid. Quantitative results are presented for 14 elements found in native gold, and the significance of these elements in relation to the distribution of gold is discussed. The results suggest that there are geochemical differences in native gold from various reefs and deposits

  17. Study of impurity composition of some compounds of refractory metals by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganov, L.K.; Dzhumakulov, D.T.; Mukhamedshina, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The compounds of refractory transition metals find wide application in all fields of engineering, in particular in microelectronics to manufacture contact-barrier layers of thin-film current-conducting systems of silicon instruments, large and very large scale integrated circuits. Production of such materials is realted with the need to apply the analytical control methods that allow to determine a large number of elements with high reliability. The instrumental neutron-activation techniques have been developed to determine impurity composition of the following compounds: MoSi 2 , WSi 2 , TiB 2 , NbB 2 , TiC, NbC

  18. Neutron activation of microspheres containing 165Ho: theoretical and experimental radionuclidic impurities study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squair, Peterson L.; Pozzo, Lorena; Ivanov, Evandro; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    The 166 Ho microspheres are potentially interesting for medical applications for treatment of many tumors. The internal radionuclide therapy can use polymer or glass device that provides structural support for the radionuclide. After activation, beta minus emission of 166 Ho (T 1/2 =26.8h, β - E max =1.84 MeV, γ E p =80.6 keV) can be used for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this work is study the influence of radionuclide impurities between End of Bombardment (EOB) and the medical application. The appropriate specific activities and purity along decay should be adequate for their safe and efficient medical applications. The good practices on neutron activation techniques are choice a high purity target to avoid production of undesirable radionuclides and when possible with enriched targets to obtain higher specific activity. In this work the target used was Ho 2 O 3 and polymeric microspheres containing holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) manufactured at the Biotechnology Center-IPEN/CNEN-SP. Three conditions were evaluated: preliminary test with 1.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 1.0 hour; nowadays maximum capability of IEA-R1 reactor with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 64.0 hours and the ideal IEA-R1 operation with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 120.0 hours. Considering the sample with 99.9% 165 Ho purity and 0.1% for each impurities elements with its natural abundance, the highest radionuclidic impurity is the Lutetium followed by Ytterbium, Lanthanum and Cerium. The intrinsic radionuclidic impurity of 166 mHo is less relevant. This review is important to identify the radionuclidic purity characteristics of the preliminary studies with different time and flux irradiation. The data produced in this paper will help to define strategies for the production of 166 Ho radioisotope at IEA-R1 IPEN/CNEN-SP reactor. (author)

  19. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  20. The determination of some impurities in zirconium metal by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, B.T.; Pearton, D.C.G.; Watterson, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the work done on the development of an instrumental neutron-activation method for the analysis of impurities in reactor-grade zirconium. Nine samples were analysed, and the results were compared with those obtained by other techniques. No statistically significant differences were observed for ten of the twelve elements that could possibly be determined by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Cadmium cannot be determined at the 0,5 p.p.m. level, and there is doubt about the comparative values recorded for aluminium. The precision of the measurement by direct instrumental neutron-activation analysis ranges from 1,4 per cent for tungsten to 17 per cent for chromium [af

  1. The impact of impurities on long-term PEMFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopes, Thiago [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sansinena, Jose - Maria [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kienitz, Brian [LLNL

    2009-06-23

    Electrochemical experimentation and modeling indicates that impurities degrade fuel cell performance by a variety of mechanisms. Electrokinetics may be inhibited by catalytic site poisoning from sulfur compounds and CO and by decreased local proton activity and mobility caused by the presence of foreign salt cations or ammonia. Cation impurity profiles vary with current density, valence and may change local conductivity and water concentrations in the ionomer. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia species may be electrochemically active under fuel cell operating conditions. The primary impurity removal mechanisms are electrooxidation and water fluxes through the fuel cell.

  2. Characterization of light element impurities in ultrathin silicon-on-insulator layers by luminescence activation using electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa-Toyota, Satoko; Tajima, Michio; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed light element impurities in ultrathin top Si layers of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers by luminescence activation using electron irradiation. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation was performed on various commercial SOI wafers after the irradiation. We detected the C-line related to a complex of interstitial carbon and oxygen impurities and the G-line related to a complex of interstitial and substitutional carbon impurities in the top Si layer with a thickness down to 62 nm after electron irradiation. We showed that there were differences in the impurity concentration depending on the wafer fabrication methods and also that there were variations in these concentrations in the respective wafers. Xenon ion implantation was used to activate top Si layers selectively so that we could confirm that the PL signal under the UV light excitation comes not from substrates but from top Si layers. The present method is a very promising tool to evaluate the light element impurities in top Si layers. (author)

  3. Mobility devices to promote activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Brandt, Ase; Samuelsson, Kersti A M

    2009-01-01

    were included if they covered both baseline and follow-up data and focused on activity and participation. Study participants had to be aged over 18 years with mobility limitations. Mobility device interventions encompassed crutches, walking frames, rollators, manual wheelchairs and powered wheelchairs......, and 3 follow-up studies that included before and after data. Two studies dealt with the effects of powered wheelchair interventions and the other studies with various other types of mobility device. Two studies were of high, internal and external methodological quality. Interventions were found......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of mobility device interventions in terms of activity and participation for people with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Systematic review. Search of 7 databases during the period 1996 to 2008. METHODS: Controlled studies and non-controlled follow-up studies...

  4. Determination of trace impurities in iron-based alloy using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Waheed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed and applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in iron-based alloy. A comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated a significant improvement in the detection limits. The extensive use of these alloys in the heavy mechanical industry, manufacturing of aircraft engines, nuclear applications, medical devices and chemical equipment requires their precise characterization. The concentration of iron in the iron-based alloy was found to be 86.7%, whereas Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, V and W were the other constituents of the alloy, which constituted to around 12.89%. The rest of the elements were present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements were also present in trace amounts. (orig.)

  5. Determination of impurity distributions in ingots of solar grade silicon by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karches, Barbara; Hampel, Gabriele; Plonka, Christian; Stieghorst, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Chemistry; Schoen, Jonas; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Gerstenberg, Heiko [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Heinz-Maier-Leibniz Zentrum; Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Mol (Belgium). BR2 reactor

    2017-09-01

    In a series of crystallization experiments, the directional solidification of silicon was investigated as a low cost path for the production of silicon wafers for solar cells. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to measure the influence of different crystallization parameters on the distribution of 3d-metal impurities of the produced ingots. A theoretical model describing the involved diffusion and segregation processes during the solidification and cooling of the ingots could be verified by the experimental results. By successive etching of the samples after the irradiation, it could be shown that a layer of at least 60 μm of the samples has to be removed to get real bulk concentrations.

  6. Neutron activation determination of impurities in high-purity bismuth with separation of matrix in form of hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukhin, P.I.; Shavinskij, B.M.; Mityakin, Yu.L.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation determination of 15 impurity elements (Au, Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Hg, K, Na, Ni, Se, Sr, Te, Zn) in high-purity bismuth (impurity content is approximately 10 -6 -10 -10 %) is presented. Bismuth hydroxide precipitation by ammonia from nitric acid solutions was used to separate bismuth from alkali, alkaline earth metals and elements forming stable ammines. Gold, selenium and tellurium are isolated in the form of metals at reduction by muriatic hydrazine. Results of analyzing two samples of special purity bismuth are presented. Neutron flux comprised 0.8-1x10 13 n/cm 2 xs. Radiation time was equal to 90 hours

  7. Some effects of MHD activity on impurity transport in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Fonck, R.J.; Hulse, R.A.; LeBlanc, B.

    1985-10-01

    The effects of MHD activity on intrinsic impurity transport are studied in ohmic discharges of the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) by measuring of the Z/sub eff/ profile from visible bremsstrahlung radiation and the spectral line intensities from ultraviolet spectroscopy. A diffusive/convective transport model, including an internal disruption model, is used to simulate the data. The Z/sub eff/ profile with no MHD activity is fitted with a strong inward convection, characterized by a peaking parameter c/sub v/ (= -a 2 v/2rD) = 11 (3.5, +4.5). At the onset of MHD activity (a large m = 1 n = 1 oscillation followed by sawteeth), this strongly peaked profile is flattened and subsequently reaches a new quasi-equilibrium shape. This profile is characterized by reduced convection [c/sub v/ = 3.6 (-1.1, +1.6), D = 1.4 (-0.7, +5.6) x 10 4 cm 2 /s], in addition to the particle redistribution which accompanies the sawtooth internal disruptions. 10 figs

  8. Hall mobility reduction in single-crystalline silicon gradually compensated by thermal donors activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veirman, J.; Dubois, S.; Enjalbert, N.; Garandet, J. P.; Heslinga, D. R.; Lemiti, M.

    2010-06-01

    This letter focuses on the variation of the Hall majority carrier mobility with the dopant compensation level in purely Boron-doped Czochralski grown silicon single crystals. Compensation was varied continuously at the sample scale via a step by step activation of the oxygen-based thermal donors. At room temperature, we show a strong drop in mobility for high compensation levels in both p- and n-type Si. Mobility models taking into account carrier scattering on ionized impurities and phonons could not reproduce this drop. We conclude that a specific effect of compensation must be taken into account to explain the observed behaviour. We qualitatively discuss physical mechanisms susceptible to reduce mobility in highly compensated Si.

  9. Active cooling of a mobile phone handset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, Ronan; Walsh, Ed; Walsh, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Power dissipation levels in mobile phones continue to increase due to gaming, higher power applications, and increased functionality associated with the internet. The current cooling methodologies of natural convection and radiation limit the power dissipation within a mobile phone to between 1-2 W depending on size. As power dissipation levels increase, products such as mobile phones will require active cooling to ensure that the devices operate within an acceptable temperature envelop from both user comfort and reliability perspectives. In this paper, we focus on the applied thermal engineering problem of an active cooling solution within a typical mobile phone architecture by implementing a custom centrifugal fan within the mobile phone. Its performance is compared in terms of flow rates and pressure drops, allowable phone heat dissipation and maximum phone surface temperature as this is the user constraint for a variety of simulated PCB architectures in the mobile phone. Perforated plates with varying porosity through different size orifices are used to simulate these architectures. The results show that the power level dissipated by a phone for a constant surface temperature may be increased by ∼50 - 75% depending on pressure drop induced by the internal phone architecture. Hence for successful implementation and efficient utilization of active cooling will require chip layout to be considered at the design stage.

  10. Gesture Activated Mobile Edutainment (GAME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Leichtenstern, Karin; Plomer, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    An approach to intercultural training of nonverbal behavior is presented that draws from research on role-plays with virtual agents and ideas from situated learning. To this end, a mobile serious game is realized where the user acquires knowledge about German emblematic gestures and tries them out...... in role-plays with virtual agents. Gesture performance is evaluated making use of build-in acceleration sensors of smart phones. After an account of the theoretical background covering diverse areas like virtual agents, situated learning and intercultural training, the paper presents the GAME approach...... along with details on the gesture recognition and content authoring. By its experience-based role plays with virtual characters, GAME brings together ideas from situated learning and intercultural training in an integrated approach and paves the way for new m-learning concepts....

  11. Effects of alloying and transmutation impurities on stability and mobility of helium in tungsten under a fusion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebang; Kong Xiangshan; You Yuwei; Liu, C.S.; Fang, Q.F.; Chen Junling; Luo, G.-N.; Wang Zhiguang

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of helium in metals is particularly significant in fusion research due to the He-induced degradation of materials. A small amount of impurities introduced either by intentional alloying or by transmutation reactions, will interact with He and lead the microstructure and mechanical properties of materials to change. In this paper, we present the results of first-principles calculations on the interactions of He with impurities and He diffusion around them in tungsten (W), including the interstitials Be, C, N, O, and substitutional solutes Re, Ta, Tc, Nb, V, Os, Ti, Si, Zr, Y and Sc. We find that the trapping radii of interstitial atoms on He are much larger than those of substitutional solutes. The binding energies between the substitutional impurities and He increase linearly with the relative charge densities at the He occupation site, indicating that He atoms easily aggregate at the low charge density site. The sequence of diffusion energy barriers of He around the possible alloying elements is Ti > V > Os > Ta > Re. The present results suggest that Ta might be chosen as a relatively suitable alloying element compared with other possible ones. (paper)

  12. Analysis of two commercially available bortezomib products: differences in assay of active agent and impurity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrn, Stephen R; Tishmack, Patrick A; Milton, Mark J; van de Velde, Helgi

    2011-06-01

    The analytical properties of two commercially available bortezomib products (VELCADE(®) and Bortenat) were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. The data showed differences between the two products. Based on these data, Bortenat samples contained more active ingredients than indicated by the label (mean, 116.5% and 117.9% of label, in 2-mg and 3.5-mg vials, respectively). In comparison, VELCADE samples contained a mean of 99.3% of active ingredient, which was consistent with the approved specification range (US, 90-110%; EU, 95-105%). Clinical data demonstrate that patients exposed to higher than recommended doses of bortezomib on the standard twice-weekly dosing schedule are likely to have an increased risk of major toxicities. Bortenat 2-mg vials contained an isovaleraldehyde impurity; the origin of this is unknown. Additionally, the ratio of boronic acid to boronic ester differed between Bortenat 2 mg (0.27:1) and 3.5 mg (0.13:1) and VELCADE (0.10:1) samples reconstituted in saline indicating that the Bortenat product is not equivalent to the VELCADE product.

  13. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Santos, C.

    1989-10-01

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . (autor) [pt

  14. On-column nitrosation of amines observed in liquid chromatography impurity separations employing ammonium hydroxide and acetonitrile as mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David P; Hetrick, Evan M; Liang, Zhongming; Hadden, Chad E; Bandy, Steven; Kemp, Craig A; Harris, Thomas M; Baertschi, Steven W

    2013-12-06

    The availability of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns capable of operation at pH values up to 12 has allowed a greater selectivity space to be explored for method development in pharmaceutical analysis. Ammonium hydroxide is of particular value in the mobile phase because it is compatible with direct interfacing to electrospray mass spectrometers. This paper reports an unexpected N-nitrosation reaction that occurs with analytes containing primary and secondary amines when ammonium hydroxide is used to achieve the high pH and acetonitrile is used as the organic modifier. The nitrosation reaction has generality. It has been observed on multiple columns from different vendors and with multiple amine-containing analytes. Ammonia was established to be the source of the nitroso nitrogen. The stainless steel column frit and metal ablated from the frit have been shown to be the sites of the reactions. The process is initiated by removal of the chromium oxide protective film from the stainless steel by acetonitrile. It is hypothesized that the highly active, freshly exposed metals catalyze room temperature oxidation of ammonia to NO but that the actual nitrosating agent is likely N(2)O(3). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Consultancy Activity on In Silico Models for Genotoxic Prediction of Pharmaceutical Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Manuela; Kovarich, Simona; Bassan, Arianna; Broccardo, Lorenza; Yang, Chihae; Fioravanzo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of DNA-reactive/mutagenic or clastogenic impurities plays an important role in the regulatory process for pharmaceuticals; in this context, in silico structure-based approaches are applied as primary tools for the evaluation of the mutagenic potential of the drug impurities. The general recommendations regarding such use of in silico methods are provided in the recent ICH M7 guideline stating that computational (in silico) toxicology assessment should be performed using two (Q)SAR prediction methodologies complementing each other: a statistical-based method and an expert rule-based method.Based on our consultant experience, we describe here a framework for in silico assessment of mutagenic potential of drug impurities. Two main applications of in silico methods are presented: (1) support and optimization of drug synthesis processes by providing early indication of potential genotoxic impurities and (2) regulatory evaluation of genotoxic potential of impurities in compliance with the ICH M7 guideline. Some critical case studies are also discussed.

  16. GalileoMobile: Astronomical activities in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Vasquez, Mayte; Kobel, Philippe

    GalileoMobile is an itinerant science education initiative run on a voluntary basis by an international team of astronomers, educators, and science communicators. Our team's main goal is to make astronomy accessible to schools and communities around the globe that have little or no access to outreach actions. We do this by performing teacher workshops, activities with students, and donating educational material. Since the creation of GalileoMobile in 2008, we have travelled to Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda, and worked with 56 schools in total. Our activities are centred on the GalileoMobile Handbook of Activities that comprises around 20 astronomical activities which we adapted from many different sources, and translated into 4 languages. The experience we gained in Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda taught us that (1) bringing experts from other countries was very stimulating for children as they are naturally curious about other cultures and encourages a collaboration beyond borders; (2) high-school students who were already interested in science were always very eager to interact with real astronomers doing research to ask for career advice; (3) inquiry-based methods are important to make the learning process more effective and we have therefore, re-adapted the activities in our Handbook according to these; (4) local teachers and university students involved in our activities have the potential to carry out follow-up activities, and examples are those from Uganda and India.

  17. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  18. Activation analysis with small mobile reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.

    1990-01-01

    A small nuclear reactor (a low-power reactor without heat removal devices) usually has thermal power output under 100 W and an average in-core thermal neutron flux below 10 9 n/cm 2 s. Conventional activation analysis is restricted to determination of specific elements with large neutron capture cross sections in sizable samples. In-vivo prompt gamma activation analysis (IVPGAA) can be used for diagnosis of elemental composition of the human body, particularly the essential elements Ca, Cl, N, and P in the whole body, and toxic Cd and Hg in contaminated organs. In this chapter, activation analysis using an external neutron beam from the Tsing Hua Mobile Educational Reactor (THMER) for in vivo activation is described. Characteristics of the mobile reactor, in-vivo medical diagnosis, and radiation safety are emphasized. 17 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  19. A study on neutron activation analysis for the determination of the contents of impurities in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    In determining the contents of impurity elements in reactor materials using neutron activation analysis, methods for preconcentration and radiochemical separtion have been studied. Before applying neutron irradiation, impurities in uranium dioxide have been preconcentrated by an anion exchange separtion method and boron impurity has been preconcentrated by a cation exchange separation method or an ashing method. After neutron irradiation the radiochemical separation method for the determination of 27 elements is based on a group separation using ion-exchange resin and material exchanger. The method has imployed mineral acid or organic mixture of the acid, excluding hydrofluoric acid, as the media and common glass wares as the apparatus. This separation method was applied to the reactor materials such as aluminum, steel, graphite and uranium dioxide. The single comparator method was used for determining the content of each element separated radiochemically and analytical results gave the statistical and systematic errors of less than 10% and 6.1%, respectively. A prompt gamma-ray measurement method has been used for determining the content of preconcentrated boron and the analytical results gave the statistical and systematic errors of 5.4% and 3.3%, respectively. (Author)

  20. Metal impurities profile in a 450kg multi-crystalline silicon ingot by Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hani; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Ji seok; Oh, Mok; Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeol; Tuan, Hoang Sy Minh

    2014-01-01

    Metal impurities are harmful to multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. They reduce solar cell conversion efficiencies through increased carrier recombination. They are present as isolated point-like impurities or precipitates. This work is to study the concentration profiles of some metal impurities of the directionally solidified 450kg multi-crystalline silicon ingot grown for solar cell production. The concentration of such impurities are generally below 10 15 cm -3 , and as such cannot be detected by physical techniques such as secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy(SIMS). So, we have tried to apply Cold Neutron - Prompt Gamma ray Activation Analysis(CN-PGAA) at the HANARO reactor research. The impurity concentrations of Au, Mn, Pt, Mo of a photovoltaic grade multi-crystalline silicon ingot appear by segregation from the liquid to the solid phase in the central region of the ingot during the crystallization. In the impurities concentration of the bottom region is higher than middle region due to the solid state diffusion. Towards the top region the segregation impurities diffused, during cooling process

  1. Toward Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL: Reaping Mobile Phone Benefits in Classroom Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rully Yudhiantara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone has been studied by researchers in its connection with education-related activies.  This study was aimed at investigating two research questions: 1 what are students’ perception toward mobile phone to support classroom activities; 2 How do students experience mobile phone use to support classoom activities? This study employed qualitative method. To collect data, there were some technique used: questionnaire and observation.  Students participated in this study were 70 students. Findings showed that student had positive perception and attitude toward mobile phone to support classroom activities. In classroom they used mobile phone to support classroom activitis. Reading E-Book that support subject, playing Audio and Video File, operating offline dictionary were activities supported by mobile phone use.

  2. Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, L. I.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis focuses on measurements of toroidal rotation and impurity profiles in improved plasma scenarios and in the presence of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity. Experiments were performed on TCV, the Tokamak a Configuration Variable in Lausanne. In TCV, plasma rotation is measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic (CXRS). The CXRS is associated with a low power diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) that provides CX emission from the hot plasma core, without perturbing the plasma with additional torque. The beam is observed transversally by the CXRS diagnostic so that local ion temperature, density and intrinsic velocity measurements are obtained. The three systems composing the present day CXRS2013 diagnostic cover the entire TCV radial midplane with up to 80 measurement locations separated by around 7 mm with a time resolution ranging from 2-30 ms. The main upgrades concerned the installation of new sensitive cameras, the overhaul of the toroidal system, the extended-chord configuration and the automation of the acquisition and analysis processes. These new Cars capabilities permitted the investigation of more complex scenarios featuring low intensity and/or fast events, like the low density electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) and the sawtooth (ST) instability. A comparison between rotation profiles measured over several sawtooth events and across a 'canonical' sawtooth cycle has been undertaken in limited L-mode plasmas. The averaged rotation profiles obtained with the upgraded CXRS diagnostic show that ST restrict the maximum attainable and that the rotation profiles are flattened and almost always display a small co-current contribution. It is this effect that results in the 1/I{sub p} scaling observed in TCV limited L-mode plasmas. The co-current core contribution is related to the ST crash, whilst, during the quiescent ramp of the sawtooth period, a plasma recoil outside the mixing radius is observed. A

  3. Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federspiel, L. I.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on measurements of toroidal rotation and impurity profiles in improved plasma scenarios and in the presence of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity. Experiments were performed on TCV, the Tokamak a Configuration Variable in Lausanne. In TCV, plasma rotation is measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic (CXRS). The CXRS is associated with a low power diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) that provides CX emission from the hot plasma core, without perturbing the plasma with additional torque. The beam is observed transversally by the CXRS diagnostic so that local ion temperature, density and intrinsic velocity measurements are obtained. The three systems composing the present day CXRS2013 diagnostic cover the entire TCV radial midplane with up to 80 measurement locations separated by around 7 mm with a time resolution ranging from 2-30 ms. The main upgrades concerned the installation of new sensitive cameras, the overhaul of the toroidal system, the extended-chord configuration and the automation of the acquisition and analysis processes. These new Cars capabilities permitted the investigation of more complex scenarios featuring low intensity and/or fast events, like the low density electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) and the sawtooth (ST) instability. A comparison between rotation profiles measured over several sawtooth events and across a 'canonical' sawtooth cycle has been undertaken in limited L-mode plasmas. The averaged rotation profiles obtained with the upgraded CXRS diagnostic show that ST restrict the maximum attainable and that the rotation profiles are flattened and almost always display a small co-current contribution. It is this effect that results in the 1/I p scaling observed in TCV limited L-mode plasmas. The co-current core contribution is related to the ST crash, whilst, during the quiescent ramp of the sawtooth period, a plasma recoil outside the mixing radius is observed. A high

  4. Rare earth impurities in high purity lanthanum oxide determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Desai, H.B.; Parthasarathy, R.; Gangadharan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Individual rare earth impurities in high purity La 2 O 3 (≥99.9%) have been determined by NAA after pre-separation of the matrix (La). The separation is carried out on an anion exchanger (Dowex 1x8) using different mixtures of methanol/nitric acid as eluants. The rare earth elements from Dy to Lu are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 1M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture, while the light rare earths from Ce to Gd are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 0.05M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture. La, which is retained on the column, is eluted using 0.1M HNO 3 . The recoveries of the various rare earth elements have been checked using radiotracers and also by spiking the sample with known amount of elements, and the recoveries are found to be quantitative. Results obtained on a typical high purity lanthanum oxide are reported here. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  5. Impurities determination in precious metals like rhodium, palladium and platinum by neutron activation without separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, S.; Piccot, D.; Pinte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of the method explored using an installation of gamma or X ray spectrometry of good performance. The irradiations were realized in the reactors EL.3 (flux approximately 6.10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 ) and Osiris (flux > 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 ) of the CEN Saclay. In rhodium the presence of iridium limits the analysis possibilities. However gold, silver and platinum are easily determined, just as the other elements (As, Br, Cl, Co, Mn, Na, Sb). In platinum it is possible to determine the elements of long period, especially antimony, silver, cobalt, iridium, tantalum and zinc. As for palladium the principal impurities are gold, silver and ruthenium for what is of precious metals and particularly zinc among the other metals. For the three matrices considered the detection limits of a certain number of elements are indicated [fr

  6. Toward Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL): Reaping Mobile Phone Benefits in Classroom Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Rully Yudhiantara; Ihsan Abdul Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phone has been studied by researchers in its connection with education-related activies. This study was aimed at investigating two research questions: 1) what are students' perception toward mobile phone to support classroom activities; 2) How do students experience mobile phone use to support classoom activities? This study employed qualitative method. To collect data, there were some technique used: questionnaire and observation. Students participated in this study were 70 students...

  7. MOBILE CAMPUS: A REFLECTIVE AND COLLECTIVE DIMENSION OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES MEDIATED BY MOBILE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Yu. Travkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers a definition and general characteristics of the mobile campus allowing to ensure a combination of informal and social types of the educational activities with formal learning in a traditional educational institution (institutes of higher education. A fundamental element of the mobile campus is intelligent algorithms providing learning analyst for personalized learning experience. Also the article examines connections between the mobile campus and a learning community, a personal learning network and electronic student profile.

  8. The application of structure-based assessment to support safety and chemistry diligence to manage genotoxic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients during drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobo, Krista L; Greene, Nigel; Cyr, Michelle O; Caron, Stéphane; Ku, Warren W

    2006-04-01

    Starting materials and intermediates used to synthesize pharmaceuticals are reactive in nature and may be present as impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used for preclinical safety studies and clinical trials. Furthermore, starting materials and intermediates may be known or suspected mutagens and/or carcinogens. Therefore, during drug development due diligence need be applied from two perspectives (1) to understand potential mutagenic and carcinogenic risks associated with compounds used for synthesis and (2) to understand the capability of synthetic processes to control genotoxic impurities in the API. Recently, a task force comprised of experts from pharmaceutical industry proposed guidance, with recommendations for classification, testing, qualification and assessing risk of genotoxic impurities. In our experience the proposed structure-based classification, has differentiated 75% of starting materials and intermediates as mutagenic and non-mutagenic with high concordance (92%) when compared with Ames results. Structure-based assessment has been used to identify genotoxic hazards, and prompted evaluation of fate of genotoxic impurities in API. These two assessments (safety and chemistry) culminate in identification of genotoxic impurities known or suspected to exceed acceptable levels in API, thereby triggering actions needed to assure appropriate control and measurement methods are in place. Hypothetical case studies are presented demonstrating this multi-disciplinary approach.

  9. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING ACTIVE MOBILITY PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Orellana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a Methodological, b Behavioural, and c Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  10. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  11. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  12. Mobility activation in thermally deposited CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of illumination on mobility has been studied from the photocurrent decay characteristics of thermally evaporated CdSe thin films deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrate held at elevated substrate temperatures. The study indicates that the mobilities of the carriers of different trap levels are activated due to the ...

  13. Children's active travel and independent mobility in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhri, Aslak; Hjorthol, Randi; Mackett, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries a decline in children's active and independent mobility, like walking and cycling is registered. In this paper the development of children's mobility in Denmark, Finland, Great Britain and Norway is compared to examine differences and similarities in these countries. Accessible ...

  14. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR's National Metrology Laboratory (NML) on a solution of the pure beta-emitting radionuclide phosphorus-32, which formed part of an international key comparison, are described. Since exploratory source...

  15. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors describe the activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR’s National Metrology Laboratory on a solution of the pure beta emitting Radio nuclide phosphorus-32 that formed part of an international key comparison. Depending on the production...

  16. Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe 3 O 4 . Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO 2 , together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO 2 whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures

  17. Determination of trace element impurities in aspirin tablets by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.; Klein, D.E.; Bauer, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five trace and minor elements in five different Egyptian aspirin brands (Aspo, Askin, Aspocid, Aspeol and Rivo) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was concluded that the concentration of As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Fe (except in Aspocid), Mg, Mn, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn in the Egyptian brands is below or within the concentration range reported for these elements in 16 American aspirin and aspirin-like brands. (author)

  18. Analysis of Two Commercially Available Bortezomib Products: Differences in Assay of Active Agent and Impurity Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Byrn, Stephen R.; Tishmack, Patrick A.; Milton, Mark J.; van de Velde, Helgi

    2011-01-01

    The analytical properties of two commercially available bortezomib products (VELCADE® and Bortenat) were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. The data showed differences between the two products. Based on these data, Bortenat samples contained more active ingredients than indicated by the label (mean, 116.5% and 117.9% of label, in 2-mg and 3.5-mg vials, respectively). In comparison, VELCADE samples conta...

  19. Neutron activation analysis of chemical impurities in manipulated samples of omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepe, Fernanda Peixoto; Leal, Alexandre Soares; Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br [Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, samples of Omeprazole (C{sub 17}H{sub 19}N{sub 3}O{sub 3}S), a largely used drug in the treatment of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer, were acquired from five different pharmacies of manipulation - or retail pharmacies which prepare personalized drugs under medical recommendation - in Belo Horizonte/Brazil and investigated using the k{sub 0} - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The preliminary results showed the presence of elements not foreseen in the original formula. It confirms the potential risk offered by medicines without suitable inspection. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of chemical impurities in manipulated samples of omeprazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepe, Fernanda Peixoto; Leal, Alexandre Soares; Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    In this work, samples of Omeprazole (C 17 H 19 N 3 O 3 S), a largely used drug in the treatment of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer, were acquired from five different pharmacies of manipulation - or retail pharmacies which prepare personalized drugs under medical recommendation - in Belo Horizonte/Brazil and investigated using the k 0 - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The preliminary results showed the presence of elements not foreseen in the original formula. It confirms the potential risk offered by medicines without suitable inspection. (author)

  1. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability...... of the global aeromobility system. In this paper an account is given of how the event was experienced by a European academic attending a number of North American conferences at precisely the time of the eruption. The paper is an attempt to describe how people reacted emotionally as well as rationally......, attempting to find strategies for coping with the consequences of the eruption....

  2. Increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Moessbauer Studies of Implanted Impurities in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were performed on implanted radioactive impurities in semiconductors and metals. Radioactive isotopes (from the ISOLDE facility) decaying to a Moessbauer isotope were utilized to investigate electronic and vibrational properties of impurities and impurity-defect structures. This information is inferred from the measured impurity hyperfine interactions and Debye-Waller factor. In semiconductors isoelectronic, shallow and deep level impurities have been implanted. Complex impurity defects have been produced by the implantation process (correlated damage) or by recoil effects from the nuclear decay in both semiconductors and metals. Annealing mechanisms of the defects have been studied. \\\\ \\\\ In silicon amorphised implanted layers have been recrystallized epitaxially by rapid-thermal-annealing techniques yielding highly supersaturated, electrically-active donor concentrations. Their dissolution and migration mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The electronic configuration of Sb donors...

  4. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  5. Secure Communications with Mobile Devices During In-Field Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partee, M.S.; Moser, F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the classic problems in information security is how to exchange confidential information securely in uncontrolled environments. There have been innumerable academic and commercial hours spent resolving this question. In traditional practice, securing communications meant investing in satellites, specialized hardware, rigorous security engineering and testing, and expending a lot of resources. For this reason, smaller organizations have often been unable to secure communications. The widespread adoption of mobile communications and the modern mobile device has brought about unprecedented abilities to stay connected with colleagues during work activities. As connectedness has increased, so have the opportunities for information compromise. The enormous mobile landscape, with competing ecosystems, large research and product development budgets, proliferating devices, and rapidly-shifting technical foundations prove to be a tremendous source of both opportunity and risk. With the reality of shrinking budgets and increasing threats, many organizations, commercial enterprises, and product vendors are looking for new ways to utilize existing resources for secure communications and mobile work capabilities. Keeping communications private and secure using the infrastructure of the world's telecommunications network and standard computing and mobile devices is the challenge. This paper will examine some methods for communicating securely using consumer mobile products and evaluate the risk such tools can present to an organization in the context of inspection work in the field. (author)

  6. Mobile Active Authentication via Linguistic Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    home 101,151 WhatsApp 64,038 Messaging 60,015 Launcher 39,113 Facebook 38,591 Google Search 32,947 Chrome 32,032 Snapchat 23,481 System...devices varied, but the activity in majority of the cases was communication via SMS, MMS, WhatsApp , Facebook, Google Hangouts, and other chat apps

  7. Assessment of a Mobile Game ("MobileKids Monster Manor") to Promote Physical Activity Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Umedaly, Aryannah; Abulnaga, S Mazdak; Robertson, Leah; Junker, Anne; Chanoine, Jean Pierre; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2015-04-01

    The majority of children in North America are not meeting current physical activity guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a mobile phone game ("MobileKids Monster Manor") as a tool to promote voluntary physical activity among children. The game integrates data from an accelerometer-based activity monitor (Tractivity(®); Kineteks Corp., Vancouver, BC, Canada) wirelessly connected to a phone and was developed with the involvement of a team of young advisors (KidsCan Initiative: Involving Youth as Ambassadors for Research). Fifty-four children 8-13 years old completed a week of baseline data collection by wearing an accelerometer but receiving no feedback about their activity levels. The 54 children were then sequentially assigned to two groups: One group played "MobileKids Monster Manor," and the other received daily activity feedback (steps and active minutes) via an online program. The physical activity (baseline and intervention weeks) was measured using the activity monitor and compared using two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (intervention×time). Forty-seven children with a body mass index (BMI) z-score of 0.35±1.18 successfully completed the study. Significant (P=0.01) increases in physical activity were observed during the intervention week in both the game and feedback groups (1191 and 796 steps/day, respectively). In the game group, greater physical activity was demonstrated in children with higher BMI z-score, showing 964 steps/day more per BMI z-score unit (P=0.03; 95 percent confidence interval of 98 to 1829). Further investigation is required to confirm that our game design promotes physical activity.

  8. A Survey of Online Activity Recognition Using Mobile Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.; Bosch, S.; Durmaz, O.; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity recognition using embedded sensors has enabled many context-aware applications in different areas, such as healthcare. Initially, one or more dedicated wearable sensors were used for such applications. However, recently, many researchers started using mobile phones for this

  9. A Learning Activity Design Framework for Supporting Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Learning Activity Design (LEAD framework for the development and implementation of mobile learning activities in primary schools. The LEAD framework draws on methodological perspectives suggested by design-based research and interaction design in the specific field of technology-enhanced learning (TEL. The LEAD framework is grounded in four design projects conducted over a period of six years. It contributes a new understanding of the intricacies and multifaceted aspects of the design-process characterizing the development and implementation of mobile devices (i.e. smart phones and tablets in curricular activities conducted in Swedish primary schools. This framework is intended to provide both designers and researchers with methodological tools that take account of the pedagogical foundations of technologically-based educational interventions, usability issues related to the interaction with the mobile application developed, multiple data streams generated during the design project, multiple stakeholders involved in the design process and sustainability aspects of the mobile learning activities implemented in the school classroom.

  10. A Survey of Online Activity Recognition Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Bosch, Stephan; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity recognition using embedded sensors has enabled many context-aware applications in different areas, such as healthcare. Initially, one or more dedicated wearable sensors were used for such applications. However, recently, many researchers started using mobile phones for this purpose, since these ubiquitous devices are equipped with various sensors, ranging from accelerometers to magnetic field sensors. In most of the current studies, sensor data collected for activity recognition are analyzed offline using machine learning tools. However, there is now a trend towards implementing activity recognition systems on these devices in an online manner, since modern mobile phones have become more powerful in terms of available resources, such as CPU, memory and battery. The research on offline activity recognition has been reviewed in several earlier studies in detail. However, work done on online activity recognition is still in its infancy and is yet to be reviewed. In this paper, we review the studies done so far that implement activity recognition systems on mobile phones and use only their on-board sensors. We discuss various aspects of these studies. Moreover, we discuss their limitations and present various recommendations for future research. PMID:25608213

  11. A Survey of Online Activity Recognition Using Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity recognition using embedded sensors has enabled many context-aware applications in different areas, such as healthcare. Initially, one or more dedicated wearable sensors were used for such applications. However, recently, many researchers started using mobile phones for this purpose, since these ubiquitous devices are equipped with various sensors, ranging from accelerometers to magnetic field sensors. In most of the current studies, sensor data collected for activity recognition are analyzed offline using machine learning tools. However, there is now a trend towards implementing activity recognition systems on these devices in an online manner, since modern mobile phones have become more powerful in terms of available resources, such as CPU, memory and battery. The research on offline activity recognition has been reviewed in several earlier studies in detail. However, work done on online activity recognition is still in its infancy and is yet to be reviewed. In this paper, we review the studies done so far that implement activity recognition systems on mobile phones and use only their on-board sensors. We discuss various aspects of these studies. Moreover, we discuss their limitations and present various recommendations for future research.

  12. Associations between children’s independent mobility and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Independent mobility describes the freedom of children to travel and play in public spaces without adult supervision. The potential benefits for children are significant such as social interactions with peers, spatial and traffic safety skills and increased physical activity. Yet, the health benefits of independent mobility, particularly on physical activity accumulation, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate associations of children’s independent mobility with light, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity accumulation. Methods In 2011 - 2012, 375 Australian children aged 8-13 years (62% girls) were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Children’s independent mobility (i.e. independent travel to school and non-school destinations, independent outdoor play) and socio-demographics were assessed through child and parent surveys. Physical activity intensity was measured objectively through an Actiheart monitor worn on four consecutive days. Associations between independent mobility and physical activity variables were analysed using generalized linear models, accounting for clustered sampling, Actiheart wear time, socio-demographics, and assessing interactions by sex. Results Independent travel (walking, cycling, public transport) to school and non-school destinations were not associated with light, moderate-to-vigorous and total physical activity. However, sub-analyses revealed a positive association between independent walking and cycling (excluding public transport) to school and total physical but only in boys (b = 36.03, p physical activity (b = 29.76, p physical activity. When assessing differences by sex, the observed significant associations of independent outdoor play with light and total physical activity remained in girls but not in boys. All other associations showed no significant differences by sex. Conclusions Independent outdoor play may boost children’s daily physical activity levels

  13. Ligand mobility modulates immunological synapse formation and T cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Hsu

    Full Text Available T cell receptor (TCR engagement induces clustering and recruitment to the plasma membrane of many signaling molecules, including the protein tyrosine kinase zeta-chain associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP70 and the adaptor SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76. This molecular rearrangement results in formation of the immunological synapse (IS, a dynamic protein array that modulates T cell activation. The current study investigates the effects of apparent long-range ligand mobility on T cell signaling activity and IS formation. We formed stimulatory lipid bilayers on glass surfaces from binary lipid mixtures with varied composition, and characterized these surfaces with respect to diffusion coefficient and fluid connectivity. Stimulatory ligands coupled to these surfaces with similar density and orientation showed differences in their ability to activate T cells. On less mobile membranes, central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC formation was delayed and the overall accumulation of CD3ζ at the IS was reduced. Analysis of signaling microcluster (MC dynamics showed that ZAP70 MCs exhibited faster track velocity and longer trajectories as a function of increased ligand mobility, whereas movement of SLP76 MCs was relatively insensitive to this parameter. Actin retrograde flow was observed on all surfaces, but cell spreading and subsequent cytoskeletal contraction were more pronounced on mobile membranes. Finally, increased tyrosine phosphorylation and persistent elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ were observed in cells stimulated on fluid membranes. These results point to ligand mobility as an important parameter in modulating T cell responses.

  14. Integrable quantum impurity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckle, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    By modifying some of the local L operators of the algebraic form of the Bethe Ansatz inhomogeneous one dimensional quantum lattice models can be constructed. This fact has recently attracted new attention, the inhomogeneities being interpreted as local impurities. The Hamiltonians of the so constructed one-dimensional quantum models have a nearest neighbour structure except in the vicinity of the local impurities which involve three-site interactions. The pertinent feature of these models is the absence of backscattering at the impurities: the impurities are transparent. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  15. Impurities in radioactive solutions for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute and relative methods for radioactive sources calibration, like 4 Πβ-γ and 4Πγ ionization chamber respectively, allows to reach 0,1% of exactiness in activity measurement, but cannot distinguish radioactive impurities that interfere in the activity. Then, one of the problems associated to a quality control of calibrated sources furnished to users is the identification and quantification of the impurities. In this work, a routine technical procedure, using the facilities of gamma spectrometry method that allows to identify and to determine the impurities relative contribution to the source main radionuclide activity, is described. (author) [pt

  16. Comparative study of adsorptive role of carbonaceous materials in removal of UV-active impurities of paclitaxel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Nasiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphite oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanosheets were synthesized with a low-cost manufacturing method. The morphology and structures of the synthesized samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The efficiencies of GO and rGO as novel candidate adsorbents in the pre-purification of paclitaxel were compared and contrasted with those of commercial graphite (Gt, graphene (G and multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT. According to UV–vis and HPLC analyses, rGO was evaluated as the best absorbent for the removal of impurities in pre-purification of paclitaxel from plant cell cultures. In contrast, the GO had the poorest proficiency for paclitaxel pre-purification in comparison with the other carbonaceous adsorbents. This is attributed to the existence of many localized defects in the π-structure of GO that is related to weakness of π–π stacking interactions between crude extract impurities and GO.

  17. The screening of charged impurities in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenjing; Li, Lain-Jong

    2010-01-01

    Positively charged impurities were introduced into a bilayer graphene (BLG) transistor by n-doping with dimethylformamide. Subsequent exposure of the BLG device to moisture resulted in a positive shift of the Dirac point and an increase of hole mobility, suggesting that moisture could reduce the scattering strength of the existing charged impurities. In other words, moisture screened off the 'effective density' of charged impurities. At the early stage of moisture screening the scattering of hole carriers is dominated by long-range Coulomb scatter, but an alternative scattering mechanism should also be taken into consideration when the effective density of impurities is further lowered on moisture exposure.

  18. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  19. Mobility activation in thermally deposited CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    3. Mobility activation in CdSe thin films. The trap depths were calculated by using the following simple decay law. It = Ioexp(–pt),. (1) where p is the probability of escape of an electron from the trap per second and is given by (Randall and Wilkins 1945) p = S exp (–E/kT),. (2) where E is the trap depth for electrons below the ...

  20. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than......The world is on the move. This is a widespread understanding by many inhabitants of contemporary society across the Globe. But what does it actually mean? During over one decade the ‘mobilities turn’ within the social sciences have provided a new set of insights into the repercussions of mobilities...... and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues of power, social exclusion...

  1. Identification, characterization and quantification of new impurities by LC-ESI/MS/MS and LC-UV methods in rivastigmine tartrate active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Shandilya, Sanjeev; Bharati, Amber; Paul, Saroj Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-05

    Six impurities were detected at trace level in rivastigmine tartrate drug substance by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography method. Three impurities were characterized rapidly and three impurities were found to be unknown. The unknown impurities were enriched and identified with a combination of semi-preparative HPLC and LC/MS/MS techniques. Proposed structures were further confirmed by characterization using NMR, FT-IR, and EA techniques of impurity standards. Based on the spectroscopic, spectrometric and elemental analysis data unknown impurities were characterized as 3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenyl N-ethyl-N-methyl carbamate N-oxide, ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 4-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester and ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 2-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester. A plausible mechanism for the formation of these impurities is also proposed. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines for fourteen impurities to demonstrate specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and stability indicating nature of the method. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for rivastigmine tartrate and its impurities. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.41 and 113.33% for all impurities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  3. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.; Poeggeler, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was

  4. Inferring Human Activity in Mobile Devices by Computing Multiple Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruizhi; Chu, Tianxing; Liu, Keqiang; Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Yuwei

    2015-08-28

    This paper introduces a framework for inferring human activities in mobile devices by computing spatial contexts, temporal contexts, spatiotemporal contexts, and user contexts. A spatial context is a significant location that is defined as a geofence, which can be a node associated with a circle, or a polygon; a temporal context contains time-related information that can be e.g., a local time tag, a time difference between geographical locations, or a timespan; a spatiotemporal context is defined as a dwelling length at a particular spatial context; and a user context includes user-related information that can be the user's mobility contexts, environmental contexts, psychological contexts or social contexts. Using the measurements of the built-in sensors and radio signals in mobile devices, we can snapshot a contextual tuple for every second including aforementioned contexts. Giving a contextual tuple, the framework evaluates the posteriori probability of each candidate activity in real-time using a Naïve Bayes classifier. A large dataset containing 710,436 contextual tuples has been recorded for one week from an experiment carried out at Texas A&M University Corpus Christi with three participants. The test results demonstrate that the multi-context solution significantly outperforms the spatial-context-only solution. A classification accuracy of 61.7% is achieved for the spatial-context-only solution, while 88.8% is achieved for the multi-context solution.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOBILE NUMBER PORTABILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE OF ACTIVE MULTIPLE MOBILE PHONE NUMBERS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon A. Keelson; Addo J. Odei

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple mobile phone numbers in Ghana has become a dominate phenomenon in recent years. The introduction of mobile number portability (MNP) makes it possible for a subscriber to conveniently switch from one mobile network to another without losing his or her number. Because of mobile number portability, we expected that use of multiple numbers would become less attractive. This study examines how mobile number portability has affected the use of multiple phone numbers. We use top,...

  6. Development of a sensitive and rapid method for rifampicin impurity analysis using supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Jun; Yan, Zheng-Yu

    2015-10-10

    A novel simple, fast and efficient supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method was developed and compared with RPLC method for the separation and determination of impurities in rifampicin. The separation was performed using a packed diol column and a mobile phase B (modifier) consisting of methanol with 0.1% ammonium formate (w/v) and 2% water (v/v). Overall satisfactory resolutions and peak shapes for rifampicin quinone (RQ), rifampicin (RF), rifamycin SV (RSV), rifampicin N-oxide (RNO) and 3-formylrifamycinSV (3-FR) were obtained by optimization of the chromatography system. With gradient elution of mobile phase, all of the impurities and the active were separated within 4 min. Taking full advantage of features of SFC (such as particular selectivity, non-sloping baseline in gradient elution, and without injection solvent effects), the method was successfully used for determination of impurities in rifampicin, with more impurity peaks detected, better resolution achieved and much less analysis time needed compared with conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does small-bodied salmon spawning activity enhance streambed mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Tonina, Daniele; Buxton, Todd H.

    2015-09-01

    Female salmonids bury and lay their eggs in streambeds by digging a pit, which is then covered with sediment from a second pit that is dug immediately upstream. The spawning process alters streambed topography, winnows fine sediment, and mixes sediment in the active layer. The resulting egg nests (redds) contain coarser and looser sediments than those of unspawned streambed areas, and display a dune-like shape with an amplitude and length that vary with fish size, substrate conditions, and flow conditions. Redds increase local bed surface roughness (drag, resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. Spawning, also prevents streambed armoring by mixing surface and subsurface material, potentially increasing particle mobility. Here we use two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with detailed prespawning and postspawning bathymetries and field observations to test the effect of spawning by small-bodied salmonids on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness from small salmon redds has negligible effects on shear stress at the reach-unit scale, and limited effects at the local scale. Conversely, results indicate sediment mixing reduces armoring and enhances sediment mobility, which increases potential bed load transport by subsequent floods. River restoration in fish-bearing streams should take into consideration the effects of redd excavation on channel stability. This is particularly important for streams that historically supported salmonids and are the focus of habitat restoration actions.

  8. Variational method for magnetic impurities in metals: impurity pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oles, A M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.); Chao, K A [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Measurement Technology

    1980-01-01

    Applying a variational method to the generalized Wolff model, we have investigated the effect of impurity-impurity interaction on the formation of local moments in the ground state. The direct coupling between the impurities is found to be more important than the interaction between the impurities and the host conduction electrons, as far as the formation of local moments is concerned. Under certain conditions we also observe different valences on different impurities.

  9. Thermally and photostimulated charge transfer on impurities and intrinsic defects in YAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, V.A.; Bulka, G.P.; Vanshtejn, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of ESR and thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) were used to study thermo- and photostimulated change of valent state of impurity ions of iron, chromium and oxygen centers in YAlO 3 (YA). On the basis of recovery of ESR O 2 - intensity after pulsed irradiation it was established, that autolocalized holes (ALH) were mobile above 150 K with 0.54 eV activation energy. It is proposed that decay of autolocalized excitons (ALE) in YA is conditioned by thermal mobility of the hole component of ALE. Relationship of TSL with ESL data and results of high-temperature annealing of crystals in vacuum and in the air is discussed

  10. Measuring economic activity in China with mobile big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emerging trends in the use of smartphones, online mapping applications, and social media, in addition to the geo-located data they generate, provide opportunities to trace users’ socio-economic activities in an unprecedentedly granular and direct fashion and have triggered a revolution in empirical research. These vast mobile data offer new perspectives and approaches to measure economic dynamics, and they are broadening the social science and economics fields. In this paper, we explore the potential for using mobile data to measure economic activity in China from a bottom-up view. First, we build indices for gauging employment and consumer trends based on billions of geo-positioning data. Second, we advance the estimation of offline store foot traffic via location search data derived from Baidu Maps, which is then applied to predict Apple’s revenues in China and to accurately detect box-office fraud. Third, we construct consumption indicators to track trends in various service sector industries and verify them with several existing indicators. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to measure the world’s second-largest economy by mining such unprecedentedly large-scale and fine-granular spatial-temporal data. In this way, our research provides new approaches and insights into measuring economic activity.

  11. Authoring and Enactment of Mobile Pyramid-Based Collaborative Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hernández-Leo, Davinia

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative learning flow patterns (CLFPs) formulate best practices for the orchestration of activity sequences and collaboration mechanisms that can elicit fruitful social interactions. Mobile technology features offer opportunities to support interaction mediation and content accessibility. However, existing mobile collaborative learning…

  12. Mobile health: a synopsis and comment on "Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Winter; Hoffman, Sara; Thornton, Louise

    2014-03-01

    We offer a synopsis and commentary on J. Fanning and colleagues' article "Increasing Physical Activity with Mobile Devices: A Meta-Analysis" published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. Although regular physical activity has a range of benefits, very few adults in the USA meet recommended guidelines for daily physical activity. The meta-analysis of Fanning et al. (2012) aimed to synthesize the results of research using mobile devices to increase physical activity. Their review identified 11 studies that used mobile technologies, including short message service (SMS), apps, or personal digital assistant (PDA) to improve physical activity behaviors among participants. Fanning et al. conclude that while literature in this area is limited to date, there is initial support for the efficacy of mobile-based interventions for improving physical activity. Included studies varied greatly, and the majority used only SMS to influence physical behaviors, meaning generalization of results to other forms of mobile technologies may be premature. This review does, however, provide a foundation for understanding how mobile-based interventions may be used efficaciously for the development of future interventions to improve health behaviors.

  13. Study by nuclear techniques of the impurity-defect interaction in implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, Lionel.

    1978-01-01

    The properties of out equilibrium alloys formed by impurity implantation are strongly influenced by radiation damage created during implantation. This work presents a study, via hyperfine interaction and lattice location experiments, of the impurity-defect interaction in ion implanted metals. When the impurity and defect concentrations in the implanted layer are small, i.e. when impurities are uniformly recoil implanted in the whole crystal volume following a nuclear reaction (Aq In experiments), the impurity interacts with its own damage cascade. In this case, a vacancy is found to be trapped by a fraction of impurities during an athermal process. The value of this fraction does not seem to depend critically on impurity and host. When the impurity and defect concentrations are such that defect cascades interact, i.e. when impurities are implanted with an isotope separator (Fe Yb experiments), the observed impurity-vacancy (or vacancy cluster) interactions depend then strongly on the nature of impurity and host. An empirical relation, which indicates the importance of elastic effects, has been found between the proportion of impurities interacting with defects and the difference between impurity and host atom radii. At implantation temperature such that vacancies are mobile, the impurity-defect interaction depends essentially on vacancy migration. A model based on chemical kinetics has been developed to account for the variation with temperature of measured quantities [fr

  14. The urban brain: analysing outdoor physical activity with mobile EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Peter; Mavros, Panagiotis; Coyne, Richard; Roe, Jenny

    2015-02-01

    Researchers in environmental psychology, health studies and urban design are interested in the relationship between the environment, behaviour settings and emotions. In particular, happiness, or the presence of positive emotional mindsets, broadens an individual's thought-action repertoire with positive benefits to physical and intellectual activities, and to social and psychological resources. This occurs through play, exploration or similar activities. In addition, a body of restorative literature focuses on the potential benefits to emotional recovery from stress offered by green space and 'soft fascination'. However, access to the cortical correlates of emotional states of a person actively engaged within an environment has not been possible until recently. This study investigates the use of mobile electroencephalography (EEG) as a method to record and analyse the emotional experience of a group of walkers in three types of urban environment including a green space setting. Using Emotiv EPOC, a low-cost mobile EEG recorder, participants took part in a 25 min walk through three different areas of Edinburgh. The areas (of approximately equal length) were labelled zone 1 (urban shopping street), zone 2 (path through green space) and zone 3 (street in a busy commercial district). The equipment provided continuous recordings from five channels, labelled excitement (short-term), frustration, engagement, long-term excitement (or arousal) and meditation. A new form of high-dimensional correlated component logistic regression analysis showed evidence of lower frustration, engagement and arousal, and higher meditation when moving into the green space zone; and higher engagement when moving out of it. Systematic differences in EEG recordings were found between three urban areas in line with restoration theory. This has implications for promoting urban green space as a mood-enhancing environment for walking or for other forms of physical or reflective activity. Published

  15. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  16. Impurity control in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The control of impurities in TFTR will be a particularly difficult problem due to the large energy and particle fluxes expected in the device. As part of the TFTR Flexibility Modification (TEM) project, a program has been implemented to address this problem. Transport code simulations are used to infer an impurity limit criterion as a function of the impurity atomic number. The configurational designs of the limiters and associated protective plates are discussed along with the consideration of thermal and mechanical loads due to normal plasma operation, neutral beams, and plasma disruptions. A summary is given of the materials-related research, which has been a collaborative effort involving groups at Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia Laboratories, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Conceptual designs are shown for getterng systems capable of regenerating absorbed tritium. Research on this topic by groups at the previously mentioned laboratories and SAES Research Laboratory is reviewed

  17. Synthesis and Identification of Selected Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang, Zhou [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Non-active substances undesired, but often unavoidable compounds accompanying target active ingredients in various pesticide formulations have been synthesized for supporting product registration and evaluation of the total toxicological and physicochemical properties of formulated products. The synthesis and structural characterization of various impurities of pesticide active ingredients are described and illustrated by IR, NMR, GC and GC/MS data. (author)

  18. Selection of pecan shell-based activated carbons for removal of organic and inorganic impurities from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niandou, Mohamed A S; Novak, Jeffrey M; Bansode, Rishipal R; Yu, Jianmei; Rehrah, Djaafar; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbons are a byproduct from pyrolysis and have value as a purifying agent. The effectiveness of activated carbons is dependent on feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions that modify their surface properties. Therefore, pecan shell-based activated carbons (PSACs) were prepared by soaking shells in 50% (v/v) HPO or 25 to 50% of KOH-NaHCO followed by pyrolysis at 400 to 700°C under a N atmosphere. Physically activated PSACs were produced by pyrolysis at 700°C under N followed by activation with steam or CO at 700 to 900°C. Physicochemical, surface, and adsorption properties of the PSACs were compared with two commercially available activated carbons. The average mass yield of PSACs with respect to the initial mass of the biomass was about 20 and 34% for physically activated and chemically activated carbons, respectively. Acid-activated carbons exhibited higher surface area, higher bulk density, and lower ash content compared with steam- or CO-activated carbons and the two commercial products. Base activation led to the development of biochar with moderate to high surface area with surface charges suitable for adsorption of anionic species. Regardless of the activation method, PSACs had high total surface area ranging from 400 to 1000 m g, better pore size distribution, and more surface charges than commercial samples. Our results also showed that PSACs were effective in removing inorganic contaminants such as Cu and NO as well as organic contaminants such as atrazine and metolachlor. This study showed that pyrolysis conditions and activation had a large influence on the PSAC's surface characteristics, which can limit its effectiveness as a custom sorbent for targeted water contaminants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Nationwide impact and vehicle to grid application of electric vehicles mobility using an activity based model

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Roberto; González, Jairo; Fraile Ardanuy, José Jesús; Knapen, Luk; Janssens, Davy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of electric mobility on the transmission grid in Flanders region (Belgium), using a micro-simulation activity based models. These models are used to provide temporal and spatial estimation of energy and power demanded by electric vehicles (EVs) in different mobility zones. The increment in the load demand due to electric mobility is added to the background load demand in these mobility areas and the effects over the transmission substations are analyzed. From t...

  20. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2017-11-01

    Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  1. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monsivais

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  2. Dynamical impurity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class

  3. Dynamical impurity problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  4. Development and validation of an ICP-MS method for the determination of elemental impurities in TP-6076 active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) according to USP 〈232〉/〈233〉.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahrour, Osama; Malone, John; Collins, Mark; Salmon, Vrushali; Greenan, Catherine; Bombardier, Amy; Ma, Zhongze; Dunwoody, Nick

    2017-10-25

    The new guidelines of the United States pharmacopeia (USP), European pharmacopeia (EP) and international conference on harmonization (ICH) regulating elemental impurities limits in pharmaceuticals signify the end of unspecific analysis of metals as outlined in USP 〈231〉. The new guidelines specify both daily doses and concentration/limits of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical final products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients. In chapter USP 〈233〉 method implementation, validation and quality control during the analytical process are described. We herein report the use of a stabilising matrix that overcomes low spike recovery problem encountered with Os and allows the determination of all USP required elemental impurities (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Os and Ir) in a single analysis. The matrix was used in the validation of a method to determine elemental impurities in TP-6076 active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) by ICP-MS according to the procedures defined in USP〈233〉 and to GMP requirements. This validation will support the regulatory submission of TP-6076 which is a novel tetracycline analogue effective against the most urgent multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Evaluation of TP-6076 in IND-enabling toxicology studies has led to the initiation of a phase 1 clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis

    1998-01-01

    We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...

  6. Application of HPLC with ELSD Detection for the Assessment of Azelaic Acid Impurities in Liposomal Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of research and development of a new pharmaceutical formulation of azelaic acid in the liposomal form, we developed a rapid and accurate method for the detection of impurities using high-performance liquid chromatography. A chromatographic column from Merck (Purospher Star RP C18, 250–4 mm (5 μm was used in the assay, and the mobile phase gradient consisted of three phases: A—methanol : water (5 : 95 + 1.5% (v/v acetic acid; B—water : methanol (5 : 95 + 1.5% (v/v acetic acid; and C—chloroform. Detection of the impurities and the active substance was performed by an evaporative light-scattering detector. The method was validated for selectivity, system precision, method precision, limit of detection, and response rates. The proposed method can be used to detect impurities in the liposomal formulation of azelaic acid. The method enables separation of azelaic acid from the identified and unidentified impurities and from the excipients used in the drug form.

  7. Mobile health applications to promote active and healthy ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Christop; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal

  8. Defining a Roadmap Towards Comparative Research in Online Activity Recognition on Mobile Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.; Bosch, S.; Durmaz, O.; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many context-aware applications based on activity recognition are currently using mobile phones. Most of this work is done in an offline way. However, there is a shift towards an online approach in recent studies, where activity recognition systems are implemented on mobile phones. Unfortunately,

  9. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  10. The role of demographic and motivational factors on mobile commerce usage activities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Cullen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have examined the mobile commerce phenomenon and most of these have focused on understanding the organisational and environmental factors that affect its adoption. Few have examined how an individual’s characteristics and their perceived motivational appetite affect their mobile commerce usage and specifically the activities they engage in.   Objectives: This study examines the role of demographics (individuals’ characteristics and motivational factors on mobile commerce usage activities from the South African perspective.   Method: An objective approach and a positivistic stance were followed. The research model and instrument from earlier studies by Chong (2013a were contextualised to suit this study. Data collection was done through an online questionnaire, 88 responses were received and 81 used for data analysis.   Results: The findings show that age is significantly related to mobile commerce transactions, and one’s education status influences the following mobile commerce usage activities: transactions and location-based services. One’s gender influences how one uses mobile commerce. A significant relationship between all three motivational variables and mobile commerce usage activities is evident.   Conclusion: The findings provide the financial services industry and providers of mobile commerce offerings with a better understanding of the relationships between customer demographics and the mobile commerce activities they engage in. An additional variable of customer income has been identified for future studies to better understand the relationship.

  11. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  12. Effects of impurity elements on mechanical properties and microstructures of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawahata, A. [Ibaraki Univ., Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Hitachi (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Enomoto, M. [Ibaraki Univ., Dept. of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Hitachi (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFs), such as F82H (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V- 0.04Ta-0.1C, in wt%), are one of the leading candidates for structural materials of fusion reactors. Impact property of F82H can be improved by adjusting the amount of tantalum or titanium concentration. On the other hand, it was reported by microstructure analyses of IEA steel that tantalum has a tendency to form oxides and causes a large dispersion of fracture toughness. In this study, the correlation between titanium or tantalum concentration and the impact property were reported focusing on difference in microstructure. Charpy impact test and microstructure analyses were carried out against modified F82H series of which titanium, nitrogen and tantalum composition were controlled. Charpy impact test results showed that the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of T05A (0.05Ta- 0.0014N-

  13. Professional Mobility as the Realization Factor of Teacher’s Innovative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Morozova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the teachers’ professional mobility as a factor of their readiness for innovative activity. Based on the analysis of psychological and pe- dagogic literature, the essence and structure of the given phenomenon are defined. The subject of the experimental research compiles the key qualities of profes- sional mobility and their development techniques for vocational training teachers. The aim of the study includes the identification of the key characteristics of the qualities in question. The main methodological idea is defined as follows: the professional mobility formation is the basis of teachers’ productive innovative activity. The research findings made it possible to identify the components of profes- sional mobility: innovative attitude, creativity, intellectual mobility, extra-normative ac- tivity and communication skills. The research results provide the basis for effective technologies selection for developing teachers’ professional mobility

  14. Professional Mobility as the Realization Factor of Teacher’s Innovative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Morozova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the teachers’ professional mobility as a factor of their readiness for innovative activity. Based on the analysis of psychological and pe- dagogic literature, the essence and structure of the given phenomenon are defined. The subject of the experimental research compiles the key qualities of profes- sional mobility and their development techniques for vocational training teachers. The aim of the study includes the identification of the key characteristics of the qualities in question. The main methodological idea is defined as follows: the professional mobility formation is the basis of teachers’ productive innovative activity. The research findings made it possible to identify the components of profes- sional mobility: innovative attitude, creativity, intellectual mobility, extra-normative ac- tivity and communication skills. The research results provide the basis for effective technologies selection for developing teachers’ professional mobility

  15. Defect-impurity interactions in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of defect-impurity interactions in metals is presented. When point defects become mobile they migrate towards the sinks and on the way can be captured by impurity atoms forming stable associations so-called complexes. In some metallic systems complexes can also be formed athermally during ion implantation by trapping point defects already in the collision cascade. An association of a point defect with an impurity atom leads to its displacement from the lattice site. The structure and stability of complexes are strongly temperature dependent. With increasing temperature they dissociate or grow by multiple defect trapping. The appearance of freely migrating point defects at elevated temperatures, due to ion bombardment or thermal annealing, causes via coupling with defect fluxes, important impurity redistribution. Because of the sensitivity of many metal-in-metal implanted systems to radiation damage the understanding of this processes is essential for a proper interpretation of the lattice occupancy measurements and the optimization of implantation conditions. (author)

  16. A review of the types of mobile activities in mobile inquiry-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Specht, Marcus; Prinsen, Fleur; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based Learning is increasingly suggested as an efficient approach for fostering learners’ curiosity and motivation. It helps learners to develop their ability to work in complex and unpredictable environments making them more critical thinkers and agentic learners. Although mobile technology

  17. [Impurity removal technology of Tongan injection in liquid preparation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-fang; Wang, Xiu-hai; Bai, Wei-rong; Kang, Xiao-dong; Liu, Jun-chao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively remove the invalid impurities in Tongan injection, optimize the optimal parameters of the impurity removal technology of liquid mixing process, in this paper, taking Tongan injection as the research object, with the contents of celandine alkali, and sinomenine, solids reduction efficiency, and related substances inspection as the evaluation indexes, the removal of impurities and related substances by the combined process of refrigeration, coction and activated carbon adsorption were investigated, the feasibility of the impurity removal method was definited and the process parameters were optimized. The optimized process parameters were as follows: refrigerated for 36 h, boiled for 15 min, activated carbon dosage of 0.3%, temperature 100 degrees C, adsorption time 10 min. It can effectively remove the tannin, and other impurities, thus ensure the quality and safety of products.

  18. Surface segregation of the metal impurity to the (1 0 0) surface of fcc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    good relation to the differences in surface energy between the impurity and host crystals ΔQ ..... mobile impurity are treated as movable discrete particles. ..... [64] J Siera, van Delft FCMJM, A D van Langeveld and B E Nieuwenhuys, Surf. Sci.

  19. Impurities in uranium process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Several uranium purification circuits are presented in tabular form together with the average major impurity levels associated with each. The more common unit operations in these circuits, namely strong- and weak-base ion-exchange, solvent extraction and the precipitation of impurities are then discussed individually. Particular attention is paid to the effect and removal of impurities in each of these four unit operations. (author)

  20. Embodied Computation: An Active-Learning Approach to Mobile Robotics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed upper-level undergraduate and graduate course, Autonomous Mobile Robots. The course employs active, cooperative, problem-based learning and is grounded in the fundamental computational problems in mobile robotics defined by Dudek and Jenkin. Students receive a broad survey of robotics through lectures, weekly…

  1. Usability of Mobile Phones in Physical Activity-Rrelated Research: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Bassett, David R., Jr.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phones for physical activity (PA) promotion and assessment represents an attractive research area because this technology is characterized by a widespread reach and dynamic features. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of mobile phone-based approaches for encouraging and assessing PA.…

  2. Developing a Mobile Learning Management System for Outdoors Nature Science Activities Based on 5E Learning Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Lai, Horng-Yih; Chuang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Zih-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional outdoor learning activities such as inquiry-based learning in nature science encounter many dilemmas. Due to prompt development of mobile computing and widespread of mobile devices, mobile learning becomes a big trend on education. The main purpose of this study is to develop a mobile-learning management system for overcoming the…

  3. Impurity sources in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospieszczyk, A; Bay, H L; Bogen, P; Hartwig, H; Hintz, E; Koenen, L; Ross, G G; Rusbueldt, D; Samm, U; Schweer, B

    1987-02-01

    The deuterium, oxygen and carbon fluxes from the main limiter and the deuterium fluxes from the wall are measured in TEXTOR for an 'all carbon' surrounding as a function of central density n/sub e/, of applied ICRH-power and of different wall conditions (carbonization). For this purpose, emission spectroscopy both with filter systems and spectrometers has been used. It is found that a major release mechanism for light impurities is via the formation of molecules. Oxygen seems to enter the discharge from the liner via O-D containing molecules, whereas the limiter acts as the main carbon source by the release of hydro-carbons as indicated by the observed CD-band spectra. Both oxygen and carbon fluxes are reduced by about a factor of two after a fresh carbonization. Above a certain critical density the plasma detaches from the limiter and forms a stable discharge with a radiation cooled boundary layer and with a major fraction of particles now reaching the wall instead of the limiter. The critical density rises with decreasing impurity fluxes or with increasing heating powers.

  4. Impurity sources in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospieszczyk, A.; Bay, H.L.; Bogen, P.; Hartwig, H.; Hintz, E.; Koenen, L.; Ross, G.G.; Rusbueldt, D.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterium, oxygen and carbon fluxes from the main limiter and the deuterium fluxes from the wall are measured in TEXTOR for an 'all carbon' surrounding as a function of central density n e , of applied ICRH-power and of different wall conditions (carbonization). For this purpose, emission spectroscopy both with filter systems and spectrometers has been used. It is found that a major release mechanism for light impurities is via the formation of molecules. Oxygen seems to enter the discharge from the liner via O-D containing molecules, whereas the limiter acts as the main carbon source by the release of hydro-carbons as indicated by the observed CD-band spectra. Both oxygen and carbon fluxes are reduced by about a factor of two after a fresh carbonization. Above a certain critical density the plasma detaches from the limiter and forms a stable discharge with a radiation cooled boundary layer and with a major fraction of particles now reaching the wall instead of the limiter. The critical density rises with decreasing impurity fluxes or with increasing heating powers. (orig.)

  5. Mobile Collaborative Informal Learning Design: Study of collaborative effectiveness using Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Zafar Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart Mobile Devices (SMD are there for many years but using them as learning tools started to emerge as new research area. The trend to merge collaborative learning methodology by using mobile devices in informal context is important for implementation of Learner Centric Learning (LCL. Survey and numerous studies show that more than 95% of students in colleges are users of these smart mobile devices in developed world. Developing counties are also catching up and we can see this percentage is almost same in university level in these countries. Students are using SMDs for learning in some form. Higher education Institutions also try to embark their E-learning to Mobile learning (ML. The aim of this paper is to do propose operational framework for designing Mobile Collaborative Informal learning activities using SMDs. Show results of experimental and case study done to study the Mobile Collaborative Informal learning using Activity Theory (AT. Core Components of framework are Mobile Learning Activities/Objects, Wireless/Mobile Smart devices, Collaborative knowledge and Collaborative learning. The research mention here is its infancy stage.

  6. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H; Evans, N; Czervinski, K; Bruggeman, Ch; Poineau, F; Breynaert, A; Reiler, P; Pablo, J de; Pipon, Y; Molnar, M; Nishimura, T; Kienzler, B; Van Iseghem, P; Crovisier, J L; Wieland, E; Mace, N; Pablo, J de; Spahiu, K; Cui, D; Lida, Y; Charlet, L; Liu, X; Sato, H; Goutelard, F; Savoye, S; Glaus, M; Poinssot, C; Seby, F; Sato, H; Tournassat, Ch; Montavon, G; Rotenberg, B; Spahiu, K; Smith, G; Marivoet, J; Landais, P; Bruno, J; Johnson, H; Umeki, L; Geckeis, H; Giffaut, E; Grambow, B; Dierckx, A

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  7. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A.

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes

  8. Quantitative analyses of impurity silicon-carbide (SiC) and high-purity-titanium by neutron activation analyses based on k0-standardization method. Development of irradiation silicon technology in productivity using research reactor (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Jun; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Magome, Hirokatsu; Sasajima, Fumio; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Kawasaki, Kozo; Onizawa, Koji; Isshiki, Masahiko

    2009-07-01

    JRR-3 and JRR-4 have been providing neutron-transmutation-doped silicon (NTD-Si) by using the silicon NTD process, which is a method to produce a high quality semiconductor. The domestic supply of NTD-Si is insufficient for the demand, and the market of NTD-Si is significantly growing at present. It is very important to increase achieve the production. To fulfill the requirement, we have been investigating a neutron filter, which is made of high-purity-titanium, for uniform doping. Silicon-carbide (SiC) semiconductor doped with NTD technology is considered suitable for high power devices with superior performances to conventional Si-based devices. We are very interested in the SiC as well. This report presents the results obtained after the impurity contents in the high-purity-titanium and SiC were analyzed by neutron activation analyses (NAA) using k 0 -standardization method. There were 6 and 9 impurity elements detected from the high-purity-titanium and SiC, respectively. Among those Sc from the high-purity-titanium and Fe from SiC were comparatively long half life nuclides. From the viewpoint of exposure in handling them, we need to examine the impurity control of materials. (author)

  9. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  10. Impurity study experiment proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    ISX is a modest tokamak which emphasizes the production of a predictable test plasma, experimental flexibility, ease of assembly and disassembly, and good diagnostic access. Its plasma models the outer cooler layers in EPR like plasmas. In addition, provisions will be made for long discharge times which may be necessary to observe some impurity effects. These machine characteristics will enable one to study the collisional transport of impurities in the plasma, perform systematic studies of wall and limiter materials and geometries, study methods of cleaning the walls, and develop and test new diagnostic techniques. ISX will employ water-cooled copper coils to produce a maximum toroidal magnetic field of 20 kG at the plasma axis, which is 77 cm from the major axis. The plasma minor radius will be about 15 cm, and the maximum plasma current will be 100 kA which will be induced by an iron core transformer with a capability of up to 0.9 volt-sec for long discharges. An aspect ratio of five and the modest magnetic field permit a design with ample space for thick wall structures such as honeycomb walls. The ''picture frame'' toroidal field coil provides additional space, while removable coil top sections allow easy replacement of the vacuum chamber. The 72-turn toroidal field coil is grouped into 24 sections for increased access. Absence of a conducting shell and placement of the vertical field and transformer primary coils away from the plasma allow easy viewing of the plasma and good diagnostic access. (U.S.)

  11. Ion chromatographic analysis of high specific activity 18FDG preparations and detection of the chemical impurity 2-deoxy-2-chloro-D-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexoff, D.L.; Casati, R.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Shea, C.; Schlyer, D.J.; Chyng-Yann Shiue

    1992-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose(FDG) prepared by the ''Julich'' method or its variants it was decided necessary to determine the major chemical impurities present in the final product. An analytical system for quantifying FDG was developed using pulsed amperometry after separation by high-performance anion exchange chromotography. With this system a heretofore unidentified impurity, 2-deoxy-2-chloro-D-glucose(C1DG) was found in our preparation and in those from other laboratories using the ''Julich'' method. C1DG arises from C1 - ion displacement during the labeling procedure where C1 - ion comes from several sources, and C1 - ion displacement from the HC1 used in the hydrolysis step. FDG mass was present in the same preparations at a level of ca 1-40 μg. Other major chemical constituents were glucose (ca 1-6 mg) and mannose (ca 10-18 μg). Glycerol, arising from sterilizing filters, was also detected in most preparations. Although C1DG is a chemical impurity which has not been detected previously in nca FDG preparations, its biochemical and pharmacological properties are similar to FDG and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Thus it is unlikely that the presence of small quantities of C1DG found in typical FDG preparations (ca 100 μg) would have adverse pharmacological or toxicological consequences that would limit continued application of this radiopharmaceutical in basic and clinical studies. (Author)

  12. A Motivational Physical Activity Intervention for Improving Mobility in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-A; Fleury, Julie

    2014-07-01

    There has been limited empirical support for interventions designed to promote physical activity targeting mobility in racially diverse older adults. This study aims to examine the effects of a Motivational Physical Activity Intervention (MPAI) on social resource, behavioral change process, physical activity, and mobility variables in sedentary older Korean Americans. A quasi-experimental, repeated-measure, pre- and post-tests design was used. Sixty-four community-dwelling, sedentary older Korean Americans (n = 33 for MPAI group, n = 31 for Attention Control group) participated in the study. There were significant improvements in social resources, including social support from family and friends; behavioral change process variables, including self-efficacy; motivational appraisal; and self-regulation for physical activity. There were significant intervention effects on physical activity, walking endurance, and flexibility. The MPAI is supported as improving mobility and physical activity, as well as increasing motivation for physical activity in older Korean Americans. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Use of a Mobile Device Simulation as a Preclass Active Learning Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Robert D; Oliver, M Cecile; Stanfill, Teresa J; Stevens, Kevin V; Brown, Gary R; Ebinger, Michael; Gay, John M

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that preclass activities introducing new material can increase student performance. In an effort to engage students in an active learning, preclass activity, the authors developed a mobile application. Eighty-four nursing students were assigned a preclass reading exercise, whereas 32 students completed the preclass simulation scenario on their mobile device. All students completed the same electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) quiz 1 week following the lecture. The effects of reading or simulation on student quiz performance was evaluated with a student's paired t test, using an alpha of .05. Students completing the preclass simulation scored higher on the EFM quiz, compared with students assigned the preclass reading (85% versus 70% correct answers, p = .01). Student survey data indicated that the mobile device simulation was perceived as an engaging and desirable instructional tool. Nursing students completing the mobile device EFM preclass simulation outperformed the students who were given the traditional reading assignment. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Early signs of mobility decline and physical activity counseling as a preventive intervention in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina

    indicate that self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history should be considered as important early indicators of functional decline among community-dwelling older adults. In addition, the results suggest that physical activity counseling for older adults may provide an effective means......The purpose of this study was to examine the early signs of mobility decline and falls in older people. In addition, the effects of physical activity counseling on the development of mobility limitation in an older community-dwelling population were studied. Data from two larger studies were used......: Screening and Counseling for Physical activity and Mobility among Older People, SCAMOB, a 2-year single-blinded randomized controlled trial (n=632) with a 1.5-year post-intervention follow-up, focused on 75 to 81-year-old community-dwelling people and the FITSA study, a 3-year prospective observational...

  15. Association of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, M; Møller, A; Nilsson, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine individual as well as joint associations of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations in initially well-functioning middle-aged workers. METHODS: This study is based on 6-year follow-up data of the Danish Longitudinal Study...... on Work, Unemployment and Health. Physical workload was reported at baseline and categorised as light, moderate or heavy. Baseline leisure time physical activity level was categorised as sedentary or active following the current recommendations on physical activity. Incidence of mobility limitations...... with higher workload regardless of level of leisure time physical activity, although the risks tended to be higher among those with sedentary leisure time compared with their active counterparts. All in all, the risk for onset of mobility limitations was highest among those with heavy workload combined...

  16. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel; Dorsch, Simone; Wong, Siobhan; Scrivener, Katharine; Chagpar, Sakina; Weber, Heather; Pearson, Ross; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-06-06

    People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone. A pragmatic, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised trial recruiting 300 consenting rehabilitation patients with reduced mobility will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention group will receive technology-based exercise to target mobility and physical activity problems for 6 months. The technology will include the use of video and computer games/exercises and tablet applications as well as activity monitors. The control group will not receive any additional intervention and both groups will receive usual inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation care over the 6-month study period. The coprimary outcomes will be objectively assessed physical activity (proportion of the day spent upright) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery) at 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity, mobility, cognition, activity performance and participation, utility-based quality of life, balance confidence, technology self-efficacy, falls and service utilisation. Linear models will assess the effect of group allocation for each continuously scored outcome measure with baseline scores entered as a covariate. Fall rates between groups will be compared using negative binomial regression. Primary analyses will be preplanned, conducted while masked to group allocation and use an intention-to-treat approach. The

  17. Hydralazine administration activates sympathetic preganglionic neurons whose activity mobilizes glucose and increases cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindsay M; Damanhuri, Hanafi A; Fletcher, Sophie P S; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-04-16

    Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ; 10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Activity-Based Support for Mobility and Collaboration in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind

    2004-01-01

    is to: (1) support human activity by managing its collection of work tasks on a computer, (2) support mobility by distributing activities across heterogeneous computing environments, (3) support asynchronous collaboration by allowing several people to participate in an activity, and (4) support...

  19. Labor Mobility, Social Network Effects, and Innovative Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas; Kaiser, Ulrich

    . This relationship is stronger if workers join from innovative firms. We also find evidence for positive feedback from workers who leave for an innovative firm, presumably because the worker who left stays in contact with their former colleagues. This implies that the positive feedback (“social network effects......”) that has been found by other studies not only exists but even outweighs the disruption and loss of knowledge occurring to the previous employer from the worker leaving. Summing up the effects of joining and leaving workers, we find ample evidence for mobility to be associated with an increase in total...

  20. Utilization of Photochemically Induced Fluorescence Detection for HPLC Determination of Genotoxic Impurities in the Vortioxetine Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, Michal; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    An analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantitative determination of two genotoxic impurities at ppm level present in the vortioxetine manufacturing process is described. Applying the concept of threshold of toxicological concern, a limit of 75 ppm each for both genotoxic impurities was calculated based on the maximum daily dose of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The novel reversed-phase HPLC method with photochemically induced fluorescence detection was developed on XSELECT Charged Surface Hybrid Phenyl-Hexyl column using the mobile phase consisted a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and acetonitrile. The elution was performed using an isocratic composition of 48:52 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The photochemically induced fluorescence detection is based on the use of UV irradiation at 254 nm through measuring the fluorescence intensity at 300 nm and an excitation wavelength of 272 nm to produce fluorescent derivatives of both genotoxic impurities. The online photochemical conversion and detection is easily accomplished for two expected genotoxic impurities and provides a sufficiently low limit detection and quantification for the target analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Supporting Activity-Based Computingusing Dynamically (De)Composable Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Schougaard, Kari Rye

    2004-01-01

    the document-centered paradigm for pervasive computing: it crosscuts work with different kinds of entities and sets the focus on the user and the user's tasks. In domain such as healthcare, activities are fundamentally mobile: doctors and nurses move throughout the hospital as their work progresses. Hence......, the computer must support mobility of activities. For this reason, we consider it important to investigate whether a computing platform that embraces mobility at a fundamental level supports implementing software for this new paradigm. This paper describes our initial design ideas for supporting activity......-centered computing in the Pervasive Object Model Project (POMP), a project which concerns the development of a platform for pervasive computing applications. We first describe POMP, the present the notion of activity-based computing, and last investigate how activity-based computing can be implemented in POMP....

  2. Flexible coordination of stationary and mobile conversations with gaze: Resource allocation among multiple joint activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mayor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task. Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities.

  3. Recent trends in the impurity profile of pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Pilaniya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various regulatory authorities such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH, the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA, and the Canadian Drug and Health Agency (CDHA are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs. The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are - reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during \\ after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. The different pharmacopoeias such as the British Pharmacopoeia, United State Pharmacopoeia, and Indian Pharmacopoeia are slowly incorporating limits to allowable levels of impurities present in APIs or formulations. Various methods are used to isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals, such as, capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance, gas-liquid chromatography, gravimetric analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, liquid-liquid extraction method, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction column chromatography, mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC-Mass Spectroscopy (MS, LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research.

  4. Development and validation of a rapid chromatographic method for the analysis of flunarizine and its main production impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O’Connor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid selective method for the analysis of flunarizine and its associated impurities was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The separation was carried out using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil Gold C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 1.9μm particle size with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile–ammonium acetate–tetrabutylammoniumhydrogen sulfate buffer, at a flow rate of 1.8mL/min and UV detection at 230nm. Naturally aged samples were also tested to determine sample stability. A profile of sample and impurity breakdown was also presented. Keywords: Flunarizine, Sub 2μm column, Active pharmaceutical ingredient, HPLC

  5. Mobility management in mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Golshani, Forouzan

    2002-07-01

    There is an emerging interest in integrating mobile wireless communication with the Internet based on the Ipv6 technology. Many issues introduced by the mobility of users arise when such an integration is attempted. This paper addresses the problem of mobility management, i.e., that of tracking the current IP addresses of mobile terminals and sustaining active IP connections as mobiles move. The paper presents some architectural and mobility management options for integrating wireless access to the Internet. We then present performance results for Mobile IPv4, route optimization and Mobile IPv6.

  6. Activity Energy Expenditure and Mobility Limitation in Older Adults: Differential Associations by Sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manini, T.M.; Everhart, J.E.; Patel, K.V.; Schoeller, D.A.; Cummings, S.; Mackey, D.C.; Bauer, D.C.; Simonsick, E.M.; Cobert, L.H.; Visser, M.; Tylavsky, F.; Newman, A.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether higher activity energy expenditure, assessed by using doubly labeled water, was associated with a reduced decline in mobility limitation among 248 older community-dwelling US adults aged 70-82 years enrolled in 1998-1999. Activity energy

  7. Kinetic neoclassical calculations of impurity radiation profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Stotler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of the drift-kinetic transport code XGC0 to include the transport, ionization, and recombination of individual charge states, as well as the associated radiation, are described. The code is first applied to a simulation of an NSTX H-mode discharge with carbon impurity to demonstrate the approach to coronal equilibrium. The effects of neoclassical phenomena on the radiated power profile are examined sequentially through the activation of individual physics modules in the code. Orbit squeezing and the neoclassical inward pinch result in increased radiation for temperatures above a few hundred eV and changes to the ratios of charge state emissions at a given electron temperature. Analogous simulations with a neon impurity yield qualitatively similar results.

  8. Application of the remote microphone method to active noise control in a mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheer, Jordan; Elliott, Stephen J; Oh, Eunmi; Jeong, Jonghoon

    2018-04-01

    Mobile phones are used in a variety of situations where environmental noise may interfere with the ability of the near-end user to communicate with the far-end user. To overcome this problem, it might be possible to use active noise control technology to reduce the noise experienced by the near-end user. This paper initially demonstrates that when an active noise control system is used in a practical mobile phone configuration to minimise the noise measured by an error microphone mounted on the mobile phone, the attenuation achieved at the user's ear depends strongly on the position of the source generating the acoustic interference. To help overcome this problem, a remote microphone processing strategy is investigated that estimates the pressure at the user's ear from the pressure measured by the microphone on the mobile phone. Through an experimental implementation, it is demonstrated that this arrangement achieves a significant improvement in the attenuation measured at the ear of the user, compared to the standard active control strategy. The robustness of the active control system to changes in both the interfering sound field and the position of the mobile device relative to the ear of the user is also investigated experimentally.

  9. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Costa, H.; Cosic, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of mobile phone electromagnetic field emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG recordings from ten awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from a mobile phone positioned behind the head. Two experimental trials were conducted. In the first trial, RF exposures were generated by a GSM mobile phone with the speaker disabled and configured to transmit at full-radiated power. During the second trial, exposures were generated by a non-modified GSM mobile phone in active standby mode. For each trial, subjects were exposed in five minute intervals to a randomized, interrupted sequence of five active and five sham exposures. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  10. Associations of children's independent mobility and active travel with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah; Oliver, Melody; Curtis, Carey

    2013-07-01

    Health benefits from children's independent mobility and active travel beyond school travel are largely unexplored. This review synthesized the evidence for associations of independent mobility and active travel to various destinations with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status. Systematic review. A systematic search in six databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, SportDiscus, PsychInfo, TRIS) for papers published between January 1990 and March 2012 was undertaken, focussing on children aged 3-18 years. Study inclusion and methodological quality were independently assessed by two reviewers. 52 studies were included. Most studies focussed solely on active travel to and/or from school, and showed significant positive associations with physical activity. The same relationship was detected for active travel to leisure-related places and independent mobility with physical activity. An inverse relationship between active travel to school and weight status was evident but findings were inconsistent. Few studies examined correlations between active travel to school and self-reported screen-time or objectively measured sedentary behaviour, and findings were unclear. Studies on independent mobility suggested that children who have the freedom to play outdoors and travel actively without adult supervision accumulate more physical activity than those who do not. Further investigation of children's active travel to leisure-related destinations, measurement of diverse sedentary behaviour beyond simply screen-based activities, and consistent thresholds for objectively measured sedentary behaviour in children will clarify the inconsistent evidence base on associations of active travel with sedentary behaviour and weight status. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human movement activity classification approaches that use wearable sensors and mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghyan, Sahak; Sarukhanyan, Hakob; Akopian, David

    2013-03-01

    Cell phones and other mobile devices become part of human culture and change activity and lifestyle patterns. Mobile phone technology continuously evolves and incorporates more and more sensors for enabling advanced applications. Latest generations of smart phones incorporate GPS and WLAN location finding modules, vision cameras, microphones, accelerometers, temperature sensors etc. The availability of these sensors in mass-market communication devices creates exciting new opportunities for data mining applications. Particularly healthcare applications exploiting build-in sensors are very promising. This paper reviews different approaches of human activity recognition.

  12. MobiGroup: Enabling Lifecycle Support to Social Activity Organization and Suggestion with Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Liming; Zhou, Xingshe; Ma, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This paper presents a group-aware mobile crowd sensing system called MobiGroup, which supports group activity organization in real-world settings. Acknowledging the complexity and diversity of group activities, this paper introduces a formal concept model to characterize group activities and classifies them into four organizational stages. We t...

  13. Impurity bubbles in a BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  14. GLUT4 Mobilization Supports Energetic Demands of Active Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Wu, Zhuhao; Farrell, Ryan J; Ryan, Timothy A

    2017-02-08

    The brain is highly sensitive to proper fuel availability as evidenced by the rapid decline in neuronal function during ischemic attacks and acute severe hypoglycemia. We previously showed that sustained presynaptic function requires activity-driven glycolysis. Here, we provide strong evidence that during action potential (AP) firing, nerve terminals rely on the glucose transporter GLUT4 as a glycolytic regulatory system to meet the activity-driven increase in energy demands. Activity at synapses triggers insertion of GLUT4 into the axonal plasma membrane driven by activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase. Furthermore, we show that genetic ablation of GLUT4 leads to an arrest of synaptic vesicle recycling during sustained AP firing, similar to what is observed during acute glucose deprivation. The reliance on this biochemical regulatory system for "exercising" synapses is reminiscent of that occurring in exercising muscle to sustain cellular function and identifies nerve terminals as critical sites of proper metabolic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivate: context aware mobile application for activity recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Jessurun, A.J.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Keyson, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a context-aware recommendation system that promotes the adoption of a healthy and active lifestyle. A Smartphone application that provides personalized and contextualized advice based on geo information, weather, user location and

  16. Fermi-edge transmission resonance in graphene driven by a single Coulomb impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, Paritosh; Goswami, Srijit; Kochat, Vidya; Pal, Atindra Nath; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-07-11

    The interaction between the Fermi sea of conduction electrons and a nonadiabatic attractive impurity potential can lead to a power-law divergence in the tunneling probability of charge through the impurity. The resulting effect, known as the Fermi edge singularity (FES), constitutes one of the most fundamental many-body phenomena in quantum solid state physics. Here we report the first observation of FES for Dirac fermions in graphene driven by isolated Coulomb impurities in the conduction channel. In high-mobility graphene devices on hexagonal boron nitride substrates, the FES manifests in abrupt changes in conductance with a large magnitude ≈e(2)/h at resonance, indicating total many-body screening of a local Coulomb impurity with fluctuating charge occupancy. Furthermore, we exploit the extreme sensitivity of graphene to individual Coulomb impurities and demonstrate a new defect-spectroscopy tool to investigate strongly correlated phases in graphene in the quantum Hall regime.

  17. Iterative development of MobileMums: a physical activity intervention for women with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the iterative development process and final version of ‘MobileMums’: a physical activity intervention for women with young children ( Methods MobileMums development followed the five steps outlined in the mHealth development and evaluation framework: 1 conceptualization (critique of literature and theory; 2 formative research (focus groups, n= 48; 3 pre-testing (qualitative pilot of intervention components, n= 12; 4 pilot testing (pilot RCT, n= 88; and, 5 qualitative evaluation of the refined intervention (n= 6. Results Key findings identified throughout the development process that shaped the MobileMums program were the need for: behaviour change techniques to be grounded in Social Cognitive Theory; tailored SMS content; two-way SMS interaction; rapport between SMS sender and recipient; an automated software platform to generate and send SMS; and, flexibility in location of a face-to-face delivered component. Conclusions The final version of MobileMums is flexible and adaptive to individual participant’s physical activity goals, expectations and environment. MobileMums is being evaluated in a community-based randomised controlled efficacy trial (ACTRN12611000481976.

  18. Persuasive Technology in Mobile Applications Promoting Physical Activity: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Win, Khin Than; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Freeman, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Persuasive technology in mobile applications can be used to influence the behaviour of users. A framework known as the Persuasive Systems Design model has been developed for designing and evaluating systems that influence the attitudes or behaviours of users. This paper reviews the current state of mobile applications for health behavioural change with an emphasis on applications that promote physical activity. The inbuilt persuasive features of mobile applications were evaluated using the Persuasive Systems Design model. A database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were then reviewed using the Persuasive Systems Design model as a framework for analysis. Primary task support, dialogue support, and social support were found to be moderately represented in the selected articles. However, system credibility support was found to have only low levels of representation as a persuasive systems design feature in mobile applications for supporting physical activity. To ensure that available mobile technology resources are best used to improve the wellbeing of people, it is important that the design principles that influence the effectiveness of persuasive technology be understood.

  19. Active Mobility and Environment: A Pilot Qualitative Study for the Design of a New Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Hess

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that active mobility, mainly walking and cycling, contributes to people's physical and mental health. One of the current challenges is to improve our understanding of this type of behaviour. This study aims to identify factors from the daily-life environment that may be related to active mobility behaviours, in order to design a new questionnaire for a quantitative study of a large adult population. The new questionnaire obtained through this pilot study combines information from interviews with existing questionnaires materials in order to introduce new factors while retaining the factors already assessed. This approach comprises three stages. The first was a content analysis (Reinert method of interviews with a sample of participants about daily living activities as well as mobility. This stage led to a typology of factors suggested by interviews. The second was a scoping review of the literature in order to identify the active mobility questionnaires currently used in international literature. The last stage was a cross-tabulation of the factors resulting from the written interviews and the questionnaires. A table of the inter-relationships between the interview-based typology and the questionnaires shows discrepancies between factors considered by the existing questionnaires, and factors coming from individual interviews. Independent factors which were ignored in or absent from the questionnaires are the housing situation within the urban structure, overall consideration of the activity space beyond the limits of the residential neighbourhood, the perception of all the transportation modes, and the time scheduling impacting the modes actually used. Our new questionnaire integrates both the usual factors and the new factors that may be related to active mobility behaviours.

  20. Active Mobility and Environment: A Pilot Qualitative Study for the Design of a New Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Franck; Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Feuillet, Thierry; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; Perchoux, Camille; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Simon, Chantal; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Enaux, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that active mobility, mainly walking and cycling, contributes to people's physical and mental health. One of the current challenges is to improve our understanding of this type of behaviour. This study aims to identify factors from the daily-life environment that may be related to active mobility behaviours, in order to design a new questionnaire for a quantitative study of a large adult population. The new questionnaire obtained through this pilot study combines information from interviews with existing questionnaires materials in order to introduce new factors while retaining the factors already assessed. This approach comprises three stages. The first was a content analysis (Reinert method) of interviews with a sample of participants about daily living activities as well as mobility. This stage led to a typology of factors suggested by interviews. The second was a scoping review of the literature in order to identify the active mobility questionnaires currently used in international literature. The last stage was a cross-tabulation of the factors resulting from the written interviews and the questionnaires. A table of the inter-relationships between the interview-based typology and the questionnaires shows discrepancies between factors considered by the existing questionnaires, and factors coming from individual interviews. Independent factors which were ignored in or absent from the questionnaires are the housing situation within the urban structure, overall consideration of the activity space beyond the limits of the residential neighbourhood, the perception of all the transportation modes, and the time scheduling impacting the modes actually used. Our new questionnaire integrates both the usual factors and the new factors that may be related to active mobility behaviours.

  1. Type and intensity of activity and risk of mobility limitation: the mediating role of muscle parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Colbert, L.H.; Brach, J.S.; Rubin, S.M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity). The study outcome, incident mobility limitation, was defined as two consecutive, semiannual self-reports of any difficulty walking one quarter of a mile or climbing 10 steps. Thigh muscle area, thigh muscle attenuation (a marker of fat infiltration in

  2. Social influcences on household location, mobility and activity choice in integrated micro-simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Arentze, T.; Timmermans, H.

    2011-01-01

    Agent-based approaches to simulating long-term location and mobility decisions and short-term activity and travel decisions of households and individuals are receiving increasing attention in land-use and transportation interaction (LUTI) models to predict land-use changes and travel behaviour in

  3. Type and intensity of activity and risk of mobility limitation : the mediating role of muscle parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Rubin, S; Newman, A.B.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between different types of physical activity behavior and incident mobility limitation in older men and women and to examine whether muscle parameters mediate these associations. DESIGN: Cohort study with 4.5-year follow-up. SETTING: Metropolitan areas

  4. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  5. Motivate : a context-aware mobile application for physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to explore the potential and feasibility of LBS on mobile platform in the field of healthy living promotion. The context-aware suggestion on physical activity intervenes at the right time and location. We are interested in the user acceptance of contextualized and

  6. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  7. Divertor experiment for impurity control in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Masayuki

    1979-04-01

    Divertor actions of controlling the impurities and the transport of impurity ions in the plasma have been investigated in the DIVA device. Following are the results: (1) The radial transport of impurity ions is not described only by neoclassical theory, but it is strongly influenced by anomalous process. Radial diffusion of impurity ions across the whole minor radius is well described by a neoclassical diffusion superposed by the anomalous diffusion for protons. Due to this anomalous process, which spreads the radial density profile of impurity ions, 80 to 90% of the impurity flux in the plasma outer edge is shielded even in a nondiverted discharge. (2) The divertor reduces the impurity flux entering the main plasma by a factor of 2 to 4. The impurity ions shielded by the scrape-off plasma are rapidly guided into the burial chamber with a poloidal excursion time roughly equal to that of the scrape-off plasma. (3) The divertor reduces the impurity ion flux onto the main vacuum chamber by guiding the impurity ions diffusing from the main plasma into the burial chamber, thereby reducing the plasma-wall interaction caused by diffusing impurity ions at the main vacuum chamber. The impurity ions produced in the burial chamber may flow back to the main plasma through the scrape-off layer. However, roughly only 0.3% of the impurity flux into the scrape-off plasma in the burial chamber penetrates into the main plasma due to the impurity backflow. (4) A slight cooling of the scrape-off plasma with light-impurity injection effectively reduces the metal impurity production at the first wall by reducing the potential difference between the plasma and the wall, thereby reducing the accumulation of the metal impurity in the discharge. Radiation cooling by low-Z impurities in the plasma outer edge, which may become an important feature in future large tokamaks both with and without divertor, is numerically evaluated for carbon, oxygen and neon. (author)

  8. Radiation-stimulated yield of an impurity into interstitial sites in crystals KBr-Li and KCl-Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekeshev, A.Z.; Shunkeev, K.Sh.; Vasil'chenko, E.A.; Dauletbekova, A.K.; Ehlango, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    KCl and KBr crystals are taken as examples to show that the presence of Li impurity at X-radiation at temperatures above 200 K stimulates the creation of both impurity Hal 3 - (Li)-centers (V 4A -centers) and Hal 3 - centers (V 2 -centers). Increase of impurity concentration and X-radiation temperature (up to 300 K) results to increase of impurity stimulated creation of inherent Hal 3 - centers by more, than one order, as compared to pure crystals. Initial temperature of interstitial ion mobility was evaluated (about 140 K). 16 refs., 5 figs

  9. Active RNA polymerases: mobile or immobile molecular machines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyris Papantonis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is widely assumed that active RNA polymerases track along their templates to produce a transcript. We test this using chromosome conformation capture and human genes switched on rapidly and synchronously by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha; one is 221 kbp SAMD4A, which a polymerase takes more than 1 h to transcribe. Ten minutes after stimulation, the SAMD4A promoter comes together with other TNFalpha-responsive promoters. Subsequently, these contacts are lost as new downstream ones appear; contacts are invariably between sequences being transcribed. Super-resolution microscopy confirms that nascent transcripts (detected by RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization co-localize at relevant times. Results are consistent with an alternative view of transcription: polymerases fixed in factories reel in their respective templates, so different parts of the templates transiently lie together.

  10. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuoka Yoshimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT with three arms; 1 PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention, 2 REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention, and 3 CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted. A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary, immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Discussion If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral

  11. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Komatsu, Judith; Suarez, Larry; Vittinghoff, Eric; Haskell, William; Noorishad, Tina; Pham, Kristin

    2011-12-14

    Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education) randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms; 1) PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention), 2) REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention), and 3) CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted). A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary), immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral sciences and mHealth. ClinicalTrials.gov#:NCTO1280812.

  12. Thermal Tracking in Mobile Robots for Leak Inspection Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Maurtua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance tasks are crucial for all kind of industries, especially in extensive industrial plants, like solar thermal power plants. The incorporation of robots is a key issue for automating inspection activities, as it will allow a constant and regular control over the whole plant. This paper presents an autonomous robotic system to perform pipeline inspection for early detection and prevention of leakages in thermal power plants, based on the work developed within the MAINBOT (http://www.mainbot.eu European project. Based on the information provided by a thermographic camera, the system is able to detect leakages in the collectors and pipelines. Beside the leakage detection algorithms, the system includes a particle filter-based tracking algorithm to keep the target in the field of view of the camera and to avoid the irregularities of the terrain while the robot patrols the plant. The information provided by the particle filter is further used to command a robot arm, which handles the camera and ensures that the target is always within the image. The obtained results show the suitability of the proposed approach, adding a tracking algorithm to improve the performance of the leakage detection system.

  13. Thermal tracking in mobile robots for leak inspection activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Aitor; Molina, Jorge; Susperregi, Loreto; Maurtua, Iñaki

    2013-10-09

    Maintenance tasks are crucial for all kind of industries, especially in extensive industrial plants, like solar thermal power plants. The incorporation of robots is a key issue for automating inspection activities, as it will allow a constant and regular control over the whole plant. This paper presents an autonomous robotic system to perform pipeline inspection for early detection and prevention of leakages in thermal power plants, based on the work developed within the MAINBOT (http://www.mainbot.eu) European project. Based on the information provided by a thermographic camera, the system is able to detect leakages in the collectors and pipelines. Beside the leakage detection algorithms, the system includes a particle filter-based tracking algorithm to keep the target in the field of view of the camera and to avoid the irregularities of the terrain while the robot patrols the plant. The information provided by the particle filter is further used to command a robot arm, which handles the camera and ensures that the target is always within the image. The obtained results show the suitability of the proposed approach, adding a tracking algorithm to improve the performance of the leakage detection system.

  14. Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H Gene; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C; Epstein, Leonard H; Demott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-05-28

    Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit and vegetable intake, high sedentary leisure time, and low physical activity to 1 of 4 treatments: increase fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, decrease fat and sedentary leisure, decrease fat and increase physical activity, and increase fruit/vegetable intake and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided 3 weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up, incentives were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the 4 diet and activity behaviors at the end of treatment and at 5-month follow-up. Of the 204 individuals randomized, 200 (98.0%) completed follow-up. The increase fruits/vegetables and decrease sedentary leisure treatments improved more than the other 3 treatments (P improved less than the other 3 treatments (P mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes.

  15. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-02-05

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  16. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  17. Impurity doping processes in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1981-01-01

    This book introduces to non-experts several important processes of impurity doping in silicon and goes on to discuss the methods of determination of the concentration of dopants in silicon. The conventional method used is the discussion process, but, since it has been sufficiently covered in many texts, this work describes the double-diffusion method.

  18. Tokamak impurity-control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of the impurity-control functions in tokamaks, their relative merits and disadvantages and some prominent edge-interaction-control techniques, and there is a discussion of a new proposal, the particle scraper, and its potential advantages. (author)

  19. Nonmagnetic impurities in magnetic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetization and magnetic field arising around the nonmagnetic impurity in magnetic superconductor with triplet pairing are found. The relationship of these results with the data of recent (gm)sR experiments in heavy fermionic superconductor U 1 - x Th x Be 13 is presented

  20. Complexity of Quantum Impurity Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David

    2017-12-01

    We give a quasi-polynomial time classical algorithm for estimating the ground state energy and for computing low energy states of quantum impurity models. Such models describe a bath of free fermions coupled to a small interacting subsystem called an impurity. The full system consists of n fermionic modes and has a Hamiltonian {H=H_0+H_{imp}}, where H 0 is quadratic in creation-annihilation operators and H imp is an arbitrary Hamiltonian acting on a subset of O(1) modes. We show that the ground energy of H can be approximated with an additive error {2^{-b}} in time {n^3 \\exp{[O(b^3)]}}. Our algorithm also finds a low energy state that achieves this approximation. The low energy state is represented as a superposition of {\\exp{[O(b^3)]}} fermionic Gaussian states. To arrive at this result we prove several theorems concerning exact ground states of impurity models. In particular, we show that eigenvalues of the ground state covariance matrix decay exponentially with the exponent depending very mildly on the spectral gap of H 0. A key ingredient of our proof is Zolotarev's rational approximation to the {√{x}} function. We anticipate that our algorithms may be used in hybrid quantum-classical simulations of strongly correlated materials based on dynamical mean field theory. We implemented a simplified practical version of our algorithm and benchmarked it using the single impurity Anderson model.

  1. Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...

  2. Light impurity production in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E.; Erdweg, M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of the different erosion processes of carbon materials with special emphasis on conditions relevant to plasma surface interactions. New results on the chemical erosion and radiation enhanced sublimation of boron-carbon layers are presented. The chemical hydrocarbon formation produced by the interaction of the TEXTOR scrape-off plasma with a carbon target has been investigated up to temperatures of 1500K using a Sniffer probe. The chemical interaction of the plasma with the carbon walls in TEXTOR is also analysed by measuring the hydrocarbon and CO and CO 2 partial pressures built up on the surrounding walls during the discharges. The recycling of oxygen impurities in an all carbon surrounding occurs predominantly in the form of CO and Co 2 molecules and the analysis of both neutral pressures during the discharges has been used as an additional diagnostic for the oxygen impurity situation in TEXTOR. These data are discussed in view of spectroscopic measurements on the influx of carbon and oxygen atoms from the walls and impurity line radiation. CD-band spectroscopy in addition is employed to identify the hydrocarbon chemical carbon erosion. Our present understanding of the oxygen impurity recycling and the oxygen sources are described. Particle induced release of CO molecules from the entire first wall is believed to be the dominant influx process of oxygen in the SOL of plasmas with carbon facing materials. The influence of coating the TEXTOR first wall with a boron-carbon film (B/C ≅1) on the light impurity behaviour is shown. (author)

  3. Middle-aged women's preferred theory-based features in mobile physical activity applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA). Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred. Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application. Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middle-aged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

  4. Impurity energy level in the Haldane gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yu

    1995-11-01

    An impurity bond J' in a periodic 1D antiferromagnetic spin 1 chain with exchange J is considered. Using the numerical density matrix renormalization group method, we find an impurity energy level in the Haldane gap, corresponding to a bound state near the impurity bond. When J' J. The impurity level appears only when the deviation dev = (J'- J)/J' is greater than B c , which is close to 0.3 in our calculation. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  5. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  6. Mobility disability and the pattern of accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity behaviors in people with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeugwu, Victor; Klaren, Rachel E.; A. Hubbard, Elizabeth; Manns, Patricia (Trish); Motl, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity and high sedentary behavior levels are major concerns in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and these differ depending on the level of mobility disability. However, the manner in which daily activity is accumulated is currently unknown in this population. Methods A secondary analysis was performed on a combined data set of persons with MS from two previous investigations of physical activity and symptomatic or quality of life outcomes in the United States over a two year period (2007–2009). Mobility disability status was determined using the Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) while activity behavior was objectively monitored using an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days. Results Persons with MS who have mobility disability were involved in sedentary behavior, light and moderate intensity activity for 65%, 34% and 1% of the day, respectively compared to 60%, 37%, and 3%, respectively in those without mobility disability (p mobility disability status. Compared to those without mobility disability, the average number of sedentary bouts longer than 30 min was greater in those with mobility disability (p = 0.016). Conclusion Persons with MS with mobility disability are less active, engage in more sedentary behavior and accumulate prolonged sedentary bouts. PMID:26844077

  7. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  8. Observation of impurity accumulation and concurrent impurity influx in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.S.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Couture, P.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Morris, W.

    1987-01-01

    Impurity studies in L- and H-mode discharges in PBX have shown that both types of discharges can evolve into either an impurity accumulative or nonaccumulative case. In a typical accumulative discharge, Z eff peaks in the center to values of about 5. The central metallic densities can be high, n met /n e ≅ 0.01, resulting in central radiated power densities in excess of 1 W/cm 3 , consistent with bolometric estimates. The radial profiles of metals obtained independently from the line radiation in the soft X-ray and the VUV regions are very peaked. Concurrent with the peaking, an increase in the impurity influx coming from the edge of the plasma is observed. At the beginning of the accumulation phase the inward particle flux for titanium has values of 6x10 10 and 10x10 10 particles/cm 2 s at minor radii of 6 and 17 cm. At the end of the accumulation phase, this particle flux is strongly increased to values of 3x10 12 and 1x10 12 particles/cm 2 s. This increased flux is mainly due to influx from the edge of the plasma and to a lesser extent due to increased convective transport. Using the measured particle flux, an estimate of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity v is obtained. (orig.)

  9. Correlations between human mobility and social interaction reveal general activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    activity types, namely communication, motion, and physical proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. We explore two central questions: Which underlying principles govern the formation of the activity patterns? Are the patterns specific to each individual...... or shared across the entire population? We find that statistics of the entire population allows us to successfully predict 71% of the activity and 85% of the inactivity involved in communication, mobility, and physical proximity. Surprisingly, individual level statistics only result in marginally better...... they be of social or of physical character....

  10. Detection, isolation and characterization of principle synthetic route indicative impurity in telmisartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An unknown impurity was detected in the telmisartan bulk drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient – API using an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. This impurity was isolated by preparative HPLC. Spectral data of the isolated impurity were collected. Based on the spectral data deriving from two dimensional nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (2D-NMR and mass spectrometry (MS, the impurity was characterized as “methyl 4′,4′-dibromo methyl biphenyl-2-carboxylate”. The arrived structure was further confirmed by theoretical studies.

  11. Determination of Propionylbrassinolide and Its Impurities by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of brassinolide in 1979, a milestone in brassinosteroids research, has sparked great interest of brassinolide analogs (BLs in agricultural applications. Among these BLs, propionylbrassinolide has captured considerable attention because it shows plant growth regulating activity with an excellent durability. Two impurities of propionylbrassinolide were isolated and purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the chemical structures were confirmed. For simultaneous separation and determination of propionylbrassinolide and impurities, an efficient analytical method based on HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD was developed. The optimized analysis was performed on a C18 reversed phase column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and water (90:10, v/v as the mobile phase. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 50 °C and the auxiliary gas pressure was 150 kPa. The regression equations demonstrated a good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9989–0.9999 within the test ranges. The limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs for propionylbrassinolide, impurity 1 and 2 were 1.3, 1.2, 1,3 and 4.3, 4.0, 4.2 mg/L, respectively. The fully validated HPLC-ELSD method was readily applied to quantify the active ingredient and impurities in propionylbrassinolide technical concentrate. Moreover, the optimized separation conditions with ELSD have been successfully transferred to mass spectrometry (MS detector for LC-MS determination.

  12. Managing Social Activity and Participation in Large Classes with Mobile Phone Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thatcher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a developing country, suchas South Africa, access to technology is severely limited.However, most South Africans have relatively good access tomobile phone technology in relation to other portable andmobile technology. In this initiative, students wereencouraged to use mobile phone text messaging to sendquestions to the lecturer during classes or between classes. Atotal of 86 text messages were sent to the lecturer during a 7-week, second year psychology course. At the end of thecourse 136 responses to questionnaire distributed in classwas obtained. This data was analysed using activity theoryas a framework for the discussion. The results indicated thatstudents had strongly favorable perceptions of this initiativeand respondents had spontaneously suggested other uses ofmobile phone technology to enhance the learningexperience. Activity theory provided a useful framework forevaluating the use of mobile phone text messages to enhancestudent participation and learning.

  13. Increasing the Lifetime of Mobile WSNs via Dynamic Optimization of Sensor Node Communication Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Sakai, Lucas Jun; Alberti, Antonio Marcos; de Souza, Rausley Adriano Amaral

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, a simple and flexible method for increasing the lifetime of fixed or mobile wireless sensor networks is proposed. Based on past residual energy information reported by the sensor nodes, the sink node or another central node dynamically optimizes the communication activity levels of the sensor nodes to save energy without sacrificing the data throughput. The activity levels are defined to represent portions of time or time-frequency slots in a frame, during which the sensor nodes are scheduled to communicate with the sink node to report sensory measurements. Besides node mobility, it is considered that sensors' batteries may be recharged via a wireless power transmission or equivalent energy harvesting scheme, bringing to the optimization problem an even more dynamic character. We report large increased lifetimes over the non-optimized network and comparable or even larger lifetime improvements with respect to an idealized greedy algorithm that uses both the real-time channel state and the residual energy information.

  14. Feasibility of a mobile phone application to promote physical activity in cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular participation in physical activity is associated with improved physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors. However, physical activity levels are low during and after cancer treatment. Interventions to promote physical activity in this population are needed. Mobile technology has potential, but currently, there is no mobile phone application designed to promote physical activity in cancer survivors. Objectives: The first aim is to assess feasibility and acceptability of an existing physical activity mobile application (‘app’ designed for the general population, in a sample of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A further aim is to understand how the application could be adapted to overcome barriers to physical activity participation in this population. Methods: A feasibility study was carried out that investigated acceptability of and participants’ opinions on the application. A total of 11 cancer survivors tested the application for 6 weeks. Physical activity (Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, wellbeing (FACT-G, fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue scale, quality of life (EQ5D, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were self-reported at baseline and at 6-week follow-up. Participants completed qualitative telephone interviews about their experiences of using the app, and these were coded using thematic analysis. Results: The application was acceptable among the participants; 73% of people who responded to the study advertisement agreed to participate, and 100% of participants who started the study completed. There was a significant increase in participants’ mean strenuous physical activity of 51.91 minutes per week from baseline to 6-week follow-up (P=0.005. There was also a significant reduction in reported sleep problems from baseline (mean=9.27, SD=6.72 to 6-week follow-up (mean=6.72, SD=5.50; P=0.01. There were no other

  15. The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints

    OpenAIRE

    Mens, J. M. A.; Vleeming, Andry; Snijders, Chris J.; Stam, Henk J.; Ginai, Abida Z.

    1999-01-01

    Objective signs to assess impairment in patients who are disabled by peripartum pelvic girdle pain hardly exist. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical test to quantify and qualify disability in these patients. The study examined the relationship between impaired active straight leg raising (ASLR) and mobility of pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain, focusing on (1) the reduction of impairment of ASLR when the patient was wearing a pelvic belt, and (2) mot...

  16. Mobile technology and the value chain: Participants, activities and value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coursaris, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology has evolved significantly and it is increasingly being used by businesses and consumers alike. Technologies such as those supporting electronic business (e-Business and mobile business (m-Business are being used across organizations extensively in an attempt to improve operations and subsequently translate in either financial gains or strategic advantages. Opportunities for realizing either of the two types of benefits can be identified through an examination of a business’ value chain. This conceptual study begins by proposing a business-centric interaction model that helps explain the interactions among all participants involved in an organization’s possible activities. The paper then explores the potential fit of wireless and mobile technologies across a company’s value chain through the citation of potential mobile and wireless business applications currently available. Finally, a discussion on the expected benefits and relevant concerns of mobile technology, as well as considerations for future research are provided.

  17. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  18. Technique, muscle activity and kinematic differences in young adults texting on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Ewa; Johnson, Peter W; Lindegård, Agneta; Hagberg, Mats

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in technique between young adults with and without musculoskeletal symptoms when using a mobile phone for texting and whether there are differences in muscle activity and kinematics between different texting techniques. A total of 56 young adults performed a standardised texting task on a mobile phone. Their texting techniques were registered using an observation protocol. The muscular activity in six muscles in the right forearm/hand and both shoulders were registered by surface electromyography and the thumb abduction/adduction and flexion/extension were registered using a biaxial electrogoniometer. Differences in texting techniques were found between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic group, with a higher proportion of sitting with back support and forearm support and with a neutral head position in the asymptomatic group. Differences in muscle activity and kinematics were also found between different texting techniques. The differences in texting technique between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects cannot be explained by them having symptoms but may be a possible contribution to their symptoms. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: There has been a dramatically increased use of mobile phones for texting especially among young people during the last years. A better understanding of the physical exposure associated with the intensive use is important in order to prevent the development of musculoskeletal disorders and decreased work ability related to this use.

  19. Phonon scattering by isotopic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacol, D.K.

    1974-06-01

    The effects upon vibrations of a perfect crystal lattice due to the replacement of some of its atoms by isotopes of these atoms are studied. The approach consists in considering the isotopic impurities as scattering centres for the quanta of the elastic waves the objective is to obtain the scattering amplitudes. These amplitudes are obtained through a canonical transformation method which was introduced by Chevalier and Rideau in the study of the Wentzel's model in quantum field theory

  20. Analyzing the distribution of human activity space from mobile phone usage - An individual and urban-oriented study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Y.; Raubal M.

    2016-01-01

    Travel activities are embodied as people’s needs to be physically present at certain locations. The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs such as mobile phones) has introduced new data sources for modeling human activities. Based on the scattered spatiotemporal points provided in mobile phone datasets it is feasible to study the patterns (e.g. the scale shape and regularity) of human activities. In this paper we propose methods for analyzing the distribution of human...

  1. Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Suckewer, S.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks was simulated with a one-dimensional impurity transport model including both neoclassical and anomalous transport. The neoclassical fluxes are due to collisions between the background plasma and impurity ions as well as collisions between the various ionization states. The evaluation of the neoclassical fluxes takes into account the different collisionality regimes of the background plasma and the impurity ions. A limiter scrapeoff model is used to define the boundary conditions for the impurity ions in the plasma periphery. In order to account for the spectroscopic measurements of power radiated by the lower ionization states, fluxes due to anomalous transport are included. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainties in rate coefficients and plasma parameters in the periphery are investigated. The implications of the transport model for spectroscopic evaluation of impurity concentrations, impurity fluxes, and radiated power from line emission measurements are discussed

  2. BWR water chemistry impurity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, L.G.; Korhonen, S.; Renstroem, K.; Hofling, C.G.; Rebensdorff, B.

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory studies were made on the effect of water impurities on environmental cracking in simulated BWR water of stainless steel, low alloy steel and nickel-base alloys. Constant elongation rate tensile (CERT) tests were run in simulated normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or start-up environment. Sulfate, chloride and copper with chloride added to the water at levels of a fraction of a ppM were found to be extremely deleterious to all kinds of materials except Type 316 NG. Other detrimental impurities were fluoride, silica and some organic acids, although acetic acid was beneficial. Nitrate and carbon dioxide were fairly inoccuous. Corrosion fatigue and constant load tests on compact tension specimens were run in simulated normal BWR water chemistry (NWC) or hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), without impurities or with added sulfate or carbon dioxide. For sensitized Type 304 SS in NWC, 0.1 ppM sulfate increased crack propagation rates in constant load tests by up to a factor of 100, and in fatigue tests up to a factor of 10. Also, cracking in Type 316 nuclear grade SS and Alloy 600 was enhanced, but to a smaller degree. Carbon dioxide was less detrimental than sulfate. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita

    2017-08-30

    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  4. Mobile and Wearable Device Features that Matter in Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Cataldo, Janine K; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Natarajan, Loki; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; White, Martha M; Madanat, Hala; Nichols, Jeanne F; Pierce, John P

    2016-07-01

    As wearable sensors/devices become increasingly popular to promote physical activity (PA), research is needed to examine how and which components of these devices people use to increase their PA levels. (1) To assess usability and level of engagement with the Fitbit One and daily SMS-based prompts in a 6-week PA intervention, and (2) to examine whether use/ level of engagement with specific intervention components were associated with PA change. Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial that compared (1) a wearable sensor/ device (Fitbit One) plus SMS-based PA prompts, and (2) Fitbit One only, among overweight/ obese adults (N = 67). We calculated average scores from Likert-type response items that assessed usability and level of engagement with device features (e.g., tracker, website, mobile app, and SMS-based prompts), and assessed whether such factors were associated with change in steps/day (using Actigraph GT3X+). Participants reported the Fitbit One was easy to use and the tracker helped to be more active. Those who used the Fitbit mobile app (36%) vs. those who did not (64%) had an increase in steps at 6-week follow-up, even after adjusting for previous web/app use: +545 steps/ day ( SE = 265) vs. -28 steps/ day ( SE = 242) ( p = .04). Level of engagement with the Fitbit One, particularly the mobile app, was associated with increased steps. Mobile apps can instantly display summaries of PA performance and could optimize self-regulation to activate change. More research is needed to determine whether such modalities might be cost-effective in future intervention research and practice.

  5. Study of the mobility activation in ZnSe thin films deposited using inert gas condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewan Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using the inert gas condensation technique at substrate temperature ranging from 25 °C to 100 °C. The hexagonal structure and average crystallite size (6.1–8.4 nm were determined from X-ray diffraction data. The transient photoconductivity was investigated using white light of intensity 8450 lx to deduce the effective density of states (Neff in the order of 1.02 × 1010–13.90 × 1010 cm−3, the frequency factor (S in the range 2.5 × 105–24.6 × 105 s−1 and the trap depth (E ranging between 0.37–0.64 eV of these films. The trap depth study revealed three different types of levels with quasi-continuous distribution below the conduction band. An increase in the photoconductivity was observed as a result of the formation of potential barriers (Vb and of the increase of carrier mobility at the crystallite boundaries. The study of the dependence of various mobility activation parameters on the deposition temperature and the crystallite size has provided better understanding of the mobility activation mechanism.

  6. Compressed sensing method for human activity recognition using tri-axis accelerometer on mobile phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Hui; Wang Zhongmin

    2017-01-01

    The diversity in the phone placements of different mobile users' dailylife increases the difficulty of recognizing human activities by using mobile phone accelerometer data.To solve this problem,a compressed sensing method to recognize human activities that is based on compressed sensing theory and utilizes both raw mobile phone accelerometer data and phone placement information is proposed.First,an over-complete dictionary matrix is constructed using sufficient raw tri-axis acceleration data labeled with phone placement information.Then,the sparse coefficient is evaluated for the samples that need to be tested by resolving L1 minimization.Finally,residual values are calculated and the minimum value is selected as the indicator to obtain the recognition results.Experimental results show that this method can achieve a recognition accuracy reaching 89.86%,which is higher than that of a recognition method that does not adopt the phone placement information for the recognition process.The recognition accuracy of the proposed method is effective and satisfactory.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Human Activities in Indoor Environments through Mobile Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger

    with the intuition and personal experience of the planners. Lack of real-time information on task execution has made it difficult to adapt to changes in the schedules, such as delays or suddenly occurring urgent tasks. The recent advances in methods and devices for mobile sensing provides opportunities...... methods for spatio-temporal analysis of human activities in indoor environments based on mobile sensing. The methods aim to improve scheduling and facility utilization by providing information on the used route networks, transportation modes, travel times, and the flow of people through buildings....... The methods are based on large-scale real-time indoor positioning through the use of existing WiFi infrastructures, which allows for easy deployment even in very large building complexes. The methods are designed for real-time operation, which enables them to detect and adjust to changes as they occur...

  8. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  9. Active transportation and public transportation use to achieve physical activity recommendations? A combined GPS, accelerometer, and mobility survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Kestens, Yan; Duncan, Scott; Merrien, Claire; Thierry, Benoît; Pannier, Bruno; Brondeel, Ruben; Lewin, Antoine; Karusisi, Noëlla; Perchoux, Camille; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie

    2014-09-27

    Accurate information is lacking on the extent of transportation as a source of physical activity, on the physical activity gains from public transportation use, and on the extent to which population shifts in the use of transportation modes could increase the percentage of people reaching official physical activity recommendations. In 2012-2013, 234 participants of the RECORD GPS Study (French Paris region, median age = 58) wore a portable GPS receiver and an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and completed a 7-day GPS-based mobility survey (participation rate = 57.1%). Information on transportation modes and accelerometry data aggregated at the trip level [number of steps taken, energy expended, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time] were available for 7,644 trips. Associations between transportation modes and accelerometer-derived physical activity were estimated at the trip level with multilevel linear models. Participants spent a median of 1 h 58 min per day in transportation (8.2% of total time). Thirty-eight per-cent of steps taken, 31% of energy expended, and 33% of MVPA over 7 days were attributable to transportation. Walking and biking trips but also public transportation trips with all four transit modes examined were associated with greater steps, MVPA, and energy expenditure when compared to trips by personal motorized vehicle. Two simulated scenarios, implying a shift of approximately 14% and 33% of all motorized trips to public transportation or walking, were associated with a predicted 6 point and 13 point increase in the percentage of participants achieving the current physical activity recommendation. Collecting data with GPS receivers, accelerometers, and a GPS-based electronic mobility survey of activities and transportation modes allowed us to investigate relationships between transportation modes and physical activity at the trip level. Our findings suggest that an increase in active transportation

  10. Study of the activation of targets containing Mo for the production of 99Mo by the 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo nuclear reaction and the behaviour of the radionuclidic impurities of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, Renata Correa

    1998-01-01

    The most used radioisotope in Nuclear Medicine is 99m Tc, in the 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator form. 99 Mo can be produced by several nuclear reactions in reactors and cyclotrons. The cyclotron production is not technically and economically viable. The production in the reactor can be done in two different ways: by the fission of 235 U and by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo reaction. A project for the production of 99 Mo by the activation of Mo and the preparation of gel type generators is under development at the 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares'. In the present work, the radionuclidic impurities produced in the activation of MOO 3 and MoZr gel were evaluated, and these represent the two possible ways of preparing the gel of MoZr. A target of metallic Mo was also studied. The radionuclidic purity of 99m Tc eluted from generators prepared in these ways was also measured and compared with the generators prepared with fission 99 Mo. The results showed that, by all the parameters analysed, the best way of preparing the generator of 99 Mo - 99m Tc is the irradiation of MOO 3 and further preparation of the gel and the generators. (author)

  11. Effects of Carbon in Flooded Paddy Soils: Implications for Microbial Activity and Arsenic Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (originating from erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Microbial activity will enhance or decrease the mobilization of arsenic depending on their metabolic pathways. Among the microbes naturally residing in the soil are denitrifying bacteria, sulfate reducers, metal reducers (Fe, Mn), arsenic reducers, methanogens, and fermenters, whose activity varies based on the presence of oxygen. The purpose of the experiment was to assess how different amendments affect the microbial activity and the arsenic mobilization during the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism after flooding of naturally contaminated Cambodian soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how the relative metabolic rate of naturally occurring microbes could vary with different types of organic carbon. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of carbon (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, manure, and glucose) on the microbial activity and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. All amendments were added based on the carbon content in order to add 0.036 g of carbon per vial. The soil was flooded with a 10mM TRIS buffer solution at pH 7.04 in airtight 25mL serum vials and kept at 25 °C. We prepared 14 replicates per treatment to sample both gas and solution. On each sampling point, the solution replicates were sampled destructively. The gas replicates continued on and were sampled for both gas and solution on the final day of the experiment. We measured pH, total arsenic, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide at 8 hours, 1.5 days, 3.33 days, and 6.33 days from the start of the experiment.

  12. Activation characteristics of candidate structural materials for a near-term Indian fusion reactor and the impact of their impurities on design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, L. SWAMI; C, DANANI; A, K. SHAW

    2018-06-01

    Activation analyses play a vital role in nuclear reactor design. Activation analyses, along with nuclear analyses, provide important information for nuclear safety and maintenance strategies. Activation analyses also help in the selection of materials for a nuclear reactor, by providing the radioactivity and dose rate levels after irradiation. This information is important to help define maintenance activity for different parts of the reactor, and to plan decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal strategies. The study of activation analyses of candidate structural materials for near-term fusion reactors or ITER is equally essential, due to the presence of a high-energy neutron environment which makes decisive demands on material selection. This study comprises two parts; in the first part the activation characteristics, in a fusion radiation environment, of several elements which are widely present in structural materials, are studied. It reveals that the presence of a few specific elements in a material can diminish its feasibility for use in the nuclear environment. The second part of the study concentrates on activation analyses of candidate structural materials for near-term fusion reactors and their comparison in fusion radiation conditions. The structural materials selected for this study, i.e. India-specific Reduced Activation Ferritic‑Martensitic steel (IN-RAFMS), P91-grade steel, stainless steel 316LN ITER-grade (SS-316LN-IG), stainless steel 316L and stainless steel 304, are candidates for use in ITER either in vessel components or test blanket systems. Tungsten is also included in this study because of its use for ITER plasma-facing components. The study is carried out using the reference parameters of the ITER fusion reactor. The activation characteristics of the materials are assessed considering the irradiation at an ITER equatorial port. The presence of elements like Nb, Mo, Co and Ta in a structural material enhance the activity level as well

  13. Enzyme activity and reserve mobilization during Macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Reserve mobilization in seeds occurs after visible germination, which is marked by the protrusion of the radicle or cotyledonary petiole, as in species of Arecaceae. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm, usually produces hard seeds whose endosperm has mannan-rich cell walls. We investigated the composition of storage compounds in macaw palm seed and the roles of two enzymes (endo-β-mannanase, α-galactosidase during and after germination. The seeds were firstly submitted to pre-established protocol to overcome dormancy and promote germination. Enzyme activity in both embryo and endosperm were assayed from the initiation of germinative activities until leaf sheath appearance, and the status of seed structures and reserve compounds were evaluated. Protein content of the embryo decreased with the initiation of imbibition while the lipid content began decreasing six days after removal of the operculum. Increases in enzyme activity and starch content were both observed after visible germination. We suggest that endo-β-mannanase and α-galactosidase become active immediately at germination, facilitating haustorium expansion and providing carbohydrates for initial seedling development. Protein is the first storage compound mobilized during early imbibition, and the observed increase in the starch content of the haustorium was related to lipid degradation in that organ and mannan degradation in the adjacent endosperm.

  14. Impurity control in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This summary report on the Technical Committee Meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Naka-Gun, Japan, 13-15 February 1989, provides an overview of the results presented. Of the twenty-three papers presented, sixteen were devoted to tokamak experiments. These presented data of plasma behavior in the scrape-off layer and divertor regions, as well as effects of impurities on the core plasma; these are summarized here. Other papers summarized deal with plasma-wall interactions, including wall material behavior. Still others deal with theoretical work on physics modelling in the edge region. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Relationship Between Functional Mobility and Balance and Dependency in Activity of Daily Living in Elderly After “Hip Arthroplasty”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Mirzaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between functional mobility with balance and dependency in activity of daily living in elderly after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and its comparison with healthy subjects. Methods & Materials: The current cross-sectional study was done on 15 patients with age mean and standard deviation (72±9.6 with hip osteoarthritis 6 months after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and 15 healthy subjects with age mean and standard deviation (72.7±1.4 as control group. Patient group was assigned with non- probability convenient sampling and control group selected with matched assignment. Functional mobility measured with Timed Up & Go Test (TUG, functional balance with Functional Reach (FR and Berg Balance Scale (BBS and dependency in activity of daily living measured with Modified Barthel Index (MBI. Pearsons correlation coefficient used for stastistical analysis. Results: Results of this study indicated significantly and stronge correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group (r>0.50. Also medium correlation existed between functional mobility and balance with dependency in activity of daily living in control group (r>0.30. Conclusion: Functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in the elderly who had HA showed significant positive correlation. In addition correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group is better and higher than healthy group.

  16. The Influence of the Characteristics of Mathematical Outdoor Activities in Mobile Environments on Students' Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to find out how the characteristics of outdoor activities carried out with the mobile phone influence students' emotions. The research findings point at the following components related to the activity as influencing students' emotions: The activity novelty, the activity theme (related to everyday life, related to a new subject related to the students themselves or to an issue or a subject that the students like to do, etc., the activity conditions (its physical part is easy/uneasy to perform, resources are available, etc., the outer environment conditions (hot, warm, cold, etc., the roles which the activity enables (these roles may or may not satisfy a student, the learning method enabled in the activity (exploring mathematical ideas independently, exploring mathematics collaboratively, etc., the challenge or competition associated with the activity (it needs persistence, attention, etc.. These components show that taking care of students' leaning emotions in outdoor mathematical activities can be achieved through paying attention to different aspects of the activity which are outlined above.

  17. Impurity Trapping of Positive Muons in Metals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Polarized positive muons are implanted into metal samples. In an applied magnetic field the muon spin precession is studied. The line width in the precession frequency spectrum gives information about the static and dynamic properties of muons in a metal lattice. At temperatures where the muon is immobile within its lifetime the line width gives information about the site of location. At temperatures where the muon is mobile, the line width gives information on the diffusion process. It is known from experiments on quasi-elastic neutron scattering on hydrogen in niobium that interstitial impurities like nitrogen tend to act as traps for hydrogen. These trapping effects have now been studied systematically for muons in both f.c.c. metals (aluminium and copper) and b.c.c. metals (mainly niobium). Direct information on the trapping rates and the nature of the diffusion processes can be obtained since the muonic lifetime covers a time range where many of these processes occur.\\\\ \\\\ Mathematical models are set up ...

  18. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  19. SmartContent—Self-Protected Context-Aware Active Documents for Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Luca De Angelis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices make it possible to create, store, access, share or publish personal content on the Internet, anywhere and at anytime. This leads to situations of potential intentional or unintentional misuse of content as well as privacy issues. Recent techniques involving the use of contextual information focus on access of documents stored in clouds, or authentication for secured Web sites. These techniques or more traditional solutions, such as steganography or Digital Rights Management, do not empower the user itself, or data controller in professional settings, with a fine-grained control of the access to or manipulations actions on documents stored on mobile devices, e.g., copying, sharing, etc. In this paper, we propose SmartContent, a novel approach for content protection and privacy. Documents are active and context-aware documents that sense and analyse their current context, e.g., location, noise, neighbouring devices, social network, expiration time, etc. Based on user provided policies, they grant, deny or limit access and manipulation actions, or destroy themselves if necessary. We present the generic model of SmartContent, a concrete architecture and an implementation of a proof-of-concept specifically designed for mobile devices. We deployed it on tablets and showed that a picture dynamically reveals or conceals itself based on sensed context or on changing policies. The implementation leverages the SAPERE middleware specifically developed for context-aware systems.

  20. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  1. Impurity-induced moments in underdoped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliullin, G.; Kilian, R.; Krivenko, S.; Fulde, P.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity in a two-dimensional spin liquid in the spin-gap phase, employing a drone-fermion representation of spin-1/2 operators. The properties of the local moment induced in the vicinity of the impurity are investigated and an expression for the nuclear-magnetic-resonance Knight shift is derived, which we compare with experimental results. Introducing a second impurity into the spin liquid an antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments is found when the two impurities are located on different sublattices. The presence of many impurities leads to a screening of this interaction as is shown by means of a coherent-potential approximation. Further, the Kondo screening of an impurity-induced local spin by charge carriers is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Graphene plasmons: Impurities and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; Wenger, Tobias; Kinaret, Jari; Fogelström, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    This work analyzes how impurities and vacancies on the surface of a graphene sample affect its optical conductivity and plasmon excitations. The disorder is analyzed in the self-consistent Green's function formulation and nonlocal effects are fully taken into account. It is shown that impurities modify the linear spectrum and give rise to an impurity band whose position and width depend on the two parameters of our model, the density and the strength of impurities. The presence of the impurity band strongly influences the electromagnetic response and the plasmon losses. Furthermore, we discuss how the impurity-band position can be obtained experimentally from the plasmon dispersion relation and discuss this in the context of sensing.

  3. The impact of utilizing mobile phones to promote physical activity among post-secondary students: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Hieu

    2016-01-01

    A commitment to regular physical activity may reduce the risks of chronic diseases for young adults. Internationally, the majority of post-secondary students are insufficiently active for health benefits. Novel health strategies and interventions utilizing mobiles phones could increase post-secondary students' physical activity levels. However, there is contradictory evidence to support the use of mobile phones to promote physical activity, and a scoping review could provide further insights into this topic. The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review to explore the existing literature and investigate what is currently known about the use of mobile phones to enhance physical activity levels among post-secondary students. A total of 84 articles were identified from the literature search, and six studies were selected for data analysis. Two major themes were supported by the evidence, which included: (I) the relationship between mobile phones and physical activity levels; and (II) students' perceptions of mobile phones. Goal setting principles combined with text message interventions were reported to have significant influences on students' physical activity levels. Students expressed mixed feelings about coaching elements of apps and posting personal results on social networking websites. No studies reported the use of objective physical activity measurements. In conclusion, mobile phone technologies such as text message reminders could be included in health interventions to enhance post-secondary students' physical activity levels. There is limited evidence available on this topic and additional research is warranted to establish a clearer understanding of the relationship between mobile phones and post-secondary students' physical activity.

  4. A mobile system for treating low-salinity low-activity liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Timofeev, E.M.; Panteleev, V.I.; Karlin Yu.V.; Kropotov, V.N.; Slastennikov, Yu.T.; Chuikov, V.Yu.; Demkin, V.I.; Rozhkov, V.T.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are produced not only in radiochemical production and nuclear power stations but also in numerous research institutes and industrial organizations. The specific activities of these wastes are low, and the volumes do not exceed a few dozen cubic meters a year at each individual organization, but processing such territorially distributed wastes is complicated. This particularly applies to liquid wastes, whose transportation involves a high risk of contamination if the sealing fails. As a rule, liquid wastes are solidified before transportation to a storage site. In some cases, that simplified approach leads to an unduly large consumption of solidifying materials, and particularly to an increase in volume, while storage is an expensive technique. A considerable volume reduction in the wastes to be stored is provided by processing the liquid wastes to concentrate the radionuclides in a small volume, with the main volume of treated water discharged to the drains. Two styles are possible: a stationary plant for processing wastes at each institution or a mobile one with a centralized service base, e.g., at the storage site. Mobile systems have been reported in world practice, although there is no detailed information on them. From the economic viewpoint, the second approach is preferable because it enables one to conduct such operations with fewer plants and fewer staff. That a mobile concept that was used at the Moscow Radon Cooperative in 1985 in processing liquid wastes at regional storage locations is summarized in this article. Research and development led in 1989 to the manufacture of a prototype mobile system mounted on an MAZ articulated vehicle, which included three basic modules: ultrafiltration, electrodialysis, and filtration ones. Each module is located on a separate framework and is connected to the others by reinforced rubber hoses

  5. Impurity study of TMX using ultraviolet spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Strand, O.T.; Moos, H.W.; Fortner, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) study of the emissions from intrinsic and injected impurities in TMX is presented. Two survey spectrographs were used to determine that the major impurities present were oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and titanium. Three absolutely-calibrated monochromators were used to measure the time histories and radial profiles of these impurity emissions in the central cell and each plug. Two of these instruments were capable of obtaining radial profiles as a function of time in a single shot

  6. Increasing Physical Activity in Mothers Using Video Exercise Groups and Exercise Mobile Apps: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya Nina; Chan, June Maylin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Blarigan, Erin Lynn; Hecht, Frederick

    2018-05-18

    Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers. The Moms Online Video Exercise Study was an 8-week, 2-armed, Web-based randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of a group exercise intervention with a waitlist control. Healthy mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years were recruited through Facebook and email listservs. Intervention participants joined exercise groups using videoconferencing (Google Hangouts) every morning on weekdays and exercised together in real time, guided by exercise mobile apps (eg, Nike+, Sworkit) of their choice. Waitlist control participants had access to recommended mobile apps and an invitation to join an exercise group after the 8-week study period. Main outcomes assessed included changes in self-reported moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per week in aggregate and stratified by whether women met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for sufficient aerobic activity at baseline. Outcomes were measured through self-assessed Web-based questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks. The intervention was effective at increasing exercise for inactive women and proved to be feasible and acceptable to all participants. A total of 64 women were randomized, 30 to intervention and 34 to control. Women attended 2.8 sessions per week. There was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increasing moderate, vigorous, and MVPA minutes for all women. As hypothesized, in

  7. Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Mobility and Their Implications for Active Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Correia Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to actively take part in society without discrimination and to enjoy independence and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this to be a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: is assistive technology (AT for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance? Method: From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes, aged 45–97, mean 67.02 ± 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS, the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. Results and Discussion: The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03. Most participants displayed a positive impact from AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. The P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53 and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73. All subscales and the P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow up with these participants for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on

  8. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  9. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  10. Unveiling the water-associated conformational mobility in the active site of ascorbate peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Li-Ju; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Han; Chen, Yi-Ting; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2018-03-01

    We carried out comprehensive spectroscopic studies of wild type and mutants of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to gain understanding of the conformational mobility of the active site. In this approach, three unnatural tryptophans were applied to replace the distal tryptophan (W41) in an aim to probe polarity/water environment near the edge of the heme-containing active site. 7-azatryptophan ((7-aza)Trp) is sensitive to environment polarity, while 2,7-azatryptophan ((2,7-aza)Trp) and 2,6-diazatryptophan ((2,6-aza)Trp) undergo excited-state water-catalyzed double and triple proton transfer, respectively, and are sensitive to the water network. The combination of their absorption, emission bands and the associated relaxation dynamics of these fluorescence probes, together with the Soret-band difference absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy, lead us to unveil the water associated conformational mobility in the active site of APX. The results are suggestive of the existence of equilibrium between two different environments surrounding W41 in APX, i.e., the water-rich and water-scant forms with distinct fluorescence relaxation. Our results thus demonstrate for the first time the power of integrating multiple sensors (7-aza)Trp, (2,7-aza)Trp and (2,6-aza)Trp in probing the water environment of a specifically targeted Trp in proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M.; Sagarra, O.; Oltra, A.; Palmer, J. R. B.; Bartumeus, F.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; Perelló, J.

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  12. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M; Sagarra, O; Oltra, A; Palmer, J R B; Bartumeus, F; Díaz-Guilera, A; Perelló, J

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  13. Dynamic behavior of impurities and native components in model LSM microelectrodes on YSZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    behavior of the native components (La, Sr, Mn) and selected impurities (Si, K, Na) both laterally and in-depth. Manganese was found to be especially mobile and showed both segregation onto the electrolyte as a result of temperature and polarization and dissolution into the electrolyte below...

  14. Transposable elements become active and mobile in the genomes of aging mammalian somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Marco; Criscione, Steven W; Peterson, Abigail L; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M; Kreiling, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) were discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize and have since been found to be ubiquitous in all living organisms. Transposition is mutagenic and organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress the activity of their endogenous TEs. Transposition in somatic cells is very low, but recent evidence suggests that it may be derepressed in some cases, such as cancer development. We have found that during normal aging several families of retrotransposable elements (RTEs) start being transcribed in mouse tissues. In advanced age the expression culminates in active transposition. These processes are counteracted by calorie restriction (CR), an intervention that slows down aging. Retrotransposition is also activated in age-associated, naturally occurring cancers in the mouse. We suggest that somatic retrotransposition is a hitherto unappreciated aging process. Mobilization of RTEs is likely to be an important contributor to the progressive dysfunction of aging cells.

  15. Inhibition of thiopurine S-methyltransferase activity by impurities in commercially available substrates: a factor for differing results of TPMT measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröplin, T; Fischer, C; Iven, H

    1999-06-01

    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, when measured in red blood cells (RBC) with a recently published TPMT activity assay using 6-thioguanine (6-TG) as substrate, could not be reproduced in another laboratory. We investigated factors which could influence the results of the TPMT activity measurement. We tested twelve 6-TG and four 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) compounds from different suppliers as substrates and determined the enzyme kinetic parameters Km and Vmax. Furthermore, we studied the influence of different 6-TG compounds on the affinity of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to the TPMT enzyme. All 6-TG products were of equal purity (declared >98% by the supplier): this was ascertained by HPLC. However, the rate of methylation obtained following incubation with 6-TG from different suppliers ranged from 10% to 100% when incubated with the same RBC lysate. The lowest apparent Km value for a 6-TG was 22.3 micromol x l(-1), while the product with the highest methylation rate showed a Km of 156 micromol x l(-1). From these results we assume that there is a contaminant in some 6-TG products, which acts as a strong inhibitor of TPMT activity. Compounds possibly used for the synthesis of 6-TG (guanine, pyridine, 6-chloroguanine) did not affect the methylation rate. Thioxanthine, which is known to be a strong inhibitor of TPMT when added to the assay system to give a 2% contamination, reduced TPMT activity from 100% to 72%. Using 6-MP from different suppliers as substrate resulted in Km values ranging from 110 to 162 micromol x l(-1) and Vmox values ranging from 54 to 68 nmol 6-MMP x g(-1)Hb x h(-1). The Km value for the methyl donor SAM was similar to and independent from the thiopurine substrates tested (range 4.9-11 micromol-l(-1) SAM). In contrast to other investigators, we found non-enzymatic S-methylation, which was negligible under our assay conditions (3% with 128 micromol x l(-1) SAM), but could become relevant in experiments using higher

  16. Mobile Phone Use and its Association With Sitting Time and Meeting Physical Activity Recommendations in a Mexican American Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Chow, Wong-Ho; Daniel, Carrie R; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua

    2016-06-16

    The benefits of physical activity (PA) are well-documented. Mobile phones influence PA by promoting screen-based sedentary time, providing prompts or reminders to be active, aiding in tracking and monitoring PA, or providing entertainment during PA. It is not known how mobile phone use is associated with PA and sitting time in Mexican Americans, and how mobile phone users may differ from nonusers. To determine the associations between mobile phone use, PA, and sitting time and how these behaviors differ from mobile phone nonusers in a sample of 2982 Mexican-American adults from the Mano a Mano cohort. Differences in meeting PA recommendations and sitting time between mobile phone users and nonusers were examined using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between mobile phone use, PA, and sitting. Mobile phone users were more likely to be obese by body mass index criteria (≥30 kg/m(2)), younger, born in the United States and lived there longer, more educated, and sit more hours per day but more likely to meet PA recommendations than nonusers. Males (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74), use of text messaging (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.56), and having a higher acculturation score (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.52) were associated with higher odds of meeting PA recommendations. Sitting more hours per day was associated with being male, obese, born in the United States, a former alcohol drinker, and having at least a high school education. Among nonusers, being born in the United States was associated with higher odds of more sitting time, and being married was associated with higher odds of meeting PA recommendations. Mobile phone interventions using text messages could be tailored to promote PA in less acculturated and female Mexican American mobile phone users.

  17. The impurity transport in HT-6B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rong; Xie Jikang; Li Linzhong; He Yexi; Wang Shuya; Deng Chuanbao; Li Guoxiang; Qiu Lijian

    1992-06-01

    The quasi-stationary profiles of the impurity ionization stages in HT-6B tokamak were determined by monitoring the VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) and visible line emissions from impurities. An impurity transport code was set up. The impurity transport coefficients and other parameters of impurities in that device were simulated and determined. From the measurement of impurity emission profiles and simulation analysis, it is concluded that the impurity confinement is improved and the impurity recycling is reduced by the slow magnetic compression. Some characteristics of impurity transport in that device are also discussed

  18. Factors affecting mobility milestones and activities of daily living after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masahito

    2008-01-01

    Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R 2 =0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R 2 =0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R 2 =0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R 2 =0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of

  19. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Sandra C. [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gauthier, Marie-Soleil [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02140 (United States); Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dole, William P., E-mail: bill.dole@novartis.com [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Sandra C.; Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper; Dole, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). → ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. → ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. → Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNFα) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and peroxisome proliferator-activated

  1. Development of the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Rimmer, James H; Kviz, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    Despite the widely known benefits of physical activity, people with disabilities are more likely to be inactive when compared to people without disabilities. Previous questionnaires that measure barriers physical activity for people with disabilities do not measure barriers from an ecological perspective. The purpose of this study was to develop the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments (BPAQ-MI) that measures barriers using an ecological framework. This study consisted of two phases. In Phase one, developed the content validity by (a) developing an item bank, (b) identifying missing items and combining items using a Delphi panel, and (c) refine item wording via cognitive interviews. In Phase two, people with mobility impairments took part in in-person interviews to establish test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the BPAQ-MI. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the BPAQ-MI was comprised of eight subscales or factors: health; beliefs and attitudes; family; friends; fitness center built environment; staff and policy; community built environment; and safety. The BPAQ-MI demonstrated very good test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.792 to 0.935. The BPAQ-MI showed significant negative correlations with exercise (minutes/week) and significant positive correlations between BPAQ-MI subscales and inactivity (hours/day). The BPAQ-MI is the first questionnaire that places greater equity at measuring barriers to physical activity across the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community domains. The BPAQ-MI has the potential to assist researchers in understanding the complex relationship between barriers and ultimately develop physical activity interventions that address these barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T

    2012-02-01

    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  3. Increasing physical activity in stroke survivors using STARFISH, an interactive mobile phone application: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lorna; Wyke, Sally; Brewster, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R; Alexander, Gillian; Rafferty, Danny; McFadyen, Angus K; Ramsay, Andrew; Dybus, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Following stroke, people are generally less active and more sedentary which can worsen outcomes. Mobile phone applications (apps) can support change in health behaviors. We developed STARFISH, a mobile phone app-based intervention, which incorporates evidence-based behavior change techniques (feedback, self-monitoring and social support), in which users' physical activity is visualized by fish swimming. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of STARFISH in stroke survivors. Twenty-three people with stroke (12 women; age: 56.0 ± 10.0 years, time since stroke: 4.2 ± 4.0 years) from support groups in Glasgow completed the study. Participants were sequentially allocated in a 2:1 ratio to intervention (n = 15) or control (n = 8) groups. The intervention group followed the STARFISH program for six weeks; the control group received usual care. Outcome measures included physical activity, sedentary time, heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, Fatigue Severity Scale, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Scale, Ten-Meter Walk Test, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. The average daily step count increased by 39.3% (4158 to 5791 steps/day) in the intervention group and reduced by 20.2% (3694 to 2947 steps/day) in the control group (p = 0.005 for group-time interaction). Similar patterns of data and group-time interaction were seen for walking time (p = 0.002) and fatigue (p = 0.003). There were no significant group-time interactions for other outcome measures. Use of STARFISH has the potential to improve physical activity and health outcomes in people after stroke and longer term intervention trials are warranted.

  4. Onset of mobility disability among community-dwelling old men and women. The role of tiredness in daily activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Vass, Mikkel; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: in the primary prevention of disability among older adults it might be useful to identify individuals at high risk for functional decline before it occurs. OBJECTIVE: to examine whether tiredness in daily activities is an independent determinant of onset of mobility disability at 1 1...... activities at baseline had a higher risk of onset of mobility disability at 1 1/2-year follow-up, when adjusted by the covariates. In addition, low social participation, poor psychological function, and physical inactivity were independent risk factors of onset of mobility disability among men, and home help......, low sense of coherence and physical inactivity were independent risk factors of onset of mobility disability among women. CONCLUSION: older people who complain about tiredness are at higher risk of becoming disabled than others. This highlights the need for alertness and management of this early sign...

  5. Increasing the Lifetime of Mobile WSNs via Dynamic Optimization of Sensor Node Communication Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Adionel Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and flexible method for increasing the lifetime of fixed or mobile wireless sensor networks is proposed. Based on past residual energy information reported by the sensor nodes, the sink node or another central node dynamically optimizes the communication activity levels of the sensor nodes to save energy without sacrificing the data throughput. The activity levels are defined to represent portions of time or time-frequency slots in a frame, during which the sensor nodes are scheduled to communicate with the sink node to report sensory measurements. Besides node mobility, it is considered that sensors’ batteries may be recharged via a wireless power transmission or equivalent energy harvesting scheme, bringing to the optimization problem an even more dynamic character. We report large increased lifetimes over the non-optimized network and comparable or even larger lifetime improvements with respect to an idealized greedy algorithm that uses both the real-time channel state and the residual energy information.

  6. Territorial Identity and Grassroots Economic Activism: The Politicization of Farmers’ Mobilizations in the French Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Itçaina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The French Basque Country (FBC represents an emblematic case of the politicization of local development through grassroots economic activism. These mobilizations are particularly obvious in the agricultural sector. Based on a qualitative research on small farmers’ organizations and short food circuits, this article shows that Basque farmers’ mobilizations constitute a case of a dual politicization of small-scale farming and territorial identity. This process has gone through two phases: the first period (1970-2000 was characterized by the politicization of local productive systems. Throughout the decade 2000-2010, a new mode of grassroots economic activism emerged, signalled by new alliances between producers and consumers, and by an increasing ideological pluralism. Two case studies illustrate these developments. The first relates to a case of explicit politicization with the controversy around the foundation in 2005 of an alternative Basque Chamber of Agriculture. The second case study is devoted to the development of short food circuits in the FBC, considered here as a case of implicit politicization of the encounter between productive and consumption circuits. Both cases illustrate the politicization of new economic social movements, and the constant overlapping of sectoral and territorial claims in the Basque territory.

  7. Perspectives on Mobilization of Musical Knowledge during Collaborative Piano Activities: Three Cases Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Henrique Cianbroni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to investigate the perspectives in respect to mobilization of musical knowledge by undergraduate students engaged in collaborative piano situations. Three undergraduate piano majors were investigated during three different types of collaborative activities: instrumental ensemble, choral ensemble and solo vocal. The qualitative methodology was based on a case study for descriptions of the data collected through interviews and recordings of rehearsals, music classes, institutional exams, and public performances. The Santos model (2007 was shown to be suitable for the study, especially with regard to identifying the differences between the investigative and the self-regulated cycles, which were distinct among the research participants. The perspectives of knowledge mobilization were revealed through the various ways of perceiving and approaching the collaborative activity with which the participants were engaged, imbued with both their beliefs and demonstrated values. The present study displayed two factors: (1 the influence with which previous systematized (i.e., already learned experiences and forms of personal interest exert on this aspect of musical practice and (2 the importance of investigating what already exists in terms of practiced knowledge (and systematized in the experiences of undergraduate students with the goal to connect forms of knowledge to means of learning.

  8. Active colloids as mobile microelectrodes for unified label-free selective cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boymelgreen, Alicia M; Balli, Tov; Miloh, Touvia; Yossifon, Gilad

    2018-02-22

    Utilization of active colloids to transport both biological and inorganic cargo has been widely examined in the context of applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to sample analysis. In general, carriers are customized to load one specific target via a mechanism distinct from that driving the transport. Here we unify these tasks and extend loading capabilities to include on-demand selection of multiple nano/micro-sized targets without the need for pre-labelling or surface functionalization. An externally applied electric field is singularly used to drive the active cargo carrier and transform it into a mobile floating electrode that can attract (trap) or repel specific targets from its surface by dielectrophoresis, enabling dynamic control of target selection, loading and rate of transport via the electric field parameters. In the future, dynamic selectivity could be combined with directed motion to develop building blocks for bottom-up fabrication in applications such as additive manufacturing and soft robotics.

  9. Impurity effects in the electrothermal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimura, A.; Azevedo, M.T. de

    1982-01-01

    A 'impure' plasma model is proposed based on the homogeneous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the electrothermal instable mode growth with the wave vector perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The impurities are introduced implicitly in the transport coefficients of the two-fluid model through a effective charge number Z sub(eff). (Author) [pt

  10. Depolarization of diffusing spins by paramagnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Hutson, R.L.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    We study the depolarization of diffusing spins (muons) interacting with dilute paramagnetic impurities in a solid using a simple computational model which properly treats the muon motion and preserves correct muon-impurity distances. Long-range (dipolar) and nearest-neighbor (contact) interactions are treated together. Diffusion parameters are deduced and model comparisons made for AuGd (300 ppm). (orig.)

  11. Elimination device for metal impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reuse of adsorbing materials by eliminating Fe 3 O 4 films reduced with adsorbing performance by way of electrolytic polishing and then forming fresh membranes using high temperature steams. Constitution: An elimination device is provided to a coolant clean-up system of a reactor for eliminating impurities such as cobalt. The elimination device comprises adsorbing materials made of stainless steel tips or the likes having Fe 3 O 4 films. The adsorbing materials are regenerated by applying an electric current between grid-like cathode plates and anode plates to leach out the Fe 3 O 4 films, washing out the electrolytic solution by cleaning water and then applying steams at high temperature onto the adsorbing materials to thereby form fresh Fe 3 O 4 films again thereon. The regeneration of the adsorbing materials enables to eliminate Co 60 and the like in the primary coolant efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Correlations between human mobility and social interaction reveal general activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    A day in the life of a person involves a broad range of activities which are common across many people. Going beyond diurnal cycles, a central question is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Here we investigate the interplay between different activity types, namely communication, motion, and physical proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. We explore two central questions: Which underlying principles govern the formation of the activity patterns? Are the patterns specific to each individual or shared across the entire population? We find that statistics of the entire population allows us to successfully predict 71% of the activity and 85% of the inactivity involved in communication, mobility, and physical proximity. Surprisingly, individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating that a majority of activity patterns are shared across our sample population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  13. Implementation of behavior change techniques in mobile applications for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-04-01

    Mobile applications (apps) for physical activity are popular and hold promise for promoting behavior change and reducing non-communicable disease risk. App marketing materials describe a limited number of behavior change techniques (BCTs), but apps may include unmarketed BCTs, which are important as well. To characterize the extent to which BCTs have been implemented in apps from a systematic user inspection of apps. Top-ranked physical activity apps (N=100) were identified in November 2013 and analyzed in 2014. BCTs were coded using a contemporary taxonomy following a user inspection of apps. Users identified an average of 6.6 BCTs per app and most BCTs in the taxonomy were not represented in any apps. The most common BCTs involved providing social support, information about others' approval, instructions on how to perform a behavior, demonstrations of the behavior, and feedback on the behavior. A latent class analysis of BCT configurations revealed that apps focused on providing support and feedback as well as support and education. Contemporary physical activity apps have implemented a limited number of BCTs and have favored BCTs with a modest evidence base over others with more established evidence of efficacy (e.g., social media integration for providing social support versus active self-monitoring by users). Social support is a ubiquitous feature of contemporary physical activity apps and differences between apps lie primarily in whether the limited BCTs provide education or feedback about physical activity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DETECTING LOW-LEVEL SYNTHESIS IMPURITIES IN MODIFIED PHOSPHOROTHIOATE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY – HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikcevic, Irena; Wyrzykiewicz, Tadeusz K.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary An LC-MS method based on the use of high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTIRCMS) for profiling oligonucleotides synthesis impurities is described. Oligonucleotide phosphorothioatediesters (phosphorothioate oligonucleotides), in which one of the non-bridging oxygen atoms at each phosphorus center is replaced by a sulfur atom, are now one of the most popular oligonucleotide modifications due to their ease of chemical synthesis and advantageous pharmacokinetic properties. Despite significant progress in the solid-phase oligomerization chemistry used in the manufacturing of these oligonucleotides, multiple classes of low-level impurities always accompany synthetic oligonucleotides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful technique for the identification of these synthesis impurities. However, impurity profiling, where the entire complement of low-level synthetic impurities is identified in a single analysis, is more challenging. Here we present an LC-MS method based the use of high resolution-mass spectrometry, specifically Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTIRCMS or FTMS). The optimal LC-FTMS conditions, including the stationary phase and mobile phases for the separation and identification of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, were found. The characteristics of FTMS enable charge state determination from single m/z values of low-level impurities. Charge state information then enables more accurate modeling of the detected isotopic distribution for identification of the chemical composition of the detected impurity. Using this approach, a number of phosphorothioate impurities can be detected by LC-FTMS including failure sequences carrying 3′-terminal phosphate monoester and 3′-terminal phosphorothioate monoester, incomplete backbone sulfurization and desulfurization products, high molecular weight impurities, and chloral, isobutyryl, and N3 (2-cyanoethyl) adducts

  15. How Gamification Affects Physical Activity: Large-scale Analysis of Walking Challenges in a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Ali; Althoff, Tim; Saberi, Amin; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-04-01

    Gamification represents an effective way to incentivize user behavior across a number of computing applications. However, despite the fact that physical activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle, surprisingly little is known about how gamification and in particular competitions shape human physical activity. Here we study how competitions affect physical activity. We focus on walking challenges in a mobile activity tracking application where multiple users compete over who takes the most steps over a predefined number of days. We synthesize our findings in a series of game and app design implications. In particular, we analyze nearly 2,500 physical activity competitions over a period of one year capturing more than 800,000 person days of activity tracking. We observe that during walking competitions, the average user increases physical activity by 23%. Furthermore, there are large increases in activity for both men and women across all ages, and weight status, and even for users that were previously fairly inactive. We also find that the composition of participants greatly affects the dynamics of the game. In particular, if highly unequal participants get matched to each other, then competition suffers and the overall effect on the physical activity drops significantly. Furthermore, competitions with an equal mix of both men and women are more effective in increasing the level of activities. We leverage these insights to develop a statistical model to predict whether or not a competition will be particularly engaging with significant accuracy. Our models can serve as a guideline to help design more engaging competitions that lead to most beneficial behavioral changes.

  16. EUV impurity study of the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Chen, K.I.; Moos, H.W.; Marmar, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of resonance line radiation from oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and molybdenum impurities has been measured in the high-field (80kG), high-density (6x10 14 cm -3 ) discharges of the Alcator Tokamak, using a 0.4-m normal-incidence monochromator (300-1300A) with its line of sight fixed along a major radius. Total light-impurity concentrations of a few tenths of a percent have been estimated by using both a simple model and a computer code which included Pfirsch-Schlueter impurity diffusion. The resulting values of Zsub(eff), including the contributions due to both the light impurities and molybdenum, were close to one. The power lost through the impurity line radiation from the lower ionization states accounted for approximately 10% of the total Ohmic input power at high densities. (author)

  17. Device for removing impurities from liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Kesahiro; Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo; Ishida, Tomio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain highly reliable and efficient impurity removal by forming temperature distribution the impurity removing device thereby providing the function of corrosion product trap, nuclear fission product trap and cold trap under the conditions suitable to the impurity removing materials. Constitution: The impurity removing device comprises a container containing impurity removing fillers. The fillers comprise material for removing corrosion products, material for removing nuclear fission products and material for removing depositions from liquid sodium. The positions for the respective materials are determined such that the materials are placed under the temperature conditions easy to attain their function depending on the temperature distribution formed in the removing device, whereby appropriate temperature condition is set to each of the materials. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Long-term effect of physical activity counseling on mobility limitation among older people: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Heinonen, Ari; Leinonen, Raija

    2009-01-01

    counseling-induced benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. METHODS: In a 2-year, single-blinded, randomized controlled study, 632 sedentary participants aged 75-81 years were randomly assigned into the intervention (n = 318) or control (n = 314) group. The intervention group received a single......BACKGROUND: Physical activity counseling increases physical activity among older people, but its effectiveness on mobility, that is, maintaining the ability to move independently, is unknown. We studied the effect of physical activity counseling on mobility among older people and evaluated whether...... individualized physical activity counseling session with a supportive telephone contact every 4 months for 2 years. The outcome measures-perceived difficulty in advanced (walking 2 km) and basic (walking 0.5 km) mobility-were gathered semiannually during the intervention and the 1.5-year postintervention follow...

  19. An Implant-Passivated Blocked Impurity Band Germanium Detector for the Far Infrared, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to fabricate a germanium blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detector using a novel process which will enable us to: 1- fabricate a suitably-doped active layer...

  20. Uranium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in uranium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 , particularly adapted for a low content. The method is quantitative for metallic impurities and qualitative for non metallic impurities [fr

  1. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Social cognitive mediators of the effect of the MobileMums intervention on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Miller, Yvette D; Marshall, Alison L

    2013-07-01

    To explore whether improvements in physical activity following the MobileMums intervention were mediated by changes in Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs targeted in the intervention (barrier self efficacy, goal setting skills, outcome expectancy, social support, and perceived environmental opportunity for exercise). This paper also examined if the mediating constructs differed between initial (baseline to 6 weeks) and overall (baseline to 13 weeks) changes in physical activity. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial involving 88 postnatal women (Exercise frequency was assessed using the Australian Women's Activity Survey and frequency of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using a single-item question. Initial improvements in goal-setting skills mediated the relationship between experimental condition and initial changes in MVPA, αβ (95% CI) = 0.23(0.01, 0.59), and Walking for Exercise, αβ (95% CI) = 0.34(0.06, 0.73). Initial improvements in barrier self efficacy mediated the relationship between experimental condition and initial change in MVPA, αβ (95% CI) = 0.36(0.12, 0.65), but not Walking for Exercise. None of the SCT outcomes significantly mediated the relationship between experimental condition and overall (baseline to 13 weeks) change in frequency of MVPA or Walking for Exercise. Future interventions with postnatal women using SCT should target barrier self-efficacy and goal setting skills in order to increase physical activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Energy-Efficient Real-Time Human Activity Recognition on Smart Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human activity recognition (HAR plays an important role in wellness-care and context-aware systems. Human activities can be recognized in real-time by using sensory data collected from various sensors built in smart mobile devices. Recent studies have focused on HAR that is solely based on triaxial accelerometers, which is the most energy-efficient approach. However, such HAR approaches are still energy-inefficient because the accelerometer is required to run without stopping so that the physical activity of a user can be recognized in real-time. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for HAR process that controls the activity recognition duration for energy-efficient HAR. We investigated the impact of varying the acceleration-sampling frequency and window size for HAR by using the variable activity recognition duration (VARD strategy. We implemented our approach by using an Android platform and evaluated its performance in terms of energy efficiency and accuracy. The experimental results showed that our approach reduced energy consumption by a minimum of about 44.23% and maximum of about 78.85% compared to conventional HAR without sacrificing accuracy.

  4. Behaviour based Mobile Robot Navigation Technique using AI System: Experimental Investigation on Active Media Pioneer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman, V.Ganapathy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in the research of an autonomous robot is the design and development of the navigation technique that enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment. In this research, the issues investigated and methodologies established include (a Designing of the individual behavior and behavior rule selection using Alpha level fuzzy logic system  (b Designing of the controller, which maps the sensors input to the motor output through model based Fuzzy Logic Inference System and (c Formulation of the decision-making process by using Alpha-level fuzzy logic system. The proposed method is applied to Active Media Pioneer Robot and the results are discussed and compared with most accepted methods. This approach provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing the human expert heuristic knowledge and perception-based action in mobile robot navigation. In this approach, the operational strategies of the human expert driver are transferred via fuzzy logic to the robot navigation in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables.Keywards: Mobile robot, behavior based control, fuzzy logic, alpha level fuzzy logic, obstacle avoidance behavior and goal seek behavior

  5. A pharmacology guided approach for setting limits on product-related impurities for bispecific antibody manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sharmila; Sonoda, Junichiro; Tully, Timothy; Williams, Ambrose J; Yang, Feng; Macchi, Frank; Hudson, Terry; Chen, Mark Z; Liu, Shannon; Valle, Nicole; Cowan, Kyra; Gelzleichter, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    bFKB1 is a humanized bispecific IgG1 antibody, created by conjoining an anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) half-antibody to an anti-Klothoβ (KLB) half-antibody, using the knobs-into-holes strategy. bFKB1 acts as a highly selective agonist for the FGFR1/KLB receptor complex and is intended to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic defects by mimicking the activity of the hormone FGF21. An important aspect of the biologics product manufacturing process is to establish meaningful product specifications regarding the tolerable levels of impurities that copurify with the drug product. The aim of the current study was to determine acceptable levels of product-related impurities for bFKB1. To determine the tolerable levels of these impurities, we dosed obese mice with bFKB1 enriched with various levels of either HMW impurities or anti-FGFR1-related impurities, and measured biomarkers for KLB-independent FGFR1 signaling. Here, we show that product-related impurities of bFKB1, in particular, high molecular weight (HMW) impurities and anti-FGFR1-related impurities, when purposefully enriched, stimulate FGFR1 in a KLB-independent manner. By taking this approach, the tolerable levels of product-related impurities were successfully determined. Our study demonstrates a general pharmacology-guided approach to setting a product specification for a bispecific antibody whose homomultimer-related impurities could lead to undesired biological effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-07-01

    Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF.

  7. Comparison of Post Operative Early Active and Passive Mobillization of Flexor Tendon in Zone 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Layeghi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite numerous advances in our understanding of the anatomy, Biomechanics, nutrition and Healing, the result Following Fiewor Tendon repair Shiow relatively high rate of failure the purpost of this study was to compare the result of 50 digits treated by either ‘‘Early active mobilization’’ or ‘‘controlled passive mobilization’’ re gimen in Ivan hand rehabilitation center. Materials & Mathods: Pationt being matched for gende, age, injuries hand, technique of srgery (all with eqitenon first, four strand in two groups. They were assessed 8 week postoperatibg in respect of total active motion, flexion gap and extension lags. Outcome were defined using ‘‘Strickland’’ and ‘’ Buck – Gramko’’ criteria. Results: The result were 80% excellent and good, 20% fair and no poor in early active motion group and in second group 40% excellent and good, 44% fair and 16% poor due to Strickland criteria. In buck-grancko criteria 52% extension and good, 32% fair and 16% were poor. Mean of total active motion was significantly greater in early active motion group (in E.A.M.150/2, in passive group: 116/41. Conclusion: Actively mobilized tendon underwent intrinsic healing without large gap formation. Active motion generated bith tension and motion and offer several advantage over passive motion: improved tendon nutrition, less adhission, higher rate of healing, increased ultimate rang of motion. So early active motion is the best protocle for treating tendons in zons 2 our result is comparable with theory.

  8. A Mixed-Method Study of Mobile Devices and Student Self-Directed Learning and Achievement During a Middle School STEM Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomew, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly ubiquitous nature of mobile devices among K-12 students has led many to argue for and against the inclusion of mobile devices in K-12 classrooms. Some have conjectured that access to mobile devices may enable student self-directed learning. This research used a mixed-method approach to explore the relationships between mobile devices and student achievement and self-directed learning during a Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (STEM) activity in a middle schoo...

  9. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism.

  11. Impurity Induced Phase Competition and Supersolidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Ganesh, R.

    2017-12-01

    Several material families show competition between superconductivity and other orders. When such competition is driven by doping, it invariably involves spatial inhomogeneities which can seed competing orders. We study impurity-induced charge order in the attractive Hubbard model, a prototypical model for competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order. We show that a single impurity induces a charge-ordered texture over a length scale set by the energy cost of the competing phase. Our results are consistent with a strong-coupling field theory proposed earlier in which superconducting and charge order parameters form components of an SO(3) vector field. To discuss the effects of multiple impurities, we focus on two cases: correlated and random distributions. In the correlated case, the CDW puddles around each impurity overlap coherently leading to a "supersolid" phase with coexisting pairing and charge order. In contrast, a random distribution of impurities does not lead to coherent CDW formation. We argue that the energy lowering from coherent ordering can have a feedback effect, driving correlations between impurities. This can be understood as arising from an RKKY-like interaction, mediated by impurity textures. We discuss implications for charge order in the cuprates and doped CDW materials such as NbSe2.

  12. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism

  13. Reduction of external noise of mobile energy facilities by using active noise control system in muffler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivaev, O. I.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Larionov, A. N.; Beliansky, R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a method for the reducing emission of low-frequency noise of modern automotive vehicles into the environment. The importance of reducing the external noise of modern mobile energy facilities made in Russia is substantiated. Standard methods for controlling external noise in technology are of low efficiency when low-frequency sound waves are reduced. In this case, it is in the low-frequency zone of the sound range that the main power of the noise emitted by the machinery lies. The most effective way to reduce such sound waves is to use active noise control systems. A design of a muffler using a similar system is presented. This muffler allowed one to reduce the emission of increased noise levels into the environment by 7-11 dB and to increase acoustic comfort at the operator's workplace by 3-5 dB.

  14. Mobility of chemisorbed molecules and surface regeneration of active centers during dehydration of isopropanol on aluminium oxide and aluminosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlis, L.A.; Vasserberg, V.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    By a differential isotope method involving 14 C the authors have investigated the surface mobility of chemisorbed molecules of isopropanol during its dehydration in an adsorption layer on aluminium oxide and aluminosilicate. The chemisorbed alcohol molecules possess marked surface mobility which plays a decisive part in the mechanism of surface regeneration of the active catalyst centers in the process of dehydration. The cessation of the reaction long before the adsorbed alcohol is completely used up is explained by the hypothesis that there is local overpopulation of the active sectors by water formed by the reaction; this hinders further surface regeneration and repetition of the elementary events of dehydration

  15. Low-Z impurities in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Bol, K.; Hawryluk, R.; Hosea, J.; Meservey, E.

    1977-11-01

    Low-Z impurities concentrations (oxygen and carbon) have been measured in different discharges in PLT. The contribution to Z/sub eff/, influx rates and radiation losses by oxygen and carbon were obtained. An inverse correlation was found between the low-Z impurity density (and also the edge ion temperature) and the high-Z impurity (tungsten) density. A one-dimensional computer transport model has been used to calculate the spatial profiles of different oxygen and carbon ionization states. This model predicts that fully stripped oxygen and carbon ions should exist near the plasma periphery

  16. Simulated impurity transport in LHD from MIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J.E. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    The impurity transport code MIST and atomic physics package LINES are used to calculate the time evolution of charge state density profiles, individual line emissivity profiles and total radiated power profiles for impurities in LHD plasmas. Three model LHD plasmas are considered; a high density, low temperature case, a low density, high temperature case and the initial LHD start-up plasma (500 kW ECH), using impurity transport coefficient profiles from Heliotron E. The elements oxygen, neon, scandium, iron, nickel and molybdenum are considered, both injected and in steady state. (author)

  17. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...... by mobility management, a concept aiming to reduce carbon emissions from transportation in western societies. The article focuses on how municipal planners formulate the role of mobility management activities organized around private companies, and how their practices are connected to wider ideas on planning....

  18. Impurities of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, V.M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic structure of oxygen complex defects in silicon, using molecular cluster model with saturation by watson sphere into the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method is studied. A systematic study of the simulation of perfect silicon crystal and an analysis of the increasing of atom number in the clusters are done to choose the suitable cluster for the calculations. The divacancy in three charge states (Si:V 2 + , Si:V 2 0 , Si:V 2 - ), of the oxygen pair (Si:O 2 ) and the oxygen-vacancy pair (Si:O.V) neighbours in the silicon lattice, is studied. Distortions for the symmetry were included in the Si:V 2 + and Si:O 2 systems. The behavior of defect levels related to the cluster size of Si:V 2 0 and Si:O 2 systems, the insulated oxygen impurity of silicon in interstitial position (Si:O i ), and the complexes involving four oxygen atoms are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Determination of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pasques, R.H.; Iglicki, F.A; Cittadini, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed in order to evaluate the activity of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32. The procedure is based on the precipitation on benzidine sulphate in acid solution and further purification by dissolving and reprecipitating under appropriate conditions. 35 S beta radiation is measured with and end-window gas counter. A correction for any remaining 32 P is determined by differential absorption through aluminum. (author) [es

  20. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  1. High polysilicon TFT field effect mobility reached thanks to slight phosphorus content in the active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghdoudi, M.; Rogel, R.; Alzaied, N.; Fathallah, M.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of slightly phosphorus atoms introduced during deposition of polysilicon films. Polysilicon films are used as an active layer in thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on glass substrates at a maximum temperature of 600 deg. C.Three phosphorus atoms contents, determined by the value of the phosphine to silane ratio: Γ (3.7 x 10 -7 , 8 x 10 -7 , 26 x 10 -6 ), are used to optimize the active layer quality. The in-situ doped layers induce a better stability of the electrical characteristics, a higher mobility and lower value of the threshold voltage for the slightly doped active layers [M. Zaghdoudi, M.M. Abdelkrim, M. Fathallah, T. Mohammed-Brahim and F. Le-Bihan Control of the weak phosphorus doping in polysilicon, Materials Science and Forum, Vols. 480-481 (2005) pp.305.]. The present work shows that the effect of slightly phosphorus content improves the quality of oxide/polysilicon interface and decreases the defects density. Degradation of electrical properties is shown to originate from the creation of defect at the channel-interface oxide and in the grain boundaries. The effect of temperature change on the electrical properties was studied and the behaviour was also analyzed

  2. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  3. Innovation to motivation--pilot study of a mobile phone intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Vittinghoff, Eric; Jong, So Son; Haskell, William

    2010-01-01

    This uncontrolled pilot study assessed changes in pedometer-measured step counts and self-reported physical activity during a 3-week mobile phone-based intervention. We also explored whether age, BMI, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in step counts. Forty-one sedentary adult women in San Francisco, California were asked to report their pedometer steps using a study-supplied mobile phone from June to September 2008. In the second and third weeks, daily prompts delivered by the mobile phone encouraged participants to increase steps by 20% from the previous week. Mean age was 48 years. Average daily total steps increased by approximately 800 or 15% over three weeks (pmotivate sedentary women to increase their physical activity. A randomized controlled clinical trial is warranted and feasible. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Daily Physical Activity by Means of Mobile Gaming: A Review of the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Monique; Dekker-van Weering, Marit; van Dijk, Hylke; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    To review mobile games and gaming applications that claim to improve physical activity behavior in daily life. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the ACM Digital Library and performed a manual search of relevant journals and reference lists. Studies that reported on a mobile game that requires players to perform physical activity in daily life and where the game has specific goals, rules, and feedback mechanisms were included. This excludes non-mobile exergames. Theoretical foundations, game characteristics, and evaluation methodologies were assessed. In total, 797 articles were identified through the search, of which 11 articles were included. The reviewed studies show that there is limited theoretical foundation for the game development, and most studies used goal setting as a motivation strategy to engage people in playing the game. There was a large variety in game characteristics found, although the majority of the studies used metaphors or avatars to visualize activity, whereas feedback was mostly provided in relation to the goal. Rewards and competition were the most commonly incorporated game elements. The evaluations were focused on feasibility, and clinical evidence is lacking with only two randomized controlled studies found. This review provides a first overview of mobile gaming applications to promote daily life physical activity and shows this as a new research area with demonstration of its acceptability and feasibility among the users. Clinical effectiveness and the added value of gaming in changing daily activity behavior have by far not yet been established.

  5. The Effect of the Presence of an Internet-Connected Mobile Tablet Computer on Physical Activity Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Mallory S; Lepp, Andrew; Rebold, Michael J; Faulkner, Hannah; Martin, Shannon; Barkley, Jacob E

    2018-02-01

    Mobile Internet-connected electronic devices provide access to activities that have traditionally been associated with sedentary behavior. Because they are portable, these devices can be utilized in any environment. Therefore, providing children with access to these devices in environments that typically promote physical activity may result in a reduction in physical activity behavior. To assess children's physical and sedentary (ie, sitting) activity with and without the presence of a mobile Internet-connected tablet computer. A total of 20 children [6.7 (1.9) y old] participated in 2 simulated recess conditions in a gymnasium on separate days. During each condition, children had free-choice access physical activity options and a table of sedentary activities for 40 minutes. During 1 session, the iPad was present, and in the other session, it was not. Physical activity was monitored via an accelerometer, and sedentary time was monitored via a stopwatch. Children significantly (P ≤ .03) reduced average physical activity intensity and increased their sedentary behavior with the iPad present [4.4 (4.0) metabolic equivalents/min and 20.9 (12.4) min sitting] versus the condition without the iPad present [5.3 (4.0) metabolic equivalents/min and 13.6 (13.2) min sitting]. Introducing an mobile Internet-connected tablet computer into a gymnasium reduced children's physical activity intensity by 17% and increased sedentary behavior by 54%.

  6. Understanding of impurity behavior in SST-1 plasmas using visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, Ranjana; Ramaiya, Nilam; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Banerjee, Santanu; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Studies of impurity behavior in SST-1 plasma have been carried out using visible spectroscopic systems installed on the tokomak. This has been carried out using a low resolution and broadband survey spectrometer covering a 350-900 nm wavelength range, 0.5 m visible spectrometer having 600 and 1200 grooves/mm grating coupled with CCD camera and interference filter and photomultiplier (PMT) tube based systems. Temporal evolution of the hydrogen (H α , H β ) and impurities emissions like, C II, C III, O I, O II, O III, O V and a visible Continuum at 536.0 nm have been monitored using the PMT based system to understand impurity charge state evolution during plasma discharges. All systems are absolutely calibrated for impurity influx and plasma parameter estimations. Observed spectral lines in the visible range have been identified to recognize the presence of various impurities in the SST-1 plasmas. Comparison of impurities emission has been made for different plasma currents and toroidal magnetic fields. An analysis has been carried out to understand the impurities activities in plasmas of SST-1 tokomak in presence and absence of installed plasma facing components (PFC). Significantly higher carbon emissions have been observed indicating higher carbon content in the plasma with graphite PFCs installed. (author)

  7. Classical confinement and outward convection of impurity ions in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Caspary, K. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Magee, R. M. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Craig, D. [Physics Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States); Fiksel, G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Impurity ion dynamics measured with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolution reveal classical ion transport in the reversed-field pinch. The boron, carbon, oxygen, and aluminum impurity ion density profiles are obtained in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] using a fast, active charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy diagnostic. Measurements are made during improved-confinement plasmas obtained using inductive control of tearing instability to mitigate stochastic transport. At the onset of the transition to improved confinement, the impurity ion density profile becomes hollow, with a slow decay in the core region concurrent with an increase in the outer region, implying an outward convection of impurities. Impurity transport from Coulomb collisions in the reversed-field pinch is classical for all collisionality regimes, and analysis shows that the observed hollow profile and outward convection can be explained by the classical temperature screening mechanism. The profile agrees well with classical expectations. Experiments performed with impurity pellet injection provide further evidence for classical impurity ion confinement.

  8. Principles of Activity Theory in analysing the process of construction of pedagogic activities with the use of mobile devices in the Chemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane da Silva Coelho Jacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices emerge as the major players to ensure a favorable resource to connect, minimizing the limitation space-time constraints among people and enabling the use of emerging mobile learning (m-learning. The use of mobile devices in pedagogic praxis implies in a closer link between teachers in their initial development and their teacher educator in order to enable the incorporation of this mobile technology in undergraduate courses. This “approach” means the facilitation of meeting to discuss, reflect and talk about the incorporation of this technology in the teaching learning process. In this research, two professors had meetings to discuss and reflect about the employment of this mobile technology in the undergraduate course. One of them, a Chemistry teacher educator and the other is a computer and education teacher-research. The methodological approach is based on a qualitative method with some elements of action-research based on theoretical assumptions of the Activity Theory (ENGESTRÖM, 1999. Therefore, the study based on the debates over the use of mobile devices in the teaching of chemistry was developed as part of the undergraduate course in Chemistry at the Federal University of Rondonia. Among a set of activities, in which students and professors were present with their objects of specific activities, was presented the Activity system related to the construction of those activities. The analysis of SA from the perspective of the 5 principles of Activity Theory points out that the process of collaborative participation in the meetings, the implementation of activities with the students of the degree course and the preparation of scientific papers demonstrated the qualitative evolution of the chemistry teacher educator

  9. Numerical studies of impurities in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    The coupled partial differential equations used to describe the behavior of impurity ions in magnetically confined controlled fusion plasmas require numerical solution for cases of practical interest. Computer codes developed for impurity modeling at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory are used as examples of the types of codes employed for this purpose. These codes solve for the impurity ionization state densities and associated radiation rates using atomic physics appropriate for these low-density, high-temperature plasmas. The simpler codes solve local equations in zero spatial dimensions while more complex cases require codes which explicitly include transport of the impurity ions simultaneously with the atomic processes of ionization and recombination. Typical applications are discussed and computational results are presented for selected cases of interest

  10. The origin of metal impurities in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohasa, Kazumi; Sengoku, Seio; Maeda, Hikosuke; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shin

    1978-10-01

    The origin of metal impurities in DIVA (JFT-2a Tokamak) has been studied experimentally. Three processes of metal impurity release from the first wall were identified; i.e. ion sputtering, evaporation, and arcing. Among of these, ion sputtering is the predominant process in the quiet phase of the discharge, which is characterized by no spikes in the loop voltage and no localized heat flux concentrations on the first wall. ''Cones'' formation due to the sputtering is observed on the gold protection plate (guard limiter) exposed to about 10,000 discharges by scanning electron micrograph. In the SEM photographs, the spacial distribution of cones on the shell surface due to the ion sputtering coincides with the spacial distribution of intensity of Au-I line radiation. Gold is the dominant metal impurity in DIVA. The honeycomb structure can decrease release of the metal impurity. (author)

  11. Hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.F.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state binding energy and the average interparticle distances for a hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots with Gaussian confinement potential are studied by the variational method. The probability density of the electron is calculated, too. The dependence of the binding energy on the impurity position is investigated for GaAs quantum dots. The result shows that the binding energy has a minimum as a function of the distance between the two quantum dots when the impurity is located at the center of one quantum dot or at the center of the edge of one quantum dot. When the impurity is located at the center of the two dots, the binding energy decreases monotonically

  12. Models for impurity effects in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1980-03-01

    Models for impurity effects in tokamaks are described with an emphasis on the relationship between attainment of high β and impurity problems. We briefly describe the status of attempts to employ neutral beam heating to achieve high β in tokamaks and propose a qualitative model for the mechanism by which heavy metal impurities may be produced in the startup phase of the discharge. We then describe paradoxes in impurity diffusion theory and discuss possible resolutions in terms of the effects of large-scale islands and sawtooth oscillations. Finally, we examine the prospects for the Zakharov-Shafranov catastrophe (long time scale disintegration of FCT equilibria) in the context of present and near-term experimental capability

  13. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  14. Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nabyendu, E-mail: nabyendudas@gmail.com; Singh, Navinder

    2016-01-28

    Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.

  15. Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder

    2016-01-01

    Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.

  16. Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in a population of community dwelling elderly patients with impaired mobility, physical disability and/ or multi morbidity: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nienke; Staal, Bart; van Ravensburg, Dorine; Hobbelen, Hans; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Nijhuis-van der Sande, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis focusing on elderly patients with mobility problems, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life. A broad systematic

  17. Effects of helium impurities on superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    A review of the literature on the effects of helium impurities on superalloys at elevated temperatures was undertaken. The actual effects of these impurities vary depending on the alloy, composition of the gas atmosphere, and temperature. In general, exposure in helium produces significant but not catastrophic changes in the structure and properties of the alloys. The effects of these treatments on the structure, creep, fatigue, and mechanical properties of the various alloys are reviewed and discussed. Suggestions for future work are presented

  18. Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    David, Bertrand; Yin, Chuantao; Chalon, René

    2010-01-01

    M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment) covering our university campus in which we prototype and test our approach. We ar...

  19. Phonon-impurity relaxation and acoustic wave absorption in yttrium-aluminium garnet crystals with impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.N.; Kotelyanskij, I.M.; Medved', V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental results of investigations of the influence of substitution impurities in the yttrium-aluminium garnet lattice on absorption of high-frequency acoustic waves are presented. It is shown that the phonon-impurity relaxation processses affect at most the wave absorption and have resonance character when the acoustic wave interacts with the thermal phonon group in the vicinity of the perturbed part of the phonon spectrum caused by the impurity. The differences of time values between inelastic and elastic thermal phonons relaxations determined from the data on longitudinal and shear waves in pure and impurity garnet crystals are discussed

  20. Achieving improved ohmic confinement via impurity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    Improved Ohmic Confinement (IOC) was obtained in ASDEX after a modification of the divertors that allowed a larger (deuterium and impurity) backflow from the divertor chamber. The quality of IOC depended crucially on the wall conditions, i.e. IOC was best for uncovered stainless steels walls and vanished with boronization. Furthermore, IOC was found only in deuterium discharges. These circumstances led to the idea that IOC correlates with the content of light impurities in the plasma. To substantiate this working hypothesis, we present observations in deuterium discharges with boronized wall conditions into which various impurities have been injected with the aim to induce IOC conditions. Firstly, the plasma behaviour in typical IOC discharges is characterized. Secondly, injection experiments with the low-Z impurities nitrogen and neon as well as with the high-Z impurities argon and krypton are discussed. Then, we concentrate on optimized neon puffing that yields the best confinement results which are similar to IOC conditions. Finally, these results are compared with eperiments in other tokamaks and some conclusions are drawn about the effects of the impurity puffing on both, the central and the edge plasma behaviour. (orig.)

  1. Mechanisms of impurity diffusion in rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.; Sasaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 63 Ni, and 95 Zr, was measured as functions of crystal orientation, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in rutile single crystals using the radioactive tracer sectioning technique. Compared to cation self-diffusion, divalent impurities (e.g., Co and Ni) diffuse extremely rapidly in TiO 2 and exhibit a large anisotropy in the diffusion behavior; divalent-impurity diffusion parallel to the c-axis is much larger than it is perpendicular to the c-axis. The diffusion of trivalent impurity ions (Sc and Cr) and tetravalent impurity ions (Zr) is similar to cation self-diffusion, as a function of temperature and of oxygen partial pressure. The divalent impurity ions Co and Ni apparently diffuse as interstitial ions along open channels parallel to the c-axis. The results suggest that Sc, Cr, and Zr ions diffuse by an interstitialcy mechanism involving the simultaneous and cooperative migration of tetravalent interstitial titanium ions and the tracer-impurity ions. Iron ions diffused both as divalent and as trivalent ions. 8 figures

  2. On impurities transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhanskij, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Transport of impurity ions is analitically analized in the case when main plasma is in plateau or banana regimes but impurity ions - in the Pfirsch-Schlutter mode. It is shown that in the large region of parameters the impUrity transport represents a drift in a p oloidal electric field, averaged from magnetic surface with provision for disturbance of concentration on it. Therefore, transport velocity does not depend on Z value and impurity type, as well as collision frequency both in the plateau and banana regimes. A value of flows is determined by the value of poloidal rotation velocity. At the rotation velocity corresponding to the electric field directed from the centre to periphery impurities are thrown out of a discharge, in the reverse case the flow is directed inside. Refusal from the assumption that Zsub(eff) > approximately 2, does not considerably change the results of work. The approach developed in the process of work can be applied to the case when impurity ions are in the plateau or banana modes

  3. Impurity production and transport at limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the description and evaluation of experiments on the DITE tokamak. These are designed to characterise the processes involved in the production and transport of neutral and ionised impurities near carbon limiters. The need for good diagnostics in the scrape-off layer is highlighted. Langmuir probes are used to provide input data for models of impurity production at limiters. Observations of the radial profiles of carbon and oxygen impurities are compared with the code predictions. Changeover experiments involving hydrogen and helium plasmas are used as a means for investigating the role of the atomic physics and chemistry. The impurity control limiter (ICL) experiment is described which shows how geometry plays an important role in determining the spatial distributions of the neutral and ionised carbon. New diagnostics are required to study the flux and charge state distribution of impurities in the boundary. Preliminary results from an in-situ plasma ion mass-spectrometer are presented. The role of oxygen and the importance of evaluating the wall sources of impurity are emphasised. (orig.)

  4. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  5. A Small Ku-Band Polarization Tracking Active Phased Array for Mobile Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact polarization tracking active phased array for Ku-band mobile satellite signal reception is presented. In contrast with conventional mechanically tracking antennas, the approach presented here meets the requirements of beam tracking and polarization tracking simultaneously without any servo components. The two-layer stacked square patch fed by two probes is used as antenna element. The impedance bandwidth of 16% for the element covers the operating frequency range from 12.25 GHz to 12.75 GHz. In the presence of mutual coupling, the dimensional parameters for each element of the small 7 × 7 array are optimized during beam scanning and polarization tracking. The compact polarization tracking modules based on the low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC system-in-package (SiP technology are proposed. A small active phased array prototype with the size of 120 mm (length × 120 mm (width × 55 mm (height is developed. The measured polarization tracking patterns of the prototype are given. The polarization tracking beam can be steered in the elevation up to 50°. The gain of no less than 16.0 dBi and the aperture efficiency of more than 50% are obtained. The measured and simulated polarization tracking patterns agreed well.

  6. Venus Mobile Explorer with RPS for Active Cooling: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Stephanie D.; Green, Jacklyn R.; Balint, Tibor S.; Manvi, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We present our findings from a study to evaluate the feasibility of a radioisotope power system (RPS) combined with active cooling to enable a long-duration Venus surface mission. On-board power with active cooling technology featured prominently in both the National Research Council's Decadal Survey and in the 2006 NASA Solar System Exploration Roadmap as mission-enabling for the exploration of Venus. Power and cooling system options were reviewed and the most promising concepts modeled to develop an assessment tool for Venus mission planners considering a variety of future potential missions to Venus, including a Venus Mobile Explorer (either a balloon or rover concept), a long-lived Venus static lander, or a Venus Geophysical Network. The concepts modeled were based on the integration of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules with different types of Stirling cycle heat engines for power and cooling. Unlike prior investigations which reported on single point design concepts, this assessment tool allows the user to generate either a point design or parametric curves of approximate power and cooling system mass, power level, and number of GPHS modules needed for a "black box" payload housed in a spherical pressure vessel.

  7. Results of the survey activities and mobile gamma scanning in Monticello, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    The town of Monticello, Utah, was once the site of an active mill which processed vanadium ore (1942 to 1948), and uranium ore (1948 to 1960). Properties in the vicinity of that mill have become contaminated with radioactive material from ore processing. The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by the Division of Remedial Action Projects (DRAP) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to: (1) identify potentially contaminated properties; (2) assess natural background radiation levels; and (3) rapidly assess the magnitude, extent, and type (i.e. ore, tailings, etc.) of contamination present on these properties (if any). This survey was conducted by RASA during April 1983. In addition to the 114 properties previously identified from historical information, the ORNL mobile gamma scanning van located 36 new properties exhibiting anomalous gamma radiation levels. Onsite surveys were conducted on 145 of the 150 total properties identified either historically or with the gamma scanning van. Of these 145 properties, 122 of them appeared to have some type of contaminated material present on them; however, only 48 appeared to be contaminated to the extent where they were in excess of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria (40 CFR 192). Twenty-one other properties were recommended for additional investigation (indoor gamma scanning and radon daughter measurements); of these, only ten required further analysis. This report provides the detailed data and analyses related to the radiological survey efforts performed by ORNL in Monticello, Utah

  8. An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Learning System to Improve Students' Learning Achievements and Motivations in Natural Science Inquiry Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…

  9. Promoting Daily Physical Activity by Means of Mobile Gaming: A Review of the State of the Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; van Weering, Marit; van Dijk, H.W.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review mobile games and gaming applications that claim to improve physical activity behavior in daily life. Search Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the ACM Digital Library and performed a manual search of relevant journals and reference lists. Studies that reported on

  10. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zeitler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age.

  11. Determination of Impurities of Atrazine by HPLP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canping, Pan [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    The determination of the main impurities of the herbicide atrazine by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/MS is described. The most relevant technical impurities were synthesized and characterized by IR and UV spectroscopy as well. The impurity profiles of different technical grade formulated products were tested and the typical impurities identified. (author)

  12. Local chemistry of Al and P impurities in silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Stokbro, Kurt

    2000-01-01

    The local structure around Al and P impurities in silica is investigated using density-functional theory. Two distinct cases are considered: impurities substituting for a Si atom in alpha quartz, and impurities implanted in a stoichiometric alpha-quartz crystal. Both impurity elements are found t...

  13. Light impurity transport in JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Giroud, C.; Angioni, C.; Manas, P.; Menmuir, S.; Contributors, JET

    2018-03-01

    A series of experimental observations of light impurity profiles was carried out in JET (Joint European Torus) ITER-like wall (ILW) L-mode plasmas in order to investigate their transport mechanisms. These discharges feature the presence of 3He, Be, C, N, Ne, whose profiles measured by active Charge Exchange diagnostics are compared with quasi-linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations. The peaking of 3He density follows the electron density peaking, Be and Ne are also peaked, while the density profiles of C and N are flat in the mid plasma region. Gyro-kinetic simulations predict peaked density profiles for all the light impurities studied and at all the radial positions considered, and fail predicting the flat or hollow profiles observed for C and N at mid radius in our cases.

  14. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  15. Enabling Remote Activity: Using mobile technology for remote participation in geoscience fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah; Collins, Trevor; Gaved, Mark; Bartlett, Jessica; Valentine, Chris; McCann, Lewis

    2010-05-01

    Field-based activities are regarded as essential to the development of a range of professional and personal skills within the geosciences. Students enjoy field activities, preferring these to learning with simulations (Spicer and Stratford 2001), and these improve deeper learning and understanding (Kern and Carpenter, 1984; Elkins and Elkins, 2007). However, some students find it difficult to access these field-based learning opportunities. Field sites may be remote and often require travel across uneven, challenging or potentially dangerous terrain. Mobility-impaired students are particularly limited in their opportunities to participate in field-based learning activities and, as higher education institutions have a responsibility to provide inclusive opportunities for students (UK Disability Discrimination Act 1995, UK Special Education Needs and Disability Rights Act 2001), the need for inclusive fieldwork learning is being increasingly recognised. The Enabling Remote Activity (ERA) project has been investigating how mobile communications technologies might allow field learning experiences to be brought to students who would otherwise find it difficult to participate, and also to enhance activities for all participants. It uses a rapidly deployable, battery-powered wireless network to transmit video, audio, and high resolution still images to connect participants at an accessible location with participants in the field. Crucially, the system uses a transient wireless network, allowing multiple locations to be explored during a field visit, and for plans to be changed dynamically if required. Central to the concept is the requirement for independent investigative learning: students are enabled to participate actively in the learning experience and to direct the investigations, as opposed to being simply remote viewers of the experience. Two ways of using the ERA system have been investigated: remote access and collaborative groupwork. In 2006 and 2008 remote

  16. The impurity transport in HT-6M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Wan Baonian; Xie Jikang

    2003-01-01

    The space-time profile of impurities has been measured with a multichannel visible spectroscopic detect system and UV rotation-mirror system in the HT-6M tokamak. An ideal impurity transport code has been used to simulate impurities (carbon and oxygen) behaviour during the OHM discharge. The profiles of impurities diffusion and convection coefficient, impurities ion densities in different ionized state, loss power density and effective charge number have been derived. The impurity behaviour during low-hybrid current drive has also been analyzed, the results show that the confinement of particles, impurities and energy has been improved, and emission power and effective charge number have been reduced

  17. Development and validation of a reversed phase liquid chromatographic method for analysis of oxytetracycline and related impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Getu; Shraim, Fairouz; Villatte, Philippe; Rotger, Jacques; Cassus-Coussère, Céline; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2013-03-05

    A simple, robust and fast high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of oxytetracycline and its related impurities. The principal peak and impurities are all baseline separated in 20 min using an Inertsil C₈ (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column kept at 50 °C. The mobile phase consists of a gradient mixture of mobile phases A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile-methanol-tetrahydrofuran, 80:15:5, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 254 nm. The developed method was validated for its robustness, sensitivity, precision and linearity in the range from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 120%. The limits of detection (LOD) and LOQ were found to be 0.08 μg/ml and 0.32 μg/ml, respectively. This method allows the separation of oxytetracycline from all known and 5 unknown impurities, which is better than previously reported in the literature. Moreover, the simple mobile phase composition devoid of non-volatile buffers made the method suitable to interface with mass spectrometry for further characterization of unknown impurities. The developed method has been applied for determination of related substances in oxytetracycline bulk samples available from four manufacturers. The validation results demonstrate that the method is reliable for quantification of oxytetracycline and its impurities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impurity effect of iron(III) on the growth of potassium sulfate crystal in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Katagiri, Ken-ichi; Yokota, Masaaki; Sato, Akira; Yashiro, Hitoshi; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    Growth rates of the {1 1 0} faces of a potassium sulfate crystal were measured in a flow cell in the presence of traces of impurity Fe(III) (up to 2 ppm) over the range of pH=2.5-6.0. The growth rate was significantly suppressed by the impurity. The effect became stronger as the impurity concentration was increased and at pH5 it finally disappeared completely. The concentration and supersaturation effects on the impurity action were reasonably explained with a model proposed by Kubota and Mullin [J. Crystal Growth, 152 (1995) 203]. The surface coverage of the active sites by Fe(III) is estimated to increase linearly on increasing its concentration in solution in the range examined by growth experiments. The impurity effectiveness factor is confirmed to increase inversely proportional to the supersaturation as predicted by the model. Apart from the discussion based on the model, the pH effect on the impurity action is qualitatively explained by assuming that the first hydrolysis product of aqua Fe(III) complex compound, [Fe(H 2O) 5(OH)] 2+, is both growth suppression and adsorption active, but the second hydrolysis product, [Fe(H 2O) 4(OH) 2] +, is only adsorption active.

  19. Gliadin peptides induce tissue transglutaminase activation and ER-stress through Ca2+ mobilization in Caco-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Caputo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD is an intestinal inflammatory condition that develops in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to dietary wheat gliadin. The role of post-translational modifications of gliadin catalyzed by tissue transglutaminase (tTG seems to play a crucial role in CD. However, it remains to be established how and where tTG is activated in vivo. We have investigated whether gliadin peptides modulate intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis and tTG activity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied Ca(2+ homeostasis in Caco-2 cells by single cell microfluorimetry. Under our conditions, A-gliadin peptides 31-43 and 57-68 rapidly mobilized Ca(2+ from intracellular stores. Specifically, peptide 31-43 mobilized Ca(2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria, whereas peptide 57-68 mobilized Ca(2+ only from mitochondria. We also found that gliadin peptide-induced Ca(2+ mobilization activates the enzymatic function of intracellular tTG as revealed by in situ tTG activity using the tTG substrate pentylamine-biotin. Moreover, we demonstrate that peptide 31-43, but not peptide 57-68, induces an increase of tTG expression. Finally, we monitored the expression of glucose-regulated protein-78 and of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-homologous protein, which are two biochemical markers of ER-stress, by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. We found that chronic administration of peptide 31-43, but not of peptide 57-68, induces the expression of both genes. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing Ca(2+ mobilization from the ER, peptide 31-43 could promote an ER-stress pathway that may be relevant in CD pathogenesis. Furthermore, peptides 31-43 and 57-68, by activating intracellular tTG, could alter inflammatory key regulators, and induce deamidation of immunogenic peptides and gliadin-tTG crosslinking in enterocytes and specialized antigen-presenting cells.

  20. Trans-synaptic zinc mobilization improves social interaction in two mouse models of autism through NMDAR activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jae; Lee, Hyejin; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Chung, Changuk; Shin, Wangyong; Kim, Kyungdeok; Koh, Jae-Young; Hsueh, Yi-Ping; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Genetic aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have recently been extensively explored, but environmental influences that affect ASDs have received considerably less attention. Zinc (Zn) is a nutritional factor implicated in ASDs, but evidence for a strong association and linking mechanism is largely lacking. Here we report that trans-synaptic Zn mobilization rapidly rescues social interaction in two independent mouse models of ASD. In mice lacking Shank2, an excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein, postsynaptic Zn elevation induced by clioquinol (a Zn chelator and ionophore) improves social interaction. Postsynaptic Zn is mainly derived from presynaptic pools and activates NMDA receptors (NMDARs) through postsynaptic activation of the tyrosine kinase Src. Clioquinol also improves social interaction in mice haploinsufficient for the transcription factor Tbr1, which accompanies NMDAR activation in the amygdala. These results suggest that trans-synaptic Zn mobilization induced by clioquinol rescues social deficits in mouse models of ASD through postsynaptic Src and NMDAR activation. PMID:25981743

  1. Characterizing Learning Mediated by Mobile Technologies: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Jalal; Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies have not yet triggered the knowledge revolution in schools anticipated, in particular, by the telecommunications industry. On the contrary, mobile technologies remain extensively used outside the frontiers of formal education. The reasons for this are many and varied. In this paper, we concentrate on those associated with the…

  2. Maximize the Mobile Learning Interaction through Project-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisworo, Dwi; Santyasa, I. Wayan

    2018-01-01

    Mobile learning implementation at school is a must and meets what students currently need. To facilitate those conditions, teachers also need to have competencies in managing online learning. This research is a descriptive research to find out the experience of students who are prospective teachers when attending the mobile learning course…

  3. Development of chromatographic methods for the determination of genotoxic impurities in cloperastine fendizoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Antonia; Rupérez, Francisco J; Ceppa, Florencia; Pellati, Federica; Barbas, Coral

    2012-03-05

    The classification of an impurity of a drug substance as genotoxic means that the "threshold of toxicological concern" (TTC) value of 1.5 μg/day intake, considered to be associated with an acceptable risk, should be the admissible limit in the raw material and that leads to new analytical challenges. In this study, reliable chromatographic methods were developed and applied as limit tests for the control of three genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in cloperastine fendizoate, drug widely used as an antitussive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In particular, GC-MS was applied to the determination of one alkyl halide (2-chloroethanol, 2-CE), while HPLC-DAD was selected for the analysis of two sulfonate esters (methyl p-toluenesulfonate, MPTS, and 2-chloroethyl p-toluenesulfonate, CEPTS). Regarding GC-MS, strong anion-exchange (SAX)-SPE was applied to remove fendizoate from the sample solutions, due its low volatility and its high amount in the raw material. The GC-MS analysis was performed on a Factor Four VF-23 ms capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm I.D., film thickness 0.25 μm, Varian). Single ion-monitoring (SIM) detection mode was set at m/z 80. In the case of HPLC-DAD, a suitable optimization of the chromatographic conditions was carried out in order to obtain a good separation of the impurity peaks from the drug substance peaks. The optimized method utilizes a SymmetryShield RP(8) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, Waters) kept at 50°C, with phosphate buffer (pH 3.0; 10 mM)-methanol (containing 10% ACN) (45:55, v/v) as the mobile phase, at the flow-rate of 1.7 mL/min and UV detection at 227 nm. The required sensitivity level was achieved by injecting 80 μL of sample solution, purified from fendizoate by SAX-SPE, followed by a 1:1 (v/v) dilution of the SPE eluate with water. For both GC-MS and HPLC-DAD, the method validation was performed in relation to specificity and limit of detection (LOD), as required by ICH guidelines in relation to limit assays. The

  4. Towards Clustering of Mobile and Smartwatch Accelerometer Data for Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Dobbins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile and wearable devices now have a greater capability of sensing human activity ubiquitously and unobtrusively through advancements in miniaturization and sensing abilities. However, outstanding issues remain around the energy restrictions of these devices when processing large sets of data. This paper presents our approach that uses feature selection to refine the clustering of accelerometer data to detect physical activity. This also has a positive effect on the computational burden that is associated with processing large sets of data, as energy efficiency and resource use is decreased because less data is processed by the clustering algorithms. Raw accelerometer data, obtained from smartphones and smartwatches, have been preprocessed to extract both time and frequency domain features. Principle component analysis feature selection (PCAFS and correlation feature selection (CFS have been used to remove redundant features. The reduced feature sets have then been evaluated against three widely used clustering algorithms, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA, k-means, and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. Using the reduced feature sets resulted in improved separability, reduced uncertainty, and improved efficiency compared with the baseline, which utilized all features. Overall, the CFS approach in conjunction with HCA produced higher Dunn Index results of 9.7001 for the phone and 5.1438 for the watch features, which is an improvement over the baseline. The results of this comparative study of feature selection and clustering, with the specific algorithms used, has not been performed previously and provides an optimistic and usable approach to recognize activities using either a smartphone or smartwatch.

  5. How can the curation of hands-on STEM activities power successful mobile apps and websites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcello, D.; Peticolas, L. M.; Schwerin, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) is University of California, Berkeley's public science center. Over the last decade, the Center for Technology Innovation at LHS has partnered with many institutions to establish a strong track record of developing successful technology solutions to support STEM teaching and learning within informal environments. Curation by subject-matter experts has been at the heart of many educational technology products from LHS and its partners that are directed at educators and families. This work includes: (1) popular digital libraries for inquiry-based activities at Howtosmile.org (NSF DRL #0735007) and NASA Earth and Space science education resources at NASAwavelength.org; and novel mobile apps like DIY Sun Science (NASA NNX10AE05G) and DIY Human Body (NIH 5R25OD010543) designed to scaffold exploration of STEM phenomena at home. Both NASA Wavelength and DIY Sun Science arose out of long-term collaborations with the Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), and other NASA-funded organizations, in partnership with NASA through cooperative agreements. This session will review the development, formative evaluation, and usage metrics for these two Earth and Space science-themed educational technology products directly relevant to the AGU community. Questions reviewed by presenters will include: What makes a good hands-on activity, and what essential information do educators depend on when searching for programming additions? What content and connections do families need to explore hands-on activities? How can technology help incorporate educational standards into the discovery process for learning experiences online? How do all these components drive the design and user experience of websites and apps that showcase STEM content?

  6. Basic design and construction of a mobile hot cell for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Fan Zhiwen; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources is one important step in sealed radioactive sources management strategies. Based on the practice on the designing of the immobilized hot cell, the handling of the sealed radioactive sources, and the reference of the mobile hot cell constructed in South Africa, SHARS conditioning process and the basic design of a mobile hot cell is developed. The mobile hot cell has been constructed and the tests including the cold test of the SRS conditioning, the hot cell assemble and disassemble and SRS recovery were done. The shielding capacity were tested by 3.8 x 10 13 Bq cobalt-60 sources and the dose rate of the equipment surface, below 2 m, is less than 0.016 mSv/h. It is proved that the designing requirement is meet and the function of the equipment is good. (authors)

  7. Approach for the Development of a Framework for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Sensors in Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking into account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, and pattern recognition. These concepts can be mapped onto different modules of the framework. The proposed framework should perform the identification of ADL without Internet connection, performing these tasks locally on the mobile device, taking in account the hardware and software limitations of these devices. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the creation of a framework for the recognition of ADL, analyzing the allowed sensors available in the mobile devices, and the existing methods available in the literature. PMID:29466316

  8. Approach for the Development of a Framework for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Sensors in Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Spinsante, Susanna

    2018-02-21

    Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking into account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, and pattern recognition. These concepts can be mapped onto different modules of the framework. The proposed framework should perform the identification of ADL without Internet connection, performing these tasks locally on the mobile device, taking in account the hardware and software limitations of these devices. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the creation of a framework for the recognition of ADL, analyzing the allowed sensors available in the mobile devices, and the existing methods available in the literature.

  9. Designing iCanFit: A Mobile-Enabled Web Application to Promote Physical Activity for Older Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Ory, Marcia; Hochhalter, Angela; Reynolds, Jana; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Talwar, Divya; Eugene, Nola

    2013-02-14

    Most older cancer survivors (OCS) do not engage in regular physical activity (PA) despite well-known health benefits. With the increased use of mobile technologies among older adults, mobile tools may be an effective method to deliver PA promotion programs for OCS. To document the process of designing an OCS-friendly mobile-enabled Web application of PA promotion program. Mixed methods encompassing group discussions, individual interviews, and brief surveys with community leaders, OCS, cancer care providers, and software professionals were used in this formative research. The varied stakeholders welcomed the idea of developing an online tool to promote PA in OCS. Our formative research revealed several major barriers to regular PA including limited access to senior-friendly PA resources, lack of motivation and social support, and insufficient knowledge and skills on building safe and appropriate workout plans. This feedback was incorporated into the development of iCanFit, a mobile-enabled Web application, designed specifically for OCS. The iCanFit online tools allow users to locate PA resources, set and track goals for PA, network with peer OCS in a secure online space, and receive practical and evidence-informed healthy tips. Our mixed-method formative research led to the design of iCanFit protocol to promote PA and well-being of OCS. The involvement of stakeholders is critical in the planning and design of the mobile application in order to enhance program relevance, appeal, and match with the needs of target users.

  10. Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Weight Loss and Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Mateo, Gemma; Granado-Font, Esther; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Montaña-Carreras, Xavier

    2015-11-10

    To our knowledge, no meta-analysis to date has assessed the efficacy of mobile phone apps to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to compare the efficacy of mobile phone apps compared with other approaches to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified by a search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus from their inception through to August 2015. Two members of the study team (EG-F, GF-M) independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. We included all controlled studies that assessed a mobile phone app intervention with weight-related health measures (ie, body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) or physical activity outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across studies using random-effects models. We included 12 articles in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, use of a mobile phone app was associated with significant changes in body weight (kg) and body mass index (kg/m(2)) of -1.04 kg (95% CI -1.75 to -0.34; I2 = 41%) and -0.43 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.74 to -0.13; I2 = 50%), respectively. Moreover, a nonsignificant difference in physical activity was observed between the two groups (standardized mean difference 0.40, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.87; I2 = 93%). These findings were remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was shown. Evidence from this study shows that mobile phone app-based interventions may be useful tools for weight loss.

  11. Mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system with robot arm and active shielding using fluxgate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukade, Y. [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)], E-mail: hatukade@eco.tut.ac.jp; Yotsugi, K.; Tanaka, S. [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    A robot-arm-based mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system was developed for inspection of advanced structures such as hydrogen fuel cell tanks. In order to realize stable operation of HTS-SQUID exposed in Earth's field and robot arm's noise without flux trapping, flux jumping and unlocking during motion, a new active magnetic shielding (AMS) technique using fluxgate was introduced. The high sensitive fluxgate, which could measure magnetic field of up to several 10 {mu}T, was mounted near an HTS-SQUID gradiometer on the robot arm to measure the ambient noise and feed back its output to a compensation coil, which surrounded both SQUID and fluxgate to cancel the ambient noise around them. The AMS technique successfully enabled the HTS-SQUID gradiometer to be moved at 10 mm/s by the robot arm in unshielded environment without flux trapping, jumping and unlocking. Detection of hidden slots in multi-layer composite-metal structures imitating the fuel cell tank was demonstrated.

  12. Function Activation on Intelligent Buildings Using Mobile Devices through Voice Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumtadi Fatima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of information and communication technologies has allowed the incorporation into different areas of human activity of apps that control electrical and electronic devices through voice commands. With these apps, in telemedicine people affected by some temporary decrease in their physical capacities have improved their level of autonomy; utilities have been added to educational environments to facilitate the use of IT applications to users with physical disability; finally, home automated solutions have made possible to any person with permanent limited mobility to take control over home devices using voice commands. In this article a home automated solution, developed over a client-server principle is presented. As the client device a MIDP 2.0 cell phone with a Java MicroEdition application loaded was used; as server a web server PC was used serving also as gateway towards a Konnex network, added with a speech recognizer engine. Fully functional prototype developed allowed take control over 3 devices with 87% success of the speech recognizer reliability, this percentage improved after the use of a drop-down menu of commands displayed over the monitor.

  13. Mobilizing Mothers: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Catastrophe and Environmental Activism in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Freiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The citizens’ and environmental movements of the 1960s and 70s hadgreat political success in Japan, culminating in the Special Session of the Diet in1970 that enacted 14 anti-pollution laws. These activist groups fought denials ofresponsibility on the part of industry and unresponsiveness on the part of localgovernments. Women were at the forefront of this type of activism during the 1960sand 70s, and led many of the citizens’ environmental movements during this time.More recently, during the environmental catastrophe caused by the meltdown of theFukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, women and mothers have been vocal protesters.Environmental movements have particular political salience because of the successwomen have achieved in this area both in policy change and also roles in formalpolitics. Women have consistently achieved these successes at the same time as theyperformed their roles as mothers and home managers; these roles have been usedstrategically to mobilize women with great effect, and also were central to the valueswith which the citizens’ movements defined themselves politically.

  14. Impaired Circulating Angiogenic Cells Mobilization and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Dynamic Exercise in Early Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia G; Sales, Allan R K; Penedo, Leticia A; Pereira, Felipe S; Silva, Mayra S; Miranda, Renan L; Silva, Jemima F R; Silva, Bruno M; Santos, Aline A; Nobrega, Antonio C L

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of adhesion molecules or metalloproteinases (MMPs) may indicate endothelial dysfunction. Exercise mobilizes circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) from bone marrow in healthy subjects, improving vascular function. However, it is unclear whether this mechanism is preserved in the early stages of metabolic syndrome (early MetS). We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of exercise on adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, MMPs, and CACs in early MetS. Fifteen subjects with early MetS and nine healthy controls underwent an exercise session and a nonexercise session, randomly. Adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, CACs, and MMPs were evaluated before and after exercise or nonexercise sessions. At baseline, levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 were higher in early MetS than in controls (P ≤ 0.03). After exercise, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 levels were still higher in early MetS (P exercise. There was no difference between moments in nonexercise session (P > 0.05). In conclusion, subjects with early MetS already presented impaired endothelial function at rest along with a decrease in CACs and an increase in MMP-9 activity in response to exercise.

  15. Electronic transport properties of Ti-impurity band in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, J; Gonzalez-Diaz, G; Pastor, D; Martil, I [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electronica), Facultad de Ciencias, Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-21

    In this paper we show that pulsed laser melted high dose implantation of Ti in Si, above the Mott transition, produces an impurity band (IB) in this semiconductor. Using the van der Pauw method and Hall effect measurements we find strong laminated conductivity at the implanted layer and a temperature dependent decoupling between the Ti implanted layer (TIL) and the substrate. The conduction mechanism from the TIL to the substrate shows blocking characteristics that could be well explained through IB theory. Using the ATLAS code we can estimate the energetic position of the IB at 0.36 eV from the conduction band, the density of holes in this band which is closely related to the Ti atomic density and the hole mobility in this band. Band diagrams of the structure at low and high temperatures are also simulated in the ATLAS framework. The simulation obtained is fully coherent with experimental results.

  16. Electronic transport properties of Ti-impurity band in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, J; Gonzalez-Diaz, G; Pastor, D; Martil, I

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that pulsed laser melted high dose implantation of Ti in Si, above the Mott transition, produces an impurity band (IB) in this semiconductor. Using the van der Pauw method and Hall effect measurements we find strong laminated conductivity at the implanted layer and a temperature dependent decoupling between the Ti implanted layer (TIL) and the substrate. The conduction mechanism from the TIL to the substrate shows blocking characteristics that could be well explained through IB theory. Using the ATLAS code we can estimate the energetic position of the IB at 0.36 eV from the conduction band, the density of holes in this band which is closely related to the Ti atomic density and the hole mobility in this band. Band diagrams of the structure at low and high temperatures are also simulated in the ATLAS framework. The simulation obtained is fully coherent with experimental results.

  17. Interstitial impurity interactions and dislocation microdynamics in Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, D.N.

    1975-05-01

    The effects of interstitial impurities on the mechanical properties of molybdenum are explored by comparing results obtained for crystals of various interstitial contents controlled by ultra-high vacuum outgassing. Results show a modulus reduction for as-grown samples and for outgassed specimens at low applied stresses. As a function of plastic microstrain, the values of modulus defect for both as-grown and outgassed specimens saturate at the same value. Interstitial impurities act as pinning agents to dislocation bowing, but when all the easy dislocation loops have broken away from local interstitial pins, the modulus defect reaches a constant saturation value. Etch pitting techniques were used to correlate microstrain observations with dislocation generation and motion. It has been found that edge dislocation generation and movement are active in the microstrain region while screw dislocations are relatively inactive until the macrostrain region is reached. Dislocation velocities range from 10 -6 to 10 -3 cm/s and the average distance between interstitial impurity pinning points is found to be approximately 8 x 10 -4 cm. (U.S.)

  18. Behaviour of impurities during the H-mode in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianella, R.; Behringer, K.; Denne, B.; Gottardi, N.; Hellermann, M. von; Morgan, P.D.; Pasini, D.; Stamp, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    In additionally-heated tokamak discharges, the H-mode phases are reported to display, together with a better energy confinement, a longer global containment time for particles. In particular, steep gradients of electron density and temperature are sustained in the outer region of the plasma column. This enhanced performance is observed especially in discharges in which the activity of edge localized modes (ELMs) is low or absent. High confinement and accumulation of metallic impurities, which quickly give raise to terminal disruptions have been described under similar conditions. In JET H-modes very long impurity confinement times are also observed. However the experimental condition is somewhat more favourable since quiescent H-modes are obtained lasting much longer than the energy confinement times and the radiation from metals is generally negligible. The dominant impurities are normally carbon and oxygen, the latter generally accounting for half or more of the power radiated from the bulk plasma. During the X-point operation the effective influx of carbon into the discharge, which is normally in close correlation with that of deuterium, is substantially reduced while the influx of oxygen, whose production mechanisms is believed to be of a chemical nature, does not show significant variations. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  19. Impurity-generated non-Abelions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, G.; Kazakov, A.; Rokhinson, L. P.; Wojtowicz, T.; Lyanda-Geller, Y. B.

    2018-06-01

    Two classes of topological superconductors and Majorana modes in condensed matter systems are known to date: one in which disorder induced by impurities strongly suppresses topological superconducting gap and is detrimental to Majorana modes, and another where Majorana fermions are protected by a disorder-robust topological superconductor gap. Observation and control of Majorana fermions and other non-Abelions often requires a symmetry of an underlying system leading to a gap in the single-particle or quasiparticle spectra. In semiconductor structures, impurities that provide charge carriers introduce states into the gap and enable conductance and proximity-induced superconductivity via the in-gap states. Thus a third class of topological superconductivity and Majorana modes emerges, in which topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions appear exclusively when impurities generate in-gap states. We show that impurity-enabled topological superconductivity is realized in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, when a helical domain wall is coupled to an s -wave superconductor. As an example of emergence of topological superconductivity in quantum Hall ferromagnets, we consider the integer quantum Hall effect in Mn-doped CdTe quantum wells. Recent experiments on transport through the quantum Hall ferromagnet domain wall in this system indicated a vital role of impurities in the conductance, but left unresolved the question whether impurities preclude generation of Majorana fermions and other non-Abelions in such systems in general. Here, solving a general quantum-mechanical problem of impurity bound states in a system of spin-orbit coupled Landau levels, we demonstrate that impurity-induced Majorana modes emerge at boundaries between topological and conventional superconducting states generated in a domain wall due to proximity to an s superconductor. We consider both short-range disorder and a smooth random potential. The phase diagram of the system is defined by

  20. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general......Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  1. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general...... practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12...

  2. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  3. Subcellular localization, mobility, and kinetic activity of glucokinase in glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, M; Aiston, S; Agius, L

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the subcellular localization, mobility, and activity of glucokinase in MIN6 cells, a glucose-responsive insulin-secreting beta-cell line. Glucokinase is present in the cytoplasm and a vesicular/granule compartment that is partially colocalized with insulin granules. The granular staining of glucokinase is preserved after permeabilization of the cells with digitonin. There was no evidence for changes in distribution of glucokinase between the cytoplasm and the granule compartment during incubation of the cells with glucose. The rate of release of glucokinase and of phosphoglucoisomerase from digitonin-permeabilized cells was slower when cells were incubated at an elevated glucose concentration (S0.5 approximately 15 mmol/l). This effect of glucose was counteracted by competitive inhibitors of glucokinase (5-thioglucose and mannoheptulose) but was unaffected by fructose analogs and may be due to changes in cell shape or conformation of the cytoskeleton that are secondary to glucose metabolism. Based on the similar release of glucokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase, we found no evidence for specific binding of cytoplasmic digitonin-extractable glucokinase. The affinity of beta-cells for glucose is slightly lower than that in cell extracts and, unlike that in hepatocytes, is unaffected by fructose, tagatose, or a high-K+ medium, which is consistent with the lack of change in glucokinase distribution or release. We conclude that glucokinase is present in two locations, cytoplasm and the granular compartment, and that it does not translocate between them. This conclusion is consistent with the lack of adaptive changes in the glucose phosphorylation affinity. The glucokinase activity associated with the insulin granules may have a role in either direct or indirect coupling between glucose phosphorylation and insulin secretion.

  4. Use of Mobile Fitness-Related Applications and Active Video Games in High-School Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas-Nowosielski Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Not many studies have been performed in Poland on using mobile applications from the sport and fitness category and exergames. The main purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent such technologies are used by youth. Material and methods. A total of 435 pupils (including 263 females aged 17.78 ± 1.19 years took part in the study. A diagnostic survey was carried out; the data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the authors and a scale assessing the stage of exercise change developed by Marcus, Rakowski, and Rossi (1992. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations were used to describe the data and to test differences between groups; a chi2 test was used with Cramér’s V statistic as a measure of effect size in contingency tables larger than 2 × 2. Results. Of the 435 participants, approximately a third (30.8% had used some type of fitness application. The most frequently downloaded applications were exercise plans, such as Weider’s Aerobic Six and applications for physical activity monitoring (steps, distance, such as Endomondo. Exergames were less popular. Only 5.29% of the respondents claimed they used exergames regularly, although about every third person used them regularly, especially males. Conclusions. Eight of ten respondents held the view that such applications are useful but are something that they could do without; only one in ten could not imagine exercising without such applications. Most of the latter category of users were persons at the action stage, next - persons at the preparation stage, but - what is interesting - none at the maintenance stage. It seems, then, that such applications may be - and in the light of the data obtained really are - an indispensable aid for people at the early stages of developing a habit of regular physical activity.

  5. EUV impurity study of the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Chen, K.I.; Moos, H.W.; Marmar, E.S.

    1977-06-01

    The intensity of resonance line radiation from oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and molybdenum impurities has been measured in the high field (80 kG), high density (6 x 10 14 cm -3 ) discharges of the Alcator tokamak, using a 0.4 m normal incidence monochromator (300 to 1300 A) with its line of sight fixed along a major radius. The total light impurity concentrations were 2 x 10 -3 , 7 x 10 -4 , and 3 x 10 -3 at central electron densities of 4.5 x 10 13 cm -3 (burnout), 4.0 x 10 13 (low density plateau) and 6.0 x 10 14 (high density plateau). Both a simple model and a computer code which included Pfirsch-Schluter impurity diffusion were used to estimate oxygen influxes of 1.6 x 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 and 1.5 x 10 14 cm -2 sec -1 at the plasma edge in the low and high density emission plateaus. The resulting values of Z/sub eff/, including the contributions due to both the light impurities and molybdenum, were close to one. The power lost through the impurity line radiation accounted for approximately equal to 7 percent of the total ohmic input power at high densities

  6. On neoclassical impurity transport in stellarator geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Regaña, J M; Kleiber, R; Beidler, C D; Turkin, Y; Maaßberg, H; Helander, P

    2013-01-01

    The impurity dynamics in stellarators has become an issue of moderate concern due to the inherent tendency of the impurities to accumulate in the core when the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field points radially inwards (ion root regime). This accumulation can lead to collapse of the plasma due to radiative losses, and thus limit high performance plasma discharges in non-axisymmetric devices. A quantitative description of the neoclassical impurity transport is complicated by the breakdown of the assumption of small E × B drift and trapping due to the electrostatic potential variation on a flux surface Φ-tilde compared with those due to the magnetic field gradient. This work examines the impact of this potential variation on neoclassical impurity transport in the Large Helical Device heliotron. It shows that the neoclassical impurity transport can be strongly affected by Φ-tilde . The central numerical tool used is the δf particle in cell Monte Carlo code EUTERPE. The Φ-tilde used in the calculations is provided by the neoclassical code GSRAKE. The possibility of obtaining a more general Φ-tilde self-consistently with EUTERPE is also addressed and a preliminary calculation is presented. (paper)

  7. Active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology in patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Anton R; Gridnev, Vladimir I; Shvartz, Vladimir A; Posnenkova, Olga M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Ya

    2012-01-01

    The use of short message services and mobile phone technology for ambulatory care management is the most accessible and most inexpensive way to transition from traditional ambulatory care management to active ambulatory care management in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology with traditional ambulatory care management in AH patients. The study included 97 hypertensive patients under active ambulatory care management and 102 patients under traditional ambulatory care management. Blood pressure levels, body mass, and smoking history of patients were analyzed in the study. The duration of study was 1 year. In the active ambulatory care management group, 36% of patients were withdrawn from the study within a year. At the end of the year, 77% of patients from the active care management group had achieved the goal blood pressure level. That was more than 5 times higher than that in the traditional ambulatory care management group (P mobile phone improves the quality of ambulatory care of hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical renormalization group calculation of impurity internal energy and specific heat of quantum impurity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, L.; Costi, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a method to obtain the specific heat of quantum impurity models via a direct calculation of the impurity internal energy requiring only the evaluation of local quantities within a single numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation for the total system. For the Anderson impurity model we show that the impurity internal energy can be expressed as a sum of purely local static correlation functions and a term that involves also the impurity Green function. The temperature dependence of the latter can be neglected in many cases, thereby allowing the impurity specific heat Cimp to be calculated accurately from local static correlation functions; specifically via Cimp=(∂Eionic)/(∂T)+(1)/(2)(∂Ehyb)/(∂T), where Eionic and Ehyb are the energies of the (embedded) impurity and the hybridization energy, respectively. The term involving the Green function can also be evaluated in cases where its temperature dependence is non-negligible, adding an extra term to Cimp. For the nondegenerate Anderson impurity model, we show by comparison with exact Bethe ansatz calculations that the results recover accurately both the Kondo induced peak in the specific heat at low temperatures as well as the high-temperature peak due to the resonant level. The approach applies to multiorbital and multichannel Anderson impurity models with arbitrary local Coulomb interactions. An application to the Ohmic two-state system and the anisotropic Kondo model is also given, with comparisons to Bethe ansatz calculations. The approach could also be of interest within other impurity solvers, for example, within quantum Monte Carlo techniques.

  9. Identification and characterization of potential impurities of donepezil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Reddy, K V S R; Moses Babu, J; Kumar, P Anil; Chandrashekar, E R R; Mathad, Vijayavitthal T; Eswaraiah, S; Reddy, M Satyanarayana; Vyas, K

    2004-09-03

    Five unknown impurities ranging from 0.05 to 0.2% in donepezil were detected by a simple isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These impurities were isolated from crude sample of donepezil using isocratic reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Based on the spectral data (IR, NMR and MS), the structures of these impurities were characterised as 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(4-pyridylmethyl)-1-indanone (impurity I), 4-(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-2-indenylmethyl) piperidine (impurity II), 2-(1-benzyl-4-piperdylmethyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanol (impurity III) 1-benzyl-4(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-2-indenylmethyl) piperidine (impurity IV) and 1,1-dibenzyl-4(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-2H-2-indenylmethyl)hexahydropyridinium bromide (impurity V). The synthesis of these impurities and their formation was discussed.

  10. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  11. Effect of impurity radiation on tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.; Green, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to the radiation from impurities is of great importance in the overall energy balance. Taking the temperature dependence of this loss for two impurities characteristic of those present in existing tokamak plasmas, the condition for radial power balance is derived. For the impurities considered (oxygen and iron) it is found that the radiation losses are concentrated in a thin outer layer of the plasma and the equilibrium condition places an upper limit on the plasma paraticle number density in this region. This limiting density scales with mean current density in the same manner as is experimentally observed for the peak number density of tokamak plasmas. The stability of such equilibria is also discussed. (author)

  12. Spectroscopic impurity survey in Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttenschoen, Birger; Burhenn, Rainer; Thomsen, Henning [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Assmann, Jochen; Hollfeld, Klaus-Peter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: the Wendelstein 7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    The High Efficiency eXtreme ultraviolet Overview Spectrometer (HEXOS) has been developed specifically for impurity identification and survey purposes on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. This spectrometer system, consisting of four individual spectrometers, covers the wavelength range between λ=2.5 nm and λ=160 nm, observing the intense resonance lines of relevant Mg-, Na-, Be- and Li-like impurity ions as well as the high-Z W/Ta quasi-continua. During the first operation phase of W7-X, commissioning of HEXOS was finished by providing an in-situ wavelength calibration. The permanently acquired spectra are evaluated to monitor the overall impurity content in the plasma, and serve as an indicator for unintended plasma-wall contact possibly leading to machine damage. HEXOS results from the first operation phase of W7-X are presented and discussed with respect to future scientific exploitation of the available data.

  13. Impurity production and acceleration in CTIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-9161, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: dabuche@sandia.gov; Clift, W.M. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-9161, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Klauser, R.; Horton, R.D. [CTIX Group, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Howard, S.J. [General Fusion Inc., Burnaby, BC V5A 3H4 (Canada); Brockington, S.J. [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Evans, R.W.; Hwang, D.Q. [CTIX Group, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) produces a high density, high velocity hydrogen plasma that maintains its configuration in free space on a MHD resistive time scale. In order to study the production and acceleration of impurities in the injector, several sets of silicon collector probes were exposed to spheromak-like CT's exiting the accelerator. Elemental analysis by Auger Electron Spectroscopy indicated the presence of O, Al, Fe, and Cu in films up to 200 A thickness (1000 CT interactions). Using a smaller number of CT interactions (10-20), implantation of Fe and Cu was measured by Auger depth profiling. The amount of impurities was found to increase with accelerating voltage and number of CT interactions while use of a solenoidal field reduced the amount. Comparison of the implanted Fe and Cu with TRIM simulations indicated that the impurities were traveling more slowly than the hydrogen CT.

  14. Impurity dependence of superconductivity in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laa, C.

    1984-04-01

    Jump temperatures, the critical fields Hsubc and Hsubc 2 and specific heats were measured on niobium samples where the impurity content was systematically varied by loading with nitrogen. Quantities could thus be extrapolated to lattice perfection and absolute purity. Comparisons with theories were made and some parameters extracted. Agreement was found with Gorkov theory for small impurities. A new value of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter Ko was determined to be just above 1/sqrt2 which proves that niobium is an elementary Type II semiconductor. By comparisons with the BCS and the CLAC theory the values of the mean Fermi velocity, the London penetration depth, the BCS coherence length and the impurity parameter were extracted. (G.Q.)

  15. Magnetic impurity coupled to interacting conduction electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schork, T.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a magnetic impurity which interacts by hybridization with a system of weakly correlated electrons and determine the energy of the ground state by means of a 1/N f expansion. The correlations among the conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard Hamiltonian and are treated to the lowest order in the interaction strength. We find that their effect on the Kondo temperature, T K , in the Kondo limit is twofold: first, the position of the impurity level is shifted due to the reduction of charge fluctuations, which reduces T K . Secondly, the bare Kondo exchange coupling is enhanced as spin fluctuations are enlarged. In total, T K increases. Both corrections require intermediate states beyond the standard Varma-Yafet ansatz. This shows that the Hubbard interaction does not just provide quasiparticles, which hybridize with the impurity, but also renormalizes the Kondo coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  17. Impurity and particle control for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.

    1985-02-01

    The INTOR impurity control system studies have been focused on the development of an impurity control system which would be able to provide the necessary heat removal and He pumping while satisfying the requirements for (1) minimum plasma contamination by impurities, (2) reasonable component lifetime (approx. 1 year), and (3) minimum size and cost. The major systems examined were poloidal divertors and pumped limiters. The poloidal divertor was chosen as the reference option since it offered the possibility of low sputtering rates due to the formation of a cool, dense plasma near the collector plates. Estimates of the sputtering rates associated with pumped limiters indicated that they would be too high for a reasonable system. Development of an engineering design concept was done for both the poloidal divertor and the pumped limiter

  18. Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2018-04-01

    Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.

  19. Plasmon-enhanced phonon and ionized impurity scattering in doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Jer; Hsieh, Shang-Hsun; Chen, Chuan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Historically, two microscopic electron scattering calculation methods have been used to fit macroscopic electron mobility data in n-type silicon. The first method was performed using a static system that included long-range electron-plasmon scattering; however, the well-known Born approximation fails in this case when dealing with electron-impurity scattering. In the second method, sophisticated numerical simulations were developed around plasmon-excited potential fluctuations and successfully reproduced the mobility data at room temperature. In this paper, we propose a third method as an alternative to the first method. First, using a fluctuating system, which was characterized on the basis of our recently experimentally extracted plasmon-excited potential fluctuations, the microscopic calculations reveal enhanced short-range scattering of electrons by phonons and ionized impurities due to increased electron temperature and increased screening length, respectively. The increased hot electron population makes the Born approximation hold, which eases the overall calculation task substantially. Then, we return to the static system while incorporating plasmon-enhanced impurity scattering. The resulting macroscopic electron mobility shows fairly good agreement with data over wide ranges of temperatures (200–400 K) and doping concentrations (10 15 –10 20  cm −3 ). Application of the proposed method to strained silicon is also demonstrated

  20. Mobile-based patient-provider communication in cancer survivors: The roles of health literacy and patient activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai; Hong, Y Alicia

    2018-03-01

    Thanks to rapid penetration of mobile tools, more and more cancer survivors have adopted mobile-based patient-provider communication (MBPPC). The relationship between MBPPC and patients' health outcomes, however, remains unclear; how health literacy and patient activation interact with such relationship is unexplored. Data were drawn from National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 3. A sample of 459 cancer survivors were included in the analysis. Based on the 3-stage model of health promotion using interactive media, this study empirically tested a moderated mediation model. MBPPC (eg, patient use of email, text message, mobile app, and social media to communicate with providers) had no direct effect on cancer survivors' emotional health. Instead, health literacy completely mediated this path. Patient activation positively moderated the effect of health literacy on emotional health and further increased the indirect effect of MBPPC on emotional health. MBPPC alone does not directly result in better emotional health outcomes; health literacy is the key to realize its health benefits; patient activation significantly strengthens the effects of MBPPC. As we embrace the mHealth movement, innovative programs are needed to promote MBPPC, and improve health literacy and activation of cancer survivors, particularly in underserved communities, to reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Engaging Adolescents to Inform the Development of a Mobile Gaming App to Incentivize Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Garnett, Bernice; Dibble, Marguerite

    2017-08-29

    Involving youth in the development of a mobile game designed to increase physical activity may increase relevancy and adoption. To share the development process used to create a gaming app aimed at incentivizing physical activity in high school students. Five focus groups were conducted with high school students (N=50) to understand gaming behaviors. A subset of students from the focus groups chose to complete a Web-based survey (N=10). Four different versions of gaming artwork and concept design based on student input were pilot tested (N=35), and group consensus building determined the direction of the game. The 4 game versions differed in their artwork style and gaming concept with some requiring competition versus cooperation, or being more individual versus team based. Group consensus building meant that all artwork and game concept options were displayed at the front of a classroom. Students could then vote for their top artwork and concept choices by putting stickers on the top 1 or 2 artwork and concept options that they liked best. Once all votes were cast, investigators discussed the voting results with students, and brainstormed ways to incorporate popular aspects of the 3 "losing" artwork and game concepts into the winning ideas. Focus group transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Artwork and gaming concept-voting data was tallied at the time of voting to share with students in real time. Focus groups and survey results revealed important themes for a successful gaming app: (1) competition, (2) balanced in-game rewards, (3) accessibility, and (4) aesthetic features. Consensus voting indicated the popularity of a collaborative competitive content design (35/66, 53%) and playful art (27/71, 38%). To ensure saliency and effectiveness of game-based physical activity interventions, youth need to be included in design and implementation. Furthermore, the unique preferences and social constructs of high school students need to be considered during

  2. Electron mobility in monoclinic β-Ga2O3—Effect of plasmon-phonon coupling, anisotropy, and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2017-11-01

    This work reports an investigation of electron transport in monoclinic \\beta-Ga2O3 based on a combination of density functional perturbation theory based lattice dynamical computations, coupling calculation of lattice modes with collective plasmon oscillations and Boltzmann theory based transport calculations. The strong entanglement of the plasmon with the different longitudinal optical (LO) modes make the role LO-plasmon coupling crucial for transport. The electron density dependence of the electron mobility in \\beta-Ga2O3 is studied in bulk material form and also in the form of two-dimensional electron gas. Under high electron density a bulk mobility of 182 cm2/ V.s is predicted while in 2DEG form the corresponding mobility is about 418 cm2/V.s when remote impurities are present at the interface and improves further as the remote impurity center moves away from the interface. The trend of the electron mobility shows promise for realizing high electron mobility in dopant isolated electron channels. The experimentally observed small anisotropy in mobility is traced through a transient Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the anisotropy of the IR active phonon modes is responsible for giving rise to the anisotropy in low-field electron mobility.

  3. Plasma impurity-control studies in CTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Sherwood, A.R.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, magnetized coaxial gun generated Compact Toroids (CTs) have exhibited magnetic field and density lifetimes of about 250 to 350 μs and electron temperatures of about 10 eV. In recent experiments, after hydrogen discharge cleaning the gun and flux conserver surfaces, the lifetimes have been extended to 550 μs. This improvement in lifetime, together with spectroscopic and bolometric measurements, are consistent with the interpretation that the CT plasma losses are impurity dominated and that discharge cleaning is reducing the impurities. Details of these measurements are described as well as successful experiments which led to a more open flux conserver

  4. Correlations between locked modes and impurity influxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishpool, G M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K D [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of pulses that were disturbed by medium Z impurity influxes (Cl, Cr, Fe and Ni) recorded during the 91/92 JET operations, has demonstrated that such influxes can result in MHD modes which subsequently ``lock``. A correlation is found between the power radiated by the influx and the time difference between the start of the influx and the beginning of the locked mode. The growth in the amplitude of the locked mode itself can lead to further impurity influxes. A correlation is noted between intense influxes (superior to 10 MW) and the mode ``unlocking``. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Interaction between impurities in Ag dilute alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Wodniecka, B.; Wodniecki, P.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow

    1977-01-01

    Time dependent perturbed angular correlation measurements of gamma radiation in 111 Cd after 111 In decay were performed in AgPd and AgPt alloys. The concentration of Pd or Pt atoms being the nearest neighbours to the probe atoms is much higher than that one deduced from random impurity distribution. This effect results from the attractive interaction between the In probe atoms and Pt or Pd impurity atoms in silver host lattice. The binding energy of InPd and InPt complexes was measured as 135 +- 9 meV and 171 +- 9 meV, respectively. (author)

  6. The electronic structure of impurities in semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Nylandsted larsen, A; Svane, A

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of isolated substitutional or interstitial impurities in group IV, IV-IV, and III-V compound semiconductors will be studied. Mössbauer spectroscopy will be used to investigate the incorporation of the implanted isotopes on the proper lattice sites. The data can be directly compared to theoretical calculations using the LMTO scheme. Deep level transient spectroscopy will be used to identify the band gap levels introduced by metallic impurities, mainly in Si~and~Si$ _{x}$Ge$_{1-x}$. \\\\ \\\\

  7. Plasma impurity-control studies in CTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Sherwood, A.R.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, magnetized coaxial gun generated Compact Toroids (CTs) have exhibited magnetic field and density lifetimes of about 250 to 350 ..mu..s and electron temperatures of about 10 eV. In recent experiments, after hydrogen discharge cleaning the gun and flux conserver surfaces, the lifetimes have been extended to 550 ..mu..s. This improvement in lifetime, together with spectroscopic and bolometric measurements, are consistent with the interpretation that the CT plasma losses are impurity dominated and that discharge cleaning is reducing the impurities. Details of these measurements are described as well as successful experiments which led to a more open flux conserver.

  8. Impurity studies in the advanced toroidal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Horton, L.D.; Crume, E.C.; Howe, H.C.; Voronov, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Impurities have played an important role in the initial stages of operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility. Cleanup practices have been adequate enough that plasmas heated by ECH only can be operated in a quasi-steady state; however, neutral beam injected plasmas always collapse to a low temperature. It is not clear whether impurity radiation is actually responsible for initiating the collapse, but at the time the stored energy reaches a maximum, there are indications of poloidal asymmetries in radiation from low ionization stages, such as observed in marfes, which could play a dominant role in the plasma evolution. 3 refs., 5 figs

  9. Kinesthetic and vestibular information modulate alpha activity during spatial navigation: a mobile EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehinger, Benedikt V; Fischer, Petra; Gert, Anna L; Kaufhold, Lilli; Weber, Felix; Pipa, Gordon; König, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, spatial navigation involving locomotion provides congruent visual, vestibular, and kinesthetic information that need to be integrated. Yet, previous studies on human brain activity during navigation focus on stationary setups, neglecting vestibular and kinesthetic feedback. The aim of our work is to uncover the influence of those sensory modalities on cortical processing. We developed a fully immersive virtual reality setup combined with high-density mobile electroencephalography (EEG). Participants traversed one leg of a triangle, turned on the spot, continued along the second leg, and finally indicated the location of their starting position. Vestibular and kinesthetic information was provided either in combination, as isolated sources of information, or not at all within a 2 × 2 full factorial intra-subjects design. EEG data were processed by clustering independent components, and time-frequency spectrograms were calculated. In parietal, occipital, and temporal clusters, we detected alpha suppression during the turning movement, which is associated with a heightened demand of visuo-attentional processing and closely resembles results reported in previous stationary studies. This decrease is present in all conditions and therefore seems to generalize to more natural settings. Yet, in incongruent conditions, when different sensory modalities did not match, the decrease is significantly stronger. Additionally, in more anterior areas we found that providing only vestibular but no kinesthetic information results in alpha increase. These observations demonstrate that stationary experiments omit important aspects of sensory feedback. Therefore, it is important to develop more natural experimental settings in order to capture a more complete picture of neural correlates of spatial navigation.

  10. Kinesthetic and Vestibular Information Modulate Alpha Activity during Spatial Navigation: A Mobile EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Valerian Ehinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, spatial navigation involving locomotion provides congruent visual, vestibular and kinesthetic information that need to be integrated. Yet, previous studies on human brain activity during navigation focus on stationary setups, neglecting vestibular and kinesthetic feedback. The aim of our work is to uncover the influence of those sensory modalities on cortical processing. We developed a fully immersive virtual reality setup combined with high-density mobile electroencephalography (EEG. Participants traversed one leg of a triangle, turned on the spot, continued along the second leg and finally indicated the location of their starting position. Vestibular and kinesthetic information was provided either in combination, as isolated sources of information or not at all within a 2x2 full factorial intra-subjects design. EEG data were processed by clustering independent components, and time-frequency spectrograms were calculated. In parietal, occipital and temporal clusters, we detected alpha suppression during the turning movement, which is associated with a heightened demand of visuo-attentional processing, and closely resembles results reported in previous stationary studies. This decrease is present in all conditions and therefore seems to generalize to more natural settings. Yet, in incongruent conditions, when different sensory modalities did not match, the decrease is significantly stronger. Additionally, in more anterior areas, we found that providing only vestibular but no kinesthetic information results in alpha increase. These observations demonstrate that stationary experiments omit important aspects of sensory feedback. Therefore, it is important to develop more natural experimental settings in order to capture a more complete picture of neural correlates of spatial navigation.

  11. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  12. Fluid and gyrokinetic simulations of impurity transport at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordman, H; Skyman, A; Strand, P

    2011-01-01

    Impurity transport coefficients due to ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode and trapped-electron mode turbulence are calculated using profile data from dedicated impurity injection experiments at JET. Results obtained with a multi-fluid model are compared with quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic...... simulation results obtained with the code GENE. The sign of the impurity convective velocity (pinch) and its various contributions are discussed. The dependence of the impurity transport coefficients and impurity peaking factor −∇nZ/nZ on plasma parameters such as impurity charge number Z, ion logarithmic...

  13. Impurity transport in internal transport barrier discharges on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dux, R.; Giroud, C.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2004-01-01

    Impurity behaviour in JET internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges with reversed shear has been investigated. Metallic impurities accumulate in cases with too strong peaking of the main ion density profile. The accumulation is due to inwardly directed drift velocities inside the ITB radius. The strength of the impurity peaking increases with the impurity charge and is low for the low-Z elements C and Ne. Transport calculations show that the observed behaviour is consistent with dominant neoclassical impurity transport inside the ITB. In some cases, MHD events in the core flatten the radial profile of the metallic impurity. (author)

  14. Observations of long impurity confinement times in the ISX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H; Wong, S K; Muller, III, C H; Hacker, M P [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA); Ketterer, H E; Isler, R C; Lazarus, E A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1981-08-01

    The transport of small amounts of silicon and aluminium injected into plasmas in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) tokamak is studied. By monitoring the time behaviour of ultra-violet spectral lines emitted by various charge states of those impurities and comparing this behaviour to the predictions of a multi-species impurity transport code, it is found that both impurity penetration times and impurity containment times are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The observed impurity containment times, which are greater than three times the energy containment time, are consistent with the inward convection predicted by neoclassical theory.

  15. Change of heavy metal speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and ecological risk during potassium ferrate treatment of waste-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Yu

    2018-05-01

    The effects of potassium ferrate treatment on the heavy metal concentrations, speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and environmental risk in waste-activated sludge (WAS) at various dosages of potassium ferrate and different treatment times were investigated. Results showed that the total concentrations of all metals (except Cd) were decreased slightly after treatment and the order of metal concentrations in WAS and treated waste-activated sludge (TWAS) was Mg > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. Most heavy metals in WAS remained in TWAS after potassium ferrate treatment with metal residual rates over 67.8% in TWAS. The distribution of metal speciation in WAS was affected by potassium ferrate treatment. The bioavailability and the mobility of heavy metals (except Mg) in TWAS were mitigated, compared to those in WAS. Meanwhile, the environmental risk of heavy metals (except Pb and Cu) was alleviated after potassium ferrate treatment.

  16. Characterization of impurities in biogas before and after upgrading to vehicle fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Johansson, Ulrika [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Biogases produced by digesting organic wastes, residual sludge from waste water treatment, energy crops,byproducts from industry or in landfills contain impurities which can be harmful for components that will be in contact with the biogas during its utilization. In this project, the impurities present in biogases have been mapped out depending upon which feedstock is digested. P-cymene och D-limonene, two terpenes, have been found to be characteristics for biogases produced from the digestion of waste including household wastes while an 'oil' fraction containing alkanes with 9 to 13 carbon atoms is characteristic for biogases produced at waste water treatment plants. Ketones and sulfur compounds are found in biogases produced from the digestion of food industry wastes or energy crops. It was not possible to characterize impurities in biogases produced in farm plants digesting manure because not enough samples were analyzed from these plants. In order to understand the relation between the feedstock and the impurities present in the biogas, an extensive study on feedstock characterization must be conducted. One question to be answered is if these impurities only originate from the volatilization from the feedstock and in this case, why only these specific compounds are found at significant concentrations. In this study we have also studied how effective purification/upgrading techniques are to remove impurities that have been identified in biogases. En general comment is that the upgraded gas still contains a part of the characteristic impurities which have been identified for each feedstock at different levels of concentration depending on which technique has been used. The results show that activated carbon filters are more or less effective. Some of them can remove more than 90 % of the impurities while others remove less that 10 %. Results show also that the amine scrubber have very moderate effects on the impurities composition. In that case, the

  17. Influence of complex impurity centres on radiation damage in wide-gap metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lushchik, A., E-mail: aleksandr.lushchik@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Lushchik, Ch. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Popov, A.I. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Schwartz, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Shablonin, E.; Vasil’chenko, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-05-01

    Different mechanisms of radiation damage of wide-gap metal oxides as well as a dual influence of impurity ions on the efficiency of radiation damage have been considered on the example of binary ionic MgO and complex ionic–covalent Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} single crystals. Particular emphasis has been placed on irradiation with ∼2 GeV heavy ions ({sup 197}Au, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 238}U, fluence of 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) providing extremely high density of electronic excitations within ion tracks. Besides knock-out mechanism for Frenkel pair formation, the additional mechanism through the collapse of mobile discrete breathers at certain lattice places (e.g., complex impurity centres) leads to the creation of complex defects that involve a large number of host atoms. The experimental manifestations of the radiation creation of intrinsic and impurity antisite defects (Lu|{sub Al} or Ce|{sub Al} – a heavy ion in a wrong cation site) have been detected in LuAG and LuAG:Ce{sup 3+} single crystals. Light doping of LuAG causes a small enhancement of radiation resistance, while pair impurity centres (for instance, Ce|{sub Lu}–Ce|{sub Al} or Cr{sup 3+}–Cr{sup 3+} in MgO) are formed with a rise of impurity concentration. These complex impurity centres as well as radiation-induced intrinsic antisite defects (Lu|{sub Al} strongly interacting with Lu in a regular site) tentatively serve as the places for breathers collapse, thus decreasing the material resistance against dense irradiation.

  18. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ? 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched cont...

  19. Weight Status and Differences in Mobility Performance, Pain Symptoms, and Physical Activity in Older, Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Garver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk, mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC, and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps. Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight.

  20. Long-active granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Massimo; Laszlo, Daniele; Lanza, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Peg-filgrastim (PEG-FIL), a polyethylene glycol-conjugated form of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), has been introduced in clinical practice and is effective in shortening the time of neutropenia after cytotoxic chemotherapy. G-CSF has emerged as the preferred cytokine for hematopoietic progenitor cells' (HPC) mobilization. Nevertheless, data on the ability of PEG-FIL in this field have been published. We review publications in the field with the goal of providing an overview of this approach. PEG-FIL may be able to mobilize CD34(+) cells in a more timely fashion than G-CSF, with the advantages of only a single-dose administration, an earlier start and a reduction in the number of apheresis procedures. The main controversies concern the dosage of the drug and the optimal dose. In the context of chemo-mobilization, a single dose of 6 mg PEG-FIL seems effective in terms of HPC's mobilization and there is no increase in this effect if the dose is doubled to 12 mg. Steady-state mobilization requires higher doses of PEG-FIL and this approach is not cost-effective when compared with G-CSF. The experiences with PEG-FIL in the healthy donor setting are very limited.

  1. Mobile marketing for mobile games

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Giang

    2016-01-01

    Highly developed mobile technology and devices enable the rise of mobile game industry and mobile marketing. Hence mobile marketing for mobile game is an essential key for a mobile game success. Even though there are many articles on marketing for mobile games, there is a need of highly understanding mobile marketing strategies, how to launch a mobile campaign for a mobile game. Besides that, it is essential to understand the relationship between mobile advertising and users behaviours. There...

  2. Weather Effects on the Patterns of People's Everyday Activities: A Study Using GPS Traces of Mobile Phone Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Tuck W.; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects that the weather has on people's everyday activity patterns. Temperature, rainfall, and wind speed were used as weather parameters. People's daily activity patterns were inferred, such as place visited, the time this took place, the duration of the visit, based on the GPS location traces of their mobile phones overlaid upon Yellow Pages information. Our analysis of 31,855 mobile phone users allowed us to infer that people were more likely to stay longer at eateries or food outlets, and (to a lesser degree) at retail or shopping areas when the weather is very cold or when conditions are calm (non-windy). When compared to people's regular activity patterns, certain weather conditions affected people's movements and activities noticeably at different times of the day. On cold days, people's activities were found to be more diverse especially after 10AM, showing greatest variations between 2PM and 6PM. A similar trend is observed between 10AM and midnight on rainy days, with people's activities found to be most diverse on days with heaviest rainfalls or on days when the wind speed was stronger than 4 km/h, especially between 10AM–1AM. Finally, we observed that different geographical areas of a large metropolis were impacted differently by the weather. Using data of urban infrastructure to characterize areas, we found strong correlations between weather conditions upon people's accessibility to trains. This study sheds new light on the influence of weather conditions on human behavior, in particular the choice of daily activities and how mobile phone data can be used to investigate the influence of environmental factors on urban dynamics. PMID:24367481

  3. Feasibility of Gamified Mobile Service Aimed at Physical Activation in Young Men: Population-Based Randomized Controlled Study (MOPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Siirtola, Pekka; Luoto, Tim; Enwald, Heidi; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Röning, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Mäntysaari, Matti; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-10-10

    The majority of young people do not meet the recommendations on physical activity for health. New innovative ways to motivate young people to adopt a physically active lifestyle are needed. The study aimed to study the feasibility of an automated, gamified, tailored Web-based mobile service aimed at physical and social activation among young men. A population-based sample of 496 young men (mean age 17.8 years [standard deviation 0.6]) participated in a 6-month randomized controlled trial (MOPO study). Participants were randomized to an intervention (n=250) and a control group (n=246). The intervention group was given a wrist-worn physical activity monitor (Polar Active) with physical activity feedback and access to a gamified Web-based mobile service, providing fitness guidelines, tailored health information, advice of youth services, social networking, and feedback on physical activity. Through the trial, the physical activity of the men in the control group was measured continuously with an otherwise similar monitor but providing only the time of day and no feedback. The primary outcome was the feasibility of the service based on log data and questionnaires. Among completers, we also analyzed the change in anthropometry and fitness between baseline and 6 months and the change over time in weekly time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Mobile service users considered the various functionalities related to physical activity important. However, compliance of the service was limited, with 161 (64.4%, 161/250) participants visiting the service, 118 (47.2%, 118/250) logging in more than once, and 41 (16.4%, 41/250) more than 5 times. Baseline sedentary time was higher in those who uploaded physical activity data until the end of the trial (P=.02). A total of 187 (74.8%, 187/250) participants in the intervention and 167 (67.9%, 167/246) in the control group participated in the final measurements. There were no differences in the change in anthropometry and

  4. Microscopic models of impurities in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assali, L.V.C.

    1985-01-01

    The study of electronic structure of insulated and complex puntual impurities in silicon responsible by the appearing of deep energy levels in the forbiden band of semiconductor, is presented. The molecular cluster model with the treatment of surface orbitals by Watson sphere within the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method, was used. The electronic structures of three clusters representative of perfect silicon crystal, which were used for the impurity studies, are presented. The method was applied to analyse insulated impurities of substitutional and interstitial hydrogen (Si:H and Si:H i ), subtitutional and interstitial iron in neutral and positive charge states (Si:Fe 0 , + , Si:Fe 0 , + ) and substitutional gold in three charge states(Si,Au - , 0 , + ). The thetraedic interstitial defect of silicon (Si:Si i ) was also studied. The complex impurities: neighbour iron pair in the lattice (Si:Fe 2 ), substitutional gold-interstitial iron pair (Si:Au s Fe) and substitutional boron-interstitial hydrogen pair (Si:B s H i ), were analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Anomalous temperature behavior of Sn impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskel, D.; Shechter, H.; Stern, E.A.; Newville, M.; Yacoby, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Sn impurities in Pb and Ag hosts have been investigated by Moessbauer effect and in Pb by x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) studies. The Sn atoms are dissolved up to at least 2 at. % in Pb and up to at least 8 at. % in Ag for the temperature ranges investigated. The concentration limit for Sn-Sn interactions is 1 at. % for Pb and 2 at. % for Ag as determined experimentally by lowering the Sn concentration until no appreciable change occurs in the Moessbauer effect. XAFS measurements verify that the Sn impurities in Pb are dissolved and predominantly at substitutional sites. For both hosts the temperature dependence of the spectral intensities of isolated Sn impurities below a temperature T 0 is as expected for vibrating about a lattice site. Above T 0 the Moessbauer spectral intensity exhibits a greatly increased rate of drop-off with temperature without appreciable broadening. This drop-off is too steep to be explained by ordinary anharmonic effects and can be explained by a liquidlike rapid hopping of the Sn, localized about a lattice site. Higher-entropy-density regions of radii somewhat more than an atomic spacing surround such impurities, and can act as nucleation sites for three-dimensional melting

  6. Energy bands and gaps near an impurity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Schulman, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 41 (2016), s. 3430-3433 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * impurity * modeling * energy bands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2016

  7. Detection of mineral impurities in diatomite ores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Fiore, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In

  8. Removal of iron from impure graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growcock, F.B.; Heiser, J.

    1979-01-01

    Iron-impregnated and ash-rich graphites have been purified by leaching with gaseous I 2 at 900 0 C. With addition of H 2 , the rate of removal of impurity iron can be markedly increased and becomes comparable to that obtained with Cl 2 . I 2 has an advantage in that it can also volatilize Ca and perhaps Ba and Sr

  9. PIT-tagged particle study of bed mobility in a Maine salmon river impacted by logging activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Fixler, S. A.; Roberts, K. E.; McKenna, M.; Marshall, A. E.; Koenig, S.

    2017-12-01

    Presenting an interim report on a study on the Narraguagus River in Maine, which utilizes laser total stations cross-sectional surveys and tracking of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags embedded in glass spheres to document changes in channel-bed characteristics associated with large wood (LW) additions and natural spawning activities. In 2016, work was initiated to monitor changes in bed elevation and sediment mobility with the addition of LW to the Narraguagus River as part of a restoration effort. Ten cross-sections, spaced 5-m apart, were established and surveyed with a laser total station in each of three different study reaches. The study sites include a control reach, a section with anticipated spawning activities and a site with ongoing LW placement. A grid of 200 glass spheres embedded with PIT tags, with twenty alternating 25-mm and 40-mm size particles equally spaced along each of the ten transects, were placed to serve as point sensors to detect sediment mobilization within each reach. In 2017, the site was revisited to determine if differences in PIT-tagged tracer particle mobilization reflect locations were LW was added and places where Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) construct spawning redds. The positions of PIT-tagged tracer particles was recorded, but particles were not disturbed or uncovered to permit study of potential reworking of buried tracer particles the following year. Full tracer particle recovery will be determined in 2018 to determine if depths of tracer burial and changes in bed elevation vary among places near redds, LW and main channel locations. The data will be used to determine if salmon redds are preferentially located in either places with greater evidence of sediment reworking or alternatively in stable areas? The study will help determine the degree of bed disruption associated with spawning activities and whether LW placement encourages similar sediment mobilization processes.

  10. Validation and User Evaluation of a Sensor-Based Method for Detecting Mobility-Related Activities in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde A E Geraedts

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity is essential for older adults to stay healthy and independent. However, daily physical activity is generally low among older adults and mainly consists of activities such as standing and shuffling around indoors. Accurate measurement of this low-energy expenditure daily physical activity is crucial for stimulation of activity. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a necklace-worn sensor-based method for detecting time-on-legs and daily life mobility related postures in older adults. In addition user opinion about the practical use of the sensor was evaluated. Twenty frail and non-frail older adults performed a standardized and free movement protocol in their own home. Results of the sensor-based method were compared to video observation. Sensitivity, specificity and overall agreement of sensor outcomes compared to video observation were calculated. Mobility was assessed based on time-on-legs. Further assessment included the categories standing, sitting, walking and lying. Time-on-legs based sensitivity, specificity and percentage agreement were good to excellent and comparable to laboratory outcomes in other studies. Category-based sensitivity, specificity and overall agreement were moderate to excellent. The necklace-worn sensor is considered an acceptable valid instrument for assessing home-based physical activity based upon time-on-legs in frail and non-frail older adults, but category-based assessment of gait and postures could be further developed.

  11. Summary of IAEA technical committee meeting on impurity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1989-03-01

    Presentations given in the IAEA technical committee meeting on impurity control (held in JAERI from 13 to 15 February, 1989) are summarized, putting the emphasis on the physics modelling of the plasma related to the impurity production and confinement. (author)

  12. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  13. Zirconium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass specrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in zirconium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 but particularly adapted for low contents. The method is quantitative only if a reference sample is available (metallic impurities) [fr

  14. Electron and impurity transport studies in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, D.

    2013-05-15

    are observed by detecting their radiation in the soft x-ray range. The effect of varying background plasma parameters on the soft x-ray emissivity temporal and spatial evolution is tested. Argon emissivity displays a rising emissivity signal following the injection with a time constant of about 15 ms, and a clear decay phase about ten times slower than the rise time. Neon stays considerably longer in the plasma, much longer than the expected difference in transport properties. It is shown that centrally deposited electron heating enhances impurity transport, whereas increasing plasma current leads to better argon confinement. Varying the plasma position relative to the injector and the background electron density did not result in significant effect on impurity transport. The shape scans varying the plasma elongation, triangularity and comparing limited and diverted configurations, were inconclusive and possible future experiments are proposed. It is shown that their effect are not sufficiently significant to study them separately, therefore a combined experimental campaign accounting for the various coupling is required. The experimental results are interpreted using a diffusive-advective picture. A tool chain is developed and tested providing transport coefficients for the plasma current and electron cyclotron heating experiments. The inverse diffusive-advective transport equation is solved and the obtained transport coefficients reproduce well the experimental soft x-ray emission profile evolution. It is shown, however, that the soft x-ray evolution is somewhat insensitive to variations in the advection velocity profile, that is a strongly positive (outward) or strongly negative (inward) advection result in very similar soft x-ray evolution. This is shown to be due to both the high sensitivity of SXR radiation on T{sub e} and hence of the limited range of relevance (ρ{sub ψ} ≤ 0.4) and on the sawtooth activity which acts as a large effective diffusion. (author)

  15. Electron and impurity transport studies in the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    are observed by detecting their radiation in the soft x-ray range. The effect of varying background plasma parameters on the soft x-ray emissivity temporal and spatial evolution is tested. Argon emissivity displays a rising emissivity signal following the injection with a time constant of about 15 ms, and a clear decay phase about ten times slower than the rise time. Neon stays considerably longer in the plasma, much longer than the expected difference in transport properties. It is shown that centrally deposited electron heating enhances impurity transport, whereas increasing plasma current leads to better argon confinement. Varying the plasma position relative to the injector and the background electron density did not result in significant effect on impurity transport. The shape scans varying the plasma elongation, triangularity and comparing limited and diverted configurations, were inconclusive and possible future experiments are proposed. It is shown that their effect are not sufficiently significant to study them separately, therefore a combined experimental campaign accounting for the various coupling is required. The experimental results are interpreted using a diffusive-advective picture. A tool chain is developed and tested providing transport coefficients for the plasma current and electron cyclotron heating experiments. The inverse diffusive-advective transport equation is solved and the obtained transport coefficients reproduce well the experimental soft x-ray emission profile evolution. It is shown, however, that the soft x-ray evolution is somewhat insensitive to variations in the advection velocity profile, that is a strongly positive (outward) or strongly negative (inward) advection result in very similar soft x-ray evolution. This is shown to be due to both the high sensitivity of SXR radiation on T e and hence of the limited range of relevance (ρ ψ ≤ 0.4) and on the sawtooth activity which acts as a large effective diffusion. (author)

  16. Design of the Dual Offset Active Caster Wheel for Holonomic Omni-Directional Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Chung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how a holonomic and omni-directional mobile robot is designed towards indoor public services. Dual offset steerable wheels with orthogonal velocity components are proposed. The proposed wheel provides precise positioning and reliable navigation performance as well as durability. A fabricated prototype is introduced, then, an experiment is carried out.

  17. Personal computer versus personal computer/mobile device combination users' preclinical laboratory e-learning activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Haruka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yamaga, Yoshiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify differences between personal computer (PC)/mobile device combination and PC-only user patterns. We analyzed access frequency and time spent on a complete denture preclinical website in order to maximize website effectiveness. Fourth-year undergraduate students (N=41) in the preclinical complete denture laboratory course were invited to participate in this survey during the final week of the course to track login data. Students accessed video demonstrations and quizzes via our e-learning site/course program, and were instructed to view online demonstrations before classes. When the course concluded, participating students filled out a questionnaire about the program, their opinions, and devices they had used to access the site. Combination user access was significantly more frequent than PC-only during supplementary learning time, indicating that students with mobile devices studied during lunch breaks and before morning classes. Most students had favorable opinions of the e-learning site, but a few combination users commented that some videos were too long and that descriptive answers were difficult on smartphones. These results imply that mobile devices' increased accessibility encouraged learning by enabling more efficient time use between classes. They also suggest that e-learning system improvements should cater to mobile device users by reducing video length and including more short-answer questions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Stability-indicating HPLC-DAD/UV-ESI/MS impurity profiling of the anti-malarial drug lumefantrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, Mathieu; Suleman, Sultan; Baert, Bram; Vangheluwe, Elien; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Burvenich, Christian; Duchateau, Luc; Jansen, Frans H; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2011-02-28

    Lumefantrine (benflumetol) is a fluorene derivative belonging to the aryl amino alcohol class of anti-malarial drugs and is commercially available in fixed combination products with β-artemether. Impurity characterization of such drugs, which are widely consumed in tropical countries for malaria control programmes, is of paramount importance. However, until now, no exhaustive impurity profile of lumefantrine has been established, encompassing process-related and degradation impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished pharmaceutical products (FPPs). Using HPLC-DAD/UV-ESI/ion trap/MS, a comprehensive impurity profile was established based upon analysis of market samples as well as stress, accelerated and long-term stability results. In-silico toxicological predictions for these lumefantrine related impurities were made using Toxtree® and Derek®. Several new impurities are identified, of which the desbenzylketo derivative (DBK) is proposed as a new specified degradant. DBK and the remaining unspecified lumefantrine related impurities are predicted, using Toxtree® and Derek®, to have a toxicity risk comparable to the toxicity risk of the API lumefantrine itself. From unstressed, stressed and accelerated stability samples of lumefantrine API and FPPs, nine compounds were detected and characterized to be lumefantrine related impurities. One new lumefantrine related compound, DBK, was identified and characterized as a specified degradation impurity of lumefantrine in real market samples (FPPs). The in-silico toxicological investigation (Toxtree® and Derek®) indicated overall a toxicity risk for lumefantrine related impurities comparable to that of the API lumefantrine itself.

  19. Pollution in the urban soils of Lianyungang, China, evaluated using a pollution index, mobility of heavy metals, and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Hong-Guan; Liu, Fu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Soil samples from 16 urban sites in Lianyungang, China were collected and analyzed. A pollution index was used to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and a sequential extraction procedure was used to evaluate the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide, organic/sulfide, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals and urease (URE) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and invertase (INV) activity of soils was determined. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in Lianyungang soils were much higher than those in the coastal city soil background values of Jiangsu and China. Among the five studied regions (utilities, commercial, industrial, tourism, and roadside), the industrial region had the highest metal concentrations demonstrating that land use had a significant impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils. Compared to the other metals, Cd showed the highest ecological risk. According to chemical partitioning, Cu was associated with the organic/sulfides and Pb and Zn were mainly in the carbonate and the Fe/Mn oxide phase. The greatest amounts of Cd were found in exchangeable and carbonate fractions, while Cr and As were mainly in the residual fraction. Cd had the highest mobility of all metals, and the order of mobility (highest to lowest) of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils was Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr. Soil urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity varied considerably in different pollution degree sites. Soil enzyme activities had the lowest levels in roadside and industrial regions. Across all the soil data in the five regions, the total Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As level was negatively correlated with urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity, but the relationship was not significant. In the industrial region, alkaline phosphatase activity had

  20. Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.; Fye, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a Monte Carlo algorithm to study properties of dilute magnetic alloys; the method can treat a small number of magnetic impurities interacting wiith the conduction electrons in a metal. Results for the susceptibility of a single Anderson impurity in the symmetric case show the expected universal behavior at low temperatures. Some results for two Anderson impurities are also discussed.

  1. Construct validity and inter-rater reliability of the Dutch activity measure for post-acute care "6-clicks" basic mobility form to assess the mobility of hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Sven Jacobus Gertruda; Valkenet, Karin; Veenhof, Cindy

    2018-05-12

    To evaluate the construct validity and the inter-rater reliability of the Dutch Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility short form measuring the patient's mobility in Dutch hospital care. First, the "6-clicks" was translated by using a forward-backward translation protocol. Next, 64 patients were assessed by the physiotherapist to determine the validity while being admitted to the Internal Medicine wards of a university medical center. Six hypotheses were tested regarding the construct "mobility" which showed that: Better "6-clicks" scores were related to less restrictive pre-admission living situations (p = 0.011), less restrictive discharge locations (p = 0.001), more independence in activities of daily living (p = 0.001) and less physiotherapy visits (p Dutch "6-clicks" shows a good construct validity and moderate-to-excellent inter-rater reliability when used to assess the mobility of hospitalized patients. Implications for Rehabilitation Even though various measurement tools have been developed, it appears the majority of physiotherapists working in a hospital currently do not use these tools as a standard part of their care. The Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility is the only tool which is designed to be short, easy to use within usual care and has been validated in the entire hospital population. This study shows that the Dutch version of the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility form is a valid, easy to use, quick tool to assess the basic mobility of Dutch hospitalized patients.

  2. Scattering Theory on Surface Majorana Fermions by an Impurity in ^{3}He-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Yasumasa

    2017-04-07

    We have formulated the scattering theory on Majorana fermions emerging in the surface bound state of the superfluid ^{3}He B phase (^{3}He-B) by an impurity. By applying the theory to the electron bubble, which is regarded as the impurity, trapped below a free surface of ^{3}He-B, the observed mobility of the electron bubble [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 82, 124607 (2013)JUPSAU0031-901510.7566/JPSJ.82.124607] is quantitatively reproduced. The mobility is suppressed in low temperatures from the expected value in the bulk ^{3}He-B by the contribution from the surface Majorana fermions. By contrast, the mobility does not depend on the trapped depth of the electron bubble in spite of the spatial variation of the wave function of the surface Majorana fermions. Our formulated theory demonstrates the depth-independent mobility by considering intermediate states in the scattering process. Therefore, we conclude that the experiment has succeeded in observing Majorana fermions in the surface bound state.

  3. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of impurities in molybdenum, tungsten and nuclear graphite; Application de l'analyse par activation neutronique a l'etude des impuretes dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    A neutron activation method is described for the analysis of a maximum number of foreign elements in molybdenum, tungsten and graphite. The various elements are isolated using a systematic separation programme; the elements are subsequently analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using {gamma}-spectrometry. By this method are dosed 27 elements in molybdenum and tungsten, and 20 elements in graphite to which can be added those elements which are already the object of routine analysis: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl and 14 rare earths. (author) [French] On decrit une methode d'analyse par activation neutronique permettant de doser un maximum d'elements etrangers dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite. En suivant un schema de separation systematique, on isole les differents elements dont les analyses qualitatives et quantitatives sont ensuite effectuees par spectrometrie {gamma}. Par cette methode, on dose 27 elements dans le molybdene et le tungstene, 20 elements dans le graphite, auxquels on peut encore ajouter les elements doses couramment: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl et 14 Terres Rares. (auteur)

  4. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby C King

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data

  5. Obstacle detection and avoidance on a mobile robotic platform using active depth sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Calibo, Taylor K.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The ability to recognize and navigate surrounding environments free from collision with obstacles has been at the forefront of mobile robotic applications since its inception. At the price of nearly one tenth of a laser range finder, the Xbox Kinect uses an infrared projector and camera to capture images of its environment in three dimensions. The objective of this thesis was to investigate if the Xbox Kinect can be utilized to detect ...

  6. Multiscaling Dynamics of Impurity Transport in Drift-Wave Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kondo, K.

    2008-01-01

    Intermittency effects and the associated multiscaling spectrum of exponents are investigated for impurities advection in tokamak edge plasmas. The two-dimensional Hasagawa-Wakatani model of resistive drift-wave turbulence is used as a paradigm to describe edge tokamak turbulence. Impurities are considered as a passive scalar advected by the plasma turbulent flow. The use of the extended self-similarity technique shows that the structure function relative scaling exponent of impurity density and vorticity follows the She-Leveque model. This confirms the intermittent character of the impurities advection in the turbulent plasma flow and suggests that impurities are advected by vorticity filaments

  7. Local order dependent impurity levels in alloy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris

    1981-01-01

    We develop a one band/may sites model for an isoelectronic impurity in a semiconductor alloy. The cluster-Bethe-lattice approximation is used to study the dependence of the impurity energy level upon the short range order (SRO) of the alloy. The Kikuchi parametrization is used to describe the latter. We take into account diagonal disorder only, with possible off-diagonal relaxation around the impurity site. All the inequivalent clusters of the impurity site and its first nearest neighbours are considered, thus including the important short range alloy potential fluctuations. Results are presented for the local density of impurity states, for different degrees of SRO in the alloy. (Author) [pt

  8. Impurity effect in the quantum Nernst effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Ryoen; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi

    2005-11-01

    We theoretically study the Nernst effect and the Seebeck effect in a two-dimensional electron ga in a strong magnetic field and a temperature gradient under adiabatic condition. We recently predicted for a pure system in the quantum Hall regime that the Nernst coefficients strongly suppressed and the thermal conductance is quantized due to quantum ballistic transport. Taking account of impurities, we here compute the Nernst coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient when the chemical potential coincides with a Landau level. We adopt the self-consistent Born approximation and consider the linear transport equations of the thermal electric transport induced by the temperature gradient. The thermal conductance and the Nernst coefficient are slightly modified from the pure case and the Seebeck coefficient newly appears because of the impurity scattering of electrons in the bulk states. (author)

  9. Quantitative spectrographic analysis of impurities in antimonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de; Gomes, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An emission spectrographic method is describe for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, Pb, Sn, Si, and Zn in high purity antimony metal. The metal sample ia dissolved in nitric acid(1:1) and converted tp oxide by calcination at 900 0 C for one hour. The oxide so obtained is mixed with graphite, which is used as a spectroscopic buffer, and excited by a direct current arc. Many parameters are studied optimum conditions are selected for the determination of the impurities mentioned. The spectrum is photographed in the second order of a 15.000 lines per inch grating and the most sensitive lines for the elements are selected. The impurities are determined in the concentration range of 1 - 0,01% with a precision of approximately 10% [pt

  10. Influence of impurities on silicide contact formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazdaev, Kh.R.; Meermanov, G.B.; Kazdaev, R.Kh.

    2002-01-01

    Research objectives of this work are to investigate the influence of light impurities implantation on peculiarities of the silicides formation in molybdenum monocrystal implanted by silicon, and in molybdenum films sputtered on silicon substrate at subsequent annealing. Implantation of the molybdenum samples was performed with silicon ions (90 keV, 5x10 17 cm -2 ). Phase identification was performed by X ray analysis with photographic method of registration. Analysis of the results has shown the formation of the molybdenum silicide Mo 3 Si at 900 deg. C. To find out the influence of impurities present in the atmosphere (C,N,O) on investigated processes we have applied combined implantation. At first, molybdenum was implanted with ions of the basic component (silicon) and then -- with impurities ions. Acceleration energies (40keV for C, 45 keV for N and 50 keV for O) were chosen to obtain the same distribution profiles for basic and impurities ions. Ion doses were 5x10 17 cm -2 for Si-ions and 5x10 16 cm -2 - for impurities. The most important results are reported here. The first, for all three kinds of impurities the decreased formation temperatures of the phase Mo 3 Si were observed; in the case of C and N it was ∼100 deg. and in the case of nitrogen - ∼200 deg. Further, simultaneously with the Mo 3 Si phase, the appearance of the rich-metal phase Mo 5 Si 3 was registered (not observed in the samples without additional implantation). In case of Mo/Si-structure, the implantation of the impurities (N,O) was performed to create the peak concentration (∼4at/%) located in the middle of the molybdenum film (∼ 150nm) deposited on silicon substrate. Investigation carried out on unimplanted samples showed the formation of the silicide molybdenum MoSi 2 , observed after annealing at temperatures 900/1000 deg. C, higher than values 500-600 deg. C reported in other works. It is discovered that electrical conductivity of Mo 5 Si 3 -films synthesized after impurities

  11. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.......e. non-lactose components) affect the caking tendency of the final powder. The results from a combination of different methods, including dynamic vapor sorption, characterization of the physicochemical composition and assessment of caking with a ring shear tester, suggested humidity caking. Larger...... amounts of impurities in the lactose powder resulted in enhanced moisture sorption and greater caking tendency. These findings emphasize the importance of controlling the washing and purification steps throughout the production process in order to limit caking in the final product...

  12. [Active and safe with wheeled walkers : Pilot study on feasibility of mobility exercises for wheeled walker users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Marina; Lang, Frieder R; Freiberger, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    The number of older people with mobility impairments using wheeled walkers is increasing; however, the handling of these walking aids is often ineffective. Moreover, age-associated functional loss, environmental demands and fear of falling may additionally challenge mobility. The new training program "Active and safe with wheeled walkers" aims to enhance skills and to improve mobility. The present pilot study was carried out to assess the feasibility of the training as well as to identify training effects and methodological insights for further research. The study was carried out with 28 wheeled walker users (age 68-91 years) in assisted living facilities using a pre-post design. Of the participants 13 persons were trained for 10 weeks (90 min, twice a week) and 15 persons served as a control group. Data were collected on functional mobility, hand strength, leg strength, balance, walker handling and fear of falling. The drop-out rate for the training was 38 % due to health concerns (n = 2), lack of time (n = 1) and changes in health status independent of training (n = 3). Medium to large effects were detected. Data regarding the recruitment strategy and the acceptance of individual exercises are available. The results indicate a good feasibility and effectiveness of the training. The simple accessibility of the training was conducive for the regular participation. The everyday relevance of the results and the lack of comparable interventions suggest that further research efforts be carried out. Recruitment strategies, training requirements and data collection methods need to be optimized.

  13. INTOR impurity control and first wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1983-04-01

    The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work

  14. Detection of mineral impurities in diatomite ores

    OpenAIRE

    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Fiore, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In this study, samples from a diatomite deposit with known presence of carbonate were analysed. With the aim of estimating the carbonate content, the samples were analysed with infrared (IR) spectroscop...

  15. A mobile laboratory for surface and subsurface imaging in geo-hazard monitoring activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Carmela; Bavusi, Massimo; Loperte, Antonio; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    resistivity meter for DC electrical surveys (resistivity) and Induced Polarization, a Ground Penetrating Radar with antennas covering range for 400 MHz to 1.5 GHz and a gradiometric magnetometric system. All the sensors can be installed on a mobile van and remotely controlled using wi-fi technologies. An all-time network connection capability is guaranteed by a self-configurable satellite link for data communication, which allows to transmit in near-real time experimental data coming from the field surveys and to share other geospatial information. This ICT facility is well suited for emergency response activities during and after catastrophic events. Sensor synergy, multi-temporal and multi-scale resolutions of surface and sub-surface imaging are the key technical features of this instrumental facility. Finally, in this work we shortly present some first preliminary results obtained during the emergence phase of Abruzzo earthquake (Central Italy).

  16. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M.; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs). PMID:26848664

  17. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs.

  18. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Volume 1: Characterization methods for impurities in silicon and impurity effects data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R. B.; Blais, P. D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R. E.; Mollenkopf, H. C.; Mccormick, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Two major topics are treated: methods to measure and evaluate impurity effects in silicon and comprehensive tabulations of data derived during the study. Discussions of deep level spectroscopy, detailed dark I-V measurements, recombination lifetime determination, scanned laser photo-response, conventional solar cell I-V techniques, and descriptions of silicon chemical analysis are presented and discussed. The tabulated data include lists of impurity segregation coefficients, ingot impurity analyses and estimated concentrations, typical deep level impurity spectra, photoconductive and open circuit decay lifetimes for individual metal-doped ingots, and a complete tabulation of the cell I-V characteristics of nearly 200 ingots.

  20. Impurity bound states in mesoscopic topological superconducting loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan-Yan; Zha, Guo-Qiao; Zhou, Shi-Ping

    2018-06-01

    We study numerically the effect induced by magnetic impurities in topological s-wave superconducting loops with spin-orbit interaction based on spin-generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In the case of a single magnetic impurity, it is found that the midgap bound states can cross the Fermi level at an appropriate impurity strength and the circulating spin current jumps at the crossing point. The evolution of the zero-energy mode can be effectively tuned by the located site of a single magnetic impurity. For the effect of many magnetic impurities, two independent midway or edge impurities cannot lead to the overlap of zero modes. The multiple zero-energy modes can be effectively realized by embedding a single Josephson junction with impurity scattering into the system, and the spin current displays oscillatory feature with increasing the layer thickness.

  1. Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks. [Neoclassical transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Suckewer, S.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks was simulated with a one-dimensional impurity transport model including both neoclassical and anomalous transport. The neoclassical fluxes are due to collisions between the background plasma and impurity ions as well as collisions between the various ionization states. The evaluation of the neoclassical fluxes takes into account the different collisionality regimes of the background plasma and the impurity ions. A limiter scrapeoff model is used to define the boundary conditions for the impurity ions in the plasma periphery. In order to account for the spectroscopic measurements of power radiated by the lower ionization states, fluxes due to anomalous transport are included. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainties in rate coefficients and plasma parameters in the periphery are investigated. The implications of the transport model for spectroscopic evaluation of impurity concentrations, impurity fluxes, and radiated power from line emission measurements are discussed.

  2. Defect-impurity interactions in irradiated germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, J.W.; James, F.J.; Westbrook, R.D.

    1975-07-01

    Results of experiments are used to formulate a better model for the structures of lattice defects and defect-impurity complexes in irradiated n-type Ge. Single crystals were grown by the Czochralski process from P, As, or Sb-doped melts, and less than or equal to 10 15 to greater than or equal to 10 17 oxygen cm -3 was added to the furnace chamber after approximately 1 / 3 of the crystal had been solidified. Hall coefficient and resistivity measurements (at 77 0 K) were used to determine the initial donor concentration due to the dopant and clustered oxygen, and infrared absorption measurements (at 11.7 μ) were used to determine the dissociated oxygen concentration. Certain impurity and defect-impurity interactions were then investigated that occurred as a consequence of selected annealing, quenching, Li diffusion, and irradiation experiments at approximately 300 0 K with 60 Co photons, 1.5 to 2.0 MeV electrons, or thermal energy neutrons. Particular attention was given to determining the electrical role of the irradiation produced interstitial and vacancy, and to look for any evidence from electrical and optical measurements of vacancy--oxygen, lithium--oxygen, and lithium--vacancy interactions. (U.S.)

  3. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  4. A Mobile Application for Easy Design and Testing of Algorithms to Monitor Physical Activity in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Spinsante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses approaches to Human Activity Recognition (HAR with the aim of monitoring the physical activity of people in the workplace, by means of a smartphone application exploiting the available on-board accelerometer sensor. In fact, HAR via a smartphone or wearable sensor can provide important information regarding the level of daily physical activity, especially in situations where a sedentary behavior usually occurs, like in modern workplace environments. Increased sitting time is significantly associated with severe health diseases, and the workplace is an appropriate intervention setting, due to the sedentary behavior typical of modern jobs. Within this paper, the state-of-the-art components of HAR are analyzed, in order to identify and select the most effective signal filtering and windowing solutions for physical activity monitoring. The classifier development process is based upon three phases; a feature extraction phase, a feature selection phase, and a training phase. In the training phase, a publicly available dataset is used to test among different classifier types and learning methods. A user-friendly Android-based smartphone application with low computational requirements has been developed to run field tests, which allows to easily change the classifier under test, and to collect new datasets ready for use with machine learning APIs. The newly created datasets may include additional information, like the smartphone position, its orientation, and the user’s physical characteristics. Using the mobile tool, a classifier based on a decision tree is finally set up and enriched with the introduction of some robustness improvements. The developed approach is capable of classifying six activities, and to distinguish between not active (sitting and active states, with an accuracy near to 99%. The mobile tool, which is going to be further extended and enriched, will allow for rapid and easy benchmarking of new algorithms based

  5. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  6. Determination of the impurity content of B, Cd, Cu, W in uranium-gadolinium pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lan; Zhang Jiansheng; Zhang Bo; Shao Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the impurity content of B, Cd, Cu and W in Uranium-gadolinium Pellets. Set up the method: dissolve the sample in nitric acid and mannitol; use the 3 mol/L HNO 3 solution for mobile phase, CL-TBP resin for stationary phase to separate the Uranium from its nitric acid solution, collect the leaching solution , analysed by the Multi-component spectra fitting ICP-AES. The studies also includes the setting up and validity testing of the MSF model. The studies conducted suggests that:the sampling mass 0.2000 g, prepared sample volume is 6 mL; range of the determination concentration Cu, W(3-300) μg/g; B, Cd (0.3-30) μg/g .The recovery of the impurities is (89-120)%, relative standard deviation is better than 8%. (authors)

  7. Lattice site occupation of insoluble impurity atoms in aluminium after implantation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, M.K.

    1987-03-01

    Several elements, whose atoms are oversized and insoluble in aluminium, were implanted in aluminium single crystals at different temperatures. The substitutional fraction and the lattice site location were determined using the ion-channeling technique. The substitutional fractions obtained by in situ analyses are strongly dependent on the implantation temperature. At implantation and analysis temperatures below the temperature of stage III the substitutional fraction is significant larger than at temperatures above. With increasing heat of solution the substitutional fraction decreases for all implantation temperatures. The nonsubstitutional component consists of impurity atom-vacancy complexes. These complexes are formed in the cooling phase of the cascade. At temperatures above the temperature of stage III additional free mobile vacancies were captured by the impurity atoms. The capture radius is correlated with the heat of solution and the size mismatch energy. The results constitute for the first time an experimental confirmation of molecular dynamics calculations of cascade evolution. (orig./BHO)

  8. Study of impurity-defect interaction by perturbed angular correlations: 111Cd in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, Francoise.

    1975-01-01

    The quadrupole interaction of 111 Cd nuclei following the decay of 111 In implanted by the 109 Ag(α,2n) 111 In reaction into a cubic Ag lattice was measured using the time-differential perturbed-angular correlation technique. A non vanishing quadrupole interaction corresponding to a distribution of electric field gradients was observed, due to the interaction between the 111 Cd impurity and the defects created during the recoil of 111 In nuclei. For low temperature (77 K) irradiations, it has been shown that i) the angular correlation pattern depends on the intensity of α beam current, due to the interaction between defect cascades at high α beam intensity; and ii) it also depends on the annealing of the irradiated sample at different temperatures; the change in the defect configuration around the impurities is then due to the mobility of the various defects [fr

  9. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  10. A social activity and physical contact-based routing algorithm in mobile opportunistic networks for emergency response to sudden disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lin, Yaguang; Zhang, Shanshan; Cai, Zhipeng

    2017-05-01

    Sudden disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane necessitate the employment of communication networks to carry out emergency response activities. Routing has a significant impact on the functionality, performance and flexibility of communication networks. In this article, the routing problem is studied considering the delivery ratio of messages, the overhead ratio of messages and the average delay of messages in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs) for enterprise-level emergency response communications in sudden disaster scenarios. Unlike the traditional routing methods for MONS, this article presents a new two-stage spreading and forwarding dynamic routing algorithm based on the proposed social activity degree and physical contact factor for mobile customers. A new modelling method for describing a dynamic evolving process of the topology structure of a MON is first proposed. Then a multi-copy spreading strategy based on the social activity degree of nodes and a single-copy forwarding strategy based on the physical contact factor between nodes are designed. Compared with the most relevant routing algorithms such as Epidemic, Prophet, Labelled-sim, Dlife-comm and Distribute-sim, the proposed routing algorithm can significantly increase the delivery ratio of messages, and decrease the overhead ratio and average delay of messages.

  11. Influence of the impurities on the depth of penetration with carbon steel weldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Savytsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the research about the influence of the impurities on the depth of penetration with carbon steels weldings of different chemical composition are presented. These data suggest that presence of those impurities, such as sulphure and oxygen, in the steel, increases the depth of penetration to 1,3 - 1,5 times compared to welding refined steels. Applying activating fluxes for welding high tensile steels, provides an increase in the depth of penetration of 2 - 3 times.

  12. Report on intercomparison exercise SR-54. Determination of impurities in U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubek, N.; Bagliano, G.; Deron, S.

    1984-04-01

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of impurities in U 3 O 8 sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twelve laboratories in 11 countries sent their results. The framework of the intercomparison was therefore conceived mainly as a ''mean'' to laboratories dealing with analysis of impurities in uranium samples to check the reliability of their results. The evaluation was based on 97 laboratory means obtained with emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption techniques and neutron activation analysis. The concentration of three elements could be certified as a result of this intercomparison; informational values could be established for an additional six elements

  13. Application of uranium impurity data for material characterization in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkin, M.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Fischer, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of materials involved in the conversion of uranium into nuclear-grade products are collected to support the verification of States' declarations and to look for indications of possible undeclared materials and activities. Samples are analysed by several laboratories to determine concentrations of about sixty impurities; the data consistency is addressed through the unified reporting requirements, the use of common reference materials, and via inter-laboratory comparisons. The impurity analysis results, along with other essential parameters, are interpreted to judge sample conformity to the relevant specifications, to evaluate the facility design information, to assess material provenance and intended use. (author)

  14. Metal impurity fluxes and plasma-surface interactions in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    The EXTRAP T2R is a large aspect ratio Reversed Field Pinch device. The main focus of interest for the experiments is the active feedback control of resistive wall modes [1]. With feedback it has been possible to prolong plasma discharges in T2R from about 20 ms to nearly 100 ms. In a series of experiments in T2R, in H- and D- plasmas with and without feedback, quantitative spectroscopy and passive collector probes have been used to study the flux of metal impurities. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements of Cr and Mo lines showed large metal release towards discharge termination without feedback. Discharge integrated fluxes of Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo were also measured with collector probes at wall position. Reasonable quantitative agreement was found between the spectroscopic and collector probe measurements. The roles of sputtering, thermal evaporation and arcing in impurity production are evaluated based on the composition of the measured impurity flux.

  15. Metal impurity fluxes and plasma-surface interactions in EXTRAP T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsaaker, H; Brunsell, P R; Frassinetti, L; Drake, J R; Menmuir, S; Rachlew, E

    2008-01-01

    The EXTRAP T2R is a large aspect ratio Reversed Field Pinch device. The main focus of interest for the experiments is the active feedback control of resistive wall modes. With feedback it has been possible to prolong plasma discharges in T2R from about 20 ms to nearly 100 ms. In a series of experiments in T2R, in H- and D- plasmas with and without feedback, quantitative spectroscopy and passive collector probes have been used to study the flux of metal impurities. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements of Cr and Mo lines showed large metal release towards discharge termination without feedback. Discharge integrated fluxes of Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo were also measured with collector probes at wall position. Reasonable quantitative agreement was found between the spectroscopic and collector probe measurements. The roles of sputtering, thermal evaporation and arcing in impurity production are evaluated based on the composition of the measured impurity flux

  16. Characteristics of post-disruption runaway electrons with impurity pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Nakano, Tomohide; Isayama, Akihiko; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hirotaka; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Ide, Shunsuke; Kondoh, Takashi; Hatae, Takaki

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of post-disruption runaway electrons with impurity pellet injection were investigated for the first time using the JT-60U tokamak device. A clear deposition of impurity neon ice pellets was observed in a post-disruption runaway plasma. The pellet ablation was attributed to the energy deposition of relativistic runaway electrons in the pellet. A high normalized electron density was stably obtained with n e bar /n GW ∼2.2. Effects of prompt exhaust of runaway electrons and reduction of runaway plasma current without large amplitude MHD activities were found. One possible explanation for the basic behavior of runaway plasma current is that it follows the balance of avalanche generation of runaway electrons and slowing down predicted by the Andersson-Helander model, including the combined effect of collisional pitch angle scattering and synchrotron radiation. Our results suggested that the impurity pellet injection reduced the energy of runaway electrons in a stepwise manner. (author)

  17. Impurities in sugar cane and their influence on industrial processing evaluated by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the cutting and loading operations, impurities, mainly soil, are added to sugar cane in amounts that can impair industrial processing due to excessive wear of metallic members and contamination of juice and bagasse. Mechanization of loading operation has showed a considerable enhancement of the impurity content, leading to the improvement of cane washing technology. Nevertheless, for a correct understanding of the problem and the process optimization, it is necessary and exact and fast quantification of these impurities as well as of its consequences. Nuclear techniques, in special neutron activation analysis, have been proved to be appropriate for estimating soil level in sugar cane, washing process efficiency and wearing of cases and moving parts. (author)

  18. Characterization and validation of an in silico toxicology model to predict the mutagenic potential of drug impurities*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov [Science and Research Staff, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993–0002 (United States); Cross, Kevin P. [Leadscope, Inc., 1393 Dublin Road, Columbus, OH, 43215–1084 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Control and minimization of human exposure to potential genotoxic impurities found in drug substances and products is an important part of preclinical safety assessments of new drug products. The FDA's 2008 draft guidance on genotoxic and carcinogenic impurities in drug substances and products allows use of computational quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) to identify structural alerts for known and expected impurities present at levels below qualified thresholds. This study provides the information necessary to establish the practical use of a new in silico toxicology model for predicting Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of drug impurities and other chemicals. We describe the model's chemical content and toxicity fingerprint in terms of compound space, molecular and structural toxicophores, and have rigorously tested its predictive power using both cross-validation and external validation experiments, as well as case studies. Consistent with desired regulatory use, the model performs with high sensitivity (81%) and high negative predictivity (81%) based on external validation with 2368 compounds foreign to the model and having known mutagenicity. A database of drug impurities was created from proprietary FDA submissions and the public literature which found significant overlap between the structural features of drug impurities and training set chemicals in the QSAR model. Overall, the model's predictive performance was found to be acceptable for screening drug impurities for Salmonella mutagenicity. -- Highlights: ► We characterize a new in silico model to predict mutagenicity of drug impurities. ► The model predicts Salmonella mutagenicity and will be useful for safety assessment. ► We examine toxicity fingerprints and toxicophores of this Ames assay model. ► We compare these attributes to those found in drug impurities known to FDA/CDER. ► We validate the model and find it has a desired predictive

  19. Characterization and validation of an in silico toxicology model to predict the mutagenic potential of drug impurities*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Luis G.; Cross, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Control and minimization of human exposure to potential genotoxic impurities found in drug substances and products is an important part of preclinical safety assessments of new drug products. The FDA's 2008 draft guidance on genotoxic and carcinogenic impurities in drug substances and products allows use of computational quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) to identify structural alerts for known and expected impurities present at levels below qualified thresholds. This study provides the information necessary to establish the practical use of a new in silico toxicology model for predicting Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of drug impurities and other chemicals. We describe the model's chemical content and toxicity fingerprint in terms of compound space, molecular and structural toxicophores, and have rigorously tested its predictive power using both cross-validation and external validation experiments, as well as case studies. Consistent with desired regulatory use, the model performs with high sensitivity (81%) and high negative predictivity (81%) based on external validation with 2368 compounds foreign to the model and having known mutagenicity. A database of drug impurities was created from proprietary FDA submissions and the public literature which found significant overlap between the structural features of drug impurities and training set chemicals in the QSAR model. Overall, the model's predictive performance was found to be acceptable for screening drug impurities for Salmonella mutagenicity. -- Highlights: ► We characterize a new in silico model to predict mutagenicity of drug impurities. ► The model predicts Salmonella mutagenicity and will be useful for safety assessment. ► We examine toxicity fingerprints and toxicophores of this Ames assay model. ► We compare these attributes to those found in drug impurities known to FDA/CDER. ► We validate the model and find it has a desired predictive performance.

  20. Limitations in the Activity of Mobility at Age 6 Years After Difficult Birth at Term: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Patricia A M; Algra, Annechien M; Bakker, Saskia C M; Jonker, Arnold J H; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-08-01

    A difficult birth at term (DBAT) may manifest as fetal acidosis and low Apgar scores and is often referred to as "perinatal asphyxia," especially when infants show signs of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). In contrast to DBAT resulting in moderate-to-severe NE, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, little is known about the prognosis of less severe forms of DBAT, with or without NE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children & Youth Version activity "mobility" and other neurodevelopmental sequelae in infants with DBAT at age 6 years. The index cohort (n=62; 35 boys, 27 girls) consisted of consecutive term infants with DBAT based on clinical criteria in a Dutch nonacademic hospital from 1999 to 2005. Neonatal encephalopathy was assessed according to the Sarnat grading system and excluded infants with severe NE. The matched reference cohort (n=81; 49 boys, 32 girls) consisted of healthy term infants. The primary outcome at 6 years was limited mobility (Movement Assessment Battery for Children score ≤15th percentile). Secondary outcomes included learning and behavioral problems and the presence of minor neurological dysfunction. Three children developed cerebral palsy and were excluded from analyses. Children with DBAT more often had limited mobility than children without DBAT (risk ratio [RR]=2.44; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.16, 5.14). The risk of limited mobility rose with increasing severity of NE (mild NE: RR=3.38; 95% CI=1.40, 8.16; moderate NE: RR=4.00; 95% CI=1.54, 10.40), and manual abilities especially were affected (RR=4.12; 95% CI=1.40, 12.14). Learning problems, need for physical therapy, and complex minor neurological dysfunction were more common in children with DBAT than in children without DBAT. Term infants who develop mild or moderate NE following DBAT are at increased risk for limited mobility at age 6 years. Routine monitoring of neuromotor

  1. Study of radioactive impurities in neutron transmutation doped germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, N.; Singh, V. [India-based Neutrino Observatory, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nanal, V., E-mail: nanal@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jagadeesan, K.C.; Thakare, S.V. [Isotope Production and Applications Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-02-21

    A program to develop low temperature (mK) sensors with neutron transmutation doped Ge for rare event studies with a cryogenic bolometer has been initiated. For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron flux from Dhruva reactor at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated samples have revealed that the environment of the capsule used for irradiating the sample leads to significant levels of {sup 65}Zn, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 182}Ta impurities, which can be reduced by chemical etching of approximately ∼50μm thick surface layer. From measurements of the etched samples in the low background counting setup, activity due to trace impurities of {sup 123}Sb in bulk Ge is estimated to be ∼1Bq/g after irradiation. These estimates indicate that in order to use the NTD Ge sensors for rare event studies, a cooldown period of ∼2 years would be necessary to reduce the radioactive background to ≤1mBq/g.

  2. Effect of iodine impurity on relaxation of photoexcited silver chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostrikova, Yu. V.; Klyuev, V. G.

    2008-01-01

    The time and temperature dependences of relaxation of excited AgCl and AgCl:I crystals is studied by the method of photostimulated flash of luminescence. The presence of iodine impurity in silver chloride gives rise to hole recombination (luminescence) centers and hole traps in the band gap. It is shown that the main contribution to the decrease in the concentration of electrons localized at deep traps is made by the recombination of electrons with holes released thermally from shallow localization levels (iodine-related centers). Estimation of activation energy for the relaxation process showed that these energies for the AgCl and AgCl:I samples under study are the same within the experimental error and are equal to E rel1 = 0.01 ± 0.0005 eV for the initial stage of relaxation and E rel2 = 0.09 ± 0.005 eV for the final state. This fact indicates that the majority of hole traps involved in the relaxation process in AgCl are related to iodine impurity. In the course of thermal relaxation in AgCl, relocalization of nonequilibrium charge carriers from shallow levels to deep levels is observed. The depth of the corresponding trap is E arl = 0.174 ± 0.03 eV.

  3. Can impurities from soil-contaminated coffees reach the cup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Joacir De Franca, E.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    Depending on the harvest conditions, coffee beans can be contaminated by soil when dropped to the ground. It is well known that agricultural soils act as sinks for agrochemicals applied to the crops. While coffee is brewed, substances present in the roasted and ground coffee beans are extracted by hot water, emphasizing the need to assess the possible transfer of impurities from the soil to the beverage. Soil-contaminated samples of roasted coffee beans were split into 2 groups according to the treatments: (a) washed and ground and (b) only ground. Brewing was performed in a household espresso machine for both coffees. The resulting beverage was freeze-dried and the elemental composition determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of the terrigenous elements Fe, La, Sc, Sm and Th in the freeze-dried non-washed coffee beverages were, at least, 2 times higher than in the washed samples. These elements are tracers of the soil, indicating that the impurities from the soil reached the beverage. (author)

  4. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirigian, Stephen, E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com; Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com [Departments of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry.

  5. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry

  6. Implementation of a Flexible Bayesian Classifier for the Assessment of Patient’s Activities within a Real-time Personalized Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Miskovic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of a mobile application that provides a real-time personalized assessment of patient’s activities by using a Flexible Bayesian Classifier. The personalized assessment is derived from data collected from the 3-axial accelerometer sensor and the counting steps sensor, both widespread among nowadays mobile devices. Despite the fact that online mobile solutions with Bayesian Classifier have been rare and insufficiently precise, we have proven that the accuracy of the proposed system within a defined data model is comparable to the accuracy of decision trees and neural networks.

  7. Design and test of a hybrid foot force sensing and GPS system for richer user mobility activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zelun; Poslad, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Wearable and accompanied sensors and devices are increasingly being used for user activity recognition. However, typical GPS-based and accelerometer-based (ACC) methods face three main challenges: a low recognition accuracy; a coarse recognition capability, i.e., they cannot recognise both human posture (during travelling) and transportation mode simultaneously, and a relatively high computational complexity. Here, a new GPS and Foot-Force (GPS + FF) sensor method is proposed to overcome these challenges that leverages a set of wearable FF sensors in combination with GPS, e.g., in a mobile phone. User mobility activities that can be recognised include both daily user postures and common transportation modes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, bus passenger, car passenger (including private cars and taxis) and car driver. The novelty of this work is that our approach provides a more comprehensive recognition capability in terms of reliably recognising both human posture and transportation mode simultaneously during travel. In addition, by comparing the new GPS + FF method with both an ACC method (62% accuracy) and a GPS + ACC based method (70% accuracy) as baseline methods, it obtains a higher accuracy (95%) with less computational complexity, when tested on a dataset obtained from ten individuals.

  8. Determination of elemental impurities in phosphoric acid by INAA employing a novel method of phosphate precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Amsil, H.; Kučera, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, APR (2015), s. 157-162 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumental neutron activation analysis * phosphoric acid * elemental impurities * isothermal distillation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  9. Determination of elemental impurities in phosphoric acid by INAA employing a novel method of phosphate precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Amsil, H.; Kučera, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, AUG (2014), s. 3455 ISSN 1588-2780 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumental neutron activation analysis * phosphoric acid * elemental impurities * isothermal distillation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  10. Significance of impurities in the safety evaluation of crop protection products - (IUPAC technical report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Racke, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    There may be substantial differences in the chemical composition of technical-grade products of the same active ingredient manufactured under different conditions, from different raw materials, or by different routes of synthesis. Resulting differences in impurity content may significantly affect

  11. 76 FR 67746 - Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...] Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products... Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients (Revision)'' VICH GL18(R). This revised guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of...

  12. 基于Mobile Agent技术的主动性网络管理策略的研究%The Study of Active Network Management Strategies Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄力可; 杜军平; 涂序彦; 赵敏哲

    2001-01-01

    在讨论集中式网管体系结构的基础上,探讨了一种新型的基于Mobile agent 技术的主动性网络管理策略,并通过对一个实例的分析,阐述了该机制的优点。%In this paper, we are exploiting a new strategy based on mobile agent applied in active network management. The advantages of the new mechanism are also introduced after compared with centralized architectures through a case.

  13. Prediction based active ramp metering control strategy with mobility and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Tu, Lili

    2018-04-01

    Ramp metering is one of the most direct and efficient motorway traffic flow management measures so as to improve traffic conditions. However, owing to short of traffic conditions prediction, in earlier studies, the impact on traffic flow dynamics of the applied RM control was not quantitatively evaluated. In this study, a RM control algorithm adopting Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework to predict and assess future traffic conditions, which taking both the current traffic conditions and the RM-controlled future traffic states into consideration, was presented. The designed RM control algorithm targets at optimizing the network mobility and safety performance. The designed algorithm is evaluated in a field-data-based simulation. Through comparing the presented algorithm controlled scenario with the uncontrolled scenario, it was proved that the proposed RM control algorithm can effectively relieve the congestion of traffic network with no significant compromises in safety aspect.

  14. Results of the mobile gamma scanning activities in Wayne and Pequannock Townships, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A.; Roberts, D.A.; Patania, V.P.; Foley, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    During the early 1980s the W. R. Grace site and the adjacent area were the focus of several radiological investigations. Radiological surveys revealed surface radionuclide concentrations greater than those acceptable under US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action guidelines. In 1984, Congress assigned responsibility for cleanup of the W.R. Grace site to the Department of Energy. The property was redesignated as the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and in 1985 DOE began plans for survey/monitoring, and remedial action of nearby vicinity properties and the interim storage site. Evaluations of the radiological survey data in 1986 indicated radioactive contamination above current DOE guidelines at the off-site areas of parts of Township Park southwest of WISS, and parts of the Sheffield Brook area and railroad siding in Pequannock Township. Remedial action was conducted over several years of most of these areas and independent verification of remedial action was performed. A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a mobile radiological scanning survey of a stretch of public roadway in the immediate vicinity south of the WISS, extending northwest to the Pompton turnpike. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify at least 24 anomalous areas, some attributable to the naturally elevated levels in concrete, asphalt, and natural granite found in streets, driveways and landscaping materials in the area. Analyses of the biased soil samples taken in the ballpark also revealed slightly elevated thorium concentrations. However, soil concentration measurements when averaged over 100 m 2 fall below the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines established for this site. The anomalies may result from a wide range of sources, such as ash, granite, and fertilizer as well as materials from the former Grace facility

  15. [Analysis of the activity of mobile rehabilitation-physiotherapy units in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla Góngora, David; Catalán Matamoros, Daniel; Arrebola López, Clara; Garrido Fernández, Pablo; Martínez Cortés, María Del Carmen; Zurita Ortega, Félix

    2010-05-01

    To describe the home care provided by mobile rehabilitation-physiotherapy teams as a response to the needs of the dependent population, the characteristics of their application, and the results they have on patients and their functional independence. A descriptive, cross-sectional study from 2004 to June 2007. Community setting. Mobile rehabilitation-physiotherapy teams from Primary Care in Almeria. A total of 1093 patients were included in the programme. Data were collected on, the state of the patients' health (primary disabling process, reasons for inclusion in the treatment, initial and final functional assessment and Barthel Index); details of physiotherapy treatment, and number of sessions. Of the total sample, the mean age was 78 years and 64.2% were female. The mean waiting time for their assessment was 4 days and there was a wide variety of primary disabling processes described. There was a high percentage of symptoms of severe motor deterioration, pain and muscle weakness. Physiotherapy treatment was given in 88.6%, physiotherapy and occupational therapy in 11.1%, and orthopaedic treatment in 0.3%, of the patients. The mean number of sessions was 12.85. The variation in the Barthel Index after the final therapy was given was, 61.9% for kinesiotherapy, 10.2% combined with electrotherapy, and 14.5% for kinesiotherapy and carer education. Valuable information is provided as regards the characteristics of the geriatric and dependent population, as well as the physiotherapy help they are receiving, and also how the procedure is carried out. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated personalized feedback for physical activity and dietary behavior change with mobile phones: a randomized controlled trial on adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Mashfiqui; Pfammatter, Angela; Zhang, Mi; Spring, Bonnie; Choudhury, Tanzeem

    2015-05-14

    A dramatic rise in health-tracking apps for mobile phones has occurred recently. Rich user interfaces make manual logging of users' behaviors easier and more pleasant, and sensors make tracking effortless. To date, however, feedback technologies have been limited to providing overall statistics, attractive visualization of tracked data, or simple tailoring based on age, gender, and overall calorie or activity information. There are a lack of systems that can perform automated translation of behavioral data into specific actionable suggestions that promote healthier lifestyle without any human involvement. MyBehavior, a mobile phone app, was designed to process tracked physical activity and eating behavior data in order to provide personalized, actionable, low-effort suggestions that are contextualized to the user's environment and previous behavior. This study investigated the technical feasibility of implementing an automated feedback system, the impact of the suggestions on user physical activity and eating behavior, and user perceptions of the automatically generated suggestions. MyBehavior was designed to (1) use a combination of automatic and manual logging to track physical activity (eg, walking, running, gym), user location, and food, (2) automatically analyze activity and food logs to identify frequent and nonfrequent behaviors, and (3) use a standard machine-learning, decision-making algorithm, called multi-armed bandit (MAB), to generate personalized suggestions that ask users to either continue, avoid, or make small changes to existing behaviors to help users reach behavioral goals. We enrolled 17 participants, all motivated to self-monitor and improve their fitness, in a pilot study of MyBehavior. In a randomized two-group trial, investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either MyBehavior's personalized suggestions (n=9) or nonpersonalized suggestions (n=8), created by professionals, from a mobile phone app over 3 weeks. Daily activity

  17. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Reyes Tamaral, A.

    1972-01-01

    A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs

  19. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly

  20. Impurity effects in superconducting UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, M.C.; Vorenkamp, T.; Koziol, Z.; de Visser, A.; Bakker, K.; Franse, J.J.M.; Smith, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Superconducting UPt 3 is characterized by a novel and complex magnetic field-temperature phase diagram, with two superconducting transitions at T c1 and T c2 in zero field. We have studied the effects of Pd and Y impurities on the zero field superconducting properties of UPt 3 . Resistance measurements show that both dopants increase the residual resistivity and decrease the spin fluctuation temperature in the normal state. T c1 is depressed by both dopants, but more effectively by Pd. |T c1 - T c2 | is essentially unaffected by Y doping, but increases dramatically with Pd doping

  1. Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: A.Doikou@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Heriot–Watt University, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, University of Patras, Patras GR-26500 (Greece)

    2014-07-15

    Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl{sub N}) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution.

  2. Enhanced ionized impurity scattering in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Shin, Mincheol

    2013-06-01

    The electronic resistivity in silicon nanowires is investigated by taking into account scattering as well as the donor deactivation from the dielectric mismatch. The effects of poorly screened dopant atoms from the dielectric mismatch and variable carrier density in nanowires are found to play a crucial role in determining the nanowire resistivity. Using Green's function method within the self-consistent Born approximation, it is shown that donor deactivation and ionized impurity scattering combined with the charged interface traps successfully to explain the increase in the resistivity of Si nanowires while reducing the radius, measured by Björk et al. [Nature Nanotech. 4, 103 (2009)].

  3. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet experiments, which began at TFTR in 1989, and are expected to continue at least through 1991, have continued to produce new and significant results. The most significant of these are: (1) improvements in TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection; (2) accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using the polarization angles of line emission from Li + in the pellet ablation cloud; and (3) initial measurements of pitch angle profiles using the tilt of the LI + emission region of the ablation cloud which is stretched out along the field lines

  4. Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl N ) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution

  5. Guidelines on Active Content and Mobile Code: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    .... One such category of technologies is active content. Broadly speaking, active content refers to electronic documents that, unlike past character documents based on the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII...

  6. Impurity screening of scrape-off plasma in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Tani, Keiji; Nakamura, Hiroo

    1981-11-01

    Impurity screening effect of a scrape-off layer has been studied in a tokamak, based on a simple model of wall-released impurity behavior. Wall-sputtered impurities are stopped effectively by the scrape-off plasma for a medium-Z or high-Z wall system while major part of impurities enters the main plasma in a low-Z wall system. The screening becomes inefficient with increase of scrape-off plasma temperature. Successive multiplication of recycling impurities in the scrape-off layer is large for a high-Z wall and is enhanced by a rise of scrape-off plasma temperature. The stability of plasma-wall interaction is determined by a multiplication factor of recycling impurities. (author)

  7. Transitions and excitations in a superfluid stream passing small impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian

    2014-05-08

    We analyze asymptotically and numerically the motion around a single impurity and a network of impurities inserted in a two-dimensional superfluid. The criticality for the breakdown of superfluidity is shown to occur when it becomes energetically favorable to create a doublet—the limiting case between a vortex pair and a rarefaction pulse on the surface of the impurity. Depending on the characteristics of the potential representing the impurity, different excitation scenarios are shown to exist for a single impurity as well as for a lattice of impurities. Depending on the lattice characteristics it is shown that several regimes are possible: dissipationless flow, excitations emitted by the lattice boundary, excitations created in the bulk, and the formation of large-scale structures.

  8. Incorporation, diffusion and segregation of impurities in polycrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, J.P.; Soltani, M.L. (Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)); Quesada, J. (Laboratoire de Metallurgie-Chimie des Materiaux, E.N.S.A.I.S., 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1982-01-01

    We studied by means of X-Ray photoelectron Spectroscopy the nature, distribution and, when possible, the chemical bond of impurities at the surface of polycrystalline silicon samples grown on a carbon ribbon. Besides main impurities (carbon and oxygen), always present at concentrations around their limit of solubility in silicon, metal impurities have been found: their nature varies from one sample to another. Their spatial distribution is not random: some are strictly confined at the surface (sodium), whereas others are in the superficial oxidized layer (calcium, magnesium) or localized at the oxide-bulk silicon interface (iron). Metal impurities are coming from the carbon ribbon and are incorporated to silicon during the growth process. It is not yet possible to give a model of diffusion processes of impurities since they are too numerous and interact one with the other. However oxygen seems to play a leading role in the spatial distribution of metal impurities.

  9. Transitions and excitations in a superfluid stream passing small impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natalia G.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze asymptotically and numerically the motion around a single impurity and a network of impurities inserted in a two-dimensional superfluid. The criticality for the breakdown of superfluidity is shown to occur when it becomes energetically favorable to create a doublet—the limiting case between a vortex pair and a rarefaction pulse on the surface of the impurity. Depending on the characteristics of the potential representing the impurity, different excitation scenarios are shown to exist for a single impurity as well as for a lattice of impurities. Depending on the lattice characteristics it is shown that several regimes are possible: dissipationless flow, excitations emitted by the lattice boundary, excitations created in the bulk, and the formation of large-scale structures.

  10. Magnetic states of single impurity in disordered environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Ponedilok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The charged and magnetic states of isolated impurities dissolved in amorphous metallic alloy are investigated. The Hamiltonian of the system under study is the generalization of Anderson impurity model. Namely, the processes of elastic and non-elastic scattering of conductive electrons on the ions of a metal and on a charged impurity are included. The configuration averaged one-particle Green's functions are obtained within Hartree-Fock approximation. A system of self-consistent equations is given for calculation of an electronic spectrum, the charged and the spin-polarized impurity states. Qualitative analysis of the effect of the metallic host structural disorder on the observed values is performed. Additional shift and broadening of virtual impurity level is caused by a structural disorder of impurity environment.

  11. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  12. Determination of impurities and degradation products from veterinary medicinal products by HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabriela Oltean

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The organic or inorganic impurities in the veterinary medicinal product can derive from starting materials, manufacturing process, incomplete purification, inappropriate storage. The acceptable levels of impurities in pharmaceuticals are estimated by comparison with standard solutions, according to the appropriate monographs. Forced degradation studies determine the stability of the method of dosage for the active compounds and for the entire finished product under excessive accelerated degradation conditions. They also provide information on degradation pathways and selectivity of analytical methods applied. The information provided by the degradation studies on the active compound and finished pharmaceutical product should demonstrate the specificity of the analytical method regarding impurities. Forced degradation studies should demonstrate that the impurities and degradation products generated do not interfere with the active compound. The current forced degradation methods consist of acid hydrolysis, basic hydrolysis, oxidation, exposure of the medicinal product to temperature and light. HPLC methods are an integral analytical instrument for the analysis of the medicinal product. The HPLC method should be able to separate, detect and quantify various specific degradation products that can appear after manufacture or storage of the medicinal product, as well as new elements appearing after synthesis. FDA and ICH guidelines recommend the enclosure of the results, including the chromatograms specific to the forced degradation-subjected medicinal product, in the documentation for marketing authorization. Using HPLC methods in forced degradation studies on medicinal products provides relevant information on the method of determination for the formulation of the medicinal product, synthesis product, packaging methods and storage.

  13. Impurity Correction Techniques Applied to Existing Doping Measurements of Impurities in Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. V.; Sun, J. P.; Zhang, J. T.; Deng, X. L.

    2017-01-01

    Impurities represent the most significant source of uncertainty in most metal fixed points used for the realization of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). There are a number of different methods for quantifying the effect of impurities on the freezing temperature of ITS-90 fixed points, many of which rely on an accurate knowledge of the liquidus slope in the limit of low concentration. A key method of determining the liquidus slope is to measure the freezing temperature of a fixed-point material as it is progressively doped with a known amount of impurity. Recently, a series of measurements of the freezing and melting temperature of `slim' Zn fixed-point cells doped with Ag, Fe, Ni, and Pb were presented. Here, additional measurements of the Zn-X system are presented using Ga as a dopant, and the data (Zn-Ag, Zn-Fe, Zn-Ni, Zn-Pb, and Zn-Ga) have been re-analyzed to demonstrate the use of a fitting method based on Scheil solidification which is applied to both melting and freezing curves. In addition, the utility of the Sum of Individual Estimates method is explored with these systems in the context of a recently enhanced database of liquidus slopes of impurities in Zn in the limit of low concentration.

  14. Urinary levels of high mobility group box-1 are associated with disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Tian Ma

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a kind of pro-inflammatory mediator, is associated with inflammatory conditions and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that the circulating levels of HMGB1 correlated with disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. In the current study, we aimed to measure urinary levels of HMGB1 in AAV patients, correlated them to clinical activity index and analysed the immunohistochemical HMGB1 staining in kidney specimens.50 patients with AAV in active stage and 56 patients with AAV in remission were recruited. The urinary levels of HMGB1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, renal biopsy specimens from 27 patients with active AAV were randomly collected to evaluate the deposition of HMGB1.Urinary HMGB1 levels in AAV patients in active stage were significantly higher than those in AAV patients in remission and healthy controls (1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.38 [0.10-1.35] mg/μmolCr, P=0.001; 1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.48 [0.40-0.60] mg/μmolCr, P=0.000, respectively. Further analysis found that urinary levels of HMGB1 correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.354, p=0.012, C-reactive protein (r=0.289, p=0.042, and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (r=0.350, p=0.013. Renal tissue of active AAV patients showed HMGB1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and the extracellular space. The percentage of HMGB1-negative nuclei in renal tissue of patients with active AAV was significantly higher than that in normal controls (60.6±20.2 % versus 2.7±0.6 %, p<0.01.Urinary levels of HMGB1 may be associated with the disease activity in AAV patients.

  15. Impurity injection into tokamak plasmas by erosion probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Bakos, J.S.; Buerger, G.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.

    1987-08-01

    Exposing special erosion probes into the edge plasma of MT-1 the impurities Li and Ti were released and contaminated the plasma. By the use of collector probes the torodial transport of these impurities were investigated. The results indicate a preferential impurity flow into codirection of the plasma current. However, the asymmetric component of this flow is much larger than expected from the toroidal drift correlated to the plasma current. (author)

  16. Radiation-chemical disinfection of dissolved impurities and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, N.V.; Putilov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-chemical neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities formed in the production processes of different materials, while modern plants being in use, is considered. For the first time the processes of deep industrial waste detoxication and due to this peculiarities of practically thorough neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities are considered. Attention is paid to devices and economic factors of neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities. The role of radiation-chemical detoxication for environment protection is considered

  17. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the impurity ionization state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando, M A; Medina, F; Zurro, B; McCarthy, K J; Pedrosa, M A; Baciero, A; Rapisarda, D; Carmona, J M; Jimenez, D

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electron cyclotron resonance heating induced suprathermal electron tails on the ionization of iron impurities in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated. The behaviour of plasma emissivity immediately after injection provides evidence of a spatially localized 'shift' towards higher charge states of the impurity. Bearing in mind that the non-inductive plasma heating methods generate long lasting non-Maxwellian distribution functions, possible implications on the deduced impurity transport coefficients, when fast electrons are present, are discussed

  18. Dynamics of impurities in the scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon

    1988-01-01

    Impurity modelling of the Scrape-Off Layer, SOL, is reviewed. Simple analytic models are sometimes adequate for relating central impurity levels to edge plasma conditions and for explaining the patterns of net erosion/deposition found on limiters. More sophisticated approaches, which are also necessary, are categorized and reviewed. A plea is made for the acquisition of a more comprehensive data base of edge plasma properties since reliable impurity modelling appears to be dependent on more extensive use of experimental input. (author)

  19. Interactions of Ultracold Impurity Particles with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0141 INTERACTIONS OF ULTRACOLD IMPURITY PARTICLES WITH BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES Georg Raithel UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final...SUBTITLE Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0453 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0453 Reporting Period: 8/15/2010 to 2/14

  20. Digital autoradiography technique for studying of spatial Impurity distributions Delara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the possibilities of the digital image processing for autoradiographic investigations of impurity distributions in the different objects (crystals, biology, geology et al) are shown. Activation autoradiography based on the secondary beta-irradiation is the method spread widely for investigations of the spatial distribution of chemical elements in the different objects. The analysis of autoradiography features is connected with the elucidation of optical density distribution of photoemulsion by means of photometry. The photoemulsion is used as detector of secondary beta irradiation. For different technological and nature materials to have elemental shifts the fine structure of chemical element distribution is often interested. But photometry makes it difficult to study the inhomogeneous chemical elements with the little gradient of concentration (near 20%). Therefore, the suppression of the background and betterment of linear solvability are the main problems of autoradiographic analysis. Application of the fast-acting digital computers and the technical means of signals treatment are allowed to spread the possibilities and the resolution of activation autoradiography. Mechanism of creation of autoradiographic features is described. The treatment of autoradiograms was conducted with the help of the dialogue system having matrix in 512 x 512 elements. For the interpretation of the experimental data clustering analysis methodology was used. Classification of the zones on the minimum of the square mistake was conducted according to the data of histograms of the optical densities of the studying autoradiograms. It was proposed algorithm for digital treatment for reconstruction of autoradiographic features. At a minimal contrast the resolution of the method has been enhanced on the degree by adaptation of methods of digital image processing (DIP) to suppress background activity. Results of the digital autoradiographic investigations of spatial impurity